WorldWideScience

Sample records for halogenated greenhouse gases

  1. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  3. Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This indicator presents trends in atmospheric concentrations of several greenhouse gases (GHGs) over geological time and in recent years. Changes in atmospheric GHGs, in part caused by human activities, affect the amount of energy held in the Earth-atmosphere system and thus a...

  4. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  5. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO2 , SO2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  6. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  7. The storage of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 109 tons of dissolved CO2. Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

  8. Greenhouse gases: The UAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshaigy, N.O.; Alhassany, A.R. [United Arab Emirates Univ. (United Arab Emirates)

    2008-09-30

    Greenhouse gases present a threat to the environment all over the globe, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE), especially because of the dependency of its economy on fossil fuel. Additionally, the economic boost of the region has caused a surge in fuel consumption for vehicles. Traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi, the UAE capital, for instance has caused nitrogen dioxides levels to exceed air quality in the outskirts and center of the city and surrounding the industrial areas. Furthermore, in other parts of the UAE, pollution levels are either close to or exceed the air pollution guidelines where SO{sub 2} levels are of particular concern. The main pollution sources are the region's oil and gas and related heavy industries both on and offshore. Substantial effort is being supported by the UAE government to reduce such pollutants. From 1995 to 2004, for instance, the UAE successfully reduced flaring of hydrocarbon gas that comes from buring of waste gas or oil during testing or production processes from 7.5 down to 2.5 million cubic meters per day. Moreover, in 2003 the UAE introduced unleaded petrol on the local market as part of its program which involved 500 filling stations. Also the government introduced compressed natural gas vehicles into the transportation fleet, which will convert 20% of the most polluting fleet in Abu Dhabi to CNG by 2012. Additionally the government is switching the diesel fuel supply to only ultra low sulfur diesel by 2015. In short, the UAE government is trying to minimize the negative impacts of its environmental challenges while continuing its economic development.

  9. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  10. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  11. The ice record of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, D.; Barnola, J.M.; Chappellaz, J.; Delmas, R.J.; Lorius, C. (Cenre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)); Jouzel, J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, Yvette (France))

    1993-02-12

    Gases trapped in polar ice proved our most direct record of the changes in greenhouse gas levels during the past 150,000 years. The best documented trace-gas records are for CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4]. The measurements corresponding to the industrial period document the recent changes in growth rate. The variability observed over the last 1000 years constrains the possible feedbacks of a climate change on the trace gases under similar conditions as exist today. Changes in the levels of greenhouse gases during the glacial-interglacial cycle overall paralleled, at least at high southern latitudes, changes in temperature; this relation suggests that greenhouse gases play an important role as an amplifier of the initial orbital forcing of Earth's climated and also helps to assess the feedbacks on the biogeochemical cycles in a climate system in which the components are changing at different rates.

  12. Electricity generation and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is presented of the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane associated with electricity generation and residential heating options found in Canada. Greenhouse impacts of thermal generating technologies and hydroelectric projects are evaluated along with impacts of fuel switching options. Technologies and options considered include coal-fired and combined-cycle plants, heat pumps, and direct combustion of oil or gas in new residential furnaces. Environmental effects taken into account include leaks of methane from natural gas production and coal mining, production of carbon dioxide and methane from decomposition of organic material flooded in a hydroelectric development, and combustion of fuels. It is seen that fuel switching from thermal generation sources to direct combustion of natural gas in space and water heating significantly reduces both total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Additional gains can be achieved through use of high-efficiency technology. Substitution of direct combustion of oil where gas is unavailable for incremental oil- or coal-fired electricity will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Since direct combustion of natural gas is usually less costly than construction of new electric generating facilities, it may also prove to be a more successful strategy for encouraging energy exports by hydro-based systems to displace thermal electricity. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Thermal efficiency of the principal greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric gases are ranked according to the efficiency with which they absorb and radiate longwave radiation. The open international HITRAN database of gaseous absorption lines of high resolution together with inverse Fourier transform were used. The autocorrelation functions of the total dipole moment of the basic greenhouse gases molecules such as H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, and CH4 were obtained. Absorption coefficient spectra and emission power spectra of infrared radiation of these gases were calculated. Analysis of the emissive ability of all gases under consideration was carried out. Compared to CO2, all the gases under investigation have more effective emission except ozone. An efficiency criterion of IR absorption and emission is defined and is calculated for each studied gas, and the gases are ranked accordingly as follows (from strong to weak): H2O, CH4, CO2, N2O, and O3. (paper)

  14. Global warming and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Dragoljub S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

  15. Global warming and greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Beli? Dragoljub S.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

  16. Alkali and Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Gases on Io

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, L

    2004-01-01

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of alkalis and halogens in volcanic gases emitted on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K) and pressure (10^-6 to 10^+1 bars) ranges, which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (T = 1760 K, P = 0.01 bars). About 230 compounds of 11 elements (O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, I) are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry of the alkalis and halogens in the volcanic plume. Based on this work and our prior modeling for Na, K, and Cl in a volcanic plume, we predict the major loss processes for the alkali halide gases are photolysis and/or condensation onto grains. On the basis of elemental abundances and photochemical lifetimes, we recommend searching for gaseous KCl, NaF, LiF, LiCl, RbF, RbCl, CsF, and CsCl around volcanic vents during eruptions. Based on abundance considerations and observation...

  17. Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Buryan Petr

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly fromthe balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumpingof communal biodegradace wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of grenhouses gates related with the cartransportation or power industry.

  18. Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryan Petr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly fromthe balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumpingof communal biodegradace wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of grenhouses gates related with the cartransportation or power industry.

  19. Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

  20. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N2O by soil process, and CH4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O and SF6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO2 concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO2 concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH4 concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N2O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N2O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF6 concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H2 gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

  1. Greenhouse gases and global change: International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the current concern about the fate of the global environment is related to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases and possible effects on the global climate. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, which is changing rapidly, is, to a large degree, determined by the release and uptake of a variety of trace gases by the biosphere. The biospheric production of relatively small amounts of trace gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is of special interest, as they trap infrared radiation, thus warming the Earth's surface. These greenhouse gases and other biogenic trace gases, such as carbon monoxide, odd nitrogen oxides (NOx), and a range of volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry by affecting tropospheric concentration of ozone, the penetration of photochemically active solar ultra-violet radiation, the production of hydroxyl radicals, and, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, cloud formation. Within the decade of the 1990's, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program will launch a worldwide research effort, unprecedented in its scope, to address the functioning of the Earth system and to understand how this system is changing. The body of information generated by the IGBP will form the scientific underpinning for predictions relating to future causes and effects of global changes. Through its observational network and process studies, and the effective communication of the resulting data to scientists in all nations committed to this endeavor, the IGBP will help provide the world's decision makers with the input necessary to wisely manage the global environment

  2. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence o...

  3. Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

  4. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  5. Emission of greenhouse effect gases; Emissao de gases de efeito estufa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Magda Aparecida de [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Jaguariuna, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: magda@cnpma.embrapa.br

    2000-12-01

    The article discusses the environmental aspects related to the emission of greenhouse effects gases, and the possible actions and strategies to be applied as a contribution for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases.

  6. Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that there has been a noticeable increase of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere since the beginning of industrial era. thus, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are over 30% above the pre-industrial level of 200 years ago, having reached 358 ppmv (WWF report, 1996). Concentration of methane (CH4) have risen by 145% from the pre-industrial levels. This is equivalent to a third of the radiative forcing effects of CO2. These changes could be traced to two main sources of GHGs; natural and anthropogenic

  7. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  8. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  9. Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

  10. Greenhouse gases: Changing the global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model calculations, supported by paleoclimatic and analytic studies and verified against a variety of cases of past climatic change, suggest that the global average surface-air temperatures will increase several degrees during the next century if the increasing rates of emission of greenhouse gases continue. High-confidence predictions of global-scale temperature increases of such magnitude may provide sufficient information for the world to institute measures to slow the rate of increase for emissions and thereby the rate of temperature increase. Because continuation of at least present emissions levels seems highly probable, projections of potential changes at the regional level are needed to plan possible adaptive measures. Climate model results suggest that potential global environmental change may justify an ameliorative policy of reducing current emissions of man-made greenhouse gases but that expensive and comprehensive adaptive actions should generally await more certain results from improved models. While the authors labor at improving their models, they should also be identifying society's vulnerabilities to climatic change and setting in place programs to moderate potential impacts

  11. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is on the press the year 2000, both published by the National Institute of Ecology of the SEMARNAT. There is not an emissions inventory of Veracruz, the few measurements campaigns that have been done in urban centers, it has not been possible to have access data, neither it has been designed a public politic that suggests the necessity of counting on information on the matter. In spite of it, because of the geographic conditions of Veracruz, the potential impact will transform Veracruz in a short period of time, thats why the Veracruz University must leadership studies around it, where the social distribution of the obtained results will make possible the creation of politics, strategies directed to a sustainable development, economically viable, socially fair and environmentally respectful.

  12. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NOx, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO2. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N2O (16 %), CH4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  13. Computing land use emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed to estimate the regional emission of greenhouse gases from land-use related sources. Driving forces for this model are the changing regional demand for food and wood products driven by demographic and economic developments. To include the environmental conditions, which are essential factors determining the flux for certain sources, emissions are grid-based where possible. Grid-based explicit calculations are given for CH4 emission from rice, wetlands, emissions from deforestation, savanna burning and agricultural waste burning and N2O from natural soils, arable lands and deforestation. For a number of sources (landfills, domestic sewage treatment, termites, methane hydrates and aquatic sources) geographically explicit calculations are not yet possible because of data limitations. For most of the sources the global results of the calculations are in agreement with other scenario studies, although there are differences for a number of individual sources. 59 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  14. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration

  15. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  16. An overview on non-CO2 greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pulles, T.; Amstel, A.R., van

    2010-01-01

    Non-CO2 greenhouse gases, included in the Kyoto Protocol, are methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hexafluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Together they account for about 25% of the present global greenhouse gas emissions. Reductions in emissions of these gases have occurred in the industrialised countries, and they contribute to the efforts to reach the target of 5% greenhouse gas emission reduction as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for these coun...

  17. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Rigby, Matt; Hofstetter, Doris; Hill, Matthias; Schoenenberger, Fabian; Reimann, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Modern halogenated inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application and evaporate almost completely to the atmosphere. Based on their first measurements in a range of environments, from urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane in the global atmosphere. Over the past decade, their abundances in the atmosphere have increased to global mean mole fractions in 2014 of 0.097ppt, 0.30ppt, and 0.13ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, in dry air), respectively. Emissions of these long-lived greenhouse gases inferred from the observations suggest a global combined release to the atmosphere of 3.1 0.6 million t CO2 equivalent in 2014 of which ?80% stems from desflurane. We also report on halothane, a previously widely used anesthetic. Its global mean mole fraction has declined to 9.2ppq (parts per quadrillion, 10-15) by 2014. However, the inferred present usage is still 280 120t yr-1.

  19. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ...FRL-9150-9] Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability...rule, Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated...for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gases (GHGs) from electronics...

  20. 75 FR 17331 - Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection...related to mandatory reporting of greenhouse gases, which will be published separately...amend the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule, published on...

  1. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  2. Production of greenhouse gases in organic-rich sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are greenhouse gases, which atmospheric concentrations increased since preindustrial times by ~150 and ~20%, respectively, mainly due to the increase in anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric increase of greenhouse gases (incl. carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and N2O) led to various effects on the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, summarized as global climate change. In the marine environment, temperature rise, sea level rise, ocean acidification, and decreased...

  3. Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, B; Goldblatt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a~warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called faint young sun problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4, and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HIT...

  4. Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, B; Goldblatt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITR...

  5. The greenhouse effect gases; Les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. 77 FR 5514 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Preliminary Determinations Regarding Requests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...FRL-9626-8] Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Preliminary Determinations...Gas Production Category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule AGENCY: Environmental...potentials for eight fluorinated greenhouse gases submitted by DuPont de...

  7. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration...2060-AP88 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration...promulgating a regulation to require greenhouse gas monitoring and reporting...

  8. 76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the...Gas Systems Categories of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule AGENCY: Environmental...action, Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to...

  9. 77 FR 10434 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations and Best Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...2060-AQ70 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations...of the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule. On July 7, 2010, the...technical information, contact the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Hotline...

  10. Turnover and transport of greenhouse gases in a Danish wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    Natural wetlands act as both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil to the atmosphere. Production and consumption of these gases in the soil are controlled by a series of highly dynamic and interrelated processes...... these drivers, thereby influencing the net emission or uptake of greenhouse gas. In this PhD thesis the complex aspects in the exchange of N2O across the soil-atmosphere is investigated with special focus on the spatiotemporal variations in drivers for N2O production and consumption in the soil and...... in observed net N2O dynamics. Similarly, plant-mediated gas transport by the subsurface aerating macrophyte Phalaris arundinacea played a major part in regulating and facilitating emissions of greenhouse gases across the soil-atmosphere interface. It is concluded that the spatiotemporal distribution...

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  12. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.; Lesschen, J. P.; Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    . The scale increases from field, manure storage or rumen via herd or farm to country or continent. The scope may be restricted to a single GHG or include all gases. Multidisciplinary models may include nutrients, other substances or socio-economic parameters. Mechanistic process-based models have been...

  13. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  14. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  15. Prototype System for Monitoring and Computing Greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jaichandran; A. Anthony Irudhayarj

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is not only the problem of the government or individual organization it is the fundamental problem of every individual. The main cause for global warming is green house gases (GHG). Monitoring and computing the greenhouse gases are a major challenging work. Globally, over the past several decades, human-induced activities like industrial revolution and burning of fossil fuels in power stations, vehicle transport systems and industries contribute significantly to the emission an...

  16. Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

  17. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gases under the UN FCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the progress being made by industrialized countries to implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) through action to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Based on a review of preliminary information available from four OECD countries (Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States), the paper compares national strategies and progress toward meeting domestic targets. It concludes that industrialized countries are just beginning to work toward meeting domestic targets and the mitigation 'aim' identified in the Convention: returning emissions of GHG to 1990 levels by the year 2000. More work will be required if industrialized countries are to meet this commitment. (au)

  19. Reducing greenhouse gases under the UN FCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the progress being made by industrialized countries to implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) through action to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Based on a review of preliminary information available from four OECD countries (Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States), the paper compares national strategies and progress toward meeting domestic targets. It concludes that industrialized countries are just beginning to work toward meeting domestic targets and the mitigation ''aim'' identified in the Convention: returning emissions of GHG to 1990 levels by the year 2000. More work will be required if industrialized countries are to meet this commitment

  20. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  1. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  2. Release of greenhouse gases by important energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of greenhouse gases by energy systems on the basis of fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable sources of energy are investigated. Further, the possibilities for the improvement of technologies, import/export of electricity, transport of power as well as other environmental effects are discussed. 10 tabs., 4 refs

  3. The influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change. Thus, the impacts associated with increasing of CO2 concentration are considered. The impacts associated with decreasing of ozone layer are considered as well. The influence of air temperature on agriculture is studied.

  4. The changing role of non co2 greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A. K.

    During the last century, the concentrations of several greenhouse gases have increased considerably - most notably, methane and nitrous oxide. In addition, new, entirely man - made gases have been put into the atmosphere that also cause the greenhouse effect; these include the chlorofluorocarbons. Calculations have shown that the during the last century the non - CO2 greenhouse gases could together be almost as effective as the increase of carbon dioxide in causing global warming. These and similar gases were therefore included in the Kyoto Protocol to develop a comprehensive plan for controlling global warming. New studies show however that the other gases, with few exceptions, are likely to play a smaller than expected role in future global warming. The most significant non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases are methane and nitrous oxide. Methane rose from 800 ppbv about 200 years ago to about 1700 ppbv in recent times, while nitrous oxide rose from about 285 ppbv to 310 ppbv over the same time. These trends made methane the most important gas for global warming next to carbon dioxide. But now, the trends of methane have declined considerably. Budget analyses suggest that we may not see major changes of concentrations in the future comparable to the trends of the last century. Thus the role of methane in future global warming may be less than expected earlier. Nitrous oxide on the other hand, has increased slowly during the last century, but now there is an indication that it may be increasing faster. The increase of nitrous oxide is still slow, but in time it is likely to become more important than previously thought. While other greenhouse gases such as the perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are included in the Kyoto Protocol, these are present in such minute concentrations that it is unlikely that they will have an important role in future global warming. Recent studies on the perfluorocarbons show that the trend of the major gas, carbon tetrafluoride, is slowing down as a response to industry controls designed for energy savings. These considerations suggest that while there may be many non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases, and whatever their collective role is, it is will be dominated in the future by nitrous oxide and to a lesser extent by methane.

  5. Halogenated source gases measured by FTIR at the Jungfraujoch station: updated trends and new target species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Bader, Whitney; Bovy, Benot; Franco, Bruno; Lejeune, Bernard; Servais, Christian; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Toon, Geoffrey C.

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric abundances of chlorine and fluorine increased very significantly during the second half of last century, following large emissions of long-lived halogenated source gases used in numerous industrial and domestic applications. Given the phase-out schedule of ozone depleting substances adopted by the Montreal Protocol, its Amendments and Adjustments, the loading of the CFCs in the Earth's atmosphere is now slowly decreasing. In contrast, their first replacement products, the HCFCs, are still on the rise, with current rates of increase substantially larger than at the beginning of the 21st century. As potent greenhouse gases, a suite of fluorinated compounds are targeted by the Kyoto Protocol. At present, they continue to accumulate in the atmosphere (Montzka et al., 2011). Given their environmental impacts, continuous monitoring of the abundances of these gases is of primary importance. In addition to the in situ networks, remote sensing techniques operated from space, balloon or from the ground provide valuable information to assess the long-term tropospheric and lower stratospheric trends of an increasing number of halogenated source gases, as well as of the reservoirs resulting from their photolysis in the stratosphere (e.g. Mahieu et al., 2014a). In this contribution, we will present decadal time series of halogenated source gases monitored at the high altitude station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5 N, 8 E, 3580 m asl) with Fourier Transform Infared (FTIR) spectrometers, within the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, see http://www.ndacc.org). Total column trends presented in previous studies for CFC-11, -12 and HCFC-22 (Zander at al., 2008), CCl4 (Rinsland et al., 2012), HCFC-142b (Mahieu et al., 2013), CF4 (Mahieu et al., 2014b) and SF6 (Zander et al., 2008) will be updated using the latest available Jungfraujoch solar observations. Investigations dealing with the definition of approaches to retrieve additional halogenated source gases from FTIR spectra will also be evoked. Our trend results will be critically discussed and compared with measurements performed in the northern hemisphere by the in situ networks. Acknowledgments The University of Lige contribution to the present work has primarily been supported by the AGACC-II project of the SSD program funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), Brussels. E. Mahieu is Research Associate with the F.R.S. - FNRS. Laboratory developments and mission expenses at the Jungfraujoch station were funded by the F.R.S. - FNRS and the Fdration Wallonie-Bruxelles, respectively. We thank the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat (HFSJG, Bern) for supporting the facilities needed to perform the observations. We further acknowledge the vital contribution from all the Belgian colleagues in performing the Jungfraujoch observations used here. References Mahieu, E., S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, et al., First retrievals of HCFC-142b from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations: application to high-altitude Jungfraujoch spectra, poster presentation at the 'EGU 2013 General Assembly', 07-12 April 2013, Vienna, Austria, 2013. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/144709] Mahieu, E., M.P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, et al., Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes, Nature, 515, 104-107, doi:10.1038/nature13857, 2014a. Mahieu, E., R. Zander, G.C. Toon, et al., Spectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 333-344, 2014b. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/154767] Montzka, S.A., S. Reimann, A. Engel, et al., Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODSs) and Related Chemicals, Chapter 1 in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 52, 516 pp., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. Rinsland, C.P., E. Mahieu, P.

  6. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  7. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  8. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  9. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  10. 75 FR 17331 - Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... 2060-AP99, AP88, AQ00 Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... two public hearings to be held for proposed rules related to mandatory reporting of greenhouse gases... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule, published on October 30, 2009 by requiring reporting...

  11. 76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...2060-AR26 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics...Manufacturing portion of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for the ``largest...information, please go to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Program Web...

  12. Stable isotope measurement techniques for atmospheric greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements to perform useful measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and of their isotope ratios are of direct relevance for all laboratories engaged in this field. A meaningful interpretation of isotopes in global models on sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases depends on strict laboratory protocols and data quality control measures ensuring comparable data in time and space. Only with this precondition met, the isotope techniques can serve as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. This publication provides four contributions describing methods for the determination of the isotopic composition of trace gases in atmospheric air and in ice cores. These contributions have been indexed separately

  13. Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

  14. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO2 emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  15. Greenhouse gases: the weakness of the French policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate action network worries about the weakness of the French policy in matter of greenhouse gases emissions reduction. These French environmental associations emphasize the following points: the government does not give a clear direction towards the car place reduction, in particular and road transport more generally. The government has not given a clear signal on the option of renewable energy sources. Situations and propositions (in ten points to succeed Tokyo) are detailed and discussed. (N.C.)

  16. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstell, M. F.; J. S. Francisco; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative window in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extract...

  17. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions of ultimate wastes storage centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate wastes storage centers emit methane from the blanket deposed on the wastes pile. The wastes processing is now realized with 2 main objectives: the limitation of environmental impacts and the optimization of the wastes energy potential valorization. The mechano-biological treatment, the aerobic bioreactor and the anaerobic bioreactor are three complementary techniques used to optimize the wastes processing. The greenhouses gases emission will not be the same in function of the technology choice. (A.L.B.)

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Observations of halogenated trace gases in Taiwan and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Lauren J.; Laube, Johannes C.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.; Wang, Jia-Lin; Ou-Yang, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Mead, Iq; Rigby, Matt; White, Emily

    2015-04-01

    There are a large variety of halocarbons present in the atmosphere that significantly impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and/or global warming. Though the use of some of these compounds has been phased out and replaced under global control measures, relatively long atmospheric lifetimes, imperfect substitutes and incomplete reductions in usage mean that global concentrations of halocarbons still require regular monitoring. This is especially true for the rapidly developing East Asian region, where high emissions have been repeatedly reported in recent years. We here present results from an air sampling activity in Taiwan and Malaysia during the spring months of 2013 and 2014. A large range of halocarbons, including a number of novel gases, were investigated via high sensitivity gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We find periods of relatively clean air as well as episodes that appear to be impacted by urban and/or industrial emissions and examine correlations between individual species. Observed mixing ratios are compared in context with both global background data and other regional studies. Enhancements in the abundances of many halocarbons are detected with examples including the Halons 1211 and 1202 as well as the very long-lived perfluorocarbons c-C4F8, C5F12 and C7F16. We also show and evaluate unusually high mixing ratios of other globally growing halocarbons such as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl), and CFC-113a (CF3CCl3). Finally, we use NAME analysis to produce back-trajectories in order to assess possible regional emission sources.

  20. International collaboration on capture, storage and utilization of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change will have world-wide implications. So it is highly appropriate that there should be international collaboration to investigate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause of the problem. Sixteen countries, as well as three industrial sponsors, support the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program and, in many cases, industry is also involved indirectly, through the national memberships. This provides a broad range of interest and expertise to guide the management of the Program, as well as ensuring that the results reach a wide audience. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program has three main activities: (1) evaluation of technologies for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from use of fossil fuels; (2) dissemination of the results of these studies; (3) identification of targets for research, development and demonstration and promotion of these findings. In its first five years of operation, the Program has studied the major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, and various means of reducing their emissions. The main emphasis has been placed on capture, storage and utilization of CO2 from power generation. This option is now much better understood and can be compared with more established measures, such as fuel switching, energy efficiency improvements and use of renewable energy. As well as studying abatement of CO2 emissions, the Program has conducted a series of studies of technologies for reducing CH4 emissions from man-made sources. The Program's activities are carried out by the Operating Agent, who develops and manages a series of technical studies to meet members' requirements

  1. Our changing atmosphere: Trace gases and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very important factor in the scientific evaluation of greenhouse warming during the last decade has been the realization that this is not just a problem of increasing CO2 but is rather a more general problem of increasing concentrations of many trace gases. CFCs are increasing at 5% per year with CFC-113 going up at a more rapid rate; methane approximately 1% per year; CO2 by 0.5% per year; N2O about 0.2% per year. These rates of increase have been fed into detailed models of the infrared absorbing characteristics of the atmosphere, and have provided the estimated relative contributions from the various trace gases. Carbon dioxide is still the major contributor to the greenhouse effect, and its yearly contribution appears to be increasing. An important question for dealing with the greenhouse effect will be the full understanding of these CO2 concentration changes. The total amount of carbon from the burning of fossil fuel that is going into the atmosphere is considerably larger than the carbon dioxide increase registered in the atmosphere. Appreciable CO2 contributions are also being received from the burning of the tropical forests. The procedures necessary to solve the chlorofluorocarbon problem have been put into place on an international scale and have begun to be implemented. We still have left for the future, however, efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide

  2. Mitigation of greenhouse gases in the energy sector: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is fairly well recognised that greenhouse gases (GHG) have an impact on the global climate as they trap heat in the atmosphere. With the result earth is warmed in manner similar to the glass panels of a greenhouse increase. Hence the name 'green house effect' during the last two centuries in CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere has been reckoned at 25%, with corresponding values for CH/sub 4/ and N/sub 2/O as 100% and 10% during 1950-80. CFC concentration increased by 10%. It is estimated that the earth has warmed by 0.5 deg. C and sea level has increased by 15 cm over the last 100 years or so. The major cause has been attributed to the process of industrialization. (author)

  3. National and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kyoto Protocol the flexibility mechanisms - Joint Implementation (Art. 6), Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12), Emissions Trading (Art. 17)- and Bubble (Art. 4) are roughly defined, leaving much questions open about their design and functioning, about eligibility criteria, impact on compliance and their political acceptation. In the NRP research project on national and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases these questions have been researched, mainly from an economic perspective and focussing on Emissions Trading. This report summarises the major results of the research project. refs

  4. Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    build up a new system to measure continuously CO2 (or CO), CH4, N2O and SF6 mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO2, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH4, 0.2 ppb for N2O and 0.05 ppt for SF6. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

  5. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  6. Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 Wm-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting ...

  7. Modeling greenhouse gases emissions from MSW of lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the characteristics of MSW generated from the Ravi Town, Lahore and assess the level of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions along with the associated global warming potential (GWP), from the collection and filling operations of the waste. The MSW of the Ravi Town mainly consists of kitchen waste, covering 29.19% during Season 1 (late summer) and 59.66% during Season 2 (winter). Among the GHG, a total 40, 947, 871.866 kg of CO/sub 2/ 9, 855, 720.054 kg of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 269.320 kg of N/sub 2/O is released into environment with a combine GWP of 248, 001, 482.237 kg for MSWM of Ravi Town. As MSW contains 56% biomass in Season 1 and 60% in Season 2 so the significant global warming potential can be reduced through integration of bio-gasification. This would not only reduce substantial greenhouse gases emissions but also produces energy and compost, a suitable soil conditioner with economic returns. (author)

  8. Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

  9. 76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...the document ``Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases--Petroleum...Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on November 30, 2010...or operators of facilities reporting under the offshore petroleum...natural gas production industry segment of subpart W is not...

  10. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    OpenAIRE

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V.; Jeffrey R. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests...

  11. Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share would be significantly higher. The commercial refrigeration sub sector and the air conditioning (stationary and mobile) sector will account for about 75% of F-gas emissions in 2050. In most sectors, emissions from developing countries will exceed emissions from developed countries. Large banks of HFCs will cause F-gas emissions well beyond 2050. In order to limit F-gas emissions, it appears crucial to consider measures to reduce emissions from all sectors in both developed and developing countries. The current post- Kyoto negotiation process might provide an opportunity to address these issues within a wider scope. A switch from substances that cause global warming to climate friendly alternatives is considered inevitable to be undertaken in the near future in developed countries. Developing countries, in contrast, are facing the chance to replace ozonedepleting substances directly by climate friendly alternatives, and could hence benefit from technologies developed in the last decades. The study does not exclude other scenarios on future HFC emissions. Like earlier projections, it underlines the urgent need for mitigation measures of F-gas emissions. (orig.)

  12. Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

    2010-11-15

    In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

  13. High-Resolution Urban Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases and Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, D. S.; Leen, J.; Gupta, M.; Graves, L.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gases and pollutants in urban areas with high spatial and temporal resolution allow scientists and policy makers determine source contributions, monitor pollution migration, and validate air quality models. Currently, these applications are limited by the poor spatial resolution of fixed air monitoring stations. We present very high-resolution measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, NH3 and NO2 taken throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, California using a flexible mobile monitoring platform. These measurements cover several highly urban and coastal regions that were repeatedly monitored over the course of several months. The data clearly shows the presence of several discrete sources and the migration of pollution through adjacent neighborhoods. Moreover, this validation study demonstrates the ease of mobile monitoring and the possibility of extending this platform to several other gas species (H2S, HF, HCl, NO, and others).

  14. Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Gustavo A. [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Universidad de La Laguna (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (FEDEA), Madrid (Spain); Instituto Complutense de Analisis Economico (ICAE), UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    The importance of energy on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is reflected by the fact that 65% of said emissions in the World are currently due to the use and production of energy. However, most empirical emission models are found within the Environmental Kuznetz Curve (EKC) framework, which focuses on the relationship between emissions and economic development. Ang's (2007, 2008) papers are some of the exceptions that simultaneously study the relationship between emissions, growth and energy. With respect to Ang's research, we contribute on two important aspects. First, while Ang uses a particular country as the study and use time series techniques, we take advantage of a panel data set of 24 European countries between 1990 and 2006 and use a Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) framework. Second, the impact of energy consumption on emissions would depend on the primary energy mix and on the final use of this energy, and we consider both factors in the model. (author)

  16. Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation to the emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas and methane the emission of carbon dioxide has increased from 52 million tonnes in 1990 to 56 million tonnes in 1999, while the emission of laughing gas and methane nearly have been on a constant level in the period. The emission of laughing gas in 1993 31 thousand tonnes and for methane the emission is 623 thousand tonnes. For the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxide there have been a decrease in the emission, still mostly for sulphur dioxide there has shown a decrease from 183 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 56 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of nitrogen has decreased from 272 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 210 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 96 thousand tonnes in 1999. (EHS)

  17. Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1991-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas, and methane has decreased from 1991 to 2000. The carbon dioxide emission has decreased from 63 mill. tons in 1991 to 52 mill. tons in 2000. The decrease of emission of laughing gas and methane only decreased slightly during the period. In 2000 the emission of laughing gas and methane is 29 thousand tons and 628 thousand tons, respectively. For all the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides a decrease is observed. The emission of sulphur dioxide has decreased from 239 thousand tons in 1991 to 28 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of nitrogen oxides has decreased from 319 thousand tons in 1991 to 208 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tons to 104 thousand tons during the same period. (LN)

  18. Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

  19. Greenhouse gases mitigation policies in the agriculture of Aragon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Albiac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an important threat to human society. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG, but it also provides alternatives to confront climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture around the world during recent decades has generated significant environmental damages from pollution emissions. The spatial distribution of emissions is important for the design of local abatement measures. This study makes an assessment of GHG emissions in an intensive agricultural area of Aragon (Spain, and then an economic optimization model is developed to analyze several GHG mitigation measures. The results indicate that adequate management of manure, emissions limits, and animal production restrictions are appropriate measures to abate pollution. Economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address nonpoint pollution problems. Suitable pollution abatement policies should be based on institutional instruments adapted to local conditions, and involve the cooperation of stakeholders.

  20. Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of energy on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is reflected by the fact that 65% of said emissions in the World are currently due to the use and production of energy. However, most empirical emission models are found within the Environmental Kuznetz Curve (EKC) framework, which focuses on the relationship between emissions and economic development. Ang's (2007, 2008) papers are some of the exceptions that simultaneously study the relationship between emissions, growth and energy. With respect to Ang's research, we contribute on two important aspects. First, while Ang uses a particular country as the study and use time series techniques, we take advantage of a panel data set of 24 European countries between 1990 and 2006 and use a Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) framework. Second, the impact of energy consumption on emissions would depend on the primary energy mix and on the final use of this energy, and we consider both factors in the model.

  1. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... air pollution, including GHGs. As discussed in the petroleum and natural gas systems proposal (75 FR... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems... Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 and agricultural management on flux of greenhouse gases from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the contribution of agriculture to climate change, flux of greenhouse gases from different cropping systems must be assessed. Measurement of soil efflux of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4) from conservation and conventional tillage systems that have been under the influence of eleva...

  3. Study of greenhouse gases emission factor for nuclear power chain of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greenhouse Gases Emission Factor (GGEF) for nuclear power chain of China is calculated based on Life Cycle Analysis method and the definition of full energy chain. There is no greenhouse gases released directly from nuclear power plant. The greenhouse gases emission from nuclear power plant is mainly from coal-fired electricity supply to nuclear power plant for its normal operation and the production of construction materials those are used in the nuclear power plant. The total GGEF of nuclear power chain in China is 13.71 g-co2/kWh. It is necessary to regulate un-rational power source mix and to use the energy sources in rational way for reducing the greenhouse gas effect. Nuclear power for electricity generation is one of effective ways to reduce greenhouse gases emission and retard the greenhouse effect

  4. Verification of national halogenated greenhouse gas emissions in Europe using top-down estimates inferred from ambient air measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; Keller, C. A.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; O'Doherty, S.

    2010-12-01

    To check for compliance with the reduction targets defined under the Kyoto protocol, each country has to report its greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). These emissions are calculated using a bottom-up approach, by combining categories of com-pound use with specific activity functions and using import/export statistics. The uncertainties of these estimates are not well defined, thereby making an independent validation of the reported emissions highly desirable. In this study, a novel Kalman filter inversion technique was implemented to estimate European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases including hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and SF6. The inversion is based on high-frequency measurements at two European background sites (Jungfraujoch and Mace Head) coupled to backward simulations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The sequential nature of the inversion approach allows tracing slow seasonal and interannual emission changes. Furthermore, by including the estimation of a smoothly varying concentration background into the inversion, potential inconsistencies introduced by independent background subtraction methods are avoided. Further advantages are the applicability to a potentially large number of receptor (measurement) locations and the quantification of uncertainties along with absolute emissions. Annual emissions were estimated for the years 2006 to 2009 on a country-by-country basis and compared with numbers reported to the UNFCCC. Good agreement was found for HFC-134a and HFC-125, which are ubiquitously used for refrigeration and air conditioning. Much higher emissions than reported, however, were estimated for HFC-23, a potent greenhouse gas with a 100-yr global warming potential of 14’800. HFC-23 is an unintentional by-product of HCFC-22 manufacture and our source attribution reveals significant contributions from HCFC-22 production plants in Italy, Spain and Germany. Total HFC-23 emissions over Central Europe are estimated to account for more than 6% of global emissions, which is approximately 3 times higher than calculated by the bottom-up inventories. Similar discrepancies were found for HFC-152 which, however, is only a minor greenhouse gas.

  5. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given...

  6. The Use of Greenhouse Gases as Climate Proxy Data in Interpreting Climatic Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Oluseyi Enitan Ogunsola; Ezekiel Oluyemi Oladiran

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas data were utilized as proxy data in interpreting climate variability. These greenhouse gases were related to temperature records using standard deviation (SD) as the transfer function based on observed correlations between them and global warming records. The annual SD used as warming index for the concentrations of these greenhouse gases for the period 1996 to 2005 at the various stations considered showed good correlation with 1998 as the warmest for these stations.

  7. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY..., 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... outlined for calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

  8. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent no regrets policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

  9. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I.E.; Rothman, L.S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases," Clim. Past. 10, 17791801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (501800 cm?1),...

  10. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I.E.; Rothman, L.S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 17791801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (501800 cm?1),...

  11. Module for greenhouse gases in BBPR; Broeikasgasmodule BBPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Oudendag, D.A. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van der Hoek, K.W.; De Boer, J.A.; Evers, A.G.; De Haan, M.H. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    BBPR is the Dutch program for calculating the effect of management decisions of the farmer on the corresponding use of feed, fertilizers, herd composition, investment costs, and annual costs. This report describes the extension of BBPR with a module for greenhouse gases. The present level of methane and nitrous oxide emissions is indicated as well as the result of measures to reduce these emissions. Measures taken into account are increasing the share of fodder maize in the ration, decreasing the grazing time, use of fertilizer without nitrate in spring. Also the effect of co-digestion of animal manure with fodder maize is discussed. [Dutch] In BBPR, BedrijfsBegrotingsProgramma Rundvee is een module ingebouwd om de broeikasgasemissies vanuit de rundveehouderij te kunnen berekenen. Hiermee kan de actuele broeikasgasemissie van een rundveebedrijf berekend worden. Tevens kan het effect aangegeven worden van maatregelen om de emissie te verminderen, alsmede de daarmee gepaard gaande kosten. In het rapport worden enkele maatregelen doorgerekend, zoals verhoging van het aandeel snijmais in het rantsoen, vermindering van de weidegang, gebruik van nitraatloze kunstmest in het voorjaar. Als laatste maatregel is doorgerekend co-vergisting met behulp van snijmais.

  12. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  13. Inaccuracies in the prediction of the effects of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outgoing long wave radiation to space is significantly reduced due to heat absorption by the so-called greenhouse gases, notably water vapour, carbon dioxide, methan, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons. The dominating ones are water vapour and carbon dioxide. Since the industrial revolution the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase of 26% in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is presently increasing by about 0.5% per year. The effect on climate can not satisfactorily be estimated on radiation balance calculation only, but must incorporate the large scale atmospheric circulation and the important feedbacks with water vapour (positive feedback), clouds (both positive and negative feedbacks), surface albedo and the oceans. This requires comprehensive mathematical modelling of the coupled ocean/land atmosphere system. Several such studies have been undertaken during the last years both in Europe and United States and results from such experiments are described. Due to the enormous complexity of the problem, a number of simplified assumptions have been done and the results so far must be cautiously assessed. The overall global warming, assuming an increase of around 1% annually in the carbon dioxide concentration, is about 3 C after 100 years. There are large regional differences and the warming is generally larger over land than over sea. A particular problem is the temperature of the North Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters where changes in the deep ocean circulation are significant. (orig.)

  14. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  15. Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

  16. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

  17. Halogen Containing Gases as Lubricants for Crystallized Glass Ceramic Metal Combinations at Temperatures to 1500 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1960-01-01

    Pyroceram 9608 (a crystallized glass ceramic) has been considered for use in high-temperature bearing and seal applications. One of the problems encountered with Pyroceram is the lack of availability of lubricants for the temperature range in which this material becomes practical. Experiments were conducted with Pyroceram sliding on various nickel- and cobalt-base alloys using reactive halogen-containing gases as lubricants. Friction and wear data were obtained as a function of sliding velocity and temperature. Studies were made with a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad., Pyroceram 9608) sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (2(1/2) in. diam., nickel- or cobalt-base alloys). The specimens were run in an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, a sliding velocity of 3200 feet per minute, and temperatures from 75 to 1500 F. The gas CF2Br-CF2Br was found to be an effective lubricant for Pyroceram 9608 sliding on Hastelloy R-235 and Inconel X up to 1400 F. The gas CF2Cl-CF2Cl provided effective lubrication for Pyroceram sliding on various cobalt-base alloys at 1000 F.

  18. NF ISO 14064-1 Greenhouse gases. Part 1: specifications and guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring of greenhouse gas as well as for drafting of inventory report for organisms. Thus it suggests a method for inventory declarations for organism greenhouse gas and provides support for the monitoring and the management of their emission. It provides the terms and definitions, the principles, the greenhouse gases inventory design, development and components, the greenhouse inventory quality management, the reporting of greenhouse gases and the organization role in verification activities. (A.L.B.)

  19. Greenhouse gases in the Earth system: a palaeoclimate perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eric W

    2011-05-28

    While the trends in greenhouse gas concentrations in recent decades are clear, their significance is only revealed when viewed in the context of a longer time period. Fortunately, the air bubbles in polar ice cores provide an unusually direct method of determining the concentrations of stable gases over a period of (so far) 800,000 years. Measurements on different cores with varying characteristics, as well as an overlap of ice-core and atmospheric measurements covering the same time period, show that the ice-core record provides a faithful record of changing atmospheric composition. The mixing ratio of CO(2) is now 30 per cent higher than any value observed in the ice-core record, while methane is more than double any observed value; the rate of change also appears extraordinary compared with natural changes. Before the period when anthropogenic changes have dominated, there are very interesting natural changes in concentration, particularly across glacial/interglacial cycles, and these can be used to understand feedbacks in the Earth system. The phasing of changes in temperature and CO(2) across glacial/interglacial transitions is consistent with the idea that CO(2) acts as an important amplifier of climate changes in the natural system. Even larger changes are inferred to have occurred in periods earlier than the ice cores cover, and these events might be used to constrain assessments of the way the Earth could respond to higher than present concentrations of CO(2), and to a large release of carbon: however, more certainty about CO(2) concentrations beyond the time period covered by ice cores is needed before such constraints can be fully realized. PMID:21502180

  20. NACP Greenhouse Gases Multi-Source Data Compilation, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set is a collection of measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and non-CO2 greenhouse gases made across North America by nine independent...

  1. EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increase in concentration of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming have received considerable research intrest. Agricultural practices, fossil fuel burning, deforestation, industrial emissions, and wetlands have contributed to atmospheric increases of carbo...

  2. Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases 1990-2020

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data in these Appendices to the Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (1990-2020) report provide historical and projected estimates of...

  3. NACP Greenhouse Gases Multi-Source Data Compilation, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set is a collection of measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and non-CO2 greenhouse gases made across North America by nine independent atmospheric...

  4. Estimating the Greenhouse Gases Emission and the Most Important Factors in Dairy Farms (Case Study Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, M; A.R. Koocheki; M. Motallebi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and ...

  5. On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, C; D. J. A. Johansson

    2012-01-01

    Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the Integrated Temperature Change Potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that GWP and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization gove...

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ''greenhouse gases.'' Their warming capacity, called ''the greenhouse effect,'' is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth's absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  8. Design of a low power -- high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect halogen gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales Ortega, Mary Cristina

    The design, construction and optimization of a low power-high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect leaking of halogen gases in refrigeration systems are presented. The manufacturing process was done with microelectronic assembly and the Low Temperature Cofire Ceramic (LTCC) technique. Four basic sensor materials were fabricated and tested: Li2SiO3, Na2SiO3, K2SiO3, and CaSiO 3. The evaluation of the sensor material, sensor size, operating temperature, bias voltage, electrodes size, firing temperature, gas flow, and sensor life was done. All sensors responded to the gas showing stability and reproducibility. Before exposing the sensor to the gas, the sensor was modeled like a resistor in series and the calculations obtained were in agreement with the experimental values. The sensor response to the gas was divided in surface diffusion and bulk diffusion; both were analyzed showing agreement between the calculations and the experimental values. The sensor with 51.5%CaSiO3 + 48.5%Li 2SiO3 shows the best results, including a stable current and response to the gas.

  9. 75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... under the GHG Tailoring Rule at 75 FR 31514 (June 3, 2010). EPA invites public comment on all aspects of... AGENCY PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the EPA has posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

  10. Using the energy from land fill gases reduces the greenhouse effect of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Norwegian land fills have established systems for utilisation of the energy from the gases extracted from the waste. The energy is used to produce electricity and heating. This is becoming more profitable as the energy price increases. The gas contains about 50 percent methane and its greenhouse effect is 20 times that of carbon dioxide. Thus, using it also reduces the greenhouse effect

  11. Global Mitigation Of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: 2010-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report illustrates the abatement potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by sector and by region, from 2010-2030. This peer-reviewed update provides economists and policymakers with improved data to better understand the costs and opportunities for reducing non-CO2 greenhouse...

  12. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases - An assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1990-01-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  13. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program... EPA's reporting threshold finalized in 2010 (see 75 FR 39736, July 12, 2010) requiring all underground... November 29, 2011 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of...

  14. 75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... FR 18455, April 12, 2010) and the following memoranda ``Review of Non-Federal Existing Greenhouse Gas... FR 18455) and the following memoranda ``Review of Non-Federal Existing Greenhouse Gas Reporting... Manufacturing) (75 FR 18652, April 12, 2010); 40 CFR part 98, subpart L (Fluorinated Gas Production) (75...

  15. Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: The basis of GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2002, USDA Agricultural Research Service has been engaged in a national project called GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network). Goals of the project are to (1) evaluate soil organic carbon status and change, (2) assess net greenhouse gas emissions (...

  16. Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meul, Stefanie; Oberlnder, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

  17. Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  18. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

  19. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aaheim, H. Asbjrn; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjrn

    2001-01-01

    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded ...

  20. Greenhouse gases - an up-date on the contribution of automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases from automotive fuels. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change are explained briefly. Data is presented on the global warming potential of automobile emissions, actual measured emission rates and greenhouse gas emissions as CO2 equivalents. It is concluded that insufficient data exists to assess accurately the contribution of automotive fuel use to all the important greenhouse gases. Over short timescales (say 20 years) low emission technologies do show significant reductions in CO2 equivalent emissions compared with current technology vehicles. However, in the longer term, fuel economy rather than emissions of non-CO2 gases, is likely to become the determining factor. (UK)

  1. Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

    2012-07-01

    The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

  2. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dejian; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Sander, Stanley P.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen; Park, Chang Hyoun; Li, Qinbin

    2011-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  3. GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as criteria for sustainable waste management establishment. The main constituent of this system is avoiding and minimizing waste, as well as increasing the recycling and recovery level of waste and land fill gas, which also represent green house gases mitigation measures. The Waste Management Plan consists of several direct and indirect measures for green house gases emission reduction and their implementation also affects the green house gases emissions. The contribution of the methane emission from land fills amounts to about 2% of the total green house gases emissions in Croatia. The climate change control and mitigation measures as an integral part of waste management sector strategies represent the measures of achieving the national objectives to wards green house gases emission reduction which Croatia has accepted in the frame work of the Kyoto Protocol.

  4. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  5. The macroeconomic consequences of controlling greenhouse gases: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the summary of a major report which provides a survey of existing estimates of the macroeconomic consequences of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). There are broadly speaking two main questions. What are the consequences of global warming for economic activity and welfare? What, if any, are the economic consequences of reducing the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? This survey covers only those studies which quantify the overall (macroeconomic) costs of abating greenhouse gas emissions. It is not concerned with whether any particular degree of abatement is sufficient to reduce global warming, nor whether it is worth undertaking in the light of its benefits. These are topics for other researchers and other papers. Here we are concerned only to map the relationship between economic welfare and GHG abatement. (author)

  6. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  7. Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations.

  8. 76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... emission factor. e-GGRT electronic-GHG Reporting Tool. EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal... August 4, 2011 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse... Rules#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting...

  9. Carbon and Conservation: Cropping systems and greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  10. Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguet, B.

    2005-09-15

    In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

  11. Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    The present discussion of related aspects of biomass burning describes a technique for estimating the instantaneous emission of trace gases generated by such fires on the basis of satellite imagery, and notes that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning therefore has both immediate and long-term impacts on the trace-gas content of the atmosphere. The effects of Kuwait's oil fires, which encompass both combustion gases and particulates, are compared with those of the more general problem.

  12. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  13. The feasibility of a world-wide tax on anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases: Levels and impacts of world-wide taxes on greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchetti, David; Drouet, Laurent; Thalmann, Philippe; Vielle, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A harmonized worldwide carbon tax, implemented at regional or national level, can be enforced only with an international collective action which takes into account inherent interests of all countries. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact ofthe implementation of such a tax by means of different scenarios based on realistic assumptions. We endeavor to design a world tax on anthropogenic greenhouse-gases emissions which can be politically acceptable and technically feasible. To do s...

  14. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates...

  15. GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ruinski

    2010-01-01

    The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as cri...

  16. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  17. The contribution of direct energy use for livestock breeding to the greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the contribution of direct energy use to the greenhouse gases emissions of cattle, pig and poultry breeding in Cyprus. The energy consumption was estimated using the factors of 2034 MJ/cow, 2182 MJ/sow and 0.002797 MJ/bird. The greenhouse gases emissions for each animal species and energy source were estimated using emission factor of each greenhouse gas according to fuel type as proposed by the IPCC 2006 guidelines and for electricity according to national verified data from the Electricity Authority of Cyprus. Livestock breeding in Cyprus consumes electricity, diesel oil and LPG. The results obtained, show that the emissions from energy use in livestock breeding contribute 16% to the total agricultural energy emissions. Agricultural energy emissions contribute 0.7% to the total energy greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The three species of animal considered contribute 3% to their total livestock breeding emissions when compared with enteric fermentation and manure management, of which 2.6% is CO2. These results agree with the findings in available literature. The contribution of direct energy use in the greenhouse gases emissions of livestock breeding could be further examined with the influence of anaerobic digestion to the emissions. -- Highlights: → Energy use contribution to greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus livestock breeding. → Energy consumption estimated using 2.034 GJ/ cow, 2.182 GJ/ sow and 2.797 kJ/ bird. →Energy use in livestock breeding found to be 16% of agriculture energy emissions. → Energy use found to be 3% of total livestock breeding emissions. → 87% of the energy emissions is CO2.

  18. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  19. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  20. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  1. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.10.1 ppm, CH4 at 18191 ppb and N2O at 325.10.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  2. Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J; Lechtenbhmer, S; Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Dienst, C; Fischedick, M; Hanke, T

    2005-04-14

    Using natural gas for fuel releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than burning oil or coal, but its production and transport are accompanied by emissions of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide in the short term. This calls into question whether climate forcing could be reduced by switching from coal and oil to natural gas. We have made measurements in Russia along the world's largest gas-transport system and find that methane leakage is in the region of 1.4%, which is considerably less than expected and comparable to that from systems in the United States. Our calculations indicate that using natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels could be useful in the short term for mitigating climate change. PMID:15829951

  3. Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-2010. Trends and driving forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway from 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces, a report that presents emission trends in Norway with the analysis of the main drivers and trends, and a review and analysis of the effectiveness of implemented measures.(Author)

  4. Advances in Data Processing for Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 minutes is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the detection and correction ...

  5. Water and wastewater services: a contribution to greenhouse gases mitigation. Methodologies and experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency and contribution to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are at the heart of environmental concerns of communities and the public. Without waiting for the regulations that may affect them in the future on climate/energy, water and sanitation services will need to explore options aimed at saving energy, producing renewable energy and reducing direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gases on their territory. In terms of controlling emissions of greenhouse gases, the results of initial assessments of GHGs emissions (including some made with the French 'Bilan Carbone' model, developed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency - Ademe) help to identify the importance of emissions related to the management of water and wastewater services, to propose action plans to reduce them, and contribute to reducing emissions of other local actors through the creation of new renewable energy sources. A joint working group of Astee (French Scientific and Technical Association for Water and Environment) water and wastewater commissions prepared some guidelines for calculating emissions of greenhouse gases of water and wastewater services. These guidelines have been made available on the association web-site since September 2009. This article takes stock on the initial feedbacks relating to its implementation among operators of water and wastewater services. (authors)

  6. Assessing the DICE model: uncertainty associated with the emission and retention of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the DICE model indicates that it contains unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and mis-specifications that cause it to understate the rate at which economic activity emits greenhouse gases and the rate at which the atmosphere retains greenhouse gases. The model assumes a world population that is 2 billion people lower than the 'base case' projected by demographers. The model extrapolates a decline in the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of economic activity that is possible only if there is a structural break in the economic and engineering factors have determined this ratio over the last century. The model uses a single equation to simulate the rate at which greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere. The forecast for the airborne fraction generated by this equation contradicts forecasts generated by models that represent the physical and chemical processes which determine the movement of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean. When these unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and misspecifications are remedied with simple fixes, the economic impact of global climate change increases several fold. Similarly, these remedies increase the impact of uncertainty on estimates for the economic impact of global climate change. Together, these results indicate that considerable scientific and economic research is needed before the threat of climate change can be dismissed with any degree of certainty. 23 refs., 3 figs

  7. 78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming... EPA is announcing to the public the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as... requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and analysis supporting them....

  8. The distribution of greenhouse gases emission rights in the European Union from a competition perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an administrative and economical perspective the present method of allocation in the European emissions trading system for greenhouse gases is discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the distribution of the emission rights over the businesses and the related current and future legal and economical problems

  9. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  10. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily

  11. Field emissions of greenhouse gases from contrasting biofuel feedstock production systems under different N fertilization rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management choices (crop type, fertilization rate) could affect agricultural soil emissions of important temperature-forcing greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Soil GHG emissions were measured in situ over the 2010 growing season at a biofu...

  12. A European perspective of innovations toward mitigation of nitrogen-related greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Winiwarter, Wilfried; Leip, Adrian; TUOMISTO HANNA LEENA; Haastrup, Palle

    2014-01-01

    Technology design and effectiveness studies available in the scientific literature demonstrate future mitigation potentials of nitrogen-related greenhouse gases. Here we investigate innovations influencing such emissions. These innovations mainly address agriculture: reduced meat diets, urban gardening, genetically modified crops, and precision farming, but also more distant options like vertical farming and cultured meat production, that is, indoor agriculture. While the latter approaches,...

  13. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabr, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

  14. ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 Emission Rights. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  15. Nonlinear response of modeled stratospheric ozone to changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances in the recent past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the evolution of stratospheric ozone (O3 was affected by both increasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs. The impact of the single forcings on O3 is well known. Interactions between the simultaneously increased GHG and ODS concentrations, however, can occur and lead to nonlinear O3 changes. In this study, we investigate if nonlinear processes have affected O3 changes between 1960 and 2000. This is done with an idealized set of timeslice simulations with the chemistryclimate model (CCM EMAC. Nonlinearity leads to a net reduction of ozone decrease throughout the stratosphere, with a maximum of 1.2% at 3 hPa. The total ozone column loss between 1960 and 2000 that is mainly attributed to the ODS increase is mitigated in the extra-polar regions by up to 1.1% due to nonlinear processes. A separation of the O3 changes into the contribution from chemistry and transport shows that nonlinear interactions occur in both. In the upper stratosphere a reduced efficiency of the ClOx-catalysed O3 loss chiefly causes the nonlinear O3 increase. An enhanced formation of halogen reservoir species through the reaction with methane (CH4 reduces the abundance of halogen radicals significantly. The temperature induced deceleration of the O3 loss reaction rate in the Chapman cycle is reduced, which leads to a nonlinear O3 decrease and counteracts the increase due to ClOx. Nonlinear effects on the NOx abundance cause hemispheric asymmetric nonlinear changes of the O3 loss. Nonlinear changes in O3 transport occur in particular in the Southern Hemisphere (SH during the months September to November. Here, the residual circulation is weakened in the lower stratosphere, which goes along with a reduced O3 transport from the tropics to high latitudes. Thus, O3 decreases in the SH polar region, but increases in the SH midlatitudes.

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-25

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  17. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  18. Impact of greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in the polar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the future long-term changes of the earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the south to north poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from climate change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the earth's ozone layer in the polar regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the antarctic ozone hole. As for the global total ozone, continuous anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases will lead to significant acceleration of its recovery. In the case of the used scenario of expected long-term changes of the greenhouse gases, the global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2043. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the 21st century. (author)

  19. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehl, J.T.; Briegleb, B.P. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-04-16

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of [minus]0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. are discussed. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  1. A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dobler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of 0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

  2. Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Samuelsson, J.; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG...... emissions in terms of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and thus contribute to climate change. At all three facilities significant CH4 emissions were occurring. The CH4 emission varied between 0.50 and 5.73 kg CH4 h-1. The highest CH4 emission (5.73 kg CH4 h-1) were measured at the Aarhus composting...... facility and was believed to be a result of the windrow lay-out with very broad and high windrows and a low turning frequency. The lowest CH4 emission (0.50 kg CH4 h-1) was measured at Fakse composting area and was most likely a result of the relatively small windrows and frequent weekly turnings. For all...

  3. Greenhouse warming by minor gases on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.

    1992-01-01

    The early atmospheres of Earth and Mars were non-oxidizing mixtures likely derived from volcanic outgassing of a silicate mantle, with some fraction of the volatiles also contributed by impacting comets and meteorites. Here the authors investigate the potential of minor atmospheric constituents produced by ultraviolet and auroral chemistry to contribute to the thermal opacity of early Earth and Mars atmospheres. Using a very simple two-stream thermal opacity model, the authors show that HCN at 10 parts per million (ppm) and N2O at 100 ppm can each block radiation in thermal infrared windows sufficiently to increase the surface temperature by 7 K separately, or 14 K together. Small quantities of other species are also produced in such experiments. Some of these have especially complex infrared spectra and should be further investigated for their potential to help close windows in the CO2 + H2O infrared transmission. Enhancement of greenhouse warming by minor atmospheric species different from those present in today's atmosphere may have played important roles in the climate of early Earth and Mars.

  4. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S. M.; Fiorelli, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies did not consider options sp...

  5. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems : a critical review of mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sandra; Fiorelli, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies did not consider options sp...

  6. Greenhouse gases: Changing the nature of our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of carbon dioxide and other agriculturally, industrially, and energy-related gases are altering the composition of the atmosphere in a manner that will enhance the trapping of infrared radiation and lend to increasing global average temperatures. Analysis of the historical climate record is under way to identify evidence that the changes in atmospheric concentration to data have already initiated the model-predicted warming. Observations suggest that the global average temperature has risen ?0.5 0.2 degree C over the past 150 yr, which is, depending on how account is taken of the ocean heat lag and of natural variability, roughly consistent with the lower half of the model-estimated range. The most recent model estimates are, however, in the upper half of this range, suggesting a factor of 2 disagreement and prompting intensive studies of the role of clouds in influencing climate change. What is certain is that the atmospheric composition is changing and that climate will respond, almost certainly by a few-degrees warming if emissions continue unabated. Reducing the uncertainties and refining estimates of impacts to the point where energy and other policies may be affected, however, poses a significant research challenge

  7. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO2 and CH4. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 oC less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH4. (author)

  8. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-07-01

    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 {sup o}C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH{sub 4}. (author)

  9. Monitoring of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Monitoring Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic radioactive noble gas, a gaseous fission product which builds up in the atmosphere. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) integrates many monitoring and research activities involving the measurements of atmospheric composition. Kr-85 represents one of the gases recommended by the WMO for monitoring. The collaborative program of the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPI) and the US Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) NOAA activities is aimed at determining the possible future consequences of Krypton-85 content (trend) increasing in the earth's atmosphere. The research is conducted at the MEPI to study the character of KR-85 release into the atmosphere and its distribution in the atmosphere, to determine Kr-85 possible sources. If only the question of the direct impact of Kr-85 on climate would be considered, only the order of magnitude of the atmospheric concentration would be of interest. In this case almost any available detection method and a precision as low as some 10% would be acceptable. If however, Kr-85 is to be applied as a tracer for the improvement of our present knowledge of local, regional and global transport and mixing processes and the validation of global-scale transport and mixing models, a much higher precision is required (order of +1%). This high standard cannot be met without a permanent quality assurance programmer. It is within the framework of the WMO that MEPI and the Air Resources Laboratory NOAA USA proposes collaboration of Kr-85 scientific findings. The project MEPI open-quotes Monitoring Krypton-85close quotes is being financed through the International Science and Technology Center

  10. Greenhouse gases (GHG), NOx and SOx reduction through biomass utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues such as air pollution have been given serious attention these days. Public seems to be more aware of the effects of air pollution after experiencing haze in 1997. Carbon dioxide (C02) is one of the green house gases (GHG) that traps the heat of the sun in the atmosphere and contributes to global warming. Excessive usage of fossil fuels can caused the increase in C02 emission level land this has forced the relevant authorities to find a much cleaner fuel such as biomass. A large-scale.demonstration plant under the EC-ASEAN Cogen Programme is a good reference on how biomass could reduce the GHG without interruption to its process. The company uses wood wastes as fuel for its cogeneration plant to replace diesel oil and fuel oil for power and heat. The cogeneration plant capacity is 1.5 MW of electricity and thermal heat. of 11 MW. The fuel is fed to the combustion chamber with an automatic controlled feeding system to generate 16 tonnes per hour of superheated steam at 22 bar. The steam is supplied to a backpressure turbine and part of the exhaust steam is supplied as process heat to a kiln drying plant and the rest to a condensing turbine. The GHG emission mitigation potential from this cogeneration plant is 15,632 tonnes Of C02 equivalent per year. Moreover, it is also expected to reduce the annual NOx and S0x emission level by 89.5 % and 98.3 %. Therefore, this paper will describe how biomass utilisation through cogeneration could reduce GHG, NOx and S0x emission level. (author)

  11. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ∼ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  12. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2010-07-01

    Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  13. Comparison of the Different Land Use on the Emission of Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdipuor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from the soil surface to the atmosphere has been of worldwide concern over the last several decades. Carbon dioxide is recognized as a significant contributor to global warming and climatic change, accounting for 60% of total greenhouse effect. The aim of this research was to determinate the emission of greenhouse gases from different land under agricultural uses. Four types of agricultural land farm, including wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land were selected to investigate the fate of CO2 in these fields. Gas chromatography technique and close chamber method were used to analyze soil gas samples. Total carbon losses from soil in form of greenhouse gases was 4.47, 3.72, 3.38 and 1.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land, respectively. Total additional carbon to soil from biomass for wheat field and canola field was 4.1 and 4.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. ECB (ecosystem carbon budget = ? C input - ? C output. For wheat field and canola field ECB was -0.37 and +0.88, respectively. This indicated that in wheat field carbon was lost and in canola field carbon was sequestrated. Under citrus garden due to changes in soil organic carbon form previous year has showed that carbon was sequestrated.

  14. Cost-effective reductions of non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnaye, Francisco de la; Harvey, Reid; Kruger, Dina; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' [Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-01

    To date, most of the focus on greenhouse gas emission reductions has been on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. This is understandable since CO{sub 2} emissions currently account for about 82 percent of the total US greenhouse gas emissions weighted by 100-year global warming potentials (EPA, www.epa.gov/globalwarming/publications/emissions, 2001a). However, a number of analyses suggest that the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol - methane, nitrous oxide, and the high-GWP (global warming potential) gases (HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}) - can make a significant contribution to cost-effective emission reductions for the US and other countries. Our current estimate for the US is a reduction in non-CO{sub 2} emissions of 105 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) at 50 US dollars/ton carbon equivalent in 2010. This paper provides a perspective on the current and projected emissions of greenhouse gas; outlines the potential methods for achieving emissions reductions for various sources; and summarizes several recent studies on the cost of reductions for the US and other countries. Although the paper does not specifically address the potential for reductions of these gases in individual countries outside the US and the European Union, its findings are generally applicable to many countries. (Author)

  15. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change. PMID:26961656

  16. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-03-01

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  17. Reference projections for non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Emission projections for 2001 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of the project 'reference projection for energy and greenhouse gases' carried out by RIVM and ECN for the Ministries of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, and of Economic Affairs. The emission are considered of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the Netherlands in 2010. Emission sources and trends up to 2000 were analysed, and expected developments with respect to economic growth for the period 2001-2010 updated. This led to new estimates for the non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. Differences with previous scenario studies were analysed, and the effects of both announced and implemented policy measures assessed.The total expected non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions for the Netherlands in 2010 are concluded to be 34 Mton CO2 equivalent, which represents a 9 Mton decrease for 2000.s in 2010 is estimated at 5 Mton (95% confidence interval) due to identified uncertain future societal developments and possible future improvements in greenhouse gas emission inventories. The results will be used to evaluate the current progress with respect to the national climate change policy in the Netherlands, described in 'The Netherlands' Climate Policy Implementation Plan, Part 1: inland measures' (June 1999). 20 refs

  18. A comparison of the contribution of various gases to the greenhouse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, H

    1990-06-01

    The current concern about an anthropogenic impact on global climate has made it of interest to compare the potential effect of various human activities. A case in point is the comparison between the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of natural gas and that from other fossil fuels. This comparison requires an evaluation of the effect of methane emissions relative to that of carbon dioxide emissions. A rough analysis based on the use of currently accepted values shows that natural gas is preferable to other fossil fuels in consideration of the greenhouse effect as long as its leakage can be limited to 3 to 6 percent. PMID:17809907

  19. A comparison of the contribution of various gases to the greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, H. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

    1990-06-08

    The current concern about an anthropogenic impact on global climate has made it of interest to compare the potential effect of various human activities. A case in point is the comparison between the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of natural gas and that from other fossil fuels. This comparison requires an evaluation of the effect of methane emissions relative to that of carbon dioxide emissions. A rough analysis based on the use of currently accepted values shows that natural gas is preferable to other fossil fuels in consideration of the greenhouse effect as long as its leakage can be limited to 3 to 6 percent. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Songolzadeh; Mansooreh Soleimani; Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Reza Songolzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion c...

  2. Projection of the gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GEI), Colombia 1998-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greenhouse Gas Emissions baseline scenario 1998-2010 was developed from the energy and no-energy sector projections. This study considered the same greenhouse gases as the 1990 inventory. One of the major findings is the increase in the participation share of the energy sector from 31% in 1990 up to 72% in 2010, while the non-energy sector decrease its share from 69% to 28% in the same period the total emissions increase from 167 mt/year in 1990 to 174 mt/year in 2010, an increase of only 4%

  3. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  4. Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

  5. Emissions, activity data, and emission factors of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) in Germany 1995-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche, Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Before the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Protection, the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (F-gases) aroused little public attention. Since then, the standards on surveying and reporting on national emissions have been rising constantly. Amongst others, the annual reporting to the UNFCCC secretariat makes detailed declarations on use and emissions of F-gases necessary, which have to be filled in specified formats for submission (Common Reporting Format = CRF). The scientific basis has been set out by the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting, in accordance with the instructions laid down in IPCC good practice guidance. Additionally, in Germany the Centralised System of Emissions (ZSE) shall provide a suitable tool to satisfy any quality needs of both activity data and emission factors. From 1995 onwards, activity data and emissions of each individual application sector shall be presented in a comprehensible and transparent way. Therefore, the way of data collection as well as the estimation methods applied must be well documented. Moreover, data has to be prepared for appropriate importation into ZSE. It is the objective of this study to provide the transparency demanded within 40 national application sectors of F-gases, for the period between 1995 and 2002. - Firstly, all the activity data as well as the emissions related to them are presented and commented. This applies to manufacturing of products, F-gases banked in operating systems, and decommissioning. - Secondly, the methodologies applied to calculate the emissions are described and all sources of information are revealed, e.g. literature, names of experts from the manufacturing industry, users, trade, and academia. - Thirdly, reliability and safety of data are discussed. - Fourthly, possible deviations from the IPCC default values are stated and given reasons for. Wherever this intensive reviewing of 40 sectors through eight years of reporting uncovers gaps or inconsistencies in previous reports, later corrections can be made by means of recalculations. (orig.)

  6. Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions

  7. Estimating the Greenhouse Gases Emission and the Most Important Factors in Dairy Farms (Case Study Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and dairy cows. It is recommended that the policy makers use some methods like environmental taxes, improving management and carbon sequestration to reduce these kinds of costs. This study results could help policy makers to decide better with considering to effective factors.

  8. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjrn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  9. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

  10. Environment taxation and greenhouse gases (general tax on energy polluting activities and emissions trading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together 11 expert testimonies about the French general tax on polluting activities (GTPA). Content: 1 - the GTPA today and in 2001: the first year GTPA, the GTPA 2001 in the water sector, the everyday formal procedures linked with GTPA, the contentious aspects of GTPA; 2 - the eco-tax or energy-GTPA: European framework of energy products taxing, enforcement and implementation of the energy-GTPA in France; 3 - the negotiable emission permits: negotiable permits for companies with a strong energy intensity, functioning of emission permits in a global strategy, the position of the European Commission about negotiable permits and the perspectives in this domain at the community level; 4 - towards a reduction of greenhouse gases: the Goeteborg protocol, the consequences of La Haye's COP6, the position of a type-sector, an efficient system for the abatement of greenhouse gases by the producing sector. (J.S.)

  11. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

  12. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warmi...

  13. Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, K.P.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Hailemariam, K.; Stuber, N.

    2005-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are...

  14. An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Keith P; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

  15. Impact of Trade Openness and Sector Trade on Embodied Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Air Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Moinul; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    The production of goods and services generates greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollution both directly and through the activities of the supply chains on which they depend. The analysis of the latter—called embodied emissions—in the cause of internationally traded goods and services is the subject of this paper. We find that trade openness increases embodied emissions in international trade (EET). We also examine the impact of sector trade on EET. By applying a fixed-effect model using large...

  16. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, E.J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J; LOGAN, R; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; E. G. Uushona; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U; E.-G. Brunke; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R L

    2015-01-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g....

  17. Politics and economics of second-best regulation of greenhouse gases: the importance of regulatory credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, Valentina; Victor, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Modellers have examined a wide array of ideal-world scenarios for regulation of greenhouse gases. In this ideal world, all countries limit emissions from all economic sectors; regulations are implemented by intelligent, well-informed forward-looking agents; all abatement options, such as new energy technologies and forestry offsets, are available; trade in goods, services and emission credits is free and unfettered. Here we systematically explore more plausible second-best worlds. While analy...

  18. Fossil energy use and greenhouse gases emission in the integrated production of bioethanol and bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Joaquim Eugenio A.; Souza, Simone Pereira

    2012-07-01

    This chapter concerns about the effects on food prices from diverting crops to bio fuels, questions about the magnitude of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions savings associated with switching to bio fuels and doubts about their environmental sustainability have caused many to rethink bio fuels blending targets (IEA, 2009). Despite the recent downturn, global use of bio fuels is projected to recover in the long term, reaching 2.7 mb/d by 2030 in the IEA Reference Scenario (IEA, 2009)

  19. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from two contrasted dairy cattle deep litters

    OpenAIRE

    Charpiot, Alicia; Edouard, Nadge; Hassouna, Melynda; Faverdin, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Doll, J.-B.

    2012-01-01

    Animal housing contributes a large proportion of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia emissions in livestock systems. The diversity of the French cattle systems is huge mainly because of the many manure management systems (with or without straw). The aim of this study is to provide knowledge on GHG and NH3 emissions to propose mitigation options. During, respectively 4 (P1) and 6 (P2) weeks, two deep litters were accumulated beneath three dairy cows in a mechanically ventilated room, with di...

  20. Emission of greenhouse gases from biogas plants; Treibhausgas-Emissionen aus Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhls, Carsten; Maehl, Birte; Clemens, Joachim [gewitra - Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wissenstransfer mbH, Troisdorf (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The search for renewable energy sources is driven by increasing electricity prices and the necessity of climate protection. Just with the operation of biogas plants it is important not to use up the positive climate balance by means of newly formed, strongly reacting greenhouse gases such as laughing gas. The contribution under consideration presents the critical areas in the plant and points out technical countermeasures.

  1. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby expos...

  2. Optimal Directions for Directional Distance Functions: An Exploration of Potential Reductions of Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Hampf, Benjamin; Krger, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the reduction potential of greenhouse gases for major pollution emitting countries of the world using nonparametric productivity measurement methods and directional distance functions. In contrast to the existing literature we apply optimization methods to endogenously determine optimal directions for the efficiency analysis. These directions represent the compromise of output enhancement and emissions reduction. The results show that for reasonable directions the adoption...

  3. Sedimentary halogens and noble gases within Western Antarctic xenoliths: Implications of extensive volatile recycling to the sub continental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Michael W.; Ballentine, Chris J.; Chavrit, Déborah; Dallai, Luigi; Burgess, Ray

    2016-03-01

    Recycling of marine volatiles back into the mantle at subduction zones has a profound, yet poorly constrained impact on the geochemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Here we present a combined noble gas and halogen study on mantle xenoliths from the Western Antarctic Rift System (WARS) to better understand the flux of subducted volatiles to the sub continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and assess the impact this has on mantle chemistry. The xenoliths are extremely enriched in the heavy halogens (Br and I), with I concentrations up to 1 ppm and maximum measured I/Cl ratios (85.2 × 10-3) being ∼2000 times greater than mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of the xenoliths span a range from MORB-like ratios to values similar to marine pore fluids and serpentinites, whilst the 84Kr/36Ar and 130Xe/36Ar ratios range from modern atmosphere to oceanic sediments. This indicates that marine derived volatiles have been incorporated into the SCLM during an episode of subduction related metasomatism. Helium isotopic analysis of the xenoliths show average 3He/4He ratios of 7.5 ± 0.5 RA (where RA is the 3He/4He ratio of air = 1.39 × 10-6), similar to that of MORB. The 3He/4He ratios within the xenoliths are higher than expected for the xenoliths originating from the SCLM which has been extensively modified by the addition of subducted volatiles, indicating that the SCLM beneath the WARS must have seen a secondary alteration from the infiltration and rise of asthenospheric fluids/melts as a consequence of rifting and lithospheric thinning. Noble gases and halogens within these xenoliths have recorded past episodes of volatile interaction within the SCLM and can be used to reconstruct a tectonic history of the WARS. Marine halogen and noble gas signatures within the SCLM xenoliths provide evidence for the introduction and retention of recycled volatiles within the SCLM by subduction related metasomatism, signifying that not all volatiles that survive subduction are mixed efficiently through the convecting mantle. The global SCLM therefore represents a potentially important reservoir for the long term residence of subducted volatiles.

  4. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  5. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and Biogas Biomass & the Environment See also: Biofuels Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel Ethanol Use of Ethanol Ethanol & the Environment Biodiesel Use of Biodiesel Biodiesel & the Environment Wind Electricity ...

  6. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Extremes Societal Impacts Snow and Ice Teleconnections GHCN Monthly Monitoring References Introduction Water Vapor CO ... interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move ...

  7. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Griffith, David; Brunke, Ernst; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Laurila, Tuomas; Weller, Rolf; Butler, James H.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations, and these requirements are evaluated every two years. Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 8 represents the results for the year 2011. This bulletin highlights the importance of carbon sinks (ocean and terrestrial biosphere) for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2011, with CO2 at 390.9 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1813 2 ppb and N2O at 324.2 0.1 ppb. These values constitute 140%, 259% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2010 to 2011 amounted to 2.0 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and is equal to the average for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 5 ppb from 2010 to 2011. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~ 5 ppb/yr. The growth rate of N2O in 2011 was 1.0 ppb/yr, which is substantially greater than the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2011 was 1.30 (corresponding to 2.84 W-m2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 30% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2010 to 2011, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2011 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 473 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  8. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  9. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  10. Long term changes in the ionosphere over Indian low latitudes: Impact of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Som; Chandra, H.; Beig, G.

    2015-06-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities warm the troposphere and have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. Ionospheric densities and heights are affected due to cooling. Carbon dioxide is one of the most dominant gases for the cause of long term ionospheric trends along with other radiatively active greenhouse gases. Regular ionospheric soundings are made over Ahmedabad (23.1N, 72.7E), since 1953. Long term changes in the ionosphere as a consequence of the cooling of the mesosphere and thermosphere due to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases have been studied. Ionospheric observations over Ahmedabad, a low latitude station in the anomaly crest region, for the years 1955-2003 are examined to study the long term changes in the critical frequencies of the various ionospheric layers and the height of the maximum ionization as characterized by hPF2. A decrease in foF2 (1.9 MHz for midday, 1.4 MHz for midnight) and hPF2 (18 km for midday, 17 km for midnight) during about five decades are noted. An increase is noted in foF1 (0.4 MHz). The foF2 data are also examined over an equatorial station Kodaikanal (10.2N, 77.5E), situated near the magnetic equator for the years 1960-1995 and a decrease of 0.5 MHz for midday and 0.7 MHz for midnight are noted in ~35 years.

  11. Vertical profiles of trapped greenhouse gases in Alaskan permafrost active layers before the spring thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Eunji; Yang, Ji-woong; Kim, Yongwon; Ahn, Jinho

    2015-04-01

    Seasonally frozen ground over permafrost is important in controlling annual greenhouse gas exchange between permafrost and atmosphere. Soil microbes decompose soil carbon and generate carbon dioxide and methane when they become activated. However, the actual greenhouse gas emission follows various efflux pathways. For example, seasonal freezing of the top soil layers can either restrain or press the gas emission from deeper layers. It has been reported that abrupt release of methane during spring is attributable to the emission of trapped gases that had failed to be released instantly after formation (1, 2). In order to examine the seasonally trapped greenhouse gases, we drilled five Alaskan permafrost cores before spring thaw; one from coastal tundra, two from typical boreal forests, one from area where fire occurred, and one from peat accumulated sites. Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were obtained with 5-10 cm depth intervals. We found methane peaks from two cores, indicating inhibition of methane efflux. We also analyzed organic carbon, nitrogen and water contents and compared them with the greenhouse gas profiles. We are continuing analysis for the soil temperature profiles of the sampling boreholes because the detailed temperature information might be related to microbial activity, and can be used as indirect indicators of soil water freezing and latent heat influences at some active layer depth (zero curtain effects). All the high-resolution analyses for subsurface environments may help to improve understanding greenhouse gas emission from permafrost regions. 1. Mastepanov M, et al. (2008) Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing. Nature 456(7222):628-630. 2. Song C, et al. (2012) Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region. Environmental Research Letters 7(3):034009.

  12. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH{sub 4} concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N{sub 2}O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N{sub 2}O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF{sub 6} concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H{sub 2} gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

  13. Evolution of the global inequality in greenhouse gases emissions using multidimensional generalized entropy measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen; Sarabia, José María

    2016-02-01

    Given the cumulative consequences of climate change, global concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be reduced; being inequality in per-capita emissions levels a problem to achieve a commitment by all countries. Thus, the evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inequality has received special attention because CO2 is the most abundant GHG in the atmosphere. However, it is necessary to consider other gases to provide a real illustration of our starting point to achieve a multilateral agreement. In this paper, we study the evolution of global inequality in GHGs emissions during the period 1990-2011, considering the four main gases: CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases). The data used in this analysis is taken from the World Resources Institute (2014) and the groups of countries are constructed according to the quantity of emissions that each country released into the atmosphere in the first year of study. For this purpose we use the multidimensional generalized entropy measures proposed by Maasoumi (1986) that can be decomposable into the between- and within-group inequality components. The biggest fall in inequality is observed when we attach more weight to the emissions transfers between the most polluting countries and assume a low substitution degree among pollutants. Finally, some economic policy implications are commented.

  14. Nonlinear response of modelled stratospheric ozone to changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances in the recent past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meul, S.; Oberlnder-Hayn, S.; Abalichin, J.; Langematz, U.

    2015-06-01

    In the recent past, the evolution of stratospheric ozone (O3) was affected by both increasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The impact of the single forcings on O3 is well known. Interactions between the simultaneously increased GHG and ODS concentrations, however, can occur and lead to nonlinear O3 changes. In this study, we investigate if nonlinear processes have affected O3 changes between 1960 and 2000. This is done with an idealised set of time slice simulations with the chemistry-climate model EMAC. Due to nonlinearity the past ozone loss is diminished throughout the stratosphere, with a maximum reduction of 1.2 % at 3 hPa. The total ozone column loss between 1960 and 2000 that is mainly attributed to the ODS increase is mitigated in the extra-polar regions by up to 1.1 % due to nonlinear processes. A separation of the O3 changes into the contribution from chemistry and transport shows that nonlinear interactions occur in both. In the upper stratosphere a reduced efficiency of the ClOx-catalysed O3 loss chiefly causes the nonlinear O3 increase. An enhanced formation of halogen reservoir species through the reaction with methane (CH4) reduces the abundance of halogen radicals significantly. The temperature-induced deceleration of the O3 loss reaction rate in the Chapman cycle is reduced, which leads to a nonlinear O3 decrease and counteracts the increase due to ClOx. Nonlinear effects on the NOx abundance cause hemispheric asymmetric nonlinear changes of the O3 loss. Nonlinear changes in O3 transport occur in particular in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during the months September to November. Here, the residual circulation is weakened in the lower stratosphere, which goes along with a reduced O3 transport from the tropics to high latitudes. Thus, O3 decreases in the SH polar region but increases in the SH midlatitudes. The existence of nonlinearities implies that future ozone change due to ODS decline slightly depends on the prevailing GHG concentrations. Therefore the future ozone evolution will not simply be a reversal of the past.

  15. Biogenic feedbacks on the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases: overview of the GREENCYCLES network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: GREENCYCLES is a Marie Curie research training network focussed on the roles of global biogeochemistry for climate change. The project aims to reduce uncertainties associated with biogenic feedbacks on global environmental change and foster the education of the next generation of Earth system scientists. GREENCYCLES young scientists are offered a unique environment bringing together key European research modelling teams with complementary expertise in coupled earth system, oceans, field-based understanding of the terrestrial and oceanic processes, and space based observations. To improve the understanding of the important biogeochemical processes that control the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, the network is spread across six key science objectives, each involving different individual research projects undertaken by Early-Stage Researchers (ESRs) and Experienced Researchers (ERs): quantify feedbacks in the global carbon cycle; determine the effects of changing land use on climate; improve understanding of natural sources of CH4 and their responses to human activities; quantify impacts of climate change and climate variability on fire-induced emissions of greenhouse gases; quantify impacts of climate change on terrestrial and oceanic biogenic emissions of aerosols and chemically active gases, and their effects on tropospheric chemistry; quantify impacts of vegetation and climate changes on atmospheric dust, and its feedbacks on CO2 and climate. An overview of the research and training progress to date will be presented. (author)

  16. Model of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg's in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo da Cruz Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The warming of Earth's atmosphere is a natural phenomenon and necessary to sustain life on the planet, being caused by the balance between the electromagnetic radiation received by the Earth from the Sun and the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth back into space. Since the mid-eighteenth century, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent increase in burning fossil fuels, changes in land use and agriculture, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O has increased significantly. By the year 2010, the concentrations of these three gases showed increments respectively in the order of 39%, 158% and 20% (WMO 2009, 2010 and 2011. Such increases in the concentrations of these gases are changing the Earth's radioactive balance, intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, which over millions of years has been essential to support life on the planet. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a model based on the language of System Dynamics (SD, of how the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs is in complex installations Exploration and Production (E & P of oil and gas. To illustrate one of the results of this modeling process a computer simulation was performed involving emissions from production estimate for the Pilot Production System and Drainage Area Tupi - Tupi Pilot (ICF, 2008.

  17. Inventory of gases of greenhouse effect and mitigation options for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, the possibility of a global heating due to the emissions of greenhouse gases has become a true concern for the international scientific community. As a result of it created the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the agreement mark was approved about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) that was subscribed by the countries in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro city in Brazil. The objective of the agreement is the stabilization of the concentrations of the gases of GEI effect in the atmosphere at a level that allows avoiding interferences anthropogenic dangerous for the climatic system. It is sought to reach this level inside a sufficiently long term to allow the natural adaptation from the ecosystems to the climatic change, guaranteeing this way the production of foods and the sustainable development. The government from Colombia subscribed the agreement mark about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the congress of the republic ratified it in 1995. The signatory countries of the agreement commit to elaborate and to publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of gases of greenhouse effect as well as to develop plans to reduce or to control the emissions

  18. Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed investigations of spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations are necessary. 222Rn concentrations data in the atmospheric surface layer over continental Russia from Moscow to Vladivostok obtained during the six TROICA (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) expeditions of the mobile laboratory along the Trans-Siberian railroad are analyzed. Spatial distribution, diurnal and seasonal variations of surface 222Rn concentrations along the Trans-Siberian railroad are investigated. According to the obtained data surface 222Rn concentration values above continental Russia vary from 0.5 to 75 Bq/m3 depending on meteorological conditions and geological features of the territory with the average value being 8.42 0.10 Bq/m3. The average 222Rn concentration is maximum in the autumn expedition and minimum in the spring one. The factors mostly influencing 222Rn concentration variations are studied: surface temperature inversions, geological features of the territory, precipitations. 222Rn accumulation features in the atmospheric surface layer during night temperature inversions are analyzed. It was noted that during night temperature inversions the surface 222Rn concentration is 7 - 8 times more than the one during the nights without temperature inversions. Since atmospheric stratification determines accumulation and diurnal variations of many atmospheric pollutants as well as greenhouse gases its features are analyzed in detail. Surface temperature inversions were mainly observed from 18:00-19:00 to 06:00-07:00 in the warm season and from 16:00 to 08:00-09:00 in the cold season. During this time 222Rn accumulated in the surface atmospheric layer with its maximum concentration values being observed near sunrise. 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere from Moscow to Vladivostok during surface temperature inversions are estimated taking into account geological factors. 222Rn accumulation layer depth in the lower atmosphere is calculated. Using the data of CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations obtained in the expeditions we analyzed correlations between the greenhouse gases and 222Rn. There are significant positive correlations between CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations during night temperature inversions especially in summer and in autumn. It indicates similar accumulation both 222Rn and the greenhouse gases in the surface layer during atmospheric stability. On the basis of the regressions between 222Rn, CO2 and CH4 concentrations the greenhouse gases night time fluxes in the surface layer from Moscow to Vladivostok are estimated using the calculated values of 222Rn fluxes. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 08-05-13589, 07-05-12063 and 07-05-00428). The authors thank I. B. Belikov for preparation and carrying out the TROICA experiments.

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  20. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  1. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Koide, H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hall, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Krummel, P.; Brunke, E.; Scheel, H.-E.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations; these requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 16th meeting was held in Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 - 28 October 2011 (http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/atmosphere/ggmt-2011). Surface observations are made at more than 100 stations worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of stations for many other greenhouse gases. Results of the latest global analysis were published in the WMO/GAW Greenhouse Gas Bulletin in November 2011. It highlights the importance of N2O, the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2010, with CO2 at 389.0 ppm, CH4 at 1808 ppb and N2O at 323.2 ppb. These values are greater than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 39%, 158% and 20%, respectively. An increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2009 to 2010 amounted to 2.3 ppm, which is higher than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and the one for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero from 1999 to 2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again. The 19 ppb rise from 2006 to 2009 was followed by a 5 ppb rise in 2010. The growth rate of N2O in 2010 was 0.8 ppb/yr which is comparable to the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2010, radiative forcing from nearly all long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 29% and reached 2.81W/m2, with CO2 accounting for nearly 80% of this increase. This radiative forcing corresponds to a CO2-eq mole fraction of 469.7 ppm, which falls in the middle of the IPCC AR4 category I scenario with CO2-eq in the range 445-490 ppm (corresponding to the projected global average temperature rise above pre-industrial level at equilibrium in the range of 2-2.4 degree C). The radiative forcing of N2O now exceeds that of CFC-12.

  2. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  3. Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze energy use and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in various wheat production scenarios in north eastern Iran and to identify measures to reduce energy use and GHG emissions. Three high-input, a low-input, a better crop management and a usual production scenarios were included. All activities and production processes were monitored and recorded. Averages of total energy input and output were 15.58 and 94.4 GJ ha−1, respectively. Average across scenarios, GHG emissions of 1137 kg CO2-eq ha−1 and 291 kg CO2-eq t−1 were estimated. The key factors relating to energy use and GHG emissions were seedbed preparation and sowing and applications of nitrogen fertilizer. The better crop management production scenario required 38% lower nitrogen fertilizer (and 33% lower total fertilizer), consumed 11% less input energy and resulted in 33% more grain yield and output energy compared to the usual production scenario. It also resulted in 20% less GHG emissions per unit field area and 40% less GHG emissions per ton of grain. It was concluded that this scenario was the cleaner production scenario in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. Measures of improvement in energy use and GHG emission were identified. - Highlights: ► Wheat production scenarios were evaluated for energy use and greenhouse gases emission. ► A better crop management production scenario was the cleaner production scenario. ► Measures to reduce energy use and greenhouse gases emission were identified

  4. Monitoring Greenhouse Gases and Their Pollutions in Sarakhs Region Influenced by the Sourest Natural Gas Resource in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Nabhani; Mojtaba Mirdrikvand; Saeedeh Imani Moqadam; Amirali Rezazadeh; Seyed Alireza Sakaki

    2012-01-01

    Shahid Hashemi-Nezhad Gas Processing Company (S.G.P.C.), located in Sarakhs region of Iran, processes wells that consist of the sourest gases in Middle East. The gas entering the company from gas wells includes 3.5 percent H2S and 6.5 percent CO2 that is quite rare among similar wells for sweetening such large quantities as it does. As a result, greenhouse gases and their possible harmful results are sometimes unavoidable in the area. In this study, greenhouse gases in Sarakhs region, the atm...

  5. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Oksana A.; Braathen, Geir O.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Suda, Kazuto; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2010-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from different platforms (surface-based, aircraft and satellite). Surface observations are made at about 180 stations for CO2. The latest analysis shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2008 with CO2 at 385.2 ppm, CH4 at 1797 ppb and N2O at 321.8 ppb: higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 38%, 157% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates of CO2 and N2O in 2008 are consistent with recent years. The increase in atmospheric CH4 was 7 ppb from 2007 to 2008, similar to the increase of the year before. These are the largest increases since 1998. From the existing data it is not clear if this 14 ppb increase over two years represents the beginning of a new upward trend in CH4. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2008 the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 26.2%. The combined radiative forcing by halocarbons is nearly double that of N2O. Some halocarbons are decreasing slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, whereas others are increasing rapidly. GAW is supporting the atmospheric component of the Integrated Global Carbon Observation System that assesses routinely the state of the global carbon budget and is aimed at better understanding atmospheric carbon sources and sinks through top-down inverse modelling.

  6. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, E.J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J; LOGAN, R; Shuuya, T.; E. G. Uushona; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U; E.-G. Brunke; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R L; Schmidt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the ...

  7. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate......Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative...

  8. Lower emission of greenhouse gases in spite of a cold winter; Lagere uitstoot broeikasgassen ondanks winterkou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denneman, A. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peek, K. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-09-09

    In 2012, the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands was almost 1 percent lower than 2011. Although it has been a cold winter a higher consumption of natural gas for heating was compensated by a lower production of electricity and a lower consumption of automotive fuels [Dutch] In 2012 was de uitstoot van broeikasgassen in Nederland bijna 1 procent lager dan een jaar eerder. De koude winter zorgde voor een hoger aardgasverbruik voor verwarming. Dit werd echter meer dan gecompenseerd door een lagere elektriciteitsproductie en door een lager verbruik van motorbrandstoffen.

  9. Passive and Active Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases in the GOSAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, I.; Inoue, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Kikuchi, N.; Yokota, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Uchino, O.; Tanaka, T.; Sakaizawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Ishii, S.; Mizutani, K.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.; Nagasawa, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched on 23 Jan. 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to measuring concentrations of the two major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), from space. Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) are retrieved from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard GOSAT. The present NIES full physics SWIR retrieval algorithm (ver. 02.xx) showed smaller biases and standard deviations (-1.48 ppm and 2.09 ppm for XCO2 and -5.9 ppb and 12.6 ppb for XCH4, respectively) than those of the ver. 01.xx by comparing with data of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). GOSAT retrievals from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR spectra for more than five years are now ready for scientific research, but may be still influenced by thin aerosols and clouds. Under GOSAT validation activities, we made aircraft observation campaigns to validate the GOSAT products and calibrate TCCON FTSs installed in Japan. In their campaigns, we also made partial column measurements of CO2 with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer, and comparison of ground-based CO2Differential Absorption Lidars with aircraft measurement data. Their active remote sensing experiments are for development of new validation methodology for passive space-based mission and fundamental development for future active space-based mission. The Ministry of the Environment, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and the National Institute for Environmental Studies also started the development of the follow-on satellite, GOSAT-2 in 2013. GOSAT-2 will be launched in 2017 - 2018. Instruments onboard GOSAT-2 are similar to current GOSAT. The SWIR passive remote sensing of greenhouse gases would be more or less affected by aerosols and thin cirrus clouds. Therefore, active remote sensing is expected to solve it and extend observations during nighttime and to be complementary with passive remote sensing which is adequate to wider observations. In this presentation, we will show results on GOSAT observations, validation activities, and lessons learnt from passive remote sensing of greenhouse gases for next-generation remote sensing.

  10. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martnez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). PMID:11928356

  11. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  12. Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

  13. Noble gases and halogens in Graves Nunataks 06129: The complex thermal history of a felsic asteroid crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Jennifer L.; Crowther, Sarah A.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Gilmour, Jamie D.

    2015-06-01

    The meteorite Graves Nunataks 06128/06129 is a rare example of felsic asteroidal crust. Knowledge of its history can help shed light on the evolution processes of planetesimals. The noble gases can be used to constrain both the chronology of meteorites and the processes that result in movements of volatile elements on asteroidal bodies. We have examined the I-Xe and Ar-Ar systems of the plagioclase-rich achondrite, Graves Nunataks 06129 by high-resolution laser step-heating of irradiated samples. Iodine and 129Xe? are both present but are released at different temperatures and do not show a correlation, therefore the I-Xe system in GRA 06129 has no chronological significance. We propose that radiogenic 129Xe? was lost from primary phases and parentless 129Xe? was later introduced into the rock by interaction with a fluid sourced from a reservoir that evolved with a high I/Xe ratio. This could have been the same halogen-rich fluid that induced the conversion of merrillite and pyroxene into chlorapatite. Inherited 40Ar (i.e. not generated by in situ decay of 40K) is also present in one of three fragments studied here and may have been introduced at the same time as parentless 129Xe?.

  14. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Keeling, Ralph; Tanhua, Toste; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We present results from the tenth annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ ghg/GHGbulletin.html) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The results are based on research and observations performed by laboratories contributing to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme (www.wmo.int/gaw). The Bulletin presents results of global analyses of observational data collected according to GAW recommended practices and submitted to the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), and for the first time, it includes a summary of ocean acidification. Bulletins are prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ScientificAdvisoryGroups.html) in collaboration with WDCGG. The summary of ocean acidification and trends in ocean pCO2 was jointly produced by the International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The tenth Bulletin included a special edition published prior to the United Nations Climate Summit in September 2014. The scope of this edition was to demonstrate the level of emission reduction necessary to stabilize radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases. It shows in particular that a reduction in radiative forcing from its current level (2.92 W m-2 in 2013) requires significant reductions in anthropogenic emissions of all major greenhouse gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide derived from this network reached new highs in 2013, with CO2 at 396.0 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1824 2 ppb and N2O at 325.9 0.1 ppb. These values constitute 142%, 253% and 121% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2012 to 2013 was 2.9 ppm, which is the largest year to year change from 1984 to 2013. The rise of CO2 concentration has been only about a half of what is expected if all the excess CO2 from the burning of fossil-fuel stayed in the air. The other half has been absorbed by the land biosphere and the oceans, but the split between land and oceans is not easily resolved from CO2 data alone. As described in the Bulletin, O2 measurements have been used to estimate the magnitude of the terrestrial biosphere sink. For N2O the increase from 2012 to 2013 is smaller than the one observed from 2011 to 2012 but comparable to the average growth rate over the past 10 years. Atmospheric CH4 continued to increase at a rate similar to the mean rate over the past 5 years. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Annual Greenhouse Gas Index shows that from 1990 to 2013 radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 34%, with CO2 accounting for about 80% of this increase. The radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2013 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 479 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi). Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean results in increased CO2 concentrations and increased acidity levels in sea-water. During the last two decades ocean water pH decreased by 0.0011 - 0.0024 per year, and the amount of CO2 dissolved in see water (pCO2) increased by 1.2 - 2.8 ?atm per year for time-series from several featured ocean stations.

  15. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  16. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  17. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prather, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Hsu, Juno [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nicolau, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Veidenbaum, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Smith, Philip Cameron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergmann, Dan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  18. Regulation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases and Hazardous Air Pollutants from Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Davison

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from motor vehicles of toxic and hazardous air pollutants, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases1-emissions that currently are not regulated under the federal Clean Air Act2-are receiving increasing attention at both the federal and state government levels as government officials and members of the public express increasing concern that these substances may pose as much of a threat to public health and welfare as other pollutants from motor vehicles which currently are regulated under the Clean Air Act.Many scientists are reporting a "25-year trend of rising globaltemperatures" and "other dramatic signs of global warming, such as the record shrinkage of the Arctic sea ice cover and unprecedented high ocean temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico."3 Many people attribute global warming to emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases resulting fromhuman activities such as the burning of fossil fuels by power plants and motor vehicles.4 Scientists recently have found that the year 2005 was the hottest year on record for the Northern Hemisphere, with temperatures approximately1.3 degrees Fahrenheit above historical average temperatures.5

  19. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromnster tall tower station in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, T. A.; Satar, E.; Schanda, R.; Nyfeler, P.; Moret, H.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromnster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CARBOCOUNT-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromnster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6 and 212.5 m a.g.l., and it is equipped with a Picarro CRDS analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79, 0.05 and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation, which is mainly due to the above mentioned temperature effects.

  20. An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

  1. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

  2. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kochanov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 17791801 (2014, the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (501800 cm?1, the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer. Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  3. Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

  4. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, G. O.; Barrie, L. A.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hofmann, D. J.; Tans, P.; Tsutsumi, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 37%, 156% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates in 2007 of CO2 and N2O are consistent with recent years. The mixing ratio of CH4 shows the largest increase since 1998. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2007 the atmospheric radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 24.2%. The combined radiative forcing by the most abundant ozone depleting substances, CFC-11 and CFC-12, exceeds that of N2O. They are decreasing very slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  5. A Comparison of Measurements from ATMOS and Instruments Aboard the ER-2 Aircraft: Halogenated Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A. Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Michelsen, H. A.; Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Volk, C. M.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Loewenstein, M.

    1996-01-01

    We compare volume mixing ratio profiles of N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl4, SF6, and HCl in the mid-latitude lower stratosphere measured by the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer on the ATLAS-3 Space Shuttle Mission with in situ measurements acquired from the NASA ER-2 aircraft during Nov. 1994. Good agreement is found between ATMOS and in situ correlations of [CFC-11], [CFC-12], and [SF6] with [N2O]. ATMOS measurements of [CCl4] are 15% high compared to ER-2 data, but agree within the systematic uncertainties. ATMOS observations of [HCl] vs [N2O] are within approximately 10% of ER-2 data for [HCl] > 1 ppbv, but exceed in situ measurements by larger fractional amounts for smaller [HCl]. ATMOS measurements of [ClONO2] agree well with values inferred from in situ observations of [ClO], [NO], and [O3]. The sum of [HCl] and [ClONO2] observed by ATMOS, supplemented by a minor contribution from [ClO] estimated with a photochemical model, is consistent with the levels of inorganic chlorine inferred from in situ measurements of chlorine source gases.

  6. Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO2 concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the 14C and 13C content of atmospheric CO2, pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the studies conducted within Phase II of the project, which incorporate the findings of both CRPs

  7. From the First Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During the IGY to the Global Annual Greenhouse Gas Index in 2006: The Evolution of the Global Observing Network for Greenhouse Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

    2006-05-01

    During the International Geophysical Year, Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling instituted both air sample collections at the South Pole in Antarctica and continuous carbon dioxide measurements with an infrared analyzer at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Both of these locations were later to become Observatories of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), following its formation in 1970, and the pioneering measurements of Dave Keeling continued to be supported by NOAA at these sites until this day. In addition to instituting Observatories at key background locations (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; American Samoa; and more recently Trinidad Head, California, in addition to the Hawaii and Antarctic sites) the forerunners of NOAA/ESRL also began a global cooperative air sampling network in the late 1960's. The air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and other gases in the Boulder, Colorado laboratories. With the help of many people in many nations, this network has grown to the largest such effort in the world, numbering about 90 sites, including three ship routes, at present. In 1996, data from this network and from other networks around the world formed the basis of GLOBALVIEW, a web-based collection of carbon dioxide and methane data used extensively with transport models to determine global carbon dioxide sources and sinks. This data set is available at http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/globalview/index.html . In 2004, the global measurements of all the long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluorocarbons, and ten minor halogen gases were condensed into a simple index, the "Annual Greenhouse Gas Index" (AGGI) by summing their radiative climate forcing since the pre-industrial era (taken as 1750). The NOAA AGGI is designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The contribution of long-lived greenhouse gases to climate forcing is well understood by scientists and has been reported through a range of national and international assessments. Nevertheless, the language of scientists (for example, watts per square meter per year) often eludes policy makers, educators, and the general public. This index is designed to help bridge that gap.

  8. Evaluation of the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grass land and in the grass breeding. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. report of the first part of the project December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Kyoto protocol on the greenhouse effect gases reduction, many ecosystems as the prairies can play a main role for the carbon sequestration in soils. The conservation of french prairies and their management adaptation could allow the possibility of carbon sequestration in the soils but also could generate emissions of CO2 and CH4 (by the breeding animals on grass) and N2O (by the soils). This project aims to establish a detailed evaluation of the contribution of the french prairies to the the greenhouse effect gases flux and evaluate the possibilities of reduction of the emissions by adaptation of breeding systems. (A.L.B.)

  9. NF ISO 14064-2. Greenhouse gases. Part 2: specifications and guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas emissions and reductions at projects level (activity modifying the conditions identified in a baseline scenario, intended to reduce emissions or to increase the removal of greenhouse gases). Thus it suggests a method for the declarations of inventory of projects greenhouse gases and provides support for the monitoring and the management of emissions. It provides terms and definitions, principles, the introduction to greenhouse gases projects and the requirements for greenhouse gas projects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    An evaluation of Danish consumption and emissions of ozone-depleting substances and industrial greenhouse gases has been carried out in continuation of previous evaluations, partly to fulfil Denmark's international obligations to provide information within this area and partly to follow the trend in consumption of ozone-depleting substances as well as the consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2006. In this calculation the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. (BA)

  11. MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for ?13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjlnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

  12. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balano Atmosfrico Regional de Carbono na Amaznia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.220.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.050.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.230.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  13. Improving Solid Waste Management in Gulf Co-operation Council States: Developing Integrated Plans to Achieve Reduction in Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Saleh Al.Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Landfills are a significant source of greenhouse gases, which contribute to the process of global warming. In the region covered by the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC), changes in consumption patterns have led to an excessive dump of municipal solid waste (MSW). Thus, it is clearly an important time to re-evaluate conventional waste management protocols in order to establish methods that not only deal with increased demand but also minimize greenhouse gas emissions and improve efficiency of r...

  14. Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

  15. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are effective greenhouse gases, the most important of which are the HFCs. The emission estimates and impact analyses suggest that the importance of the HFCs could become more significant in the next century if the emissions are allowed to grow unrestricted. The Finnish non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions contribute significantly to the anthropogenic greenhouse impact caused by the Finnish emissions. In the future the impact caused by the CO{sub 2} emissions will grow in importance compared with the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. The warming impact caused by methane, CFCs and HCFCs is estimated to decrease, whereas that of N{sub 2}O and HFCs is expected to grow. (orig.) 79 refs.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported

  17. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO2, CH4 and N2O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO2-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y-1. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

  18. Differences between the glacial cycles of Antarctic temperature and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Omta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ice-core measurements have indicated that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 show glacial-interglacial variations in step with Antarctic temperature. To obtain more insight into the nature of this relationship for cycles of different frequencies, measured time series of temperature, CO2, and CH4 are reanalysed. The results indicate that the temperature signal consists of a linear superposition of a component related to CO2 with a period of ~100 000 yr and a component related to variations in the obliquity of the Earth's orbital plane with a period of ~41 000 yr. This suggests that either there operate very different feedback mechanisms at the different time scales or that CO2 is not merely a~passive follower and amplifier of the glacial-interglacial variations in Antarctic temperature.

  19. European trends in greenhouse gases emissions from integrated solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabr, Paolo S; Gori, Manuela; Lubello, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has 28 member states, each with very different characteristics (e.g. surface, population density, per capita gross domestic product, per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) production, MSW composition, MSW management options). In this paper several integrated waste management scenarios representative of the European situation have been generated and analysed in order to evaluate possible trends in the net emission of greenhouse gases and in the required landfill volume. The results demonstrate that an integrated system with a high level of separate collection, efficient energy recovery in waste-to-energy plants and very limited landfill disposal is the most effective according to the indices adopted. Moreover, it is evident that a fully integrated system can make MSW management a carbon sink with a potentiality of up to approximately 40 Mt CO2eq year(-1). PMID:25704238

  20. Impact of equatorial and continental airflow on primary greenhouse gases in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Tang-Huang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Chantara, Somporn; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2015-06-01

    Four-year ground-level measurements of the two primary greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) were conducted at Dongsha Island (DSI), situated in the northern South China Sea (SCS), from March 2010 to February 2014. Their mean mixing ratios are calculated to be 396.3 5.4 ppm and 1863.6 50.5 ppb, with an annual growth rate of +2.19 0.5 ppm yr-1 and +4.70 4.4 ppb yr-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively, over the study period. Our results suggest that the Asian continental outflow driven by the winter northeast monsoon could have brought air pollutants into the northern SCS, as denoted by significantly elevated levels of 6.5 ppm for CO2 and 59.6 ppb for CH4, which are greater than the marine boundary layer references at Cape Kumukahi (KUM) in the tropical northern Pacific in January. By contrast, the summertime CH4 at DSI is shown to be lower than that at KUM by 19.7 ppb, whereas CO2 is shown to have no differences (Positive biases of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) L4B data against the surface measurements are estimated to be 2.4 3.4 ppm for CO2 and 43.2 36.8 ppb for CH4. The satellite products retrieved from the GOSAT showed the effects of anthropogenic emissions and vegetative sinks on land on a vertical profiling basis. The prevailing southeasterly winds originating from as far south as the equator or Southern Hemisphere pass through the lower troposphere in the northern SCS, forming a tunnel of relatively clean air masses as indicated by the low CH4 mixing ratios observed on the DSI in summer.

  1. Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

    2012-01-01

    January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

  2. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

  3. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-14

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated. PMID:21753852

  4. On measurements of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases in Siberia and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M.; Alekseychik, P.; Paramonov, M. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Physics); Laurila, T.; Asmi, E.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kerminen, V.-M. (Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Arneth, A. (Lund Univ. (Sweden), Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis)

    2011-07-01

    The role of the world's boreal forest for our understanding of the climate system is indisputable. Due to the large area covered, the forest's biophysical (e.g. surface energy balance, albedo) and biogeochemical (e.g. bidirectional exchange of greenhouse gases or aerosol precursors) processes are known to affect today's climate, and will need to be accounted for in studies of climate feedbacks in response to anthropogenic warming. However, observations that are needed to develop and evaluate terrestrial and climate models are still relatively scarce, especially for the Siberian part of the boreal forest. Here, we present a short overview of aerosol and greenhouse gas measurements over Siberia, aiming to also survey a large fraction of the existing literature in Russian. We aim to highlight areas of least data coverage and argue that, due to the importance of Siberia in the global climate system, a coordinated research program is needed to address some of the open research questions: The Pan Siberian Experiment. (orig.)

  5. The electricity cogeneration in sugar mills and alcohol and the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Cuba currently produces -in high proportion- plants employing fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuels and the negative influence on the environment by emissions of greenhouse gases, has indicated the need to develop other energy sources. Biomass sugarcane provides ample opportunities to produce this energy with positive economic and environmental results. The technological process for the production of sugar requires the use of mechanical energy, low power consumption compared to thermal energy requirements and their use at low pressures determine the possibility of implementing a cogeneration system of mechanical, thermal and electrical energy. The power consumption for the driving equipment of a factory is about 15-30 kw-kr / ton rod. The amount of electrical energy generated in a sugar cane factory is sufficient to meet their own needs, being able to obtain an additional amount for supply to the public network and meet the needs of other productions as is alcohol. Agricultural crop residues (RAC) and sugarcane bagasse and a liquid fuel: alcohol and gaseous fuel: different energy possibilities derived from the sugar industry reflected in the disposal of solid fuels such as is the biogas. The preparation of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from sugar and alcohol production avoids the use of fossil fuels such as gasoline and fuel oil and gas enables not be sent into the atmosphere that impact on the greenhouse effect. (full text)

  6. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  7. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  8. Tracing origin and fate of dissolved greenhouse gases in Malaysian peat-draining rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mller, Denise; Warneke, Thorsten; Rixen, Tim; Denis, Nastassia; Mller, Moritz; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands are known to store large amounts of organic carbon. Peat-draining rivers in these regions receive considerable amounts of carbon from these soils, yet, its fate remains poorly studied. Although a number of recent studies investigated greenhouse gas production and emission from inland waters, only a small number focused on tropical freshwaters, and data from tropical peat-draining rivers are particularly lacking. We investigated rivers in a peat-dominated catchment in Sarawak, Malaysia. Dissolved greenhouse gases (GHG) were measured with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy. It allows for the simultaneous and continuous measurement of major GHG (CO2 and ?13C in CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO) with high accuracy and precision. We found that concentrations of dissolved CO, CO2 and CH4 were higher than the respective atmospheric equilibrium concentration, suggesting that those rivers are a source of these GHG to the atmosphere. Enhanced N2O concentrations were only found around some cultivated areas. In order to trace the origin of the GHG, we quantified dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic nutrients and different parameters that describe water chemistry. Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) yielded indications of a terrestrial source of inorganic carbon in the river, suggesting that in-situ respiration of organic matter might play an important role.

  9. Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Mad Perturbations of Trace Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W C; Yung, Y L; Lacis, A A; Mo, T; Hansen, J E

    1976-11-12

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 microm and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb the nitrogen cycle, leading to increases in atmospheric N(2)O, and the same perturbing processes may increase the amounts of atmospheric CH(4) and NH(3). We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for the atmospheric thermal structure to compute the change in the surface temperature of the earth for large assumed increases in the trace gas concentrations; doubling the N(2)O, CH(4), and NH(3) concentrations is found to cause additive increases in the surface temperature of 0.7 degrees , 0.3 degrees , and 0.1 degrees K, respectively. These systematic effects on the earth's radiation budget would have substantial climatic significance. It is therefore important that the abundances of these trace gases be accurately monitored to determine the actual trends of their concentrations. PMID:17832523

  10. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4) generation. PMID:22465726

  11. Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in So Paulo Megacity, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of So Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of So Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

  12. Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

  13. Atmospheric Station Kresin u Pacova, Czech Republic - a central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorsk, Alice; Fusek, M.; Hanu, Vlastimil; Hokov, K.; Michlek, J.; Proek, P.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Sedlk, Pavel; V?a, Milan; Veselik, P.; Vodi?ka, Petr; dmal, Vladimr; Zkov, Nad?da

    Berln : European Meteorological Society, 2014, "192-1". [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. Prague (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric station K?en * Czech Republic * greenhouse gases * Aerosol-climate model * air quality Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Halogens and noble gases in Mathematician Ridge meta-gabbros, NE Pacific: implications for oceanic hydrothermal root zones and global volatile cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Mark A.; Honda, Masahiko; Vanko, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Six variably amphibolitised meta-gabbros cut by quartz-epidote veins containing high-salinity brine, and vapour fluid inclusions were investigated for halogen (Cl, Br, I) and noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) concentrations. The primary aims were to investigate fluid sources and interactions in hydrothermal root zones and determine the concentrations and behaviours of these elements in altered oceanic crust, which is poorly known, but has important implications for global volatile (re)cycling. Amphiboles in each sample have average concentrations of 0.1-0.5 wt% Cl, 0.5-3 ppm Br and 5-68 ppb I. Amphibole has Br/Cl of ~0.0004 that is about ten times lower than coexisting fluid inclusions and seawater, and I/Cl of 2-44 10-6 that is 3-5 times lower than coexisting fluid inclusions but higher than seawater. The amphibole and fluid compositions are attributed to mixing halogens introduced by seawater with a large halogen component remobilised from mafic lithologies in the crust and fractionation of halogens between fluids and metamorphic amphibole formed at low water-rock ratios. The metamorphic amphibole and hydrothermal quartz are dominated by seawater-derived atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and mantle-derived He, with 3He/4He of ~9 R/Ra (Ra = atmospheric ratio). The amphibole and quartz preserve high 4He concentrations that are similar to MORB glasses and have noble gas abundance ratios with high 4He/36Ar and 22Ne/36Ar that are greater than seawater and air. These characteristics result from the high solubility of light noble gases in amphibole and suggest that all the noble gases can behave similarly to `excess 40Ar' in metamorphic hydrothermal root zones. All noble gases are therefore trapped in hydrous minerals to some extent and can be inefficiently lost during metamorphism implying that even the lightest noble gases (He and Ne) can potentially be subducted into the Earth's mantle.

  15. Emission factor of gases from the greenhouse effect for the brazilian interconnected system; Fator de emissao de gases de efeito estufa para o sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparta, A. Ricardo J. [Ecoinvest Carbon S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: esparta@iee.usp.br; esparta@ecoinvestcarbon.com; Fernandez, Pablo [EcoSecurities, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pablo.fernandez@ecosecurities.com.br; Costa, David Freire da [Econergy Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: freire@econergy.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The participation of new power generation projects of the Brazilian interconnected system in the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol demand the definition of greenhouse gases baseline emission scenarios and monitoring methodologies. The present paper describes the reasoning behind approved methodologies for capacity addition from renewable sources as well as carries out the calculation of the emission factor for the Brazilian interconnected grid. (author)

  16. A comparative analysis of methodology for inventory of greenhouse gases emissions - IPCC and CORINAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG) is performed by two accepted methods - CORINAIR (of EU) and IPCC (of UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes). The first one is applied only in European countries, the second is conformable to GHG emissions from all over the world. The versions IPCC-95 and CORINAIR94 are compared from theoretical and methodological point of view. In Bulgaria the version CORINAIR95 is not applied yet and the inventory analysis for 1994 uses CORINAIR90. The emissions of main GHG and gases-precursors are compared. The main elements of inventory are analyzed. The values recommended by CORINAIR94 are taken into account. A table for accordance between the two methods is used. The differences concerning transport vehicles are taken into account also. Differences between the two methods are noticed in the following directions: nomenclature of the activities emitting GHG; organization of the inventory guides; kind of the activities and technologies included. The qualitative comparison are done for energy sector and for industry separately. The results show too big differences in the volume of the emitted GHG and the reasons could be classified as methodological ones and differences in the kind and values of the emission coefficients. For their determining standard values for Eastern Europe from IPCC guide have been applied as well as data from experimental investigations. Respectively, in the method CORINAIR emission coefficients CORINAIR90 are used. The differences between the emission coefficients determined in the two methods are as big as twice or even more for CO at solid fuels, i.g. at energy production; as big as three times at NOx and up to twenty times at methane also at solid fuels. The two methods do not read the emissions of gases-precursors at some industrial processes. This disadvantage is overcome at IPCC96 and it is necessary to complement the emission coefficients in the data base, especially for gases-precursors regarding the local investigations and the latest assessments of climate changes done by IPCC. Data of the method CORINAIR94 could be used for this purpose

  17. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and Greenhouse gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

  18. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  19. Emission of greenhouse gases from sewage installations; Emissies van broeikasgassen van rwzi's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voorthuizen, E.; Van Leusden, M.; Visser, A.; Kruit, J. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kampschreur, M.; Van Dongen, U.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are monitored. The emission of CO2 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is related to the use of electricity, natural gas or other fossil fuels. The amount and origin of the emission of CH4 and N2O, however, is unknown. Presently emission factors from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are used to estimate those emissions. The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine the level of N2O and CH4 emission from Dutch WWTPs to understand the accuracy of the existing emission factors. In this way an estimation of the total greenhouse gas emission from a Dutch WWTP can be made. The emission of N2O and CH4 was measured at three WWTPs in the Netherlands: Papendrecht, Kortenoord and Kralingseveer [Dutch] In deze studie zijn de indirecte en directe emissies van broeikasgassen (CO2, CH4 en N2O) van rwzi's in kaart gebracht aan de hand van metingen. De resultaten hebben aanleiding gegeven voor een vervolgonderzoek waarbij onder meer kennis wordt ontwikkeld op het gebied van methaanvorming (CH4) in de riolering en mogelijkheden om de emissie van methaan op een zuivering te reduceren. Met betrekking tot lachgas N2O wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de vormingsprocessen van lachgas en de wijze waarop deze vrijkomt vanuit een rwzi. Verder worden relaties tussen lachgasemissie en procesparameters inzichtelijk gemaakt. Met deze kennis is het hopelijk in de toekomst mogelijk om maatregelen te nemen die de vorming en emissie van lachgas vanuit rwzi's te reduceren.

  20. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. S.; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Botos, Chris; Pernini, Timothy G.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two years a new system capable of measuring the 2-D spatial distribution of atmospheric CO2 over areas on the order of 1 km2 and time scales of a few minutes, has been developed and demonstrated. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) - developed under a cooperative agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - attempts to improve monitoring capabilities of Ground Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. GreenLITE sensors are based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) approach developed at ITT (now part of Harris Corp.) in 2004. The GreenLITE system recently completed a remote deployment of nearly 4,000 hours at a GCS site in Illinois. It provided continuous, real-time spatial distribution maps of CO2 via an open web-based interface from February to August 2015. In early 2015 we began work on a new implementation of GreenLITE capable of providing similar measurements over a 25 km2 area and are planning to test the system over a 5 km range late summer 2015. If successful the system will be deployed in an urban environment late 2015, demonstrating the utility of real-time 2-D spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations at this scale. This paper will review the concept for this new measurement capability, including results from the 1 km system. Ultimately, the measurement concept can be adapted to other greenhouse gases such as CH4 and NO2.

  1. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Urban Xi'an, China - Direct Measurements by Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; VanderSchelden, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Waldo, S.; Erickson, M. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Tie, X.; Cao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the world and especially in Asia, rapid urbanization is resulting in an increasing number of very large cities. In these areas, the rate of development can outpace the perceived need for environmental regulation, and frequently there are inadequate resources available to monitor pollution or enforce compliance with those environmental regulations that do exist. These limitations obviously impact air quality on a local scale, but cities also have significant environmental impacts on regional and even global scales. In order to understand and mitigate these impacts on the surrounding environment, it is first necessary to robustly characterize the pollutant emissions themselves. This can be a significant challenge. Major discrepancies arise when comparing emissions inventories based on bottom-up compilations of source types, number, and activity levels to estimates inferred from satellite observations and other large-scale techniques. Direct measurements of neighborhood-scale emission fluxes via micrometeorological approaches provide a means to resolve these differences. Such measurements can be used to quantify the integrated vertical exchange for a wide variety of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, typically with spatial footprints of tens of square kilometers and with temporal resolutions of ~30 minutes. Here we present the results of an urban flux study conducted in Xi'an, China in August 2011. For the study a 23 m tower was erected atop the ~100 m tall administration building at Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the tower, we employed an eddy covariance approach to measure concentrations and fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we present an analysis of the air-surface exchange of these gases. Results indicate that while our study site in Xi'an was a net source of these species, the greenhouse gas fluxes were significantly smaller than at other sites around the world and exhibited a different diurnal pattern. We attribute these results to two factors: 1) the relatively low traffic density at the Xi'an study site relative to other urban flux sites; and 2) the presence of a large urban park in the northerly sector of the study footprint, where the vegetative sink for CO2 was often greater than anthropogenic sources. Overall the analysis suggests that even in heavily urbanized regions land use and activity profiles can have significant impacts on air pollutant emissions.

  2. Progress and opportunities for monitoring greenhouse gases fluxes in Mexican ecosystems: the MexFlux network

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., VARGAS; E. A., YPEZ; J. L., ANDRADE; G., NGELES; T., ARREDONDO; A. E., CASTELLANOS; J., DELGADO-BALBUENA; J., GARATUZA-PAYN; E., GONZLEZ DEL CASTILLO; W., OECHEL; J. C., RODRGUEZ; A., SNCHEZ-AZOFEIFA; E., VELASCO; E. R., VIVONI; C., WATTS.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Para entender los procesos de los ecosistemas desde un punto de vista funcional es fundamental entender las relaciones entre la variabilidad climtica, los ciclos biogeoqumicos y las interacciones superficie-atmsfera. En las ltimas dcadas se ha aplicado de manera creciente el mtodo de covarianz [...] a de flujos turbulentos (EC, por sus siglas en ingls) en ecosistemas terrestres, marinos y urbanos para medir los flujos de gases de invernadero (p. ej., CO2, H2O ) y energa (p. ej., calor sensible y latente). En diversas regiones se han establecido redes de sistemas EC que han aportado informacin cientfica para el diseo de polticas ambientales y de adaptacin. En este contexto, el presente trabajo delimita el marco conceptual y tcnico para el establecimiento de una red regional de medicin de flujos de gases de efecto invernadero en Mxico, denominada MexFlux, cuyo objetivo principal es mejorar nuestra comprensin de la forma en que la variabilidad climtica y la transformacin ambiental influye en la dinmica de los ecosistemas mexicanos ante los factores de cambio ambiental global. En este documento se analiza primero la importancia del intercambio de CO2 y vapor de agua entre los ecosistemas terrestres y la atmsfera. Despus se describe brevemente la tcnica de covarianza de flujos turbulentos para la medicin de stos, y se presentan ejemplos de mediciones en dos ecosistemas terrestres y uno urbano en Mxico. Por ltimo, se describen las bases conceptuales y operativas a corto, mediano y largo plazo para la continuidad de la red MexFlux. Abstract in english Understanding ecosystem processes from a functional point of view is essential to study relationships among climate variability, biogeochemical cycles, and surface-atmosphere interactions. Increasingly during the last decades, the eddy covariance (EC) method has been applied in terrestrial, marine a [...] nd urban ecosystems to quantify fluxes of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, H2O) and energy (e.g., sensible and latent heat). Networks of EC systems have been established in different regions and have provided scientific information that has been used for designing environmental and adaptation policies. In this context, this article outlines the conceptual and technical framework for the establishment of an EC regional network (i.e., MexFlux) to measure the surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and greenhouse gases in Mexico. The goal of the network is to improve our understanding of how climate variability and environmental change influence the dynamics of Mexican ecosystems. First, we discuss the relevance of CO2 and water vapor exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Second, we briefly describe the EC basis and present examples of measurements in terrestrial and urban ecosystems of Mexico. Finally, we describe the conceptual and operational goals at short-, medium-, and long-term scales for continuity of the MexFlux network.

  3. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Machado, Pitombo; Janaina Braga do, Carmo; Isabela Clerici de, Maria; Cristiano Alberto de, Andrade.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neu [...] tralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  4. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, Jos; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dcil; Melin, Gladys; Padilla, Germn; Padrn, Eleazar; Fernndez, Isabel; Prez, Nemesio; Hernndez, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 54,700 200 and 1.3 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  5. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  6. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  7. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, S.N.A., E-mail: snatahir@cyber.net.p [Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Department, Govt. of the Punjab, Poonch House, 38-Multan Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Chief Conservator of Forests, Northern Zone, Rawalpindi, Punjab Forest Department (Pakistan); Alaamer, A.S. [Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-15

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y{sup -1}. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

  8. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO2-equivalent (kg CO2-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, andtravel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

  9. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO2-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO2-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles

  11. Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth's climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model

  12. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

  13. Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases; Danmarks energifremskrivning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of the baseline projection is to get an assessment of how energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases will evolve in the future, if no new policy measures are introduced, often referred to as a 'frozen policy' scenario. The actual development will continuously be influenced by new political initiatives, and the projection is thus not to be regarded as a long-term prognosis, but rather as a progress which from some given objectives, defines the challenges of future energy policy. The baseline projection is based on a number of general economic conditions (the output of industries, private consumption, fuel prices, etc.), a number of technology-specific assumptions (how much different types of facilities cost, what is their efficiency, etc.) and assumptions about what energy market players will do on purely market terms. Projections of this nature will always be subject to many central and uncertain assumptions. A different development than the assumed will therefore be able to move the outcome in both directions. This year's energy projections are associated with a particular uncertainty due to the large uncertainty about the duration of the economic crisis for the global economy. This uncertainty affects directly the energy projection, as economic activity and demand for energy services are closely linked. The big drop in energy consumption due to the downturn in the economy from 2008 to 2009 illustrates this. (ln)

  14. A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Geibel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

    Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control.

    First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

    After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  15. A fully automated FTIR system for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Geibel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

    Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail.

    First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

    After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  16. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  17. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO2-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

  18. Overview of existing studies on full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on investigations into full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases is scanty. Fourteen different studies are reviewed most of which deal with energy use only in parts of the fuel chain or with CO2 only. The scatter in full-energy-chain emissions factors of individual energy sources is not very large, except that in the emission factors of gas-fired power, biomass-fueled power and hydropower generation. The sources of this scatter are discussed. Fossil fuels have emission factors in the range of 500-1200 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Wind, nuclear and geothermal power generation are in the range of low emission factors: 10-70 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Emission factors of hydropower and sustainable biomass-fueled power generation range 10-400 and 40-180 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h, resp. The solar and ocean power generating sources are in the range of 100-300 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Comparing solubility algorithms of greenhouse gases in Earth-System modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, V. M. N. C. S.; Sahle, E.; Jurus, P.; Clementi, E.; Pettersson, H.; Mateus, M.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate solubility estimates are fundamental for (i) Earth-System models forecasting the climate change taking into consideration the atmosphere-ocean balances and trades of greenhouse gases, and (ii) using field data to calibrate and validate the algorithms simulating those trades. We found important differences between the formulation generally accepted and a recently proposed alternative relying on a different chemistry background. First, we tested with field data from the Baltic Sea, which also enabled finding differences between using water temperatures measured at 0.5 or 4 m depths. Then, we used data simulated by atmospheric (Meteodata application of WRF) and oceanographic (WW3-NEMO) models of the European Coastal Ocean and Mediterranean to compare the use of the two solubility algorithms in Earth-System modelling. The mismatches between both formulations lead to a difference of millions of tons of CO2, and hundreds of tons of CH4 and N2O, dissolved in the first meter below the sea surface of the whole modelled region.

  20. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  1. Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with <1 kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033-cm^-1 point spacing. The fitted path-averaged concentrations and temperature yield dry-air mole fractions. These are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate current absorption models for real atmospheres. In heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of <1 ppm for CO2 and <3 ppb for CH4 is achieved in 5 minutes in this initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

  2. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions

  3. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  4. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways. PMID:19808734

  5. Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

  6. Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

  7. The increase of Southern Ocean winds and SAM: is it caused by the ozone hole or by increased greenhouse gases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The amplitude of the Southern Annular Mode of variability in sea level pressure has increased significantly since station records began in the late 1950s. As expected, this has led to an increase in surface winds over the Southern Ocean in meteorological analyses. Roscoe & Haigh (2007), using data to 2006, showed that the increase in SAM correlated at high significance with both the ozone hole and the increase in greenhouse gases, but the correlation with the ozone hole was more significant. However, it was difficult to quantify the meaning of this greater significance because of the then similarity between the trends in greenhouse gases and the ozone hole - the esoteric statistical concepts associated with the Akaike Information Criterion had to be used. Now the trends have diverged significantly, so the update presented here allows us to quantify the greater degree of significance of the ozone hole, using the more familiar statistical method of Students t-test.

  8. Overview and outline of the results of the project 'Identification of unknown sources of other greenhouse gases. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse gases in the title study concern CH4, N2O, CFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The research field is subdivided into biological processes, the processing industry, and production and import of greenhouse gases. Data with regard to material/source combinations are compiled from the literature, databases, and experts in the field and stored in a database, resulting in circa 90 combinations, of which 62 combinations remain, representing 1.9 Mton CO2-equivalents. The 10 largest sources are responsible for 80% of the total emission. The largest material/source combinations are from biological processes (waste processing, waste water treatment). Other combinations are SF6 emission in the production of noise insulating double glazing, use of N2O in hospitals (anesthesia), SF6 emission in the use of high voltage components. The two largest emission sources concern N2O in composting and N2O from waste water treatment plants

  9. 75 FR 18651 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...only) means each pump, compressor, agitator, pressure...vented. Fluorinated gas means any fluorinated...fluorinated greenhouse gas refrigerant (e.g...limited to condensers, compressors, line sets, and coils...fluorinated greenhouse gas refrigerant prior...

  10. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...only) means each pump, compressor, agitator, pressure...vented. Fluorinated gas means any fluorinated...fluorinated greenhouse gas refrigerant (e.g...limited to condensers, compressors, line sets, and coils...fluorinated greenhouse gas refrigerant prior...

  11. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Asakereh; Asadalah Akram; Shahin Rafiee; Afshin Marzban

    2010-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, con...

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ? Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ? The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ? The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ? The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. ? These avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scope 1 and 2 emissions from the U.S. forest products industry.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallow, B.P. [Principal Meteorologist, Department of Water Resources, Banjul (Gambia)

    1995-12-31

    Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/lnternational Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) CO{sub 2} is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by CH{sub 4}, 22.3 Gg; CO, 18.7 Gg; NO{sub x}, 0.3 Gg; and N{sub 2}O, 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO{sub 2} will contribute 75%, CH{sub 4} about 24.5%, and N{sub 2}O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from Gambia. This is likely to introduce some uncertainties into the results of the calculations. Factors and coefficients that are country- or region-specific are likely to provide more accurate results and should be developed. The surveys were conducted either during the wet season or just at the end of the wet season. This seasonal factor should contribute to variations in the results, particularly in the livestock numbers and composition survey.

  14. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  15. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Morgan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA. Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS; nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS. Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a working tank.

  16. CO II retrieval performance of TANSO-FTS (TIR) sensor aboard greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasu, Ryoichi; Saitoh, Naoko; Ota, Yoshifumi; Taguchi, Shoichi

    2006-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite that is intended to observe CO II concentration from space and to contribute to advancement of research of the source/sink estimation of CO II. The GOSAT main sensor is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) named "TANSO-FTS", which covers a wide terrestrial radiation spectrum including CO II absorption bands at 1.6 ?m, 2.0 ?m, and 15 ?m. The former two bands are used to estimate columnar concentration of CO II; the latter is used to retrieve the vertical profile of CO II in the upper atmosphere above about 700 hPa pressure level. In addition, another installed on the satellite is an imaging sensor that will be used to detect clouds and aerosols: Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAT). The Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) has contracted with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to develop an algorithm to retrieve CO II concentration profiles from data measured by the thermal infrared (TIR) band of the TANSO-FTS sensor. We adopt the maximum a posteriori method (MAP) to retrieve the vertical profile of atmospheric parameters from thermal infrared spectra. Key techniques for retrieving CO II concentrations are 1) reduction of temperature estimation error through channel selection, 2) optimization of the initial guess for CO II profile based on the output from a chemical transport model (CTM), and 3) usage of data from the 1.6 ?m band of TANSO-FTS as an additional constraint in retrieval of vertical profiles of CO II. Although thermal infrared spectrum data have poor vertical resolving power for CO II concentration in the lower atmosphere, particularly in the boundary layer, we expect that CO II amount in the lower atmosphere can be deduced by substituting the upper level concentration from the columnar concentration estimated from the 1 .6 ?m band data.

  17. Greenhouse gases emission from soils under major crops in Northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Arora, P; Tomer, R; Mishra, Shashi Vind; Bhatia, A; Pathak, H; Chakraborty, D; Kumar, Vinod; Dubey, D S; Harit, R C; Singh, J P

    2016-01-15

    Quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agriculture is necessary to prepare the national inventories and to develop the mitigation strategies. Field experiments were conducted during 2008-2010 at the experimental farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils under cereals, pulses, millets, and oilseed crops. Total cumulative N2O emissions were significantly different (P>0.05) among the crop types. Emission of N2O as percentage of applied N was the highest in pulses (0.67%) followed by oilseeds (0.55%), millets (0.43%) and cereals (0.40%). The emission increased with increasing rate of N application (r(2)=0.74, PCO2 from soils ranged from 3058236 to 3616157kgCO2ha(-1) under different crops. The global warming potential (GWP) of crops varied between 3053kgCO2eq.ha(-1) (pigeon pea) and 3968kgCO2eq.ha(-1) (wheat). The carbon equivalent emission (CEE) was least in pigeon pea (833kgCha(-1)) and largest in wheat (1042kgCha(-1)). The GWP per unit of economic yield was the highest in pulses and the lowest in cereal crops. The uncertainties in emission values varied from 4.6 to 22.0%. These emission values will be useful in updating the GHGs emission inventory of Indian agriculture. PMID:26540602

  18. A robust optical parametric oscillator and receiver telescope for differential absorption lidar of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the development of a differential absorption lidar instrument (DIAL) designed and built specifically for the measurement of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The DIAL is integrated into a commercial astronomical telescope to provide high-quality receiver optics and enable automated scanning for three-dimensional lidar acquisition. The instrument is portable and can be set up within a few hours in the field. The laser source is a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which outputs light at a wavelength tunable near 1.6 ?m. This wavelength region, which is also used in telecommunications devices, provides access to absorption lines in both carbon dioxide at 1573 nm and methane at 1646 nm. To achieve the critical temperature stability required for a laserbased field instrument the four-mirror OPO cavity is machined from a single aluminium block. A piezoactuator adjusts the cavity length to achieve resonance and this is maintained over temperature changes through the use of a feedback loop. The laser output is continuously monitored with pyroelectric detectors and a custom-built wavemeter. The OPO is injection seeded by a temperature-stabilized distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a wavelength locked to the absorption line centre (on-line) using a gas cell containing pure carbon dioxide. A second DFB-LD is tuned to a nearby wavelength (off-line) to provide the reference required for differential absorption measurements. A similar system has been designed and built to provide the injection seeding wavelengths for methane. The system integrates the DFB-LDs, drivers, locking electronics, gas cell and balanced photodetectors. The results of test measurements of carbon dioxide are presented and the development of the system is discussed, including the adaptation required for the measurement of methane.

  19. Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2?m) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 ?m) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

  20. Impact of Historical Changes in Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases on Tropospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Ramos-Garces, F.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGGs), including ozone depleting substances (ODSs), have increased dramatically since the preindustrial times. Increases in WMGGs affect tropospheric chemistry either directly by acting as precursors for tropospheric constituents (e.g., methane (CH4) is a precursor to tropospheric ozone), or indirectly by changing climate (e.g., temperature, humidity), atmospheric dynamics and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the relative contributions of combined and individual increases in carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ODSs on tropospheric chemistry over the historical period (1860-2005) by applying transient sensitivity simulations of the GFDL coupled chemistry-climate model (CM3) with combined stratospheric-tropospheric chemistry. We examine changes in tropospheric ozone and its budget, tropospheric oxidizing capacity, tropopause height, and age of air resulting from changes in chemistry and dynamics induced by WMGGs. Preliminary results indicate that preindustrial to present day increases in CH4 and CO2 lead to increases in total ozone column (TOC) while N2O and ODS increases cause TOC to decrease - qualitatively consistent with previous studies. The zonal mean vertical structure of preindustrial to present day ozone changes from increases in WMGGs individually differs markedly. CO2 increases lead to tropospheric ozone decrease in the tropics with maximum decrease in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause and a uniform stratospheric ozone increase. CH4 increases cause uniform tropospheric ozone increase and lower to mid stratospheric ozone increase. Increases in N2O and ODSs, on the other hand, lead to stratospheric ozone loss with small reductions in tropospheric ozone. By examining changes in a suite of diagnostics, including tropospheric ozone budget terms, tropopause height, stratospheric chemical species, and age of air, we will elucidate the roles of chemistry and atmospheric dynamics in driving tropospheric composition changes from WMGG increases.

  1. Potential of native forests for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Salta, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon stocks were assessed in three archetypal forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina, namely Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands located around Chaco. Over a total area of about 7000 m2, detailed measurements of woody biomass were conducted using structural information such as diameter at breast height (dbh), total height, and stem height. At the same time, the wet weight of herbaceous, shrubs, and litter was registered within that area. Soil samples were also collected to determine parameters such as bulk density and organic carbon. The above-ground tree biomass (AGB) was quantified by two non-destructive methods. This biomass was expressed from each reservoir studied in t.ha-1 and the carbon content was then calculated using a factor of 0.5. Carbon stocks in the ecosystems studied were 162, 92, and 48 tC.ha-1 for Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands, respectively. Our results show that carbon is concentrated in the soil or as AGB. The latter is the most important reservoir in Yungas, while the soil plays this role in the other two, drier environments. In the province of Salta, native forests play a significant role in the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Our results reveal the magnitude of carbon stocks in some characteristic regional native forests, and estimate their carbon sequestration potential. These results could be useful to inform policy makers in charge of negotiations related to conservation and sustainable management of native forests, and be a relevant input for the formulation of more comprehensive land use planning processes in the region. -- Highlights: → We assessed carbon stocks in forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina. → The studied areas are located within ecosystems called Yungas, Chaco and shrublands. → Main carbon reservoirs in all ecosystems were found in above-ground tree biomass and soil. → Carbon stocks could be restored, maintained or increased with forest management. → We conclude that the studied forests have a high potential for the mitigation of GHG.

  2. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a reference cylinder.

  3. Mobility as a territorial key factor in the emission of greenhouse gases; La movilidad como factor territorial dominante en la emision de gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Montane Lopez, M. M.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and energy generation are the two dominant sectors in the overall balance of energy consumption, and thus of greenhouse gases emissions. Placement of energy generation plants responds to strategic reasons relate to energy supply in the Spanish territory, while transport is an economic activity tightly related to the productive structure and territorial characteristics: density of populations, geographic situation, efficient space organization, etc. The analysis of these factors enables to prioritize different strategies according the their energetic efficiency in order to pursue an economy less dependent of fossil fuels, focused in activities of higher added value and that keeps in mind limits and strengths of Spanish reality. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Cosmic-Ray-Driven Reaction and Greenhouse Effect of Halogenated Molecules: Culprits for Atmospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qing-Bin

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the effects of cosmic rays (solar activity) and halogenated molecules (mainly chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs) on atmospheric O3 depletion and global climate change. Brief reviews are first given on the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for O3 depletion and the warming theory of CFCs for climate change. Then natural and anthropogenic contributions are examined in detail and separated well through in-depth statistical analyses of compr...

  5. Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other sectors Tier 3 is a further disaggregation of emission factors compared to Tier 2. Each municipality may use different tiers for different sectors depending on the data availability. (au)

  6. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opes para mitigao

    OpenAIRE

    VD Pillar; CG Tornquist; Bayer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecos...

  7. Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

  8. Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002 enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4. In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling.

    It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the carbon dioxide annual increases of SCIAMACHY and the assimilation system CarbonTracker (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr−1 on global average. The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant for a subset of the analysed TCCON sites when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision (mean standard deviation of the differences of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy (standard deviation of the mean differences of 1.1–1.2 ppm for monthly average composites within a radius of 500 km.

    For methane, prior to November 2005, the regional relative precision amounts to 12 ppb and the relative accuracy is about 3 ppb for monthly composite averages within the same radius. The loss of some spectral detector pixels results in a degradation of performance thereafter in the spectral range currently used for the methane column retrieval. This leads to larger scatter and lower XCH4 values are retrieved in the tropics for the subsequent time period degrading the relative accuracy. As a result, the overall relative precision is estimated to be 17 ppb and the relative accuracy is in the range of about 10–20 ppb for monthly averages within a radius of 500 km.

    The derived estimates show that the SCIAMACHY XCH4 data set before November 2005 is suitable for regional source/sink determination and regional-scale flux uncertainty reduction via inverse modelling worldwide. In addition, the XCO2 monthly data potentially provide valuable information in continental regions, where there is sparse sampling by surface flask measurements.

  9. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Xingkai [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiaoning [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan, Xubin [Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029 (China); Kardol, Paul [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 90183 Ume (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup ?1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup ?1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup ?1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  10. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N2O and CH4, but had a marginal effect on CO2 emission. NH3, N2O, and CH4 emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO2 emission was increased by reed straw. Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg?1 DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg?1 DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg?1 DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer

  11. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 19502100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

  12. Greenhouse gases mitigation against climate change: United States-Mexico border study case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., SANTILLN SOTO; O. R., GARCA CUETO; S., OJEDA BENTEZ; N., VELZQUEZ LIMN; M., QUINTERO NEZ; M., SCHORR.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La radiacin solar es una de las fuentes de energa ms importantes de nuestro planeta. El inters por su uso como energa renovable y limpia para mitigar los efectos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) se ha incrementado de manera significativa. Este artculo presenta una evaluacin de las med [...] iciones de radiacin solar y la estimacin del potencial energtico, as como una comparacin de ambas, como ejemplo del esfuerzo para reducir los GEI. Las mediciones fueron realizadas con piranmetros instalados en la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, localizada en el noroeste de Mxico, y en la ciudad de Yuma, Arizona, en el suroeste de EUA, que estn separadas por una distancia de 96 km. Ambas ciudades muestran un desarrollo sostenido y caractersticas climticas similares con numerosos das soleados, elevadas temperaturas extremas y escasa precipitacin. Los resultados muestran diferencias tanto en su comportamiento como en las mediciones de radiacin solar global, especialmente durante las estaciones crticas primavera y verano, con valores 15.73% (0.042 KW/m) superiores en Mexicali con respecto a Yuma a pesar a pesar de su cercana. Esto indica que los flujos de mesoescala parecen dominar los sistemas sinpticos prevalentes en la regin. Se estima el potencial energtico, y se analiza con algunas variables como radiacin solar global, precipitacin, temperatura del aire, humedad relativa y climatologa de los das claros, parcialmente nublados y nublados. Con esto se estima la energa proyectada para Mexicali en caso de que se utilizara el recurso solar, y se calcula que se evitaran 291 ton de GEI. Los valores de energa potencial obtenidos en Mexicali son mayores que los registrados en Yuma, por lo que este estudio comparativo de radiacin solar y energa contribuye al desarrollo de estas tecnologas en Mxico. Los resultados de las mediciones en la regin demuestran la importancia de la estrategia propuesta para mitigar el cambio climtico. Abstract in english Solar radiation is one of the most important energy resources of our planet. The interest in its use as a renewable and clean energy to mitigate the greenhouse gases (GHG) effects has increased significantly. This paper evaluates the measurements of global solar radiation and its energy potential an [...] d presents a comparison between both of them, as an example of the effort to reduce GHG emissions. The measurements were made with pyranometers installed in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, located in northwestern Mexico, and the city of Yuma, Arizona, located in the southwestern United States. Separated by a distance of 96 km, both cities have a sustained development and are climatically similar, since they present numerous sunny days, extreme hot temperatures and little precipitation. The results presented show differences in their behavior and in the solar radiation measurement values, especially for the critical spring and summer seasons, with values 15.73% (0.042 kW/m) higher in Mexicali with respect to Yuma. Energy power is estimated, and it is discussed with some variables as global solar radiation, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity and climatology of clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy days. With this estimation, the solar energy used and GHG avoided is projected for Mexicali. It is assessed that 291 tons of GHG are prevented. The Mexicali values of potential energy are higher than those of Yuma; therefore, this solar and energy comparative study provides reasons to develop these technologies in Mexico, but solar technologies should be deployed also in Yuma. The measured data at the regional level demonstrate their importance, and the relevance of the proposed mitigation strategy for climate change.

  13. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance. PMID:23011297

  14. Understanding the behavior of materials for caputre of greenhouse gases by molecular simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Builes Toro, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Establecer una cota global a las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero ha sido imposibilitado por la complejidad que conlleva demostrar los efectos de la contribucin humana al efecto invernadero. Para alcanzar un desarrollo sostenible es necesario, primero limitar y en lo posible eliminar las emisiones de dichos gases a la atmosfera. En este contexto, la adsorcin de gases se ha establecido como una de las alternativas ms efectivas a mediano plazo para la reduccin de emis...

  15. Comportamiento de los gases de efecto invernadero y las temperaturas atmosfricas con sus escenarios de incremento potencial / Behavior of greenhouse gases and atmospheric temperatures with increased potential scenarios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara de Lourdes, Olivo; Alejandra, Soto-Olivo.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los ltimos decenios se ha establecido que las actividades antropognicas han incrementado las concentraciones de los gases de efecto invernadero en la atmsfera, as, la posibilidad de un cambio climtico global se ha convertido en una preocupacin real. El objetivo de la investigacin es analiz [...] ar el comportamiento de las concentraciones de los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), y el de las temperaturas atmosfricas, desde las pocas geolgicas hasta la actualidad, con sus escenarios potenciales de incremento al ao 2100, bajo varias hiptesis. Adicionalmente, se presentan sus potenciales impactos ambientales. El estudio consiste en una extensa investigacin documental, realizada con el propsito de ampliar los conocimientos sobre el cambio climtico antropognico y sus impactos potenciales sobre el ecosistema humano, a fin de renovar el alerta a la comunidad cientfica y pblico en general. Se basa en la revisin y discusin de trabajos cientficos recientes publicados por varios investigadores. Se concluye que las concentraciones globales de los principales GEI han aumentado como resultado de las actividades humanas, incidiendo en el aumento de la temperatura con impactos ambientales negativos. Se propone promover la participacin ciudadana para lograr polticas a fin de enfrentar las consecuencias del cambio climtico. Abstract in english In recent decades, it has been established that anthropogenic activities have increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, so the possibility of global climate change has become a concern. The objective of this research is to analyze the behavior of the concentrations of major gre [...] enhouse gases and air temperatures from geological times to the present, with increased potential scenarios to 2100, under various hypotheses. Additionally, there are potential social and environmental impacts. The study consists of an extensive desk research, conducted with the aim of expanding knowledge about anthropogenic climate change and its impacts on the human ecosystem in order to renew the alert to the scientific community and general public. It is based on review and discussion of recent scientific papers published by various researchers. We conclude that global concentrations of the main greenhouse gases have increased as a result of human activities, focusing on increasing the temperature with negative environmental impacts. It aims to promote citizen participation to achieve policies to deal with the consequences of climate change.

  16. Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J.; Karpichev, Boris; Sander, Stanley P.

    2012-01-01

    Although present in the atmosphere with a combined concentration approximately 100,000 times lower than carbon dioxide (i.e., the principal anthropogenic driver of climate change), halogenated organic compounds are responsible for a warming effect of approximately 10% to 15% of the total...... anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge...

  17. Sensitivity of radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate feedback to changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, D.; Frlicher, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    We use both prescribed sea surface temperature and fully coupled versions of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model (CM3) to analyze the sensitivity of radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate feedback to changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols considered separately over the 1870 to 2005 period. The global anthropogenic aerosol climate feedback parameter (- ?) of -1.13 0.33 Wm-2 K-1 is indistinguishable from the greenhouse gas - ? of -1.28 0.23 Wm-2 K-1. However, this greenhouse gas climate feedback parameter is about 50% larger than that obtained for CM3 from a widely used linear extrapolation method of regressing Earth's top of atmosphere imbalance against surface air temperature change in idealized CO2 radiative forcing experiments. This implies that the global mean surface temperature change due to forcing over the 1870-2005 period is 50% smaller than that predicted using the climate feedback parameter obtained from idealized experiments. This difference results from time dependence in ?, which makes the radiative forcing obtained by the fixed sea surface temperature method incompatible with that obtained by the linear extrapolation method fitted over the first 150 years after CO2 is quadrupled. On a regional scale, ? varies greatly between the greenhouse gas and aerosol case. This suggests that the relationship between transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities obtained from idealized CO2 simulations, using techniques such as regional feedback analysis and heat uptake efficacy, may not hold for other forcing scenarios.

  18. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  19. Emissions from animal husbandry. Greenhouse gases, environmental assessment, state of the art; Emissionen der Tierhaltung. Treibhausgase, Umweltbewertung, Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the KTBL conference (KTBL = Board of trustees for technology and construction science in the field of agriculture, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) from 6th to 8th December, 2011, in the monastery Banz, Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Development and environmental impacts of livestock production worldwide (Harald Menzl); (2) Methods to assess environmental aspects of livestock (Hayo van der Werf); (3) Methological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by Life Cycle Assessment (Lorie Hamelin); (4) Life Cycle Assessment of milk production systems (Gerard Gaillard); (5) Environmental impact assessment of beef production systems demonstrated for greenhouse gases (Monika Ziehetmeier); (6) Environmental impact assessment of pig production systems in Europe - From land use to feed efficiency (Ingrid Strid); (7) Envionmental impact assessment of egg production systems in Europe as seen from the United Kingdom (Adrian Willias); (8) Environmental impacts and improvement options of chicken meat production (Juha-Matti Katajajuuri); (9) Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock farming (Annette Freibauer); (10) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock manure: The scientific basis (Soeren O. Petersen); (11) Strategic measures to influence methane emissions from livestock (Michael Kreuzer); (12) Enteric methane production - Results from respiration chambers (Michael Derno); (13) Greenhouse gas emissions from cattle housing systems (Inga Schiefler); (14) Towards reduced methane from grass-based Irish milk production systems (Eva Lewis); (15) Greenhouse gas emissions from pig housing (Knut-Haakan Jeppsson); (16) Greenhouse gas emissions from poultry housings and manure management: inventory and update of emission factors (Peter Groot Koerkamp); (17) Greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of liquid and solid manure and abatement strategies (Lena Rodhe); (18) Nitrous oxide emissions following the application of livestock manure - an integrated approach (Rachel E. Thorman); (19) Political and administrative instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from EU agriculture (Thomas Fellmann); (20) Best available techniques (BAT) - State of the revision of the BAT reference document (Ewald Grimm); (21) Emission abatement measures in pig farming (Wilhelm Pflanz); (22) Cost of ammonia emission abatement (Sebastian Wulf); (23) Measures to reduce emissions and immissions from livestock farming - implementation and inspection (Stefan Neser); (24) Emissions from animal husbandry in Austria: assessment and reporting (Barbara Amon); (25) Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing and manure storage (Barbara Amon); (26) Ascertainment and assessment of energy use in livestock farming - the example of dairy farming (Werner Berg); (27) Ammonia emissions from a broiler farm: Influence of emitted concentrations on adjacent woodland (Kristina von Bobrutzki); (28) Exhaust air treatment in animal housings - How efficient are certified systems in practice? (Lars Broer); (29) Revision of methods and data for the assessment of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (30) The effect of diet composition and feeding strategies on excretion rates in German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (31) Strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in organic dairy farming (Andreas Gattinger); (32) Calculation of emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia and particulate matter from animal husbandry within the German agricultural emission inventory (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (33) Modelling fluxes of matter and energy for mammals in the agricultural emission inventory by taking the example dairy cow (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (34) Requirements for measures to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle husbandry (Margret Keck); (35) Sustainable nutrient management in intensive livestock areas: Nitrogen and phosphorus flows in pig production (Dennis Otten); (36) Seasonal effect on emissi

  20. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  1. Method and system for reducing or eliminating the greenhouse-gas content of a gas or mixture of gases

    OpenAIRE

    Garca Garca, Ricardo; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The method comprises the use of an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the application of a high electric field (~10 V/nm) by means of the application of a corresponding moderate (10-100 V) voltage (V) across a point (P) of the microscope and a semiconductor or conducting substrate (S) between which there is a volume of greenhouse gas or mixture of gases (G) containing same, such as carbon dioxide or methane, the molecules of which are thus chemically activated and subsequently react with one a...

  2. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so.

  3. Inventory preliminary of gases of greenhouse effect in Colombia. Sources and drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a summary of the results of the national greenhouse gas emissions inventory sources sinks and reservoirs project, which has been developed within the framework of the national study to address climate change. The study was initiated by a professionals group on behalf of the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales in July 1995, with financial support of the German Organization of Cooperation GTZ and the technical assistance of the Venezuelan Country Study Greenhouse gas Inventory team

  4. Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

    The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O concentrations were continuously measured in the exhaust ducts using an infrared photoacoustic detector IPD (Brüel & Kjaer, Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302, Multipoint Sampler and Doser Type 1303) sampling data every 15 min, for the 60% of the cycles. Yearly emission factor for CO 2 was measured in 5997 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 1278 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 13,636 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 8851 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for CH 4 was measured in 24.57 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 4.68 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 189.82 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 132.12 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for N 2O was measured in 3.62 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.66 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 3.26 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 2.72 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room.

  5. Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector; Buenas practicas en la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector del transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

    2010-07-01

    Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, A S; Richels, R G

    2001-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling. PMID:11287950

  7. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Cappelletti, David; Pirani, Fernando [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Universit di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Belpassi, Leonardo [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Falcinelli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Ambientale, Universit degli Studi di Perugia, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Grandinetti, Felice [Dipartimento per la Innovazione nei sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali (DIBAF), Universit della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Tarantelli, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Universit di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy)

    2015-05-14

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl{sub 4} and Ng-CF{sub 4} and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF{sub 4}, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl{sub 4}, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential suggested by the analysis of the experiments actually reflect two chemically meaningful contributions, namely, a stabilizing interaction arising from the anisotropy of the charge distribution around the Cl atom in CCl{sub 4} and a stereospecific electron transfer that occurs at the intermolecular distances mainly probed by the experiments. Our model calculations suggest that the largest effect is for the vertex geometry of CCl{sub 4} while other geometries appear to play a minor to negligible role.

  8. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Cappelletti, David; Falcinelli, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-05-14

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl4 and CF4. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl4 and Ng-CF4 and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF4, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl4, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential suggested by the analysis of the experiments actually reflect two chemically meaningful contributions, namely, a stabilizing interaction arising from the anisotropy of the charge distribution around the Cl atom in CCl4 and a stereospecific electron transfer that occurs at the intermolecular distances mainly probed by the experiments. Our model calculations suggest that the largest effect is for the vertex geometry of CCl4 while other geometries appear to play a minor to negligible role. PMID:25978888

  9. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Cappelletti, David; Falcinelli, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl4 and CF4. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl4 and Ng-CF4 and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF4, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl4, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential suggested by the analysis of the experiments actually reflect two chemically meaningful contributions, namely, a stabilizing interaction arising from the anisotropy of the charge distribution around the Cl atom in CCl4 and a stereospecific electron transfer that occurs at the intermolecular distances mainly probed by the experiments. Our model calculations suggest that the largest effect is for the vertex geometry of CCl4 while other geometries appear to play a minor to negligible role.

  10. Investigation of the relationship between atmospheric mercury and concentrations of key greenhouse gases at a mountainous monitoring site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Brown, Richard J C; Sheu, Guey Rong; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Jung, Kweon; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored, together with some key greenhouse gases (GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O) vapor) at hourly intervals at a mountainous monitoring site close to the highly industrialized city of Seoul, Korea. Correlations between the concentrations of Hg and those of the greenhouse gases were examined to assess their source characteristics and responses to changes in meteorological conditions. The mean Hg levels in this study (3.58 2.13 ng m(-3)) were considerably lower (by, e.g., 24.3%) than those measured previously in other comparable sites during 1999-2006 (4.73 1.34 ng m(-3)). Accordingly, such a reduction in Hg levels suggests the effectiveness of the regulatory measures enforced over the years. The mean Hg level observed in this study is also lower (by approximately 5%) than those in other Asian locations. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the two most important GHGs (CO2 and CH4) were moderately higher than those of other locations across the world (by approximately 4-9%). The results of our analysis indicate that the behavior of Hg is strongly correlated with water vapor and CH4 in terms of their source characteristics, despite notable differences in their diurnal patterns. PMID:25639653

  11. Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

  12. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    OpenAIRE

    Waldhoff, Stephanie; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use FUND 3.5 to estimate the social cost of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. We show the results of a range of sensitivity analyses, focusing on the impact of carbon dioxide fertilization. Ignored in previous studies of the social cost of greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide fertilization has a positive effect at the margin, but only for carbon dioxide. Because of this, the ratio of the social cost of a greenhouse gas to that of carbon dioxide...

  13. A influncia dos gases estufa no oceano Atlntico Sul: estudo climatolgico / The effect of greenhouse gases on South Atlantic Ocean: a climatological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andra S., Taschetto; Ilana, Wainer.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os impactos climticos no oceano Atlntico Sul causados pela industrializao e conseqente aumento da emisso de gases estufa para a atmosfera. Para isso utilizou-se o modelo numrico acoplado National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climat [...] e System Model, sob duas condies climticas: a primeira para o perodo pr-industrial e, a segunda, para o ps-industrial. Os resultados mostraram aquecimento da superfcie do mar na climatologia do perodo ps-industrial em relao ao pr-industrial, principalmente durante a primavera quando alcana 2,5C ao sul do continente sulamericano. O comportamento climatolgico do transporte barotrpico e da presso ao nvel do mar tambm mostraram diferenas significativas de um perodo para o outro, sugerindo a intensificao da Alta Subtropical, Giro Subtropical e Corrente Circumpolar Antrtica. Sazonalmente, as diferenas no transporte barotrpico foram maiores no outono, exibindo valores superiores a 25 Sv, em torno de 0E, 55S. A presso atmosfrica ao nvel do mar foi levemente fortalecida no vero e outono, com intensificao mxima de 2mbar, e enfraquecida no inverno do perodo pr-industrial para a simulao do presente. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the increase in greenhouse gases caused by the industrialization in the climate of the South Atlantic Ocean. We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model. Two climate conditions were used to force the mode [...] l, one relative to the pre-industrial levels of greenhouse gases emissions and the other to the levels of the present days. The results have shown a significant sea surface warming in pos-industrial climatology in relation to the pre-industrial one, mainly during the spring season when it reaches 2.5C south of South America. The climatological behavior of the barotropic streamfunction and the sea level pressure also showed relevant differences from one period to the next. This suggests an intensification of the subtropical high, the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Seasonally, the differences in the barotropic streamfunction were larger in autumn with values as high as 25 Sv around 0E, 55S. The sea level pressure for present simulation shows a straightening in summer and autumn with an intensification of 2mbar, and a weakening in winter in relation to the pre-industrial period.

  14. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  15. Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

  16. Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The...

  17. 76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... proposal (75 FR 18652) concerning the monitoring and reporting methods for electronics manufacturing... Manufacturing of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1, 2011 (40 CFR part 98, subpart I) (75 FR 74774... Electronics Manufacturing (Subpart I) To Provide Flexibility AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  18. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... greenhouse gas GWP global warming potential HAP hazardous air pollutant(s) HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HFC... reporting rule on October 7, 2010, and it was not published until October 28, 2010, 75 FR 66434, three weeks... emission factor for the valve-hose combination EIA Economic Impact Analysis ] EO Executive Order EPA...

  19. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  20. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  1. Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that...

  2. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  3. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas

  4. Life-cycle analysis of dryland greenhouse gases affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional till malt barley-fallow [CTB-F], no-till malt barley-pea [NTB-P], a...

  5. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  6. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline; Brade, Wilfried; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rsemann, Claus; Dnicke, Sven; Schwerin, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrow...... as CO2 equivalents) is likely to increase slightly in 2020 despite the reductions in nitrous oxide emissions....... related effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with......Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows...

  7. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  8. Emisses de gases de efeito estufa pela deposio de palha de cana-de-acar sobre o solo / Greenhouse gases emissions due to sugarcane trash on the soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Signor; Lusa Lorentz Magalhes, Pissioni; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocombustveis contribuem para reduzir as emisses de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). No Brasil, o principal biocombustvel o etanol de cana-de-acar. Alm dos colmos, as folhas de cana-de-acar tambm podem ser usadas para produzir etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as emisses de GEE [...] (CO2, CH4 e N2O) induzidas pela presena de palha sobre o solo. Trs experimentos foram conduzidos em Latossolos, em Piracicaba: imediatamente aps a colheita, aos seis e aos 12 meses aps a colheita. Foram avaliados os efeitos de trs doses de palha (0%, 50% e 100% da quantidade disponvel na superfcie) sobre as emisses. Imediatamente aps a colheita, as emisses de CO2 e CH4 aumentaram com o aumento da quantidade de palha. Aos seis meses aps a colheita houve consumo de CH4 medida que a quantidade de palha aumentou. Doze meses aps a colheita, as emisses dos trs gases foram similares, independentemente da quantidade de palha. Remover a palha de cana-de-acar no aumenta as emisses de GEE do solo em comparao ao manejo sem retirada da palha da superfcie. Contudo, estudos adicionais so necessrios para investigar os efeitos sobre a produtividade de cana-de-acar, sobre a eroso e sobre outros atributos do solo. Abstract in english Biofuels are important to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions to atmosphere. In Brazil, the main biofuel is ethanol from sugarcane. Beyond stalk, sugarcane sheets are also stating to be used to produce second generation ethanol. The objective of this work was evaluate soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2 [...] O) emissions induced by sugarcane trash on soil surface. Three experiments were done in an Oxisol, in Piracicaba region, taking in account three periods: immediately after sugarcane harvest, six and twelve months after harvest. In each experiment, we evaluated the effects of three sugarcane trash rates (0%, 50% and 100% of the quantity available at soil surface). Immediately after harvest, CO2 and CH4 emissions increased linearly with trash rate on soil surface. Six months after harvest there were CH4 consumption by soil as trash on surface increased. Twelve months after harvest, emissions of the three gases were similar in all trash rates. Removing sugarcane straw from soil surface do not increase soil GHGs emissions as compared to the current management, in which 100% of trash is maintained on the soil surface. However, other studies are needed to investigate its effects under sugarcane yield, soil erosion and under other soil attributes.

  9. Electric energy auctions in Brazil and its effect on emissions of greenhouse gases by the electric sector; Leiloes de energia eletrica no Brasil e sua influencia nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa pelo setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpire, Ricardo; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The result of the auctions of electricity, after the new regulatory framework in 2004, has shown the increased participation of fossil sources of thermal generation, contributing to increased emission of greenhouse gases by the Brazilian Electricity Sector. This article aims to analyze the correlation between growth in electric generation sector and rising greenhouse gases, especially through the study of the winning projects of electric power auctions conducted with the advent of the New Institutional Model of the Power Sector from 2004, comparing with the existing policies and prospects of the next auction of the electric sector. (author)

  10. The response of soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gases emission to global warming and nitrogen addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases has caused noticeable climate change. The increased temperature by climate change could dramatically change in the decomposition rate and greater losses of carbon from soil organic matter. Decomposition of organic carbon regulates both the amount of organic material which is stored in soils, as well as the amount of mineralized carbon that can be released into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). In addition, the largest increase in the N-deposition was expected in Asia due to the dramatic increase in anthropogenic activities. Previous results from N-deposition experiments led to apparently contradictory hypotheses regarding the decomposition of organic carbon in soil. N-deposition has been found to decrease the decomposition of chemically complex carbon compounds, while increasing decomposition rates of labile carbon pools. Combined changes in temperature increase and N-deposition have considerable potential to affect soil carbon sequestration/loss and soil nutrient cycling. This study investigated how the combined changes of temperature increase and N-deposition influence mineralization processes and C dynamics of two soil systems (wetlands and forest). For this objective, we conducted a growth chamber experiment to examine the effects of combined changes in temperature increase and N-deposition on the decomposition of organic carbon and emission of greenhouse gases from two different soil systems. The samples were collected in wetland and forest around Gyeongan stream of South Korea. Incubator experiment was conducted under the enhanced air temperature (controlled 20 ?, 25 ? and 30 ?) and nitrogen addition (low and high condition by using ammonium nitrate). GHGs (CO2, N2O, and CH4) were measured gas chromatograph. Results of experiment show that CO2 flux decrease with time at forest soil and increase at wetland. Moreover high temperature (25 ?, 30 ?) and high concentration of nitrogen cause emission more than 20 ?. As time goes on, N2O flux decrease at low concentration of nitrogen, increase at high concentration in both of the soils. But cases of N2O flux have a lot of fluctuation. While CH4 flux was not detected at all of temperatures and soils.

  11. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is...... chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling...... substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (—1.9 to —1.3 tonnes CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the...

  12. Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstr...

  13. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic...

  14. Methane reductions are a cost-effective approach for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reductions in methane emissions from human-related sources are frequently low cost, if not profitable, opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the technologies and practices available for reducing methane emissions offer an array of other important benefits which support country development goals. This paper summarizes these technologies and practices for the major human-related sources of methane emissions. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, Thomas; Mller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) ...

  16. Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstrea...

  17. Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries......, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution....

  18. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG...

  19. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in...

  20. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Mller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund; Favoino, E.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency...

  1. An international agreement with full participation to tackle the stock of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Kratzsch, Uwe; Sieg, Gernot; Stegemann, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes greenhouse gas emissions that build up an atmospheric stock which depreciates over time. Weakly renegotiation- proof and subgame perfect equilibria in a game of international emission reduction exist if countries put a sufficiently high weight on future payoffs, even though there is a discontinuity in the required discount factor due to the integrity of the number of punishing countries. Treaties are easier to reach if the gas depreciates slowly.

  2. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Guo; Pei Liu; Linwei Ma; Zheng (Jeremy) Li

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. R...

  3. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1991-2000; Emission af drivhusgasser og forsurende stoffer 1991-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-07-01

    The emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas, and methane has decreased from 1991 to 2000. The carbon dioxide emission has decreased from 63 mill. tons in 1991 to 52 mill. tons in 2000. The decrease of emission of laughing gas and methane only decreased slightly during the period. In 2000 the emission of laughing gas and methane is 29 thousand tons and 628 thousand tons, respectively. For all the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides a decrease is observed. The emission of sulphur dioxide has decreased from 239 thousand tons in 1991 to 28 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of nitrogen oxides has decreased from 319 thousand tons in 1991 to 208 thousand tons in 2000. Emissione of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tons to 104 thousand tons during the same period. (LN)

  5. Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1990-1999; Emission af drivhusgasser og forsurende stoffer 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    In relation to the emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas and methane the emission of carbon dioxide has increased from 52 million tonnes in 1990 to 56 million tonnes in 1999, while the emission of laughing gas and methane nearly have been on a constant level in the period. The emission of laughing gas in 1993 31 thousand tonnes and for methane the emission is 623 thousand tonnes. For the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxide there have been a decrease in the emission, still mostly for sulphur dioxide there has shown a decrease from 183 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 56 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of nitrogen has decreased from 272 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 210 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 96 thousand tonnes in 1999. (EHS)

  6. Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1991-2000; Emission af drivhusgasser og forsurende stoffer 1991-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas, and methane has decreased from 1991 to 2000. The carbon dioxide emission has decreased from 63 mill. tons in 1991 to 52 mill. tons in 2000. The decrease of emission of laughing gas and methane only decreased slightly during the period. In 2000 the emission of laughing gas and methane is 29 thousand tons and 628 thousand tons, respectively. For all the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides a decrease is observed. The emission of sulphur dioxide has decreased from 239 thousand tons in 1991 to 28 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of nitrogen oxides has decreased from 319 thousand tons in 1991 to 208 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tons to 104 thousand tons during the same period. (LN)

  7. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm?1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm?1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  8. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm?1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm?1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  9. Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the...... net downstream savings were found to be 5040—19 340 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated aluminium and 560—2360 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the...

  10. The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

  11. The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Chyba, C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-05-23

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of {approximately}10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. 78 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

  13. The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

  14. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asakereh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

  15. Greenhouse gases emission from sanitary landfills in Lombardy: estimation and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of methane emissions from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A census has been conducted across all landfills in Lombardy in order to get a double assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1973-2007. The first approach is of a deterministic kind: it produced a GHG emission assessment of about 2,240 ktCO2 (like 2.4% of GHG emission in Lombardy in 2005). The second approach is a probabilistic approach according to Monte Carlo simulation, and allows an assessment of probabilistic distribution of emissions and uncertainty. Uncertainty in GHG emission from landfill in Lombardy is about 20% and efficiency of LFG collection and biodegradable carbon content are the most relevant parameters in this assessment. Also, a projection of GHG emission was made. Two scenarios were analyzed for the 2008-2020 period: a business as usual (BAU) one and an alternative one. It results that we are expecting a 50% reduction of GHG emission, with alternative scenario, from 2007 level: at regional scale it is like a 1% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardy.

  16. Investigation into the emission of greenhouse effect gases; Onshitsu koka gas no haishutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the situation of greenhouse effect gas emissions of advanced countries based on the reports from them. The advanced countries which concluded the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (OECD member countries, the former U.S.S.R., and East European countries) are to be reported to the office concerned with work for the framework the situation of their greenhouse effect gas emissions according to the obligation of the framework. In and after April 1997, they made the second report. The paper summarized changes in emission amount, the future trend, and the policies/measures mainly taken of nine countries which have already presented the second report (the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and New Zealand) and one country (Russia) which has made only the first report. Moreover, the literature was collected and summed up concerning the mechanism and coefficients of the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. The collected literature was classified into all fields/plural number of fields, energy relation, industrial process relation, relation with the use of organic solvent and other products, agricultural relation, relation with changes in land use and forests, and waste relation. 4 figs., 228 tabs.

  17. New light on interactions between trace gases and ozon. International Symposium on Non-CO2 greenhouse gases; Nieuw licht op interacties tussen sporengassen en ozon. Internationaal Symposium Niet-CO2-broeikasgassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amstel, A. [Departement Omgevingswetenschappen, Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    The title symposium is the fourth in a series of conferences devoted to the science and policy of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. This symposium was especially devoted to the implementation of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Science has drawn our attention recently to the fact that air pollution may have obscured the actual global warming by global dimming. Therefore during this conference the interactions between trace gases in the atmosphere and especially the ozone chemistry were discussed extensively. Further topics which were discussed to reduce emissions were: science, control, policy and implementation strategies. It has now been widely recognised that the non-CO2 greenhouse gases offer excellent opportunities to contribute substantially to meeting national commitments at relatively low costs. This article a brief overview is given of the symposium. [Dutch] Klimaatverandering door kooldioxide krijgt alom aandacht. Daarom worden de mogelijkheden om de overige broeikasgassen terug te dringen onderbelicht. Wellicht is een dergelijke benadering zelfs gemakkelijker en goedkoper. Om de balans in evenwicht te brengen leveren de internationale symposia 'Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases' wetenschappelijke achtergrondinformatie over de luchtkwaliteit en klimaatverandering door andere gassen dan kooldioxide. In dit artikel aandacht voor de interacties tussen sporengassen en de ozon in de atmosfeer.

  18. Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tiet River sediment and mud landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendona, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of So Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tiet. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tiet roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tiet River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

  19. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic...... a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming....... waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in...

  20. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Favoino, E.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings...... obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an...... important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting...

  1. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund; Scharff, H.

    2009-01-01

    , and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1 for the open dump, 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1 for......Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery...... carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about 70 to 30 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1, obtained by summing the direct and indirect...

  2. Options for the reduction of gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GEI), Colombia 1998 -2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the greenhouse gas emissions for Colombia in year 2010, different options for reduction of GHG emissions were considered. Twenty-four options were evaluated from economical and technical points of view, with a total reduction potential of 31.7 M ton/ year of CO2 equivalent. About 75% of this potential could be developed in the forestry sector and 25% in energy projects. If the proposed measures can to be implemented, the country's emissions will be 143.5 M ton/year of co2 by 2010: this means that Colombia will have lowered its emissions not only to the 1990 level but down to 14% below this level

  3. Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

  4. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Stephanie; Malcolm, Heath; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2012 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the UK Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

  5. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  6. Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation induced formation of useful products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation in observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given. (author)

  7. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

  8. Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado Protocolo de Kioto, existe reticencia por parte de algunos paises desarrollados para ratificarlo y asumir sus compromisos, y en la ultima sesion de la Conferencia de las Partes, (COP-6), celebrada en la Haya, Holanda, no se logro consolidar la entrada en operacion de los mecanismos que establece Kioto.

  9. Greenhouse gases emissions inventory in 2005 by the Mexican energy sector; Inventario de emisiones en 2005 de gases de efecto invernadero por el sector energetico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, R.; Munoz Lerdo Carranza, R.; Villalba Valle, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfv@iie.org.mx; rml@iie.org.mx; danviva17@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance National de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission source that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory. In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sector had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non-industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries. [Spanish] En este trabajo se calcularon las emisiones de Gases de Efecto de inventario (GEI's) del 2005 por la seccion de consumo y/o transformacion de energia en Mexico. El documento obtenido no es oficial, y como referencia, se utiliza el consumo de combustible que refiere el Balance Nacional de Energia 2005, publicado por la Secretaria de Energia. Con esto, se estandarizan las fuentes de emision que en algun momento usara el Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de GEI's 2005. Para resolver la falta de factores de emision propios de Mexico, se recurre a los factores globales de emision propuestos como valores por omision por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico. Para la estimacion de las emisiones de GEI's se utilizo el Metodo Sectorial tomando en consideracion el consumo de combustible de cada uno de los subsectores en que se encuentra dividido el sector energetico. Se encontro que los sectores transporte y de la industria de la transformacion de energia son los que mas emisiones de GEI's presentan, y que Mexico como pais no industrializado tiene menos emisiones per capita que los paises desarrollados.

  10. Greenhouse gases emission trading and green certificates market : instruments of the liberalized electricity market in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, M.; Udroiu, I.; Salisteanu, C. [Valahia Targoviste Univ., Targoviste (Romania); Matei, L. [Bucharest Univ., Bucharest (Romania); Stanca, A. [Energy Research and Modernizing Inst.-ICEMENERG, Bucharest (Romania); Grigoras, R. [Ministry of Environment and Water Management, Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    As of January 2008, Romania became a member of the European Union (EU). This required the country to transpose and to implement EU legislation within all sectors, including energy and environment. This paper presented the results of the first 11 months of running the green certificate (GC) market and implementing the EU directive 2001/77/EC, whose purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) to electricity production in the internal electricity market. The GC system includes mandatory quotas for suppliers. Producers qualified for receiving GC are wind, biomass and solar power plants and hydro generation less than 10 megawatts of installed power. Suppliers are obliged to buy annually a number of GC equal with the mandatory quota multiplied with the amount of electricity sold yearly to their final consumers. The additional price received for the GC sold is determined on a parallel market, separated from the electricity market, where they are traded for the environmental benefits of the clean electricity production. The paper also commented on the efficiency of the system. It also discussed the transposition of EU legislation concerning greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trading and the state-of-the-art of its implementation. It was concluded that Romania needs to manage its GHG emissions on the longer term by preparing its national and international policy and regulations for the period post 2012. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7 deg. C in south-west Sweden and 5.6 deg. C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

  12. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW...... gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from —375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N2O......-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH 4, unburned CH4, carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWF for a specific type of AD facility was in the range —95 to —4 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH4 and carbon sequestration...

  13. TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

  14. Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scacchi, C.C.O., E-mail: costanza.scacchi@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, DIIAR-Environmental Section, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gonzalez-Garcia, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Caserini, S.; Rigamonti, L. [Politecnico di Milano, DIIAR-Environmental Section, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a 'seed-to-wheel' approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO{sub 2}eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

  15. Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a 'seed-to-wheel' approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO2 equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO2eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N2O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

  16. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified. PMID:21866889

  17. Achieving reductions in greenhouse gases in the US road transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that GHG emissions must be reduced 50 to 80% by 2050 in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 °C. Achieving reductions of this magnitude in the transportation sector is a challenge and requires a multitude of policies and technology options. The research presented here analyzes three scenarios: changes in the perceived price of travel, land use intensification, and increases in transit. Elasticity estimates are derived using an activity-based travel model for the state of California and broadly representative of the US. The VISION model is used to forecast changes in technology and fuel options that are currently forecast to occur in the US for the period 2000–2040, providing a life-cycle GHG forecast for the road transportation sector. Results suggest that aggressive policy action is required, especially pricing policies, but also more on the technology side, especially increases in the carbon efficiency of medium and heavy-duty vehicles. - Highlights: • Travel elasticities are calculated for policy scenarios using an activity-based travel model. • These elasticities are used to estimate changes in total life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. • Current technology and fuel policy and the strongest behavioral policy will not meet targets. • Heavy and medium-duty trucks need more aggressive technology and fuel options

  18. The seasonal variation of emission of greenhouse gases from a full-scale sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shuhei; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Sano, Itsumi; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variety of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and the main emission source in a sewage treatment plant were investigated. The emission coefficient to treated wastewater was 291gCO2m(-3). The main source of GHGs was CO2 from the consumption of electricity, nitrous oxide from the sludge incineration process, and methane from the water treatment process. They accounted for 43.4%, 41.7% and 8.3% of the total amount of GHGs emissions, respectively. The amount of methane was plotted as a function of water temperature ranging between 13.3 and 27.3C. An aeration tank was the main source of methane emission from all the units. Almost all the methane was emitted from the aeration tank, which accounted for 86.4% of the total gaseous methane emission. However, 18.4% of the methane was produced in sewage lines, 15.4% in the primary sedimentation tank, and 60.0% in the aeration tank. PMID:25439128

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, L; Ascue, J; Nordberg, A, E-mail: lena.rodhe@jti.s [JTI - Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, PO Box 7033, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7 deg. C in south-west Sweden and 5.6 deg. C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

  20. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today's risks

  1. Quantifying urban/industrial emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases based on atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Diana Hart

    2000-11-01

    Background and pollution trends and cycles of fourteen trace gases over the Northeastern U.S. are inferred from continuous atmospheric observations at the Harvard Forest research station located in Petersham, Massachusetts. This site receives background `clean' air from the northwest (Canada) and `dirty' polluted air from the southwest (New York City-Washington, D.C. corridor). Mixing ratios of gases regulated by the Montreal Protocol or other policies (CO, PCE, CFC11, CFC12, CFC113, CH 3CCl3, CCl4, and Halon-1211) and of those not subject to restrictions (H2, CH4, CHCl3, TCE, N2O, and SF6) were measured over the three-year period, 1996 to 1998, every 24 minutes by a fully automated gas chromatographic instrument with electron capture detectors. Evidence for polar vortex venting is found consistently in the month of June of the background seasonal cycles. The ratio of CO and PCE enhancements borne on southwesterly winds are in excellent agreement with county-level EPA and sales-based inventories for the New York City-Washington, D.C. region. From this firm footing, we use CO and PCE as reference compounds to determine the urban/industrial source strengths for the other species. A broad historical and geographic study of emissions reveals that the international treaty has by and large been a success. Locally, despite the passing of the 1996 Montreal Protocol ban, only emissions of CFC12 and CH3CCl3 are abating. Though source strengths are waning, the sources are not spent and continued releases to the atmosphere may be expected for some years to come. For CH3CCl3, whose rate of decline is central to our understanding of atmospheric processes, we estimate that absolute concentrations may persist until around the year 2010. The long-term high frequency time series of hydrogen provided here represents the first such data set of its kind. The H2 diurnal cycle is established and explained in terms of its sources and sinks. The ratio of H2 to CO in pollution plumes is found to be a seasonal and unchanged since early automobile exhaust studies of the 1960s, despite the many restrictions placed on car emissions and fuels since that time. Based on this result, a spatial inventory of H2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is developed at the county level for the entire Northeastern U.S.

  2. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  3. Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry/global climate system Part 1: Halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Long

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM; v3.6.33. Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br? in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx, CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC's to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42? processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: the lifetime of nss-SO42? was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42? in the Southern Hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

  4. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming. PMID:19748943

  5. Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 070 kg CO2eq. tonne 1 of glasswaste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately 500 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1 of glass waste for the remelting technology and 1500 to 600 kg CO2-eq. tonne1 of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

  6. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Preskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik). The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  7. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-11-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N(2)O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3-9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347-371 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of waste for incineration and 735-803 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of -480 to -1373 kg CO(2)eq. tonne(-1) of waste for incineration and within -181 to -2607 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of waste for co-combustion. N(2)O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles. PMID:19748939

  8. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 39 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347371 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1 of waste for incineration and 735803 kg CO2-eq. tonne1 of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of 480 to 1373 kg CO2eq. tonne1 of waste for incineration and within 181 to 2607 kg CO2-eq. tonne 1 of waste for co-combustion. N2O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

  9. Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna W; Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution. PMID:19710108

  10. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bouchard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik. The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (2000 yr BP derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  11. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to greenhouse gases and water usage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.M., Scholtz; J.B.J., van Ryssen; H.H., Meissner; M.C., Laker.

    Full Text Available The general perception that livestock is a major contributor to global warming resulted mainly from the FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, in 2006, which indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This figure has since been proved to be an o [...] verestimation, since it includes deforestation and other indirect contributions. The most recent figure is in the order of 5% - 10%. Although only ruminants can convert the world's high-fibre vegetation into high-quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on questionable assumptions and the perception that all sources of food production require a similar and equal quantity and quality of water. In the case of ruminants, extensive systems are usually found to have a lower per-area carbon footprint than grain-fed systems, but a higher footprint if expressed in terms of kg product. Feedlots maximize efficiency of meat production, resulting in a lower carbon footprint, whereas organic production systems consume more energy and have a bigger carbon footprint than conventional production systems. Cows on pastures produce more methane than cows on high concentrate diets. In South Africa, as in most of the countries in the sub-tropics, livestock production is the only option on about 70% of the agricultural land, since the marginal soils and rainfall do not allow for crop production and the utilization of green water. An effective way to reduce the carbon and water footprint of livestock is to decrease livestock numbers and increase production per animal, thereby improving their efficiency.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  13. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  14. Heterogeneous saline formations : long-term benefits for geo-sequestration of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline formations as a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions was discussed with particular reference to reservoir performance of heterogenous formations with varying permeability and porosity distributions. If CO2 is injected into such formations, the increased baffling and reduced permeability may inhibit the flow of CO2 towards potential leak points in the reservoir. Injectivity into low-quality rock is a concern for heterogeneous formations. Injection programs involving multiple wells and appropriate well- completion strategies may be able to overcome injectivity problems for these candidate formations. The opportunity for geosequestration increases if low-quality heterogeneous saline formations are considered as possible target formations. Dynamic simulation of CO2 injection into a formation was used to model possible outcomes for geosequestration projects. Heterogeneity may include stratigraphic layering in the reservoir, faults, depositional mixing, compartmentalization, and channel systems. It was determined that for underground storage, CO2 should be injected at the bottom of a heterogeneous formation to take the best advantage of vertical baffling in the reservoir to stratigraphically trap CO2 and increase reservoir contact with the formation. The trapping mechanisms for CO2 sequestration were discussed with reference to solubility; gas-water relative permeability hysteresis; geological seals; and, mineralization. Pressure rise reservoir simulation studies have shown that permeability has a pronounced influence on reservoir performance in terms of CO2 migration, local pressure changes in the formation and long-term status of the CO2. The increased travel path of CO2 causes increased trapping through greater reservoir contact and potentially improves the storage project. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the tropical hydroelectric reservoir of Petit Saut (French Guiana) compared with emissions from thermal alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Robert; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Richard, Sandrine

    2001-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CH4 and CO2, resulting from decomposition of flooded organic matter from the hydroelectric reservoir of Petit Saut in the tropical rain forest of French Guiana have been monitored since reservoir impoundment in January 1994. This data set along with complementary data taken from older reservoirs in forested regions of the southern Ivory Coast provides an estimate of long-term GHG emission trends from a tropical reservoir. The trends are used to calculate the contribution of this reservoir to global warming on a 100 year timescale, assumed to be consistent with the life cycle of the reservoir. Calculations are based on the concept of global warming potential (GWP). Natural emission of greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) from soils of the reservoir before impoundment is estimated through field measurements and literature data. Then net GHG emissions from the reservoir on a 100 hundred year timescale (30 million tons of equivalent CO2, with an uncertainty range of 7-54 Mt CO2eq) are compared with predicted emissions from thermal power plants of equivalent power (115 MW). The final comparison takes into account the actual energy production of the dam power station at only 50% of the installed capacity. Emission from this reservoir, whose power density is low (0.315 MW km-2 flooded), would be similar to emissions from a gas power plant (33 Mt CO2eq) producing the same energy amount and less than emissions from other thermal alternatives, among which the most polluting are coal plants. Such a result, however, strongly depends on the choice of the integration time.

  16. Fossil and renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a great number of empirical research studies have been conducted on the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income. The EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis has been tested for various types of environmental degradation. The EKC hypothesis states that the relationship between environmental degradation and income per capita takes the form of an inverted U shape. In this paper the EKC hypothesis was investigated with regards to the relationship between carbon emissions, income and energy consumption in 16 EU (European Union) countries. We conducted panel data analysis for the period of 1990–2008 by fixing the multicollinearity problem between the explanatory variables using their centered values. The main contribution of this paper is that the EKC hypothesis has been investigated by separating final energy consumption into renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption. Unfortunately, the inverted U-shape relationship (EKC) does not hold for carbon emissions in the 16 EU countries. The other important finding is that renewable energy consumption contributes around 1/2 less per unit of energy consumed than fossil energy consumption in terms of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in EU countries. This implies that a shift in energy consumption mix towards alternative renewable energy technologies might decrease the GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We investigate the EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis for 16 EU (European Union) countries. • We fix the multicollinearity problem between explanatory variables. • We found no evidence to support the EKC hypothesis in EU between 1990 and 2008 periods. • Renewable energy contributes less to GHGs (greenhouse gases) around ½ that of a unit of fossil energy

  17. Estimacin de gases de efecto invernadero en humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial / Assessment of Greenhouse Effect Gases in Sub-Superficial Flow Constructed Wetlands / Estimativa de gases de efeito estufa em pantanais construdos de fluxo subsuperficial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Silva-Vinasco; Arlyn, Valverde-Sols.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os pantanais construdos so sistemas atraentes, de baixo custo de operao e manuteno, para pases em desenvolvimento, quanto a tratamento das guas residuais. Entretanto, estes ao reduzir as cargas poluidoras das guas residuais, podem gerar metano, dixido de carbono e xido nitroso, chamados g [...] ases de efeito estufa. Neste sentido, foram comparadas duas espcies ornamentais e estimaram-se as emisses de metano, dixido de carbono e xido nitroso, mediante cmara esttica, em tres pantanais construdos, a escala real, dos quais um foi plantado com Heliconia psittacorum, outro com Phragmites australis e o terceiro sem plantar (controle). Cada um, foi submetido a uma carga hidrulica de 3,5 md-1, equivalente a um tempo nominal de reteno hidrulico de 1,8 dias. Alm disso, foram realizadas as caracterizaes fisioqumicas habituais. A eficincia ficou entre 66,2% e 87,8% para a DQO, a temperatura mdia esteve entre 29 e 31 C e o pH entre 6,3 a 7, em os sistemas plantados e sem plantar. Alm disso, no foram encontradas diferenas significativas entre a vegetao estudada. Por tanto, conclui-se que as espcies Heliconia psittacorum e Phragmites australis no afetam a emisso de gases de efeito estufa nos sistemas estudados. Abstract in spanish Los humedales construidos son sistemas atractivos, de bajo costo de operacin y mantenimiento, para pases en va de desarrollo, en cuanto a tratamiento de las aguas residuales. Sin embargo, estos al reducir las cargas contaminantes de las aguas residuales, pueden generar metano, dixido de carbono [...] y xido nitroso, llamados gases de efecto invernadero. En este sentido, se compararon dos especies ornamentales y se estimaron las emisiones de metano, dixido de carbono y xido nitroso, mediante cmara esttica, en tres humedales construidos, a escala real, de los cuales se plantaron uno con Heliconia psittacorum, otro con Phragmites australis y un tercero sin plantar (control). Cada uno, sometido a una carga hidrulica de 3,5 md-1, equivalente a un tiempo nominal de retencin hidrulico de 1,8 das. Adems, se realizaron las caracterizaciones fisicoqumicas habituales. La eficiencia se situ entre 66,2% y 87,8% para la DQO, la temperatura tuvo en promedio del 29 y 31 C y el pH entre 6,3 a 7, en los sistemas plantados y sin plantar. Adems, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la vegetacin estudiada. Por tanto, se concluye que las especies Heliconia psittacorum y Phragmites australis no afectan la emisin de gases de efecto invernadero en los sistemas estudiados. Abstract in english In developing countries, constructed wetlands are attractive systems with low operational and maintenance costs in terms of wastewater treatment. However, by reducing the pollution load of wastewater they might contribute to produce some greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous o [...] xide. This research compared two ornamental species and assessed the emissions of these gases through the use of static cameras in three full-scale constructed wetlands of which two were planted: one with Heliconia psittacorum, one with Phragmites australis, and the third one, which was not planted, was the control wetland. Each one of them received a hydraulic load of 3.5 md-1, which is equivalent to a nominal hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. In addition, physicochemical characterizations were performed. Efficiency was between 66.2% and 87.8% for COD; on average, the temperature was between 29 and 31 C, and the pH was between 6.3 and 7, in both planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, no significant differences in the vegetation studied were found. We conclude that the ornamental species used do not affect the emission of greenhouse gases in the systems analyzed.

  18. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51 31' 17.4' N 0 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent with the weaker seasonality of CH4 fluxes compared with CO and CO2. Annual estimates of CO2 emissions (41 kt km-2) obtained by EC were consistent with data upscaled from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI; 46 kt km-2). Good agreement between measurements and inventory data was also found for CO (measured 156 t km-2; LAEI 145 t km-2) and for N2O (measured 0.36 t km-2; LAEI 0.42 t km-2), although based on a much shorter measurement period. By contrast, a two-fold difference was found between inventory and measured CH4 fluxes (measured 75 t km-2; LAEI 34 t km-2), which could indicate an underestimation by the inventory of CH4 emissions from anthropogenic sources or the existence of unaccounted biogenic sources. Measurements of isotopic CH4 taken 2 km SE of the tower near the banks of the river Thames reveal multiple episodes of 13C-depleted morning peaks consistent with biogenic sources. We speculate that the Thames can act as an additional significant source of biogenic methane especially at low tide and after heavy rainfall, which could explain the large emissions observed in the S-SE sector.

  19. Quantifying the Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases: What Does It Take to Satisfy Scientific and Decision-Making Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Ogle, S. M.; Smith, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. It is hence not surprising that current and emerging U.S. governmental science priorities and programs focused on climate change (e.g. a U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan; the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Executive Order 13653 'Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change') all call for an improved understanding of these sources and sinks.. Measurements of the total atmospheric burden of these gases are well established, but measurements of their sources and sinks are difficult to make over spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for scientific and decisionmaking needs. Quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements is particularly challenging. This talk reviews the intersection of the state of knowledge of GHG sources and sinks, focusing in particular on CO2 and CH4, and science and decision-making needs for this information. Different science and decision-making needs require differing levels of uncertainty. A number of high-priority needs (early detection of changes in the Earth system, projections of future climate, support of markets or regulations) often require a high degree of accuracy and/or precision. We will critically evaluate current U.S. planning to documents to infer current perceived needs for GHG source/sink quantification, attempting to translate these needs into quantitative uncertainty metrics. We will compare these perceived needs with the current state of the art of GHG source/sink quantification, including the apparent pattern of systematic differences between so-called "top down" and "bottom-up" flux estimates. This comparison will enable us to identify where needs can be readily satisfied, and where gaps in technology exist. Finally, we will examine what steps could be taken to close existing gaps.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. R. Jahangir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen (N removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping. There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+, emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  1. Why the developing nations like India need strong capacity building efforts in greenhouse gases mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, V.; Sudhakaran, A.; Singh, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Today, India rubs shoulders with nations like USA and China for being the major shareholders in global greenhouse emissions and has more emissions than Russia! Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) has been proven as a reliable method to counter global warming and keep the 2C per year policy in check and is currently in the pilot stage in many developed nations. The three major requirements for CCUS are: manpower in diverse fields, implementation potential and capital. Keeping other social problems aside, India still has sufficient mankind in all spheres of research ranging from earth science, engineering, basic sciences, economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. to successfully work on such challenges. India has leading academic institutions, research labs and universities in science and engineering. They also have a working power force in aspects like economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. in various management institutes of repute. India, however, lacks in sufficient funding for advanced research and capacity building schemes to support projects of such scale. Deployment of facts and concepts on climate change need an approach of much greater scope than what is anticipated. The above workforces can put forth a clear picture about the various entities surrounding CCUS and provide sensible planning and implementation information through scientific research. CCUS is only possible when the direct anthropogenic emitters like fossil fuel plants modify their features to incorporate the methods associated with it. The rural population has to be educated in context to the safety of the storage sites. Above all, the Indian government must holistically divert funds for such programs and provide economic incentives to the industries for the industries. The bottom line is that India has been working in lots of aspects with not very clear cuts objectives. There are CO2 capture technologies like amine scrubbing and membrane separation that is available and immense storage potential is also seen in the Gondwana coal fields and basalt rocks of the Deccan plateau. For successful working of such ideas, the confidence of a big section of public comprising of academicians, researchers, industrialists, sustainable energy workers, politicians etc. is required apart from the key workforce.

  2. Changes of interannual NAO variability in response to greenhouse gases forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Woollings, Tim [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Observations show that there was change in interannual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability in the mid-1970s. This change was characterized by an eastward shift of the NAO action centres, a poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies and a downstream extension of climate anomalies associated with the NAO. The NAO interannual variability for the period after the mid-1970s has an annular mode structure that penetrates deeply into the stratosphere, indicating a strengthened relationship between the NAO and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. In this study we have investigated possible causes of these changes in the NAO by carrying out experiments with an atmospheric GCM. The model is forced either by doubling CO{sub 2}, or increasing sea surface temperatures (SST), or both. In the case of SST forcing the SST anomaly is derived from a coupled model simulation forced by increasing CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that SST and CO{sub 2} change both force a poleward and eastward shift in the pattern of interannual NAO variability and the associated poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies, similar to the observations. The effect of SST change can be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. The direct effect of CO{sub 2} change, in contrast, can not be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. However, there is a significant response in the stratosphere, characterized by a strengthened climatological polar vortex with strongly enhanced interannual variability. In this case, the NAO interannual variability has a strong link with the variability over the North Pacific, as in the annular AO pattern, and is also strongly related to the stratospheric vortex, indicating strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. The similarity of changes in many characteristics of NAO interannual variability between the model response to doubling CO{sub 2} and those in observations in the mid-1970s implies that the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, and the resulting changes in the stratosphere, might have played an important role in the multidecadal change of interannual NAO variability and its associated climate anomalies during the late twentieth century. The weak change in mean westerlies in the troposphere in response to CO{sub 2} change implies that enhanced and eastward extended mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere might not be a necessary condition for the poleward and eastward shift of the NAO action centres in the mid-1970s. (orig.)

  3. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the related effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased weight gains. To a lesser extent, this also applies to nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane emissions are less affected; increased weight gains result in increased emissions. As the greenhouse gas balance is dominated by methane emissions, the overall emission of greenhouse gases (expressed as CO2 equivalents) is likely to increase slightly in 2020 despite the reductions in nitrous oxide emissions.

  4. A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace Head, we will present the latest inversion results from the new network highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government periodically and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. These results also inform policy makers on the accuracy of inventory emissions estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases.

  5. Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full-energy-chain emission factors of greenhouse gases. Proceedings of an IAEA advisory group meeting/workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable and therefore climate benign energy planning is becoming a cornerstone of national energy policies in many countries that ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The ratification implies a commitment to lowering greenhouse gas emissions by the so-called Annex I countries, i.e. the developed countries. Sustainable energy planning requires comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources. Such comparison cannot be done objectively without accounting for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) - not only CO2 - from the whole energy chain, from ''cradle to grave''. The greenhouse gas emissions upstream and downstream of the energy conversion step are inherently associated with the production of any energy carrier, such as electricity. Therefore, analysis of the emissions of all greenhouse gases from the full energy chain FENCH is considered to be the only fair approach in comparing energy sources for climate benign energy planning. This publication reports on the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Analysis of Net Energy Balance and Full-Energy-Chain Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Nuclear and Other Energy Systems, held in Beijing, China, 4-7 October 1994. Refs., figs., tabs

  6. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

  7. Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Miller, David J.; Pan, Dan; Golston, Levi M.; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    A low-power mobile sensing platform has been developed with multiple open-path gas sensors to measure the ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases and air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolutions over extensive spatial domains. The sensing system consists of four trace gas sensors including two custom quantum cascade laser-based open-path sensors and two LICOR open-path sensors to measure CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 10 Hz. In addition, sensors for meteorological and geolocation data are incorporated into the system. The system is powered by car batteries with a low total power consumption (~200 W) and is easily transportable due to its low total mass (35 kg). Multiple measures have been taken to ensure robust performance of the custom, open-path sensors located on top of the vehicle where the optics are exposed to the harsh on-road environment. The mobile sensing system has been integrated and installed on top of common passenger vehicles and participated in extensive field campaigns (>400 h on-road time with >18,000 km total distance) in both the USA and China. The simultaneous detection of multiple trace gas species makes the mobile sensing platform a unique and powerful tool to identify and quantify different emission sources through mobile mapping.

  8. Wood materials used as a means to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). An examination of wooden utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been growing concern over the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), as a cause of global warming. The IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) suggests two ways in which the choice of materials could be relevant. First, some materials, particularly wood, have the advantage that they continue to hold carbon (C)in their cells even after being converted to products. The implications of this feature are well researched. Second, an area that is not well researched relates to the different energy requirements for producing similar products made with different materials. Using the findings of recent research, this paper compares the energy requirements and C emissions of manufacturing a product using wood with that of other materials. The case study of utility poles demonstrates the positive C and global warming consequences of the lower energy requirements of wood in the U.S., compared to other materials such as steel or concrete. It demonstrates that GHG emissions associated with utility poles are a small but significant percent of total US annual emissions. Wood utility poles are associated with GHG emission reductions of 163 Terragrams (Tg) of CO2 when compared with steel poles. This is about 2.8 percent of US annual GHG emissions, which are estimated at about 5.28 Petragrams (Pg) of CO2 annually. Thus, the use of wooden utility poles rather than steel results in a small but significant reduction in total US emissions

  9. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ► The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ► AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and avoided CO2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO2-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO2), while the net CO2-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO2). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO2-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO2-eq reduction.

  10. An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-03-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  11. A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatment with greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towards a regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. The CO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins when considering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for the county of Vstmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed MILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emission by gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be useful for providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regional energy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies and assessing the associated economic implications. -- Highlights: ? A dynamic MILP model is developed to study a regional energy system under five waste scenarios. ? Municipal waste and energy crops work as main raw materials to replace fossil fuels. ? Gradual GHG mitigation is achieved for a fossil fuel free energy system. ? The obstacles to achieve a fossil fuel free energy system have been investigated and studied. ? How to come to a fossil fuel free energy system is given in this study.

  12. Anthropogenic effects on the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere: aerosols versus long-lived greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use single-forcing historical simulations with a coupled atmosphereocean global climate model to compare the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) on simulated winter circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Our primary focus is on the subtropical jet, which is an important source of baroclinic instability, especially in the Australasian region, where the speed of the jet is largest. For the period 1950 to 2005, our simulations suggest that AAs weaken the jet, whereas increasing LLGHGs strengthen the jet. The different responses are explained in terms of thermal wind balance: increasing LLGHGs preferentially warm the tropical mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, whereas AAs have a similar effect of opposite sign. In the mid-troposphere, the warming (cooling) effect of LLGHGs (AAs) is maximal between 20S and 30S; this coincides with the descending branch of the Hadley circulation, which may advect temperature changes from the tropical upper troposphere to the subtropics of the SH. It follows that LLGHGs (AAs) increase (decrease) the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between low latitudes and the SH mid-latitudes. The strongest effects are seen at longitudes where the southward branches of the Hadley cell in the upper troposphere are strongest, notably at those that correspond to Asia and the western Pacific warm pool. (letter)

  13. Laser-based sensors on UAVs for quantifying local emissions of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Tao, Lei; O'Brien, Anthony; Ross, Kevin; Khan, Amir; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; DiGangi, Josh

    2015-04-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide an ideal platform to sample both locally near an emission source as well as within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, small UAS (those with wingspans or rotors on the order of a meter) place severe constraints on sensor size (~ liter volume), mass (~ kg), and power (10s W). Laser-based sensors employing absorption techniques are ideally suited for such platforms due to their high sensitivity, high selectivity, and compact footprint. We have developed and flown compact sensors for water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane using new advances in open-path, laser-based spectroscopy on a variety of platforms ranging from remote control helicopters to long-duration UAS. Open-path spectroscopy allows for high frequency sampling (10-25 Hz) while avoiding the size/mass/power of sample delays, inlet lines, and pumps. To address the challenges of in-flight stability in changing environmental conditions and any associated flight artifacts on the measurement itself (e.g. vibrations), we use an in-line reference cell at a reduced pressure (10 hPa) to account for systematic drift continuously while in flight. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy is used at different harmonics to isolate the narrow linewidth of the in-line reference signal from the ambient, pressure-broadened absorption lineshape of the trace gas of interest. As a result, a metric of in-flight performance is achieved in real-time on the same optical pathlength as the ambient signal. To demonstrate the great potential of laser-based sensors on UAS, we deployed a 1.65 micron-based methane sensor (4 kg, 50 W, 100 ppbv precision at 10 Hz) on a UT-Dallas remote control aircraft for two weeks around gas/oil extraction activities as part of the EDF Barnett Coordinated Campaign in October 2013. We conducted thirty-four flights around a compressor station to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of its emissions. Leaks of methane were typically lofted to altitudes well above the surface (up to 100 m). In addition, plumes were very narrow horizontally (10-30 m width) within 200 m of the emission origin. By using a mass balance approach of upwind versus downwind CH4 concentrations, coupled to meteorological wind data, the CH4 emission rate from the compressor station averaged 13 5 g CH4 s-1, consistent with individual, leak surveys measured within the compressor station itself. More recently, we developed a mid-infrared version of the same sensor using an antimonide laser at 3.3 microns. This sensor has a precision of 2 ppbv CH4 at 10 Hz, a mass of 1.3 kg, and consumes 10 W of power. Flight tests show the improved precision is capable of detecting methane leaks from landfills and cattle feedlots at higher altitudes (500 m) and greater distances downwind (several km) than the near infrared CH4 sensor. Sampling strategy is particularly important for not only UAS-based flight patterns but also sensor design. Many tradeoffs exist between the sampling density of the flight pattern, sensor precision, accuracy of wind data, and geographic isolation of the source of interest, and these will be discussed in the context of airborne-based CH4 measurements in the field. The development of compact yet robust trace gas sensors to be deployed on small UAS opens new capabilities for atmospheric sensing such as quantifying local source emissions (e.g. farms, well pads), vertical profiling of trace gases in a forest canopy, and trace gas distributions in complex areas (mountains, urban canyons).

  14. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ΔCH4 / ΔCO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ΔN2O /ΔCO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

  15. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

  16. Gas chromatography and photoacoustic spectroscopy for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases emissions Cromatografia gasosa e espectroscopia fotoacstica para avaliao das emisses de gases de efeito estufa do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso; Cimlio Bayer; Genuir Luis Denega; Paulo Armando Victria de Oliveira; Martha Mayumi Higarashi; Juliano Corulli Corra; Letcia dos Santos Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are critical for determination of the agricultural practices' potential to mitigate global warming. This study evaluated the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes in comparison to the standard gas chromatography (GC) method. Two long-term experiments with different tillage and cropping systems over a Paleudult were evaluated using static chambers. PAS ...

  17. Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions; Reduserte klimagassutslipp 2050: Teknologiske kiler - Innspill til Lavutslippsutvalget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Finden, Per; Hageman, Rolf; Stenersen, Dag

    2006-09-15

    The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions.

  18. The impact of 59 Green Deals on the contribution of renewable energy and emission of non-ETS greenhouse gases. A quick scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential additional effect was mapped for the first round of 59 Green Deals (agreements between the Dutch government and various sectors of society). The effect was determined with regard to the bandwidths, which were estimated in the recent Outlook for the Halsema motion. The bandwidths concern the contribution of renewable energy and the emission of greenhouse gases that are not covered by the EU Emissions Trading system (ETS)

  19. The role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in cost-effective strategies to reduce pollution by dairy cattle in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In addition, it is a source of compounds contributing to other environmental problems such as acidification, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, and human health problems. These compounds include, for instance, ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) volatile organic compounds or nitrate ( NO-3). In this article, we address the qu...

  20. Determination of Preservice Chemistry Teachers’ Cognitive Structures via Flow Map Method and Their Knowledge Level on “Greenhouse Gases and Their Effects” Topic

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Özyalçın Oskay; Senar Temel; Sinem Dinçol Özgür; Emine Erdem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was three-fold. The first purpose was to examine preservice chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in order to define their conceptual understanding and misconceptions of “greenhouse gases and their effects.” The second purpose was to determine their knowledge level regarding this topic by means of different kinds of concept tests. The third purpose was to analyze the correlation between the preservice chemistry teachers’ success on the tests and...

  1. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  2. Atmospheric station K?en u Pacova, Czech Republic a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorsk, Alice; Sedlk, Pavel; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Fusek, M.; Vodi?ka, Petr; Trusina, Jan

    Vol. 12. Gttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station K?en * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)

  3. Atmospheric station K?en u Pacova, Czech Republic a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorsk, A.; Sedlk, Pavel; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanu, V.; Vodi?ka, P.; Trusina, J.

    Vol. 12. Gttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station K?en * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.adv-sci-res.net/12/79/2015/asr-12-79-2015.pdf

  4. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends...

  5. Atmospheric station K?en u Pacova, Czech Republic a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorsk, A.; Sedlk, P.; J. Schwarz; Fusek, M; Hanu, V. (Vlastimil); Vodi?ka, P. (Petr); J. Trusina

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) K?en u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendat...

  6. An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22 for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America (?9%, 23%, 17%, respectively and Europe (11%, 11%, ?4%, respectively were mostly smaller and less systematic. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2 higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP. Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported time of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual time of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the geographical distribution of stations measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

  7. Halogenated trace compounds in fumarolic gases of the Nicaraguan subduction zone volcanoes: variation patterns, budgets and impact on the Earth's atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Frische, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Halogenated compounds are important constituents of the Earth's atmosphere, because they may have strong influence on its physical and chemical properties. The most abundant halogenated hydrocarbons in volcanic gas samples from fumaroles of the quiescently degassing Nicaraguan subduction zone volcanoes Momotombo, Cerro Negro and Mombacho, collected during four field campaigns between July 2001 and July 2003, were CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, C2H5Cl, C2H5Br, C2H5I and C2H3Cl. The v...

  8. An extensive study of O(1D) reaction rate coefficients for key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Although numerous O(1D) reactions have been studied in the past, large uncertainties in the recommended rate coefficients and reactive yields, i.e., loss of ODS or GHG, for use in atmospheric modeling still exist for a number of key compounds. Our understanding of the coupling of atmospheric chemistry and climate-change requires the most accurate reaction rate coefficient data to be used in climate-change model calculations. In this presentation, results from an extensive laboratory study of the total reaction rate coefficient, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive rate coefficients, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, will be presented for the ODSs: CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115), HClCF2 (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); GHGs: CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CF3CHCF3 (HFC-227ea), and CF3CH3 (HFC-143a); and the persistent (long-lived) GHGs: NF3, SF5CF3, C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. The results from this work will be compared with results from previous studies and discrepancies discussed along with the atmospheric implications of the improved kinetic dataset on the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds.

  9. The effect of land-use change on the net exchange rates of greenhouse gases: a meta-analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-G. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental impacts of land-use change (LUC is a change in the net exchange of the greenhouse gases (GHGs carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O. Here we summarize findings based on a new global database containing data sets of changes in soil organic carbon stocks and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. We combine that with estimates of biomass carbon stock changes and enteric CH4 emissions following LUC. Data were expressed in common units by converting net CH4 and N2O fluxes to CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq using established global warming potentials, and carbon-stock changes were converted to annual net fluxes by averaging stock changes over 100 yr. Conversion from natural forest to cropland resulted in the greatest increase in net GHG fluxes, while conversion of cropland to secondary forest resulted in the greatest reduction in net GHG emissions. Specifically, LUC from natural forest to crop and grasslands led to net fluxes of 6.2 1.6 (Mean 95% confidence intervals and 4.8 1.6 t CO2 eq ha?1 yr?1 to the atmosphere, respectively. Conversely, conversion from crop and grasslands to secondary forest reduced net emissions by 6.1 4.1 and 3.9 1.2 t CO2 eq ha?1 yr?1, respectively. Land-use change impacts were generally dominated by changes in biomass carbon. A retrospective analysis indicated that LUC from natural forests to agricultural lands contributed a cumulative 1326 449 Gt CO2 eq between 1765 and 2005, which is equivalent to average emissions of 5.5 1.6 Gt CO2 eq yr?1. This study demonstrates how specific LUCs can positively or negatively affect net GHG fluxes to the atmosphere.

  10. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plugflow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 23 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. - Highlights: Monitoring of CH4 and N2O emissions from a full-scale activated sludge bioreactor Process perturbations leading to CH4 and N2O peak emissions were identified. Peak emissions increased severely the overall emission account of the bioreactor. CH4 emissions were related with the inflow of influent and reject wastewater. N2O was generated as consequence of nitrification imbalances

  11. GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and mitigation measures for public district heating plants in the Republic of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a non-Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol signatory, the Republic of Serbia has committed to develop GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and prepare comprehensive program of mitigation measures at national level. The paper presents results of 20002008 GHG emission inventory assembled for PDH (Public District Heating) sub-sector in accordance with revised IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Tier 1 methodology. Evaluation of proposed mitigation measures was performed based on 2012 and 2015 GHG emission projections, obtained for basic and four alternative scenarios, all characterized by the same energy demand but with different fuel mix used. The first alternative scenario addresses GHG emissions in case that solid fuel is substituted by natural gas. The second alternative scenario represents a sub-scenario of the first alternative scenario, with additional substitution of liquid fuel with locally available biomass. Third alternative scenario addresses emissions resulting from complete fuel switch from natural gas to liquid fuel oil, while the final alternative scenario considers the case when natural gas is the only energy resource used. GHG emission trends in the period until 2015, examined in case of previously mentioned basic and four alternative scenarios, point out to the positive impact of fuel switch on GHG emission reduction and pathways for future implementation of proposed mitigation measures. Results obtained clearly quantified assumption that fuel substitution by locally available biomass could solve environmental problems, overcome problems associated with high prices of imported fuels, improve energy supply security and increase local employment

  12. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  13. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  14. Attribution of Regional and Global Climate Change: Relative Effects of Fossil-Fuel Soot, Methane, Other Greenhouse Gases and Particles, and Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2006-12-01

    Black carbon, the main component of fossil-fuel soot (FFS), warms the air first by absorbing sunlight. Its absorption is enhanced by optical focusing when it becomes coated during vapor condensation or aerosol- aerosol coagulation, when it enters cloud drops or ice crystals during nucleation scavenging or aerosol- hydrometeor coagulation, and when it is surrounded by sea ice or snow following its precipitation or dry deposition. Its absorption over snow, sea ice, desert, fog, and cloud surfaces is further enhanced by the high reflectivity of these surfaces, which increases the number of photons hitting a soot particle. Although soot has a short lifetime, the air that it warms persists to larger scales. Soot's effective lifetime is also extended when it deposits to snow and sea ice. Since the organic material emitted with FFS is mostly hydrophobic, soot's effects on cloud activation are delayed thus weaker than sulfate's effects. Here new results for the climate response of fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate), accounting for the factors listed above and for size resolution of aerosol particles and clouds and the aging of soot through the treatment of two size distributions, are presented. The results are compared with the climate responses of all anthropogenic aerosol particles, anthropogenic methane, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosol particles, and urbanization. Fossil-fuel sources of black carbon treated include land-based, shipping, and aircraft. The study finds that fossil-fuel soot appears to have a stronger effect on global near- surface temperatures than either methane or urbanization, thus it may be the second-leading cause of historic near-surface global warming after carbon dioxide. Methane is found to have a stronger effect on near-surface temperatures than urbanization. FFS exacerbates warming due to greenhouse gases in Russia and over the Arctic sea ice. FFS causes little regional cooling in contrast to all aerosol particles, which, on their own, cause strong cooling in the southeast U.S., Europe, and China. The combination of all anthropogenic aerosol particles and greenhouse gases explains much of the difference between current and historic regional temperatures on a global scale. Whereas methane and other greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, neither FFS nor urbanization do so significantly. The results here apply only to fossil-fuel soot. Biomass-burning particles, which contain black carbon, have a different composition from FFS and a different climate effect.

  15. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha-1) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N2O emission factors that are relatively stable for the different grid cells across Europe wit values ranging between 1 and 2% in cut systems and between 3 and 4% under grazing (with organic N application through faeces and urine deposition). Under cutting, the simulations predict a important annual C storage (varying between 0.5 to 6 t C ha-1 y-1). However one must consider that an important part of this storage occurs in the harvested forage. C storage in grazed grasslands (0.3 to 2 t C ha-1 y-1) is lower than in cut grasslands. The simulations indicates therefore that cut grassland could represent an important net GHG sink. In France, the amplitude of this sink could vary between 0.5 and 2 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. The simulations combining cut and grazed grassland, in proportion to the dietary needs, show that,in France, these systems would be a net GHG sink of 2 to 3 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. More realistic results would be obtained if the differences between farming systems were taken into account more specifically. (author)

  16. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-07-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting. Here we use a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both stand-alone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from a wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s. wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in the case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  17. Variability of atmospheric greenhouse gases as a biogeochemical processing signal at regional scale in a karstic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrs, Slvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Morgu, Josep-Anton; gueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Caas, Ldia; Curcoll, Roger; Grossi, Claudia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Rod, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The South-eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula is an area where climatic conditions reach extreme climatic conditions during the year, and is also heavily affected by the ENSO and NAO. The Natural Park of Cazorla, Segura de la Sierra and Las Villas is located in this region, and it is the largest protected natural area in Spain (209920 Ha). This area is characterized by important climatic and hydrologic contrasts: although the mean annual precipitation is 770 nm, the karstic soils are the main cause for water scarcity during the summer months, while on the other hand it is in this area where the two main rivers of Southern Spain, the Segura and the Guadalquivir, are born. The protected area comprises many forested landscapes, karstic areas and reservoirs like Tranco de Beas. The temperatures during summer are high, with over 40C heatwaves occurring each year. But during the winter months, the land surface can be covered by snow for periods of time up until 30 days. The ENSO and NAO influences cause also an important inter annual climatic variability in this area. Under the ENSO, autumnal periods are more humid while the following spring is drier. In this area vegetal Mediterranean communities are dominant. But there are also a high number of endemic species and derelict species typical of temperate climate. Therefore it is a protected area with high specific diversity. Additionally, there is an important agricultural activity in the fringe areas of the Natural Park, mainly for olive production, while inside the Park this activity is focused on mountain wheat production. Therefore the diverse vegetal communities and landscapes can easily be under extreme climatic pressures, affecting in turn the biogeochemical processes at the regional scale. The constant, high-frequency monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) (CO2 and CH4) integrates the biogeochemical signal of changes in this area related to the carbon cycle at the regional scale, capturing the high diversity of landscapes and climatic variability. The monitoring is carried out in one of the stations of the ClimaDat network, which consists of eight GHG monitoring stations in highly preserved ecosystems which are very sensitive to climate change in Spain. This constant monitoring will allow relating changes in terrestrial ecosystems, hydrological processes and atmospheric transport of GHG. The goal of the presentation is to show the results obtained since September 2013 through continuous monitoring, focusing on the seasonal changes in precipitation, temperature, and CO2 and CH4 changes in atmospheric concentrations.

  18. INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Novoa S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

  19. Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN): A new approach for active measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN) is a new measurement concept that will enable local, regional and continental determination of key greenhouse gases, with unparalleled accuracy and precision. This new approach will offer the ability to make low bias, high precision, quasi-continuous, measurements to the accuracies required for separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. In 2004 ITT Exelis developed an airborne demonstration unit, based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar approach, for actively measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2. The multi-functional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) system relies on low peak power, high reliability, and efficient telecom laser components to implement this unique measurement approach. While evaluating methods for discriminating against thin clouds for the MFLL instrument, a new measurement concept was conceived. LAnTeRN has several fundamental characteristics in common with the MFLL instrument, but is a fundamentally different implementation and capability. The key difference is that LAnTeRN operates in transmission rather than in the traditional backscatter lidar configuration, which has several distinct advantages. Operating as a forward scatter, bistatic lidar system, LAnTeRN enables consideration of continuous monitoring from a geostationary orbit to multiple locations on the ground. Having the receivers on the ground significantly lowers cost and risk compared to an all space based mission, and allows the transmitter subsystem to be implemented, near term, as a hosted payload. Furthermore, the LAnTeRN measurement approach is also applicable for ground to ground measurements where high precision measurements over a long open path is required, such as facilities monitoring, or monitoring of passive volcanoes and fault lines. Using narrow linewidth laser sources allows flexibility to select the position on the absorption feature being probed. This feature allows for weighting the absorption toward lower altitudes for the space implementation or to handle large dynamic range measurements as would be required for volcano monitoring. This presentation will discuss results from a detailed instrument performance analyses, retrieval simulations, and from initial testing of a proof of concept demonstration unit being developed by Exelis. Initial analysis indicate that measurements from a transmitter in geostationary orbit to 25 ground receivers in the eastern U.S. can retrieve column integrated CO2 values to a precision of aircraft and in-situ instrumentation), for quantification of bias. Furthermore, the ability to selectively locate the ground receivers can enable focused studies for specific applications.

  20. Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally 0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.