WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Potential Source Regions of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases Measured At A High Alpine Site (jungfraujoch)  

Science.gov (United States)

Since January 2000 halogenated greenhouse gases are measured continuously at the high Alpine station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl.) in Switzerland in the frame of a Swiss National project and the EU-project SOGE (System for Observation of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe). Emissions of such compounds from both Switzer- land and from different regions in Europe contribute to immissions measured at the Jungfraujoch. In addition to the inhomogeneous distribution of the emission sources, variable and weather dependent transport of air pollution can be observed. As a deci- sion basis for the air pollution control politics, the support and verification of existing inventories is of fundamental importance. The results can be used to assess compliance with the international protocols regulating the emissions (Montreal, Kyoto), and they will be utilised to define criteria for future monitoring in Europe. Therefore, in-situ measurements and meteorological information provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office (MeteoSwiss) are combined to investigate potential source areas. The first ap- proach was the use of trajectories associated with large concentration values monitored at the Jungfraujoch, showing that for some species high concentrations are often linked to air masses with specific geographical origin. In a second step, trajectory statistics was used to localise potential source regions. Hereby receptor data were combined with air mass histories to perform source apportionment. First results will be shown indicating that Po-valley, Southern France, Germany and the Benelux countries are the most important source regions of halogenated greenhouse gases measured at the Jungfraujoch. An improvement of the results is expected by taking into consideration additional information about source regions and the incorporation of the data of the other SOGE-observation sites located at Mace Head (Ireland), Spitsbergen (Norway), and at Monte Cimone (Italy).

Schaub, D.; Stemmler, K.; Reimann, S.; Weiss, A. K.

2

Analysis of Continuous Measurements of Anthropogenic Halogenated Greenhouse Gases at Monte Cimone for Estimation of European Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic halogenated greenhouse gases includes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride. Even if atmospheric concentration levels of these compounds are in the range of pptvs, their contribute to global warming is significant. Furthermore, some of these gases are powerful ozone depleting substances. In order to assess their long-term atmospheric concentration trends and in order to evaluate anthropogenic source strengths on a regional scale, a continuous monitoring activity of the above mentioned compounds is currently performed at the CNR Scientific Station "O.Vittori", at Monte Cimone (44^o12'N, 10^o42'E, 2165 m a.s.l.). Such an activity is carried out in the frame of a four stations European Network, operating within an integrated system for observations of halogenated greenhouse gases, named SOGE (System for Observation of Greenhouse gases in Europe). Measurements are performed using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric instrumentation equipped with a sampling-adsorption unit, allowing the automated and continuous analysis of twenty-one halogenated greenhouse gases. In order to identify the source areas of the halogenated greenhouse gases concentrations recorded at Mt. Cimone, a statistical analysis of air masses back-trajectories as well as wind direction have been carried out. Particularly, in order to study the correlation between the species monitored at the measurement site and the air masses origins, the concentration fields of CFCs and HCFCs emissions as obtained by Mt. Cimone data have been calculated on a geographical grid over Europe.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Geniali, A.; Mangani, F.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonasoni, P.

2003-04-01

3

On-line measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases for allocation of European sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Halocarbons are important atmospheric trace gases, which contribute to the green-house effect and some of which are also responsible for destruction of stratospheric ozone (e.g. CFCs, halones). Emissions of halocarbons are therefore regulated through international treaties like the Montreal and Kyoto Protocol, which regulate their industrial usage according to their properties. In Europe these substances are measured within the EU-project SOGE at four back-ground sites (Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, Spitzbergen, Monte Cimone). Data of these measurements are used to allocate potent European source regions and estimate European source strengths of these gases. For example, analyses of the 3 years of data will be shown in order to estimate emissions of the Montreal regulated methyl chloroform as well as dominant source regions of the Kyoto Protocol regulated hy-drofluorocarbons. This system of ground-based measurements has the potential to be used as a verifi-cation tool for European emisions of these greenhouse gases.

Reimann, S.; Schaub, D.; Stemmler, K.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B.; Stordal, F.; Schmidbauer, N.; Maione, M.

2003-04-01

4

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

5

The greenhouse effect gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

6

The greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. They are greenhouse gases as they absorb radiation from the Earth and thus impede its emission back to space. CO{sub 2} is responsible for about half the enhanced greenhouse effect. A global warming of only a few degrees would have a profound effect on climate. Increased levels of CO{sub 2} promote plant growth, but may not benefit agriculture overall. Sea levels may rise. It is difficult to predict the effects of global warming in society. It would be possible to reduce the scale of the greenhouse effect by energy conservation, using alternative energy sources, and possibly by capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power stations and disposing of it on the ocean floor. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Clarke, R.

1987-01-01

7

Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

Science, King'S C.

8

Quotation systems for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article surveys recommendations from a Norwegian committee for implementing at a national level, the Kyoto protocol aims for reducing the total emissions of greenhouse gases from the industrial countries through quotation systems

2000-01-01

9

Greenhouse gases in British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status and trends of greenhouse gas emissions in British Columbia were discussed. Total greenhouse gas emissions increased by 15 per cent between 1990 and 1995. In 1995, total greenhouse gas emissions were 57 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide accounts for 83 per cent of B.C.`s greenhouse gas emissions of which transportation is the single largest source. (Actually, B.C.`s per capita CO{sub 2} emissions are the same or lower than other North American jurisdictions, but higher than those of most European countries). It is widely believed that high levels of greenhouse gases cause changes to global climate. The effects of climate change predicted to occur in B.C. include increased rainfall on the coast, increased drought in the interior, altered stream flows, declining fish stocks and increased frequency of forest fires. B.C.`s Greenhouse Action Plan recommends 35 ways to reduce the province`s emissions. Measures implemented to date include the Clean Vehicles and Fuels Program, development of transportation demand management plans and a review of energy policies. 4 refs., 4 figs.

NONE

1996-12-01

10

Greenhouse gases and Ontario agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that greenhouse gases (GHG) are a major contributor to global warming and climate change. This paper explained that while some farming practices can contribute to the problem, agricultural activities can be modified to become a part of the solution. Agricultural best management practices are affordable options that protect soil and water resources while maintaining or increasing yields and reducing greenhouse gases. This paper listed carbon dioxide; methane and nitrous oxides as the major greenhouse gases along with their sources, potential for global warming, and changes in atmospheric levels. This paper also described the major implications of climate change on ecosystems, human health and safety as well as on agriculture. Farming activities that lead to GHG emissions include applications of fertilizers, livestock operations and woodlot clearing. GHG emissions can be reduced in the agricultural sector by adopting best management practices such as nutrient management, livestock management, soil management, crop rotations, conservation tillage and manure management. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

NONE

2001-07-01

11

The storage of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 109 tons of dissolved CO2. Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

2000-05-01

12

GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

Dušica Stojanovi?

2013-09-01

13

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone depletion in the stratosphere and increases in greenhouse gases in the troposphere are both subjects of growing concern - even alarm - among scientists, policy makers, and the public. At the same time, recent data show that these atmospheric developments are interconnected and in turn profoundly affect climatic conditions. To arrive at a better understanding of this complex relationship, major institutions in the field of atmospheric study convened a symposium of noted researchers. In the volume, they present the results of their most recent research, with the most up-to-date data and theories available on ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climatic change.

1989-01-01

14

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N2O by soil process, and CH4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O and SF6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO2 concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO2 concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH4 concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N2O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N2O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF6 concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H2 gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

2006-01-01

15

Greenhouse gases and global change: International collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the current concern about the fate of the global environment is related to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases and possible effects on the global climate. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, which is changing rapidly, is, to a large degree, determined by the release and uptake of a variety of trace gases by the biosphere. The biospheric production of relatively small amounts of trace gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is of special interest, as they trap infrared radiation, thus warming the Earth's surface. These greenhouse gases and other biogenic trace gases, such as carbon monoxide, odd nitrogen oxides (NOx), and a range of volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry by affecting tropospheric concentration of ozone, the penetration of photochemically active solar ultra-violet radiation, the production of hydroxyl radicals, and, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, cloud formation. Within the decade of the 1990's, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program will launch a worldwide research effort, unprecedented in its scope, to address the functioning of the Earth system and to understand how this system is changing. The body of information generated by the IGBP will form the scientific underpinning for predictions relating to future causes and effects of global changes. Through its observational network and process studies, and the effective communication of the resulting data to scientists in all nations committed to this endeavor, the IGBP will help provide the world's decision makers with the input necessary to wisely manage the global environment

1991-01-01

16

Greenhouse Gases Observation from the GOSAT Satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. The two instruments are accommodated on GOSAT. The Greenhouse gases Observing Sensor is a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth_fs surface as well as of the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. The FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. The cloud and aerosol sensor is an imager of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The presentation includes the instrument design, pre-launch calibration and onboard calibration schemes; as well as, some test results using the Bread Board Model (BBM).

Kuze, A.; Kondo, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2005-12-01

17

Why hybrid porous solids capture greenhouse gases?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid porous solids, with their tunable structures, their multi functional properties and their numerous applications, are currently topical, particularly in the domain of adsorption and storage of greenhouse gases. Most of the data reported so far concern the performances of these solids in this domain, particularly in terms of adsorbed amounts of gas but do not explain at the atomic level why and how adsorption and storage occur. From a combination of structural, spectroscopic, thermodynamic experiments and of molecular simulations, this tutorial review proposes answers to these open questions with a special emphasis on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} storage by some rigid and flexible hybrid porous materials.

Ferey, G.; Serre, C.; Devic, T.; Maurin, G.; Jobic, H.; Llewellyn, P.L.; De Weireld, G.; Vimont, A.; Daturi, M.; Chang, J.S. [University of Versailles St Quentin, Versailles (France)

2011-07-01

18

Why hybrid porous solids capture greenhouse gases?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid porous solids, with their tunable structures, their multifunctional properties and their numerous applications, are currently topical, particularly in the domain of adsorption and storage of greenhouse gases. Most of the data reported so far concern the performances of these solids in this domain, particularly in terms of adsorbed amounts of gas but do not explain at the atomic level why and how adsorption and storage occur. From a combination of structural, spectroscopic, thermodynamic experiments and of molecular simulations, this tutorial review proposes answers to these open questions with a special emphasis on CO(2) and CH(4) storage by some rigid and flexible hybrid porous materials. PMID:21180728

Férey, Gérard; Serre, Christian; Devic, Thomas; Maurin, Guillaume; Jobic, Hervé; Llewellyn, Philip L; De Weireld, Guy; Vimont, Alexandre; Daturi, Marco; Chang, Jong-San

2011-02-01

19

Greenhouse Gases Observation From TANSO on GOSAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage, specifically, three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The paper presents the instrument design and performance ground test results; as well as, pre-launch and onboard calibration schemes.

Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2006-12-01

20

An overview on non-CO2 greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-CO2 greenhouse gases, included in the Kyoto Protocol, are methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hexafluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Together they account for about 25% of the present global greenhouse gas emissions. Reductions in emissions of these gases have occurred in the industrialised countries, and they contribute to the efforts to reach the target of 5% greenhouse gas emission reduction as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for these coun...

Pulles, T.; Amstel, A. R.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01

22

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

23

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01

24

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

25

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01

26

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

27

Greenhouse gases reduction program: criticizable approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measures recently suggested by the Ministry of Environment to cut greenhouse gas emissions are in some respects criticizable. They seem to be lacking any specific reference to macro economic and technical considerations, whereas there is need of optimisation choice standards to avoid the risk of much spending without achieving the set targets

1998-06-01

28

Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

1989-01-01

29

Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander

30

VENTILATION RATE AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS FROM BROILER CHICKEN HOUSE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was carried out to determine emissions of greenhouse gases from broiler chicken house during one fattening period (i.e. 40 days). The greatest concentrations of water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were observed in the first ten days. Increasing emissions of all greenhouse gases were as a consequence of increasing ventilation rate, although their concentrations were decreasing. It was released 83.8 . 106 m3 polluted air containing 211 3...

Kni?z?atova?, Monika; Mihina, S?tefan; Orsa?g, Ja?n; Karandus?ovska?, Ingrid; S?ottni?k, Jaroslav

2009-01-01

31

Reducing greenhouse gases under the UN FCCC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the progress being made by industrialized countries to implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) through action to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Based on a review of preliminary information available from four OECD countries (Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States), the paper compares national strategies and progress toward meeting domestic targets. It concludes that industrialized countries are just beginning to work toward meeting domestic targets and the mitigation ''aim'' identified in the Convention: returning emissions of GHG to 1990 levels by the year 2000. More work will be required if industrialized countries are to meet this commitment

1994-04-05

32

Natural gas engines : reducing greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reciprocating natural gas engines generate greenhouse gas emissions which contain carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. This paper describes how Calgary-based REM Technology has managed to improve greenhouse gas emissions of reciprocating natural gas engines. The engine efficiencies can be achieved with better engine control strategies such as fuel-air management, air-fuel mixing and increased spark energy. Supporting data was presented. The conversion of existing engines from rich-burn to lean-burn units has been a very successful initiative. The absence of an expected combustion event in an engine is referred to as a misfire. The effect in a multi-cylinder engine of the methane mixture failing to burn is important. Misfire detection can be accomplished with on-line calculation of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), on-line monitoring of individual cylinder exhaust temperatures, exhaust pressure, or exhaust oxygen monitoring. A discussion of monitoring and operations changes that were made in an effort to reduce the escape of methane was included. The final topic examined was the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide through local cogeneration using reciprocating natural gas engines, where the waste heat can be used for space heating. The various options were discussed. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Malm, H. [REM Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

33

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical two-dimension zonally average interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere is used for investigation the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of types I and II. The scenarios of future changes of the greenhouse gases and chlorine and bromine species are taken from Climate Change 1995. The calculations show that expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by the increasing of the greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, enhances the ozone concentration in the stratosphere due to a weakness of the efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction caused by temperature dependencies of photochemical reactions. The result of this effect is a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine species. On the other hand, the cooling of the stratosphere intensifies a formation of the polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere in the Polar Regions. Heterogeneous reactions on the polar stratospheric clouds, which are the key processes in the destruction of the ozone layer at the high latitudes, lead to more intensive ozone depletion here, which causes a delay of the ozone layer recovery. The calculations show that this effect is weaker than the first one so that the global ozone will recover faster under conditions of continuing anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases. The model predicts in this case that the annual average global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the growth of the greenhouse gases is stopped, the global ozone will reach this level only in the end of the 21st century.

Dyominov, I. G.; Zadorozhny, A. M.

34

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone, 0.21 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric pressure, 0.13 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric pressures, or 0.07 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric pressure. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m-2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1-1 ppmv for many gases. We further calculate the reduction of radiative forcing due to gas overlap for the 20 strongest gases. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-05-01

35

Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

1981-01-01

36

Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

1998-02-02

37

Greenhouse gases and climatic states of minimum entropy production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypothesis of minimum entropy production is applied to a simple one-dimensional energy balance model and is analysed for different values of the radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases. The extremum principle is used to determine the planetary “conductivity” and to avoid the “diffusive” approximation, which is commonly assumed in this type of model. For present conditions the result at minimum radiative entropy production is similar to that obtained by applying the classical mod...

Pujol I Sagaro?, Toni; Llebot, Josep Enric; Fort, Joaquim

1999-01-01

38

Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions of ultimate wastes storage centers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultimate wastes storage centers emit methane from the blanket deposed on the wastes pile. The wastes processing is now realized with 2 main objectives: the limitation of environmental impacts and the optimization of the wastes energy potential valorization. The mechano-biological treatment, the aerobic bioreactor and the anaerobic bioreactor are three complementary techniques used to optimize the wastes processing. The greenhouses gases emission will not be the same in function of the technology choice. (A.L.B.)

2007-01-01

39

Surface reflectance core spectroscopy of halogens, rare gases, alkalis, and CO on metal surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reflectivity spectra for the halogens, rare gases, alkalis and the CO molecule adsorbed on metal and insulating surfaces are described. This research employed synchrotron radiation in the energy range from 4 to 20 eV, using both s and p polarized light. Results for adsorbates in three neighboring columns of the Periodic Table principally reveal charge transfer processes and properties of the impurity surface complex.

Cunningham, J.E.

1980-01-01

40

Flux measurements of greenhouse gases: A review and needs assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the theory and application of the major approaches used to measure emissive and depositional fluxes of greenhouse gases. Strengths, weaknesses and applications of the major approaches are discussed. Studies are proposed which would help validate the measurement approaches. A monitoring program and measurement strategy to measure regional and global fluxes is suggested. The major gases related to global warming are carbon dioxide and methane. Other gases, including water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and some hydrocarbons are also radiatively important, as are ambient particulates, including carbon. The net vertical transfer or flux of chemicals from the atmosphere to the biosphere is referred to as deposition, while emission fluxes refer to transfers from surfaces to the atmosphere. The prediction and possible mitigation of climatic changes requires an understanding and quantification of both types of fluxes

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ozone Depletion, Increasing Greenhouse Gases, and Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of integrations with IPPC/AR4 ocean-atmosphere coupled models, and with stratosphere-resolving chemistry-coupled models from the SPARC/CCMVal inter comparison project, suggest that ozone depletion is capable of producing a considerable impact on the tropospheric circulation of the entire Southern Hemisphere, notably on the poleward shift of the midlatitude jet and the widening of the Hadley cell during austral summer. However, integrations without ozone depletion show that increasing greenhouse gases are also responsible for the such shifts. Hence the relative roles of ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase remain unclear. Part of the difficulty in assesing the relative importance of these two forcings is the large interannual variability, which is comparable in magnitude to the response to ozone and greenhouse forcings in the recent past. To address this limitation, we have performed a new set of long, time-slice integrations with NCAR's atmospheric model (CAM) in which ozone depletion and increased green house gases are specified independently. Analysis of this new set of integrations reveals that, for the Southern Hemisphere summer in the second half of the 20th century, only ozone depletion is able to produce statistically significant climate shifts in the model. This suggests that ozone depletion may in fact have been the dominant driver of climate change in the Southern Hemisphere in the last half century.

Polvani, L. M.; Waugh, D. W.; Correa, G.; Son, S. W.

2010-05-01

42

National and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Kyoto Protocol the flexibility mechanisms - Joint Implementation (Art. 6), Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12), Emissions Trading (Art. 17)- and Bubble (Art. 4) are roughly defined, leaving much questions open about their design and functioning, about eligibility criteria, impact on compliance and their political acceptation. In the NRP research project on national and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases these questions have been researched, mainly from an economic perspective and focussing on Emissions Trading. This report summarises the major results of the research project. refs

2002-01-01

43

Inventory of greenhouse gases in Quebec 1990-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec for the period 1990-2000 resulting from human activity was discussed. Added to the emissions that occur naturally, the emissions contribute to disrupt the equilibrium of the global system, resulting in global warming. The greenhouse gases selected for this inventory are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur fluorides, polyfluorocarbons, and some hydrofluorocarbons. The emissions of greenhouse gases were at 86,36 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 1990, and rose to 88,34 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 2000, representing an increase of 2.3 per cent. In 2000, the energy sector was responsible for the largest quantities of greenhouse gas emissions (62.64 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent), of which 33.56 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from transport activities. For the year 2000, the emissions generated by the energy sector represented 70.91 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec., followed by industrial processes with 12.05 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent and 13.64 per cent, and agriculture with 8.37 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 9.48 per cent, wastes with 5.16 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 5.84 per cent, the use of solvents and other products with 0.11 metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent and 0.13 per cent. the land use and forestry sector was not included in this inventory, as data was not available. The largest increase in emissions originated from the energy sector for the period 1990-2000, for an increase of 5.3 per cent. For the same period, the emissions from the industrial processes sector decreased by 4.1 per cent. This sector does not include the emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, as they were included in the energy sector figures. For the agriculture sector, the increase was 1.9 per cent, and the waste sector decreased by 13.3 per cent. The use of solvents and other products, representing a small proportion of greenhouse gas emissions, saw an increase of 4.7 per cent. This report shows the evolution of emissions for each sector, and will be updated annually. 14 refs., 8 tabs., 34 figs

2002-01-01

44

Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

build up a new system to measure continuously CO2 (or CO), CH4, N2O and SF6 mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO2, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH4, 0.2 ppb for N2O and 0.05 ppt for SF6. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

2007-01-01

45

Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests...

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

46

76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing (Subpart I) To Provide...calculation and monitoring provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion (Subpart I...Electronics Manufacturing............

2011-06-22

47

Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

2010-11-15

48

Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share would be significantly higher. The commercial refrigeration sub sector and the air conditioning (stationary and mobile) sector will account for about 75% of F-gas emissions in 2050. In most sectors, emissions from developing countries will exceed emissions from developed countries. Large banks of HFCs will cause F-gas emissions well beyond 2050. In order to limit F-gas emissions, it appears crucial to consider measures to reduce emissions from all sectors in both developed and developing countries. The current post- Kyoto negotiation process might provide an opportunity to address these issues within a wider scope. A switch from substances that cause global warming to climate friendly alternatives is considered inevitable to be undertaken in the near future in developed countries. Developing countries, in contrast, are facing the chance to replace ozonedepleting substances directly by climate friendly alternatives, and could hence benefit from technologies developed in the last decades. The study does not exclude other scenarios on future HFC emissions. Like earlier projections, it underlines the urgent need for mitigation measures of F-gas emissions. (orig.)

Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

2009-11-15

49

Accountability in the greenhouse. [Measuring relative national emissions of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method used in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report is based on modelling the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles to calculate global warming potentials of the major greenhouse gases projected into the future for 20, 100 or 500 years. But this method is fraught with difficulties when considered from the point of view of international diplomacy. The models are complex and still the subject of considerable scientific disagreement. Moreover, the different time periods yield significantly different global warming potentials because of the disparate lifetimes of the main gases in the atmosphere. The time periods used in the IPCC report are arbitrary; the diversity of results is a prescription for diplomatic chaos. We propose a different approach, one that is empirical, yields relatively robust results, yet provides a simple and unambiguous basis for international agreements. It also lends itself easily to corrections as new data become available and, because it requires only a personal computer and a spreadsheet, is readily accessible to every country for policy analysis and planning purposes. Our method focuses on the instantaneous heating effect of greenhouse gas emissions (a time horizon of one year), rather than choosing an arbitrary time many years into the future, and on the incremental additions to the atmospheric burden of these gases in a given year. (author).

Hammond, A.L.; Rodenburg, E. (World Resources Inst., New York (US)); Moomaw, W. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (USA))

1990-10-25

50

Subduction of Seawater-Derived Noble Gases and Halogens: Evidence from Wedge Mantle Peridotite  

Science.gov (United States)

Subduction volcanism is generally considered to form a 'subduction barrier' that efficiently recycles volatile components contained in subducted slabs back to the Earth's surface (Staudacher and Allegre, 1988). Nevertheless, subduction of sediment and seawater-dominated pore fluids to the deep mantle has recently been proposed to account for the convecting mantle heavy noble gas (Ar, Kr and Xe) non-radiogenic elemental abundance and isotopic pattern (Holland and Ballentine, 2006). To verify whether and how subduction fluids preserve a seawater signature, we have determined noble gas and halogen compositions of the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body in the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, southwest Japan, in which former water-rich inclusions exhumed from depths greater than 100 km are contained as serpentine dominated micro-inclusions (Mizukami et al., 2004). The striking similarities of the observed noble gas and halogen compositions with marine pore fluids challenge a popular concept, in which the water flux into the wedge mantle is only by hydrous minerals in altered oceanic crust and sediment (e.g., Schmidt and Poli, 1998). Subduction and closed system retention of unbound marine pore fluid to at least 100 km depth is required. The subducted halogen and noble gas elemental ratios are clearly distinct from those of arc volcanic gases. This implies that the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body has frozen in and preserved an inferred but previously unseen part of the volatile recycling process. Return of these volatiles to the atmosphere via arc volcanism requires the addition of a mantle component and fractionation during degassing. A small proportion preserved in the downgoing slab can explain the heavy noble gases observed in the convecting mantle. References: Holland G. and Ballentine C. J., Nature, 441, 186-191 (2006). Mizukami T. et al., Nature, 427, 432-436 (2004). Schmidt M.W. and Poli S., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 163, 361-379 (1998). Staudacher, T. and Allegre C.J., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 89, 173-183 (1988).

Sumino, H.; Ballentine, C. J.; Burgess, R.; Holland, G.; Mizukami, T.; Wallis, S. R.

2008-12-01

51

Use of Less Reactive Materials and More Stable Gases to Reduce Corrosive Wear When Lubricating with Halogenated Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The gases CF2Cl-CF2Cl, CF2Cl2, and CF2Br-CF2Br were used to lubricate metals, cermets, and ceramics in this study. One of the criteria for determining the effectiveness of a reactive-gas-lubricated systems is the stability of the halogen-containing gas molecule. The carbon-to-halogen bond in the ethane molecule has extremely good thermal stability superior to the methane analogs (CF2Cl2 and CF2Br2) used in earlier research. For this reason, the ethane compounds CF2Cl-CF2Cl and CF2Br-CF2Br were considered as high-temperature lubricants. Friction and wear studies were made with a hemisphere (3/16-in. rad.) rider sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (21/2-in. diam. ). The specimens of metal alloys, cermets, and ceramics were run In an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, sliding velocities from 75 to 8000 feet per minute, and temperatures from 75 to 1400 F. The gas CF2Cl-CF2Cl was found to be an effective lubricant for the cermet LT-LB (59.0 Cr, 19.0 Al2O3, 20.0 Mo, 2.0 Ti) and the ceramic Al2O3 sliding on Stellite Star J (cobalt-base alloy) at temperatures to 1400 F. The bromine-containing gas CF2Br-CF2Br was found to give friction and wear values that can be considered to be in a region of effective boundary lubrication for the cermet K175D (nickel-bonded metal carbide) sliding on the metal Hastelloy R-235 (nickel-base alloy) at temperatures to 1200 F.

Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

1960-01-01

52

Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of energy on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is reflected by the fact that 65% of said emissions in the World are currently due to the use and production of energy. However, most empirical emission models are found within the Environmental Kuznetz Curve (EKC) framework, which focuses on the relationship between emissions and economic development. Ang's (2007, 2008) papers are some of the exceptions that simultaneously study the relationship between emissions, growth and energy. With respect to Ang's research, we contribute on two important aspects. First, while Ang uses a particular country as the study and use time series techniques, we take advantage of a panel data set of 24 European countries between 1990 and 2006 and use a Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) framework. Second, the impact of energy consumption on emissions would depend on the primary energy mix and on the final use of this energy, and we consider both factors in the model. (author)

Marrero, Gustavo A. [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Universidad de La Laguna (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (FEDEA), Madrid (Spain); Instituto Complutense de Analisis Economico (ICAE), UCM, Madrid (Spain)

2010-11-15

53

Verification of national halogenated greenhouse gas emissions in Europe using top-down estimates inferred from ambient air measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

To check for compliance with the reduction targets defined under the Kyoto protocol, each country has to report its greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). These emissions are calculated using a bottom-up approach, by combining categories of com-pound use with specific activity functions and using import/export statistics. The uncertainties of these estimates are not well defined, thereby making an independent validation of the reported emissions highly desirable. In this study, a novel Kalman filter inversion technique was implemented to estimate European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases including hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and SF6. The inversion is based on high-frequency measurements at two European background sites (Jungfraujoch and Mace Head) coupled to backward simulations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The sequential nature of the inversion approach allows tracing slow seasonal and interannual emission changes. Furthermore, by including the estimation of a smoothly varying concentration background into the inversion, potential inconsistencies introduced by independent background subtraction methods are avoided. Further advantages are the applicability to a potentially large number of receptor (measurement) locations and the quantification of uncertainties along with absolute emissions. Annual emissions were estimated for the years 2006 to 2009 on a country-by-country basis and compared with numbers reported to the UNFCCC. Good agreement was found for HFC-134a and HFC-125, which are ubiquitously used for refrigeration and air conditioning. Much higher emissions than reported, however, were estimated for HFC-23, a potent greenhouse gas with a 100-yr global warming potential of 14’800. HFC-23 is an unintentional by-product of HCFC-22 manufacture and our source attribution reveals significant contributions from HCFC-22 production plants in Italy, Spain and Germany. Total HFC-23 emissions over Central Europe are estimated to account for more than 6% of global emissions, which is approximately 3 times higher than calculated by the bottom-up inventories. Similar discrepancies were found for HFC-152 which, however, is only a minor greenhouse gas.

Brunner, D.; Keller, C. A.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; O'Doherty, S.

2010-12-01

54

Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a give...

Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2010-01-01

55

Using a refrigerant leak detector to monitor waste gases from halogenated anesthetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although halogenated gas anesthetics are indispensable in laboratory animal medicine, they are hazardous when present in the working environment. A simple technique of real-time leak detection and environmental spot monitoring can provide valuable adjunct information to current techniques of time-weighted monitoring. We investigated the minimal limit of detection of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane of a leak detector for halogenated gas refrigerants which provides a qualitative response only. We connected a container to an infrared gas analyzer to create a 135-l closed-circuit system and injected liquid halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane to create calculated gas concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 parts per million (ppm). The infrared absorbance and response of the leak detector were recorded, and a total of 5 measurements were made per concentration. The actual gas concentrations were calculated by comparison with the agent-specific absorbance standard curve. The leak detector clearly and consistently responded to halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from minimal concentrations of 2.1 +/- 0.2, 1.4 +/- 0.04, 0.8 +/- 0.04, and 1.2 +/- 0.4 ppm, respectively, as determined by infrared analysis. Although the detector does not provide numerical and time-weighted results, leak testing of equipment and repeated monitoring of the environment (spot monitoring) can provide valuable real-time information. In addition, with appropriate consideration of the methodological limitations, spot monitoring can be used to predict the likelihood of compliance with time-weighted exposure recommendations. A leak detector therefore represents a simple, effective, and inexpensive instrument for monitoring the leakage of halogenated anesthetic gases from equipment and into the working environment. PMID:17877331

Rasmussen, Henrik; Thorud, Syvert

2007-09-01

56

Prototype System for Monitoring and Computing Greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming is not only the problem of the government or individual organization it is the fundamental problem of every individual. The main cause for global warming is green house gases (GHG. Monitoring and computing the greenhouse gases are a major challenging work. Globally, over the past several decades, human-induced activities like industrial revolution and burning of fossil fuels in power stations, vehicle transport systems and industries contribute significantly to the emission and concentration of GHG in atmosphere. Avoiding their usage may reduce the emission of GHG, but it may not be a practical approach as they are mandatory in modern day-to-day life, alternatively regular monitoring and reporting of GHG parameters may create awareness to individuals and organization for effective and proper use of human induced activities. There are very few works done in developing embedded systems for computing GHG. We have implemented a prototype system for sensing and computing the level of existence of GHG parameters (like CO2, CO, temperature and humidity in atmosphere using environmental sensors and advanced microcontrollers and energy efficient wireless technologies. The Prototype supports quality in terms of low cost, energy efficiency, flexibility and user friendliness. Data is collected, consistency models are define for analyzing the quality of data and the level of GHG in the deployed environment is computed. The results show that the prototype is capable for monitoring and computation of GHG in the deployed environment and can be applied at all levels of organization for creating awareness, performing scientific studies and to forecast re mediation policies by the authorities to individuals and organization in controlling GHG parameters.

R. Jaichandran

2011-07-01

57

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

58

Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

2004-06-07

59

Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

2003-07-01

60

Emissions of Very Short-Lived Halogenated Gases from the Tropical East Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic emissions of CH3I can reach the upper troposphere (UT) before decomposing to iodine atoms, and may have a significant impact on tropical UT ozone loss. Shorter-lived iodine compounds such as the di-halomethanes (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been found to contribute as much iodine as CH3I to the marine boundary layer. An important question is whether elevated emissions of such very short-lived halogenated gases (VSLH) are associated with conditions where uplift to the UT is favoured. Here we examine the controls on CH3I, CH2ICl and CH2I2 concentrations and sea-air emissions in the tropical east Pacific, using surface seawater and air data along with ocean depth profiles collected during the TORERO campaign. Ocean mixed layer 1D modeling is used to explore marine biological and chemical production scenarios for these gases and evaluate our current understanding of their sea-air fluxes. CH2ICl concentration and chlorophyll-a fluorescence cross sections in the tropical east Pacific ocean at 110 oW.

Carpenter, L.; Andrews, S.; Lidster, R.; Bowdalo, D.; Evans, M. J.; Volkamer, R.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Production of greenhouse gases in the former Soviet Union  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world and was one of the greatest emitters of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s the CO[sub 2] emissions for the FSU amounted to 1.46 Pg C yr[sup [minus]1] (Pg = 10[sup 15] g). Total CH[sub 4] emissions for the FSU were 55.8 Tg C yr[sup [minus]1] (Tg = 10[sup 12] g) or approximately one-third of the global CH[sub 4] emissions; 53% of the FSU CH[sub 4] emissions was contributed by peatlands. Emissions of CFCs were 67 Gg yr[sup [minus]1] (Gg = 10[sup 9] g) and comprised 12% of the global CFCs emissions. The forest sector was a net sink for 0.48 Pg C yr[sup [minus]1] of atmospheric carbon, offsetting approximately one-half of the CO[sub 2] emissions from industrial processes. FSU peatlands accumulated 52 Tg C yr[sup [minus]1], but overall they were a net source of 48 Tg C yr[sup [minus]1] to the atmosphere considering utilization of peat. The net CO[sub 2] emissions of the FSU were 0.68 Pg C yr[sup [minus]1]. The FSU and China shared the fifth and sixth places in the world ranking of net CO[sub 2] emissions. The FSU and European countries shared the fourth and fifth places in the world ranking of net CO[sub 2] emissions per capita.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.)

1994-09-01

62

Landscape patterns of soil oxygen and atmospheric greenhouse gases in a northern hardwood forest landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), are controlled by redox reactions in soils. Together with oxygen (O2), seasonal and spatial dynamics of these atmospheric gases can serve as robust indicators of soil redox status, respiration rates, and nitrogen cycling. We examined landscape patterns of soil oxygen and greenhouse gas ...

Werner, S. F.; Driscoll, C. T.; Groffman, P. M.; Yavitt, J. B.

2011-01-01

63

On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases – the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion...

Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

2012-01-01

64

Estimating the Greenhouse Gases Emission and the Most Important Factors in Dairy Farms (Case Study Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and ...

Ghorbani, M.; Koocheki, A. R.; Motallebi, M.

2008-01-01

65

Contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to investigate the mechanisms by which GHGs and ODSs affect the evolution of ozone, including changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation of the stratosphere and cooling of the upper stratosphere by CO2. Separating the effects of GHGs and ODSs on ozone, we find the decrease in upper stratospheric ozone from ODSs up to the year 2000 is approximately 30% larger than the actual decrease in ozone due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in upper stratospheric ozone. Changes below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation, while globally averaged the amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century. Further analysis by linear regression shows that changes associated with GHGs do not appreciably alter the recovery of stratospheric ozone from the effects of ODSs; over much of the stratosphere ozone recovery follows the decline of halogen concentrations within statistical uncertainty, though the lower polar stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere is an exception with ozone concentrations recovering more slowly than indicated by the halogen concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which climate change, and stratospheric CO2 cooling in particular, mutes the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

D. A. Plummer

2010-04-01

66

Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

2014-05-01

67

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

68

Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

69

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

2010-11-01

70

Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

Galloway, T.R.

1998-07-01

71

Mitigation of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of results obtained by Mexican researchers on aspects of climate change including: inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenarios, and vulnerability. The authors also suggest possible mitigation actions which may be adopted by Mexico. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Gay, C.; Martinez, J. [UNAM, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera

1995-11-01

72

The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs

1993-07-01

73

Greenhouse gases and solid waste management systems: Understanding the relationships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In one of the first applications of life cycle analysis at the state level, the Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance has assessed the resource conservation benefits and greenhouse gas impacts of the state's municipal solid waste (MSW) system. Using a life cycle inventory, the Phase 1 work estimated the resource conservation benefits of Minnesota's 1996 MSW reduction and management strategies. It compared the production processes used to obtain useful products from MSW with alternative production processes using virgin materials. The Phase 2 work, conducted under a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), focused specifically on measuring the greenhouse gas implications of reduction, recycling, and management from 1991--1996. This phase expanded the analysis to included life cycle assessment and improvement. The work will be used in Minnesota's MSW policy and program development efforts, as well as in climate change mitigation planning.

Harrington, K.; Smith, P.A.

1999-07-01

74

GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as cri...

Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ružinski

2010-01-01

75

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

2014-05-01

76

Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

Cess, R.; Owen, T.

1973-01-01

77

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth’s ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. A weakness in efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere caused by greenhouse gases is shown to be a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer. Numerical experiments show that the total ozone changes caused by greenhouse gases will be comparable in absolute value with the changes due to chlorine and bromine species in the middle of the 21st century. Continuous anthropogenic growth of CO 2 will lead to a significantly faster recovery of the ozone layer. In this case, the global total ozone in the latitude range from 60°S to 60°N will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the CO 2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the century.

Dyominov, Igor G.; Zadorozhny, Alexander M.

78

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

Calabrò, Paolo S

2009-07-01

79

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

1998-06-14

80

Evaluation of fission gases and halogens release out of failed fuel running at constant power and in power cycling regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics was analysed of radioactive fission product emission into the coolant: noble gases, halogens, delayed neutron emitters. The source term which describes the release rates of the volatile fission products from a defected PWR fuel rod is essentially not dependent on power and much higher than that of the sound fuel. This high emission rate is mainly due to overstoichiometry of the fuel arising from water intrusion. Iodine release happens to be at a level comparable to that of the noble gases if the thermal power is cycled or when the leak defect is close to the fuel; otherwise it is lowered as a consequence of chemical interactions with the inner surfaces of the rod

1980-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Impact of greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in the polar regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the future long-term changes of the earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the south to north poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from climate change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the earth's ozone layer in the polar regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the antarctic ozone hole. As for the global total ozone, continuous anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases will lead to significant acceleration of its recovery. In the case of the used scenario of expected long-term changes of the greenhouse gases, the global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2043. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the 21st century. (author)

2008-04-13

82

Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using natural gas for fuel releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than burning oil or coal, but its production and transport are accompanied by emissions of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide in the short term. This calls into question whether climate forcing could be reduced by switching from coal and oil to natural gas. We have made measurements in Russia along the world's largest gas-transport system and find that methane leakage is in the region of 1.4%, which is considerably less than expected and comparable to that from systems in the United States. Our calculations indicate that using natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels could be useful in the short term for mitigating climate change. PMID:15829951

Lelieveld, J; Lechtenböhmer, S; Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Dienst, C; Fischedick, M; Hanke, T

2005-04-14

83

Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

1994-01-01

84

A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

Jeremy Dobler

2013-11-01

85

Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway 1990 to 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to this article, the emissions of NOX from Norway in 1990 to 2000 were at a higher level than expected. Calculations show, however, that from 1999 to 2000 the emissions were reduced by seven percent. This is mainly due to reduced emission from shipping and road traffic. The SO2 (sulphur dioxide) emissions have been halved since 1990 because of cleaner industrial emissions, replacement of fossil fuel with electricity, use of light oil and less sulphur in oil products and reducing agents. The emissions of NMVOCs (Non-methane volatile organic components) must be almost halved from 2000 to 2010 if Norway is to meet the requirements of the Gothenburg Protocol. The emissions of climate gases were reduced by one percent in 2000, despite the fact that the CO2 emissions from the offshore petroleum activities increased by twelve percent. The emissions of methane and dioxins are going down. There is considerable uncertainty in the figures for dioxins. Calculations show that on the local community level the greatest emissions come from industry, road traffic, agriculture and land fills

86

Seawater-Derived Noble Gases and Halogens Preserved in Peridotite and Eclogite from the Subduction-Type Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt  

Science.gov (United States)

Subduction volcanism is generally considered to form a 'subduction barrier' that efficiently recycles volatile components contained in subducted slabs back to the Earth's surface (Staudacher and Allegre, 1988, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 89, 173-183). Nevertheless, subduction of sediment and seawater-dominated pore fluids to the deep mantle has been proposed to account for heavy noble gas (Ar, Kr and Xe) non-radiogenic elemental abundance and isotopic pattern of the convecting mantle (Holland and Ballentine, 2006, Nature 441, 186-191). To verify whether and how subduction fluids preserve a seawater signature, we have determined noble gas and halogen compositions of the Higashi-akaishi peridotite and Western Iratsu eclogite bodies in the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, southwest Japan, in which relicts of slab-derived water are contained as hydrous mineral inclusions in wedge mantle rocks exhumed from depths in excess of 100 km (Mizukami et al., 2004, Nature 427, 432-436) and aqueous fluid inclusions in associated slab-derived eclogites (Endo et al., 2009, J. Metamorphic Geol. 27, 371-384; Endo, 2010, Isl. Arc 19, 313-335). The striking similarities of the observed noble gas and halogen compositions of the Higashi-akaishi peridotite with marine pore fluids (Sumino et al., 2010, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 163-172) challenge a popular concept, in which the water flux into the mantle wedge is only by hydrous minerals in altered oceanic crust and sediment (e.g., Schmidt and Poli, 1998, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 163, 361-379). The Western Iratsu eclogite also exhibits non-radiogenic noble gas elemental ratios well explained by a mixing between seawater-derived and sedimentary components. These results indicate that subduction and closed system retention of marine pore fluid occurs up to depths of at least 100 km. The subducted halogen and noble gas compositions are clearly distinct from those of arc volcanic gases. This implies that the ultramafic-mafic metamorphic rocks of the Sanbagawa belt appear to have frozen-in and preserved a previously unseen part of the deep water recycling process whereby noble gases and halogens (and probably other volatiles) are injected into the wedge mantle just above the subducting slab, requiring a reassessment of the dominant transport mechanism and source of water in subduction zones. A small proportion of marine pore fluid, preserved in the downgoing hydrous peridotite and/or eclogite, can account for the heavy noble gas composition observed in the convecting mantle.

Sumino, H.; Endo, S.; Wallis, S.; Mizukami, T.; Burgess, R.; Holland, G.; Ballentine, C. J.

2010-12-01

87

Greenhouse gases (GHG), NOx and SOx reduction through biomass utilisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental issues such as air pollution have been given serious attention these days. Public seems to be more aware of the effects of air pollution after experiencing haze in 1997. Carbon dioxide (C02) is one of the green house gases (GHG) that traps the heat of the sun in the atmosphere and contributes to global warming. Excessive usage of fossil fuels can caused the increase in C02 emission level land this has forced the relevant authorities to find a much cleaner fuel such as biomass. A large-scale.demonstration plant under the EC-ASEAN Cogen Programme is a good reference on how biomass could reduce the GHG without interruption to its process. The company uses wood wastes as fuel for its cogeneration plant to replace diesel oil and fuel oil for power and heat. The cogeneration plant capacity is 1.5 MW of electricity and thermal heat. of 11 MW. The fuel is fed to the combustion chamber with an automatic controlled feeding system to generate 16 tonnes per hour of superheated steam at 22 bar. The steam is supplied to a backpressure turbine and part of the exhaust steam is supplied as process heat to a kiln drying plant and the rest to a condensing turbine. The GHG emission mitigation potential from this cogeneration plant is 15,632 tonnes Of C02 equivalent per year. Moreover, it is also expected to reduce the annual NOx and S0x emission level by 89.5 % and 98.3 %. Therefore, this paper will describe how biomass utilisation through cogeneration could reduce GHG, NOx and S0x emission level. (author)

1999-11-08

88

Long-term reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A methodology is presented here to assess the potential long-term contribution of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in mitigation scenarios. The analysis shows the future development of the mitigation potential of non-CO2 gases (as a function of changes in technology and implementation barriers) to represent a crucial parameter for the overall costs of mitigation scenarios. The recently developed marginal abatement cost curves for 2010 in the EMF-21 project are taken as the starting point. First-order...

Lucas, Paul L.; Vuuren, D. P.; Olivier, Johannes Gerardus Jozef; Elzen, M. G. J. Den

2007-01-01

89

Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

1976-01-01

90

Near and long term prospects for the reduction in the road transport contribution to greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary estimates are made of the likely contributions from various sectors of land transport activity to the greenhouse gases using assumptions about the aggregate performance of the vehicle population and its dynamics. Whilst the estimates of the CO2 contribution from motor vehicles are likely to be moderately reliable there are much greater uncertainties in the contribution of nitrous oxide because of the lack of recent measurements and of methane, for which there are no measurements. In the analysis, the growth in the demand for passenger and goods transport, which would naturally lead to an increase in fuel consumption and hence the emission of greenhouse gases is counteracted by more energy efficient vehicle designs and the implementation of management and planning strategies. The results are regarded as setting a background for more detailed studies related to costs and better estimates, and particularly of the methane and nitrous oxide contributions. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

1990-01-01

91

Potential of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in ukraine on period to 2020 year ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

 Article is devoted to the assessment of potential of green-house gases mitigation, taking into account basic priorities of national development and providing an implementation of international obligations of Ukraine in this question after 2012 year. A macroeconomic and particular branch forecasting of national development was carried out, basic scenarios were defined, an analysis and estimation of technological potential of measures on reduction of green-house gases due to different scenarios were done on a period between 2010?2020 years. Recommendations are given in relation to optimization of energy-efficient approaches in Ukraine.

 ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? 2012 ?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? 2010?2020 ??. ???? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????.

 ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????’????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? (2012?2020 ??.

?.?. ??????????

2010-01-01

92

Environment taxation and greenhouse gases (general tax on energy polluting activities and emissions trading)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together 11 expert testimonies about the French general tax on polluting activities (GTPA). Content: 1 - the GTPA today and in 2001: the first year GTPA, the GTPA 2001 in the water sector, the everyday formal procedures linked with GTPA, the contentious aspects of GTPA; 2 - the eco-tax or energy-GTPA: European framework of energy products taxing, enforcement and implementation of the energy-GTPA in France; 3 - the negotiable emission permits: negotiable permits for companies with a strong energy intensity, functioning of emission permits in a global strategy, the position of the European Commission about negotiable permits and the perspectives in this domain at the community level; 4 - towards a reduction of greenhouse gases: the Goeteborg protocol, the consequences of La Haye's COP6, the position of a type-sector, an efficient system for the abatement of greenhouse gases by the producing sector. (J.S.)

2000-01-01

93

Differences between the glacial cycles of Antarctic temperature and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ice-core measurements have indicated that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 show glacial-interglacial variations in step with Antarctic temperature. To obtain more insight into the nature of this relationship for cycles of different frequencies, measured time series of temperature, CO2, and CH4 are reanalysed. The results indicate that the temperature signal consists of...

Omta, A. W.

2012-01-01

94

Contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to investigate the mechanisms by which GHGs and ODSs affect the evolution of ozone, including changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation of the stratosphere and cooling of the upper strato...

Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

2010-01-01

95

Fossil energy use and greenhouse gases emission in the integrated production of bioethanol and bio diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter concerns about the effects on food prices from diverting crops to bio fuels, questions about the magnitude of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions savings associated with switching to bio fuels and doubts about their environmental sustainability have caused many to rethink bio fuels blending targets (IEA, 2009). Despite the recent downturn, global use of bio fuels is projected to recover in the long term, reaching 2.7 mb/d by 2030 in the IEA Reference Scenario (IEA, 2009)

Seabra, Joaquim Eugenio A.; Souza, Simone Pereira

2012-07-01

96

An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

2003-01-01

97

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warmi...

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

98

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

99

Emissions, activity data, and emission factors of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) in Germany 1995-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Protection, the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (F-gases) aroused little public attention. Since then, the standards on surveying and reporting on national emissions have been rising constantly. Amongst others, the annual reporting to the UNFCCC secretariat makes detailed declarations on use and emissions of F-gases necessary, which have to be filled in specified formats for submission (Common Reporting Format = CRF). The scientific basis has been set out by the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting, in accordance with the instructions laid down in IPCC good practice guidance. Additionally, in Germany the Centralised System of Emissions (ZSE) shall provide a suitable tool to satisfy any quality needs of both activity data and emission factors. From 1995 onwards, activity data and emissions of each individual application sector shall be presented in a comprehensible and transparent way. Therefore, the way of data collection as well as the estimation methods applied must be well documented. Moreover, data has to be prepared for appropriate importation into ZSE. It is the objective of this study to provide the transparency demanded within 40 national application sectors of F-gases, for the period between 1995 and 2002. - Firstly, all the activity data as well as the emissions related to them are presented and commented. This applies to manufacturing of products, F-gases banked in operating systems, and decommissioning. - Secondly, the methodologies applied to calculate the emissions are described and all sources of information are revealed, e.g. literature, names of experts from the manufacturing industry, users, trade, and academia. - Thirdly, reliability and safety of data are discussed. - Fourthly, possible deviations from the IPCC default values are stated and given reasons for. Wherever this intensive reviewing of 40 sectors through eight years of reporting uncovers gaps or inconsistencies in previous reports, later corrections can be made by means of recalculations. (orig.)

Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche, Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2005-06-15

100

Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

2010-07-15

102

Investigations of Buffer-Gases Role in Xenon and Halogen Excimer Mixtures  

Science.gov (United States)

Excimer- is an acronym in use for the excited dimmer, molecule which does not exist in the ground state but only in an excited state. This paper presents the role of the buffer-gas atoms (Ar, Ne, He), in the (Cl2/I2 Xe) excimer radiation emission mechanisms. The same buffer-gas produced a different effect on the excimer emission intensity: the neon and argon addition to xenon/chlorine/iodine had a negative effect while the helium and neon addition had a positive effect. The Penning reactions play an important role in the excimer radiation generation in connection with the gas-buffer addition and the halogen ionization potential value. The measurements are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at moderate pressure in a panel, respectively classic coaxial geometry.

Ciobotaru, L. C.; Porosnicu, C.

2010-10-01

103

Long-term reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is presented here to assess the potential long-term contribution of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in mitigation scenarios. The analysis shows the future development of the mitigation potential of non-CO2 gases (as a function of changes in technology and implementation barriers) to represent a crucial parameter for the overall costs of mitigation scenarios. The recently developed marginal abatement cost curves for 2010 in the EMF-21 project are taken as the starting point. First-order estimates were made of the future maximum attainable reduction potentials and costs on the basis of available literature. The set of MAC curves developed was used in a multi-gas analysis for stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at 550 ppm CO2-equivalent. Including future development for the non-CO2 mitigation options not only increases their mitigation potential but also lowers the overall costs compared to situations where no development is assumed (3-21% lower in 2050 and 4-26% lower in 2100 in our analysis). Along with the fluorinated gases, energy-related methane emissions make up the largest share in total non-CO2 abatement potential as they represent a large emission source and have a large potential for reduction (towards 90% compared to baseline in 2100). Most methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landuse-related sources are less simple to abate, with an estimated abatement potential in 2100 of around 60% and 40%, respectively

2007-04-01

104

Biogenic feedbacks on the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases: overview of the GREENCYCLES network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: GREENCYCLES is a Marie Curie research training network focussed on the roles of global biogeochemistry for climate change. The project aims to reduce uncertainties associated with biogenic feedbacks on global environmental change and foster the education of the next generation of Earth system scientists. GREENCYCLES young scientists are offered a unique environment bringing together key European research modelling teams with complementary expertise in coupled earth system, oceans, field-based understanding of the terrestrial and oceanic processes, and space based observations. To improve the understanding of the important biogeochemical processes that control the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, the network is spread across six key science objectives, each involving different individual research projects undertaken by Early-Stage Researchers (ESRs) and Experienced Researchers (ERs): quantify feedbacks in the global carbon cycle; determine the effects of changing land use on climate; improve understanding of natural sources of CH4 and their responses to human activities; quantify impacts of climate change and climate variability on fire-induced emissions of greenhouse gases; quantify impacts of climate change on terrestrial and oceanic biogenic emissions of aerosols and chemically active gases, and their effects on tropospheric chemistry; quantify impacts of vegetation and climate changes on atmospheric dust, and its feedbacks on CO2 and climate. An overview of the research and training progress to date will be presented. (author)

2008-04-13

105

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH{sub 4} concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N{sub 2}O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N{sub 2}O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF{sub 6} concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H{sub 2} gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

2006-07-01

106

Monitoring greenhouse gases in the landscape; Meten van broeikasgassen in het landschap  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exchange of greenhouse gases between the landscape and the atmosphere is not as easy to determine as the emission from a chimney. Various instruments and techniques are used to map the dynamics of this exchange in space and time. The measurements will have to tell what the net greenhouse gas balance of the landscape is and how it will react to a changing climate. [Dutch] De uitwisseling van broeikasgassen tussen het landschap en de atmosfeer laat zich niet zo gemakkelijk bepalen als de emissie uit een schoorsteen. Verschillende meetinstrumenten en technieken worden ingezet om de dynamiek van deze uitwisseling in ruimte en tijd in beeld te krijgen. De metingen moeten vertellen wat de netto broeikasgasbalans van het landschap is en hoe deze zal reageren op een veranderend klimaat.

Kroon, P.S.; Hensen, A.; Veenendaal, E.M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Van Huissteden, J. [Darwin Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, A.J. [Subafdeling hydrologie en geo-milieuwetenschappen, Faculteit der aard- en levenswetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duyzer, J.H. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Elbers, J.A.; Van Beek, C.L. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Mosquera, J. [Animal Sciences Group ASG, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-08-15

107

Abiotic Mechanisms for the Formation of Greenhouse Gases from Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosol particles such as mineral dust can undergo interfacial, heterogeneous reactions that can be involved in both the formation and destruction of important greenhouse gases. This talk will provide an overview of some of these reactions and will focus on the formation of atmospheric nitrous oxide from ammonium nitrate coated dust particles that can be initiated with simulated solar radiation. Although nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and a primary cause of stratospheric ozone destruction, there remain missing sources in the nitrous oxide budget. Nitrous oxide production by the abiotic mechanism discussed here is expected globally from both megacities and agricultural areas and may become more important under future projected changes in anthropogenic emissions.

Grassian, V. H.

2012-12-01

108

Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

109

Quantifying the Summertime Austral Jet Stream and Hadley Cell Response to Stratospheric Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of anthropogenic forcing on the austral jet stream and Hadley Cell in summer is assessed across three comprehensive climate model datasets, the Chemistry Climate Model Validation Activity 2 (CCMVal2) and Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects, Phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3,5). Changes in stratospheric ozone and greenhouse gases impact the troposphere in this season, and a simple framework based on temperature trends in the lower polar stratosphere and upper tropical troposphere is developed to separate their effects. It suggests that Southern Hemisphere circulation trends are driven by changes in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature gradients: the subtropical and extratropical jets respond similarly when the tropics warm or the polar stratosphere cools. The mean circulation response to greenhouse gases and ozone is fairly comparable across the three multimodel datasets; consistent with previous studies, ozone has dominated changes in recent decades, while in the future, ozone and greenhouse gases will largely offset each other. The multimodel mean perspective, however, masks considerable spread between individual models. Uncertainty resulting from differences in temperature trends is separated from differences in the circulation response to a given temperature change. Both sources of uncertainty contribute equally to model spread. Uncertainty in temperature trends is dominated by differences in the polar stratosphere, not the tropics, suggesting that reducing uncertainty in models' climate sensitivity may not narrow the spread in subtropical and extratropical circulation trends in this season. Rather, the ozone forcing must be constrained. Even if the temperature trends could be perfectly constrained, however, models' 'circulation sensitivity,' differences in the response of the circulation to the same thermal forcing, must be addressed in order to narrow spread in climate projections.

Gerber, E. P.; Son, S.

2013-12-01

110

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of...

Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

2010-01-01

111

Lower emission of greenhouse gases in spite of a cold winter; Lagere uitstoot broeikasgassen ondanks winterkou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2012, the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands was almost 1 percent lower than 2011. Although it has been a cold winter a higher consumption of natural gas for heating was compensated by a lower production of electricity and a lower consumption of automotive fuels [Dutch] In 2012 was de uitstoot van broeikasgassen in Nederland bijna 1 procent lager dan een jaar eerder. De koude winter zorgde voor een hoger aardgasverbruik voor verwarming. Dit werd echter meer dan gecompenseerd door een lagere elektriciteitsproductie en door een lager verbruik van motorbrandstoffen.

Denneman, A. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peek, K. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2013-09-09

112

Early science-policy interactions in climate change: lessons from the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consensus-based science advisory apparatus of the global climate regime is frequently faulted for achieving legitimacy at the cost of compromising the policy specificity of its assessments. The merits of an alternate corporatist model with closed-door interaction between a few experts and stakeholders are examined here by exhuming the legacy of the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases (AGGG). The study concludes that while such a model engendered policy innovation in the short term, it caused the erosion of scientific and political support over the longer term, leading to the marginalization of the AGGG. (author)

Agrawala, S. [Princeton University (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

1999-07-01

113

Selective Mass Spectrometer Characterization of Halogen Gases in Air at Atmospheric Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a new interface for use with a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-MS). The new interface uses a mechanical pump to draw gaseous analyte through a glass manifold and into the corona discharge area of the APCI-MS. This new method of delivering a gaseous sample at atmospheric pressure directly to the MS has been used to obtain real-time measurements of Br2 and Cl2 over synthetic seawater ice. The ion intensity of a halogen gas measured by the MS is affected by the pumping rate and the position of the glass manifold. The MS signals for Br2 are linear in the 0.1 to 10.6 ppbv range, and the estimated 3 sigma detection limit is 20.7 pptv. The MS signals for Cl2 are linear in the 0.2 to 25 ppbv range, and the estimated 3 sigma detection limit is 1.081 ppbv. This lab-based technique is suitable to be the basis for a portable field-based design. Such a design, a miniaturized instrument, will help elucidate the role of seawater snow and ice surfaces on the photochemical production of Br2 and Cl2 in the high Arctic.

Dahl, S.; Ivey, M. M.; Foster, K. L.

2004-12-01

114

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

2005-02-01

115

Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

2000-07-01

116

The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

2006-04-15

117

Minimum requirements on implementation of the greenhouse gases ordinance. EU ordinance on fluorinated greenhouse gases; Mindestanforderungen zur Implementierung der F-Gase-Verordnung. Die EG-Verordnung zu fluorierten Treibhausgasen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 4 July 2006, the EU ordinance 842/2006 on fluorinated greenhouse gases came into force. Since 4 July 2007, it has been in effect with the exception of article 9 and appendix II both of which had been effective since 4 July 2006. However, some articles of the ordinance necessitate the definition of minimum requirements resp. of form and contents by the EU commission. The minimum requirements for training and certification will provide a basis for national implementation of these measures in the EU member states. (orig.)

Preisegger, E. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Environmental and Public Affairs Fluorochemicals

2008-04-15

118

The importance of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide and other possible differences between various fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to assess factors that indicate how various fuels affect the climate. In these factors emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are weighed together with reference to the direct and indirect effects of these gases on the climate. The analysis is dependent on the time period that is to be studied. We have carried out calculations both on the basis of the coming 50-year period and on the basis of a period where the greenhouse effect is summed up after the total life term of the gases in the atmosphere, i.e. more than 400 years. Uncertainties in the calculations are due to the following: - the indirect effects of methane emissions, i.e. ozone formation, are difficult to assess. - knowledge about the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide is incomplete. - any other secondary effects such as emissions of carbon monoxide and other organic substances, natural and anthrogenic, may be of significance. In addition, light should be shed on whether the results change significantly if account is also taken of the effects of the gases on the stratosphere, i.e. the depletion of the ozone layer.

Levander, T.

1989-11-01

119

Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

2005-12-13

120

From SO{sub 2} to greenhouse gases: trends and events shaping future emissions trading programs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cap-and-trade programs have become widely accepted for the control of conventional air pollution in the United States. However, there is still no political consensus to use these programs to address greenhouse gases. Meanwhile, in the wake of the success of the US SO{sub 2} and NOx trading programs, private companies, state governments, and the European Union are developing new trading programs or other initiatives that may set precedents for a future national US greenhouse gas trading scheme. This paper summarizes the literature on the 'lessons learned' from the SO{sub 2} trading program for greenhouse gas trading, including lessons about the potential differences in design that may be necessary because of the different sources, science, mitigation options, and economics inherent in greenhouse gases. The paper discusses how the programs and initiatives mentioned above have been shaped by lessons from past trading programs and whether they are making changes to the SO{sub 2} model to address greenhouse gases. It concludes with an assessment of the implications of these initiatives for a future US national greenhouse gas trading program. 91 refs., 2 tabs.

Joseph Kruger

2005-06-15

 
 
 
 
121

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported

1994-01-01

122

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA  

Science.gov (United States)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2009-12-01

123

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during BARCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2009-12-01

124

A STRATEGIC PROGRAM TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS PRODUCED FROM FOOD INDUSTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming.

A. Kilic [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, Nigde (Turkey); A. Midilli [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde (Turkey); I. Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

2008-09-30

125

Greenhouse gases emission balances in the sector of energy recovery from waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the current greenhouse gases emission levels in the European Union, the paper describes the contribution of waste management in comparison with the other sectors. Thanks to the integrated waste management approach, to the decrease of the landfilling and to the increase of waste-to-energy practices, the waste sector is one of the few which account for a net reduction of the overall emissions in the time-span 1990-2002, at least in Italy. A further increase of the waste-to-energy practice, in both new dedicated plants and existing plants through co-combustion might result in a significant contribution to the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, which has recently come into force

2006-01-01

126

Model of the internal gravity waves excited by lithospheric greenhouse effect gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The satellite and near-ground study demonstrated IR temperature anomalies associated with fault system of the crust in the seismic region of the Earth. The amplitude of anomalies is about ?T = 3K. Such change of temperature needs about 100% increase of CO2 concentration. Internal gravity waves (IGW) excited by greenhouse effect gases could cause some ionospheric disturbances including density irregularities. The accurate numerical model of 2D > with heat, mass and concentration sources of IGW in the atmosphere is built in the present work. The system of hydrodynamics equations for IGW excitation in the atmosphere by the source in the form of near-ground layer of lithospheric greenhouse effect gases is reduced to the system of two equations for pressure and vertical velocity component. Corresponding effective boundary conditions are obtained by means of limit pass to the case of very thin layer and absolutely rigid lithosphere. Periodical boundary conditions in the horizontal directions are used to avoid computations with continuous spectrum and numerical convergence of the model is checked carefully. It is shown that at the altitude Z = 200 km the value of vertical velocity of IGW with period 1 hour could reach the value of order 4 m/s what is enough for plasma bubbles formation in accordance with previously published data. In distinction to the qualitative model of Gohberg et al., reactive modes in the IGW spectrum are taken into account. It is shown that, although these modes are non-propagating, they influence significantly the IGW excitation and, as a result, the charactersitics of propagating modes. In particular, non-taking into account reactive modes could cause under definite conditions overestimating of energy flow by at least two orders of value. This result is analogous to the well known in microwave technique effect of the influence of reactive modes on scattering of electromagnetic waves on inhomogeneities in microwave waveguides.

Gotynyan, O. E.; Ivchenko, V. N.; Rapoport, Yu. G.

127

Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO2 concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO2 due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO2 concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

2009-11-01

128

Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-10-15

129

Gas a effetto serra: Prima valutazione delle emissioni in Italia. (Estimate of the greenhouse gases emissions in Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimate of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and the selection of the relevant emission factors represents a preliminary condition to define policies aiming at curbing these emissions. In the first part of this paper is carried out an a...

D. Gaudioso G. Onufrio

1992-01-01

130

Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

2012-04-01

131

Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

NONE

2001-12-01

132

Emission of greenhouse gases from sewage installations; Emissies van broeikasgassen van rwzi's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are monitored. The emission of CO2 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is related to the use of electricity, natural gas or other fossil fuels. The amount and origin of the emission of CH4 and N2O, however, is unknown. Presently emission factors from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are used to estimate those emissions. The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine the level of N2O and CH4 emission from Dutch WWTPs to understand the accuracy of the existing emission factors. In this way an estimation of the total greenhouse gas emission from a Dutch WWTP can be made. The emission of N2O and CH4 was measured at three WWTPs in the Netherlands: Papendrecht, Kortenoord and Kralingseveer [Dutch] In deze studie zijn de indirecte en directe emissies van broeikasgassen (CO2, CH4 en N2O) van rwzi's in kaart gebracht aan de hand van metingen. De resultaten hebben aanleiding gegeven voor een vervolgonderzoek waarbij onder meer kennis wordt ontwikkeld op het gebied van methaanvorming (CH4) in de riolering en mogelijkheden om de emissie van methaan op een zuivering te reduceren. Met betrekking tot lachgas N2O wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de vormingsprocessen van lachgas en de wijze waarop deze vrijkomt vanuit een rwzi. Verder worden relaties tussen lachgasemissie en procesparameters inzichtelijk gemaakt. Met deze kennis is het hopelijk in de toekomst mogelijk om maatregelen te nemen die de vorming en emissie van lachgas vanuit rwzi's te reduceren.

Van Voorthuizen, E.; Van Leusden, M.; Visser, A.; Kruit, J. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kampschreur, M.; Van Dongen, U.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

2010-03-15

133

Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

2013-12-01

134

Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the eastern European taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

±A three year long record of regular vertical aircraft profiling for continuous atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements as well as for flask sampling to derive the climatology of other greenhouse gases (CH4, SF6 and N2O), is presented. Measurements were undertaken in the lower troposphere between 100 and 3000 m over the eastern European taiga about 100 km south east of the city of Syktyvkar (61 deg 24 min N, 52 deg 18 min E). From the continuous profiles mean CO2 mixing ratios were calculated for the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and for the 'free troposphere' up to 3000 m. The amplitudes of the respective seasonal cycles are 22.1 ± 3.5 and 14.0 ± 2.1 ppm. ABL mixing ratios are generally larger than free tropospheric values during the winter period, and smaller during the summer due to the change of the continental biosphere from a source to a sink. The phasing of the seasonal cycles is slightly different between the two height intervals (by about 30 days), with the ABL extremes occurring earlier. Very abrupt concentration changes up to 8 ppm are observed in the free troposphere associated with changes in air mass origin. Mean CO2 mixing ratios derived from flask samples at 3000 m compare well with the respective integrated values measured in the continuous profiles above the ABL ((delta) CO2 = 0.3 ± 1.6 ppm). CH4 mixing ratios also show a pronounced seasonality, and winter time vertical gradients correlate well with those of CO2. Similarly, SF6 vertical gradients are correlated with CO2 gradients possibly pointing to some anthropogenic origin of the boundary layer CO2 signal during winter. N2O and SF6 also show a slight seasonality with almost the same phasing. The main reasons for the seasonality of both gases are probably transport processes with a possible contribution from stratosphere/troposphere exchange

2002-11-01

135

A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

2013-08-01

136

Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are effective greenhouse gases, the most important of which are the HFCs. The emission estimates and i

Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

1998-11-01

137

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.  

Science.gov (United States)

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

2008-06-30

138

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions.

Chen, T.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: d91541013@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, C.-F. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)

2008-06-30

139

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions

2008-06-30

140

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management â?? an introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO2-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01

142

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO2-equivalent (kg CO2-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, andtravel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

143

Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth's climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model

1994-04-05

144

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

145

The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

Dedinec Aleksandar

2012-01-01

146

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

147

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

148

Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with <1 kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033-cm^-1 point spacing. The fitted path-averaged concentrations and temperature yield dry-air mole fractions. These are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate current absorption models for real atmospheres. In heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of <1 ppm for CO2 and <3 ppb for CH4 is achieved in 5 minutes in this initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

2014-01-01

149

Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

150

Monitoring Greenhouse Gases and Their Pollutions in Sarakhs Region Influenced by the Sourest Natural Gas Resource in the Middle East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shahid Hashemi-Nezhad Gas Processing Company (S.G.P.C.), located in Sarakhs region of Iran, processes wells that consist of the sourest gases in Middle East. The gas entering the company from gas wells includes 3.5 percent H2S and 6.5 percent CO2 that is quite rare among similar wells for sweetening such large quantities as it does. As a result, greenhouse gases and their possible harmful results are sometimes unavoidable in the area. In ...

Nader Nabhani; Mojtaba Mirdrikvand; Saeedeh Imani Moqadam; Amirali Rezazadeh; Seyed Alireza Sakaki

2012-01-01

151

Overview and outline of the results of the project 'Identification of unknown sources of other greenhouse gases. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse gases in the title study concern CH4, N2O, CFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The research field is subdivided into biological processes, the processing industry, and production and import of greenhouse gases. Data with regard to material/source combinations are compiled from the literature, databases, and experts in the field and stored in a database, resulting in circa 90 combinations, of which 62 combinations remain, representing 1.9 Mton CO2-equivalents. The 10 largest sources are responsible for 80% of the total emission. The largest material/source combinations are from biological processes (waste processing, waste water treatment). Other combinations are SF6 emission in the production of noise insulating double glazing, use of N2O in hospitals (anesthesia), SF6 emission in the use of high voltage components. The two largest emission sources concern N2O in composting and N2O from waste water treatment plants

2000-01-01

152

Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-accuracy remote measurement of greenhouse gases is hampered by contamination of the field of view by the path radiance of solar radiation scattered from clouds and aerosols. A method is proposed for eliminating the effect of path radiance by differentiating two components of polarized light. The polarization of path radiance is measured directly at the wave-number region of strong water-vapor absorption. Using this measurement, we eliminate the components of path radiance involved in other bands, which are used for greenhouse gas measurements, by differentiating two components of the polarized light. It is shown that the effect of path radiance on retrieving the column amount of gases potentially can be reduced to below 0.1%. PMID:12206201

Aoki, Tadao; Aoki, Teruo; Fukabori, Masashi

2002-08-20

153

Cosmic-Ray-Driven Reaction and Greenhouse Effect of Halogenated Molecules: Culprits for Atmospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is focused on the effects of cosmic rays (solar activity) and halogenated molecules (mainly chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs) on atmospheric O3 depletion and global climate change. Brief reviews are first given on the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for O3 depletion and the warming theory of CFCs for climate change. Then natural and anthropogenic contributions are examined in detail and separated well through in-depth statistical analyses of compr...

Lu, Qing-bin

2012-01-01

154

Geologic Storage of Greenhouse Gases: Multiphase andNon-isothermal Effects, and Implications for Leakage Behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage of greenhouse gases, primarily CO2, in geologic formations has been proposed as a means by which atmospheric emissions of such gases may be reduced (Bachu et al., 1994; Orr, 2004). Possible storage reservoirs currently under consideration include saline aquifers, depleted or depleting oil and gas fields, and unmineable coal seams (Baines and Worden, 2004). The amount of CO2 emitted from fossil-fueled power plants is very large, of the order of 30,000 tons per day (10 million tons per year) for a large 1,000 MW coal-fired plant (Hitchon,1996). In order to make a significant impact on reducing emissions, very large amounts of CO2 would have to be injected into subsurface formations, resulting in CO2 disposal plumes with an areal extent of order 100 km2 or more (Pruess et al., 2003). It appears inevitable, then, that such plumes will encounter imperfections in caprocks, such as fracture zones or faults, that would allow CO2 to leak from the primary storage reservoir. At typical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is always less dense than aqueous fluids; thus buoyancy forces will tend to drive CO2 upward, towards the land surface, whenever adequate (sub-)vertical permeability is available. Upward migration of CO2 could also occur along wells, including pre-existing wells in sedimentary basins where oil and gas exploration and production may have been conducted (Celia et al., 2004), or along wells drilled as part of a CO2 storage operation. Concerns with leakage of CO2 from a geologic storage reservoir include (1) keeping the CO2 contained and out of the atmosphere, (2) avoiding CO2 entering groundwater aquifers, (3)asphyxiation hazard if CO2 is released at the land surface, and (4) the possibility of a self-enhancing runaway discharge, that may culminate in a ''pneumatic eruption'' (Giggenbach et al., 1991). The manner in which CO2 may leak from storage reservoirs must be understood in order to avoid hazards and design monitoring systems.

Pruess, Karsten

2005-08-05

155

Regulation for fluorinated gases to reduce greenhouse gas emission; F/gassenverordening moet helpen broeikasgasemissies terug te dringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the Kyoto Protocol the EU committed itself to reducing greenhouse gas emissions with 8% in the period 2008-2012 compared to reference year 1990. Among other things, the Kyoto Protocol encompasses three groups of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F gases): hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Most of these F gases have a high Global Warming Potential. These gases are used for various purposes, including coolants in stationary cooling installations, climate control systems and heart pump equipment. [Dutch] In het kader van het Kyoto Protocol heeft de EU zich ertoe verbonden haar broeikasgasemissies gedurende de periode van 2008 tot 2012 met acht procent terug te dringen ten opzichte van het referentiejaar 1990. Het Protocol van Kyoto heeft onder meer betrekking op drie groepen gefluoreerde broeikasgassen (F-gassen): fluorkoolwaterstoffen (HFK's), perfluorkoolstoffen (PFK's) en zwavelhexafluoride (SF6). De meeste van deze F-gassen hebben een hoog aardopwarmingsvermogen (Global Warming Potential). Deze gassen worden voor uiteenlopende toepassingen gebruikt, onder meer als koelmiddelen in stationaire koelinstallaties, klimaatregelingsystemen en warmtepompapparatuur.

NONE

2009-07-01

156

Lagrangian transport and inverse emission modeling of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Lagrangian models, which track the movement of fluid parcels in their moving frame of reference, have gained in popularity and sophistication over the past few decades. More recently, Lagrangian models, in particular the class of Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LPDMs), have demonstrated their great potential in the context of inverse emission estimation as the Lagrangian framework provides a simple means to establish the relationship between receptor (measurement) locations and upstream sources. We will first briefly summarize the basic concepts of LPDMs, their application in forward and backward mode, and their use in inverse modeling. We will then present several examples of inverse emission estimation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances. The main transport modeling tool is the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART which was driven either with meteorological fields of the global IFS model of ECWMF or, in an adapted and augmented version, with high-resolution fields of the mesoscale weather forecast model COSMO. Using ECMWF meteorology, FLEXPART was applied to quantify European halocarbon emissions based on measurements at Jungfraujoch, Mace Head and a few other sites in Europe. While for some compounds our estimates were in good agreement with officially reported numbers, we also identified important examples of large discrepancies. FLEXPART was also applied at smaller scales to study anthropogenic and semi-natural methane emissions in Switzerland. For this purpose, it was driven by high-resolution fields of the COSMO model and combined with observations from a small aircraft and from a new measurement network recently established in Switzerland. We will compare our independently estimated methane emissions with the numbers presented in the Swiss National Inventory Report.

Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Reimann, Stefan; Hiller, Rebecca; Manning, Alistair; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas

2014-05-01

157

Offset system for greenhouse gases : papers for consultation : overview paper and technical background document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's domestic Offset System for greenhouse gases (GHGs) is an important element in meeting Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. The domestic offset system encourages cost-effective domestic reductions or removal of GHG emissions in activities that are not covered by federal GHG regulations. The system allows individuals, businesses and organizations to earn offset credits when they implement projects that result in GHG reductions or removal beyond what they would have done under normal business activities. Once created, verified offset credits can be sold to the Climate Fund, or to sectors that contribute significantly to GHG emissions such as oil and gas, mining and manufacturing and thermal electricity sectors. Potential offset projects exist across the economy and society. These include property developers who include renewable energy elements in their design; farmers who implement low-till practices that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it as carbon in the soil and energy utilities that have demand side management (DSM) programs that reduce energy consumption. Other opportunities may present for forestry companies that invest in reforestation; municipalities that capture methane from landfill sites; companies that encourage public transit or telework and companies covered by the large final emitters (LFE) regulations when they reduce GHG emissions from activities that are not covered by the LFE regulatory requirements. This overview paper invites feedback on the latest proposals for the Offset System. It sets out the overall policy context and the proposed principles and rules to guide the system. The Offset System is built around the principle of environmental benefits, transformational change of all sectors of the Canadian economy, and promotes projects that reduce GHG emissions in all sectors. The system is designed to be simple and cost-effective to administer. tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-08-01

158

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

159

[Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration. PMID:24720227

Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

2014-01-01

160

Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6mgkg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0mgkg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1gkg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2011-12-01

162

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

163

Mobility as a territorial key factor in the emission of greenhouse gases; La movilidad como factor territorial dominante en la emision de gases de efecto invernadero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transport and energy generation are the two dominant sectors in the overall balance of energy consumption, and thus of greenhouse gases emissions. Placement of energy generation plants responds to strategic reasons relate to energy supply in the Spanish territory, while transport is an economic activity tightly related to the productive structure and territorial characteristics: density of populations, geographic situation, efficient space organization, etc. The analysis of these factors enables to prioritize different strategies according the their energetic efficiency in order to pursue an economy less dependent of fossil fuels, focused in activities of higher added value and that keeps in mind limits and strengths of Spanish reality. (Author) 9 refs.

Crespo Garcia, L.; Montane Lopez, M. M.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

2011-07-01

164

Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other sectors Tier 3 is a further disaggregation of emission factors compared to Tier 2. Each municipality may use different tiers for different sectors depending on the data availability. (au)

Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

2009-02-15

165

A Next-Generation Space Geodetic Technique: Profiling of Greenhouse Gases and Climate by Microwave and Infrared-Laser Occultation  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the pioneering GNSS radio occultation (GRO) mission GPS/Met in the mid-1990ties, and fostered by many missions since then such as CHAMP, Formosat-3/COSMIC and others, the GRO method was firmly established as a leading space geodetic technique. GRO provides vital contributions to meteorology and climate applications, like numerical weather prediction and climate change monitoring, and a range of those are covered in this session. Building on this success, further advanced techniques for future missions and science applications emerge beyond GRO. In particular, next-generation occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEO-LEO) uses GNSS-type coherent signals beyond the GRO decimeter waves at centimeter, millimeter, and micrometer wavelengths. This new technique, termed LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO), enables to vastly expand from the GRO refractivity-based sounding of the thermodynamic structure to a complete set of weather and climate variables, including thermodynamic ones (pressure, temperature, water vapor), greenhouse gases, wind speed, and others (Kirchengast and Schweitzer, GRL, 38, L13701, 2011; www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011GL047617.shtml). LMIO combines microwave occultation signals at cm and mm wavelengths (within 8-25 GHz and 175-200 GHz) for thermodynamic state profiling with infrared-laser occultation signals within 2 to 2.5 ?m for greenhouse gas and line-of-sight wind profiling; greenhouse gases include water vapor (H2O), the three key long-lived ones (CO2, CH4, N2O) and others. We present the fundamentals and discuss the estimated performance of LMIO-based thermodynamic state and greenhouse gas profiling, including from quasi-realistic end-to-end performance simulations considering also clouds and aerosols. To indicate the performance, we found monthly-mean temperature and greenhouse gas profiles, assuming 30 to 40 native profiles averaged per climatological "grid cell" per month, accurate to

Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Proschek, V.

2012-04-01

166

Surface acoustic wave gas sensor for nitrogen dioxide using phthalocyanines as chemical interfaces. Effects of nitric oxide, halogen gases, and prolonged heat treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of CO, NO, and O/sub 2/ on the response of a SAW (surface acoustic wave) chemosensor for NO/sub 2/ has been studied. A description is given of the measuring equipment existing of a mass flow controlled automatic gas dilution system. Copper and iron phthalocyanine were used as the chemical interface. Simultaneously, the influence of ambient atmospheres (N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/) was investigated. Predictions from ultraviolet-visible experiments in solution do not hold for gaseous environments. Also the effect of electronegative gases like the halogens was studied. Response up to 40 times the NO/sub 2/ response was measured. Prolonged heat treatment affects the sensitivity for NO/sub 2/ negatively as well as the response time. This asks for a more stable chemical interface. All results are discussed in terms of general performance criteria for gas sensors such as selectivity, sensitivity, response time, reversibility, and stability.

Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.; Nederlof, A.J.

1988-02-01

167

Subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of greenhouse gases from a seasonally waterlogged peatland in the UK  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern peatlands are globally valuable carbon stocks that can act as either sinks or sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs); carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). We present the results of a year-long field study of subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a seasonally flooded, managed lowland fen in the UK. This study aimed to determine the extent to which water status and temperature varies at the site throughout the year and how this affects both the subsurface production and surface emission of GHGs. Measured GHG fluxes were compared to estimations using measured subsurface concentrations with Fick's Law (gradient method). Fick's Law was parameterised with either a measured or a modelled value for the diffusion coefficient for gas transport through soil. Water-table depth was shown to be a more significant control on surface GHG emissions and subsurface concentrations than ambient temperature. CO2 emissions increased as the water-table lowered from the surface until 35cm, wherein CO2 emissions began to decrease once more. This break in the relationship was attributed to low available water for respiration due to drying and competition with plants, and to reduced substrate availability as a result of prolonged optimal respiration conditions. Subsurface CO2 concentrations showed the opposite relationship with water-table depth, increasing as the water-table moved toward the surface. Both CH4 emissions and subsurface concentrations showed an exponential relationship with water-table depth, increasing dramatically as the soil entered a flooded condition. N2O fluxes were primarily small and negative throughout the course of the year. N2O concentrations below the surface in the field under ungrazed conditions were shown to be low, decreasing even further under flooded conditions, suggesting full denitrification to N2. The gradient method overestimated emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O by up to 500, 200 and 15x respectively. The divergence between subsurface and surface CO2 became unworkable when combined with an artifact of overestimation discovered when using silicone rubber soil atmosphere collectors in saturated or near saturated soils. Further studies into improved methods for accurate subsurface GHG measurement in waterlogged peat soils are needed.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David; Verhoef, Anne

2013-04-01

168

The effects of blue energy on future emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blue energy is the electricity generated from salinity gradients in rivers. About half of the global electricity demand could be satisfied if the technical potential was implemented. However, the technique is not yet implemented in full-scale operational plants. We estimate the potential effects of blue energy on future emissions of CO2, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) and other atmospheric pollutants in China, assuming it would replace coal in electricity and heat production. We focus...

Gao, X.; Kroeze, C.

2012-01-01

169

Inventory preliminary of gases of greenhouse effect in Colombia. Sources and drains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents a summary of the results of the national greenhouse gas emissions inventory sources sinks and reservoirs project, which has been developed within the framework of the national study to address climate change. The study was initiated by a professionals group on behalf of the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales in July 1995, with financial support of the German Organization of Cooperation GTZ and the technical assistance of the Venezuelan Country Study Greenhouse gas Inventory team

1997-03-01

170

The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N{sub 2}O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed oil and oil from soybeans and oil palms cultivated on recently deforested soils have higher life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional diesel. (author)

Reijnders, L. [IBED, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2011-02-15

171

Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector; Buenas practicas en la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector del transporte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

2010-07-01

172

Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases and the effects on income distribution. A case study of the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus on CO{sub 2} emissions only, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to other greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as CO{sub 2}. These are CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases improves the cost-effectiveness of climate change mitigation. It is not yet clear, however, what the effect is of multigas taxation on the distribution of the tax burden across income groups. This paper examines and compares distributional effects of a CO{sub 2} tax and a comprehensive tax that covers all six GHG of the Kyoto Protocol. The study concentrates on the Netherlands in the year 2000. We established tax rates on the basis of marginal abatement cost curves and the Dutch policy target. The distributional effects have been determined by means of environmentally extended input-output analysis and data on consumer expenditures. Our results show that taxation of multiple GHG improves not only the cost-effectiveness of climate change mitigation, but also distributes the tax burden more equally across income groups as compared to a CO{sub 2} tax. These findings are relevant for the debate on the role of non-CO{sub 2} GHG in climate change mitigation. (author)

Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Moll, Henri C. [Center for Energy and Environmental Studies IVEM, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Drissen, Eric; Wilting, Harry C. [The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2008-09-15

173

Greenhouse gases and ozone depleting compounds in the earth`s atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming and ozone depletion are the main environmental problems caused by changes in atmospheric composition. These changes come from human activities that add to the natural cycles of atmospheric gases or put entirely new compounds into the earth`s atmosphere. At present only a few gases play a major role in global climate change and ozone depletion. These are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, trichlorofluoromethane (F-11), and dichlorofluoromethane (F-12). There are other gases that also add to these problems but to a lesser extent. This paper is about global warming, ozone depletion and the trends and budgets of the gases that can change the climate or deplete the ozone layer. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Khalil, M.A.K. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

174

Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH4 emissions by 78 % and increased N2O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH4 emission-related genes generally followed CH4 emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH4 emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N2O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N2O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups. PMID:24682309

Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

2014-08-01

175

Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1996-12-31

176

Electric energy auctions in Brazil and its effect on emissions of greenhouse gases by the electric sector; Leiloes de energia eletrica no Brasil e sua influencia nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa pelo setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The result of the auctions of electricity, after the new regulatory framework in 2004, has shown the increased participation of fossil sources of thermal generation, contributing to increased emission of greenhouse gases by the Brazilian Electricity Sector. This article aims to analyze the correlation between growth in electric generation sector and rising greenhouse gases, especially through the study of the winning projects of electric power auctions conducted with the advent of the New Institutional Model of the Power Sector from 2004, comparing with the existing policies and prospects of the next auction of the electric sector. (author)

Alpire, Ricardo; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

2010-07-01

177

Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

1998-08-01

178

Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO) code to account for polarization effects in space- based observations of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two centuries, anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have increased to an alarming situation. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which is in orbit since 23 January 2009, has considerable promise to improve surface flux inverse modeling. Algorithms for the operational satellite data processing must accurately account for atmospheric light scattering caused by aerosols and thin upper tropospheric clouds. Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) in short wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measures two polarized components spectra for both P- and S- polarization states. The current versions of the operational algorithms for GOSAT data processing utilize scalar radiance that is produced from combination of the polarized signals. To process both polarization states within the full physics algorithms, that utilized the solution of vectorial radiative transfer calculations, is still time consuming when utilizing the radiative transfer codes such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, SCIATRAN. In this paper we report an improved rapid code for spectral radiative transfer calculations that is refereed to as Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO). This program could be utilized in further versions of full physics algorithm for direct processing of both polarized states. Another application of this method for space-based observations of greenhouse gases resides in testing of photon path length probability density function (PPDF) method that effectively accounts of atmospheric light scattering. The CIAO code is based on the solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) with elimination of the anisotropic part of the radiance angular distribution that allows finding the solution of the discretized VRTE in the closed matrix form. There are no any limitations of the media parameters in this code. The comparison of this algorithm with known ones such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, and SCIATRAN showed that similar accuracy could be accessed under significantly lower time consuming. The difference in computation time reaches one order of magnitude and even higher with increasing the degree of scattering anisotropy the total atmospheric optical depth

Budak, V. P.; Klyuykov, D. A.; Oshchepkov, S.

2010-12-01

179

Emissões de gases de efeito estufa pela deposição de palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre o solo / Greenhouse gases emissions due to sugarcane trash on the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Biocombustíveis contribuem para reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). No Brasil, o principal biocombustível é o etanol de cana-de-açúcar. Além dos colmos, as folhas de cana-de-açúcar também podem ser usadas para produzir etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as emissões de GEE [...] (CO2, CH4 e N2O) induzidas pela presença de palha sobre o solo. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em Latossolos, em Piracicaba: imediatamente após a colheita, aos seis e aos 12 meses após a colheita. Foram avaliados os efeitos de três doses de palha (0%, 50% e 100% da quantidade disponível na superfície) sobre as emissões. Imediatamente após a colheita, as emissões de CO2 e CH4 aumentaram com o aumento da quantidade de palha. Aos seis meses após a colheita houve consumo de CH4 à medida que a quantidade de palha aumentou. Doze meses após a colheita, as emissões dos três gases foram similares, independentemente da quantidade de palha. Remover a palha de cana-de-açúcar não aumenta as emissões de GEE do solo em comparação ao manejo sem retirada da palha da superfície. Contudo, estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os efeitos sobre a produtividade de cana-de-açúcar, sobre a erosão e sobre outros atributos do solo. Abstract in english Biofuels are important to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions to atmosphere. In Brazil, the main biofuel is ethanol from sugarcane. Beyond stalk, sugarcane sheets are also stating to be used to produce second generation ethanol. The objective of this work was evaluate soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2 [...] O) emissions induced by sugarcane trash on soil surface. Three experiments were done in an Oxisol, in Piracicaba region, taking in account three periods: immediately after sugarcane harvest, six and twelve months after harvest. In each experiment, we evaluated the effects of three sugarcane trash rates (0%, 50% and 100% of the quantity available at soil surface). Immediately after harvest, CO2 and CH4 emissions increased linearly with trash rate on soil surface. Six months after harvest there were CH4 consumption by soil as trash on surface increased. Twelve months after harvest, emissions of the three gases were similar in all trash rates. Removing sugarcane straw from soil surface do not increase soil GHGs emissions as compared to the current management, in which 100% of trash is maintained on the soil surface. However, other studies are needed to investigate its effects under sugarcane yield, soil erosion and under other soil attributes.

Diana, Signor; Luísa Lorentz Magalhães, Pissioni; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

180

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO...

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributio...

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

2009-01-01

182

Methane reductions are a cost-effective approach for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reductions in methane emissions from human-related sources are frequently low cost, if not profitable, opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the technologies and practices available for reducing methane emissions offer an array of other important benefits which support country development goals. This paper summarizes these technologies and practices for the major human-related sources of methane emissions. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

1993-07-01

183

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic...

2009-01-01

184

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in co...

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

185

Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

2014-05-01

186

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm?1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm?1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

A. Butz

2013-09-01

187

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm?1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm?1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

A. Butz

2013-05-01

188

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

2013-09-01

189

Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 ?m. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

2011-07-01

190

Cattle feedlot soil moisture and manure content: I. Impacts on greenhouse gases, odor compounds, nitrogen losses, and dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beef cattle feedlots face serious environmental challenges associated with manure management, including greenhouse gas, odor, NH3, and dust emissions. Conditions affecting emissions are poorly characterized, but likely relate to the variability of feedlot surface moisture and manure contents, which affect microbial processes. Odor compounds, greenhouse gases, nitrogen losses, and dust potential were monitored at six moisture contents (0.11, 0.25, 0.43, 0.67, 1.00, and 1.50 g H2O g(-1) dry matter [DM]) in three artificial feedlot soil mixtures containing 50, 250, and 750 g manure kg(-1) total (manure + soil) DM over a two-week period. Moisture addition produced three microbial metabolisms: inactive, aerobic, and fermentative at low, moderate, and high moisture, respectively. Manure content acted to modulate the effect of moisture and enhanced some microbial processes. Greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions were dynamic at moderate to high moisture. Malodorous volatile fatty acid (VFA) compounds did not accumulate in any treatments, but their persistence and volatility varied depending on pH and aerobic metabolism. Starch was the dominant substrate fueling both aerobic and fermentative metabolism. Nitrogen losses were observed in all metabolically active treatments; however, there was evidence for limited microbial nitrogen uptake. Finally, potential dust production was observed below defined moisture thresholds, which were related to manure content of the soil. Managing feedlot surface moisture within a narrow moisture range (0.2-0.4 g H2O g(-1) DM) and minimizing the accumulation of manure produced the optimum conditions that minimized the environmental impact from cattle feedlot production. PMID:15758117

Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D

2005-01-01

191

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

Abbas Asakereh

2010-08-01

192

The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

NONE

2013-08-15

193

Contribution of the renewable energies to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission for 2010; Contribution des EnR a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'horizon 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To illustrate the renewable energies contribution to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission in 2010 (19 Mt of CO{sub 2} per year, of greenhouse gases emission avoided), this document presents the different renewable energies sources and the international context of their implementation. Today data and estimations for 2010 are provided. (A.L.B.)

Anon.

2003-03-01

194

The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric mixing ratios of {approximately}10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. 78 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sagan, C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Chyba, C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-05-23

195

The Spatial and Temporal Representativeness of Atmospheric Observations of Greenhouse Gases at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous observations of trace species such as greenhouse gases (GHGs) made from ground-based stations contain excellent information in the time domain but no direct information about the spatial distribution of GHGs. Generally a rule-of-thumb is used for inferring horizontal length scales for specific time intervals, but this is approximate and does not give any indication about the specific contributions of advection and surface fluxes to GHG variability. We consider the first year of measurements from a new coastal background site in Namibia, the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory(NDAO) and apply a quantitative approach using footprints and back-trajectories to calculate a site-specific time to spatial scale conversion function. The extent of both horizontal and vertical transport exhibits seasonality and synoptic influence. The historical NOAA GHG flask record from nearby site GBB is also compared to the global background to assess how well regional and global trends are represented by observations at NDAO. Based on the results of the HYSPLIT and TM3 transport models, during austral summer the site receives marine boundary layer air with a greater extent of horizontal transport than in austral winter, when air masses are sourced from greater height and are more likely to be terrestrially influenced. This conclusion is supported by the trace gases and meteorological parameters measured at the station.

Morgan, Eric; Lavri?, Jošt; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

196

Greenhouse gases emission from sanitary landfills in Lombardy: estimation and uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantification of methane emissions from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A census has been conducted across all landfills in Lombardy in order to get a double assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1973-2007. The first approach is of a deterministic kind: it produced a GHG emission assessment of about 2,240 ktCO2 (like 2.4% of GHG emission in Lombardy in 2005). The second approach is a probabilistic approach according to Monte Carlo simulation, and allows an assessment of probabilistic distribution of emissions and uncertainty. Uncertainty in GHG emission from landfill in Lombardy is about 20% and efficiency of LFG collection and biodegradable carbon content are the most relevant parameters in this assessment. Also, a projection of GHG emission was made. Two scenarios were analyzed for the 2008-2020 period: a business as usual (BAU) one and an alternative one. It results that we are expecting a 50% reduction of GHG emission, with alternative scenario, from 2007 level: at regional scale it is like a 1% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardy.

2009-01-01

197

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

198

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

199

Method for evaluating trends in greenhouse gases from ground-based remote FTIR measurements over Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.

T. Gardiner

2007-11-01

200

Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO2-equivalents tonne â??1 wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO2-equivalents tonneâ??1 wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (â??560 to â??120 kg CO2equivalents tonneâ??1 wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (â??665 to â??125 kg CO2-equivalents tonneâ?? 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (â??1.9 to â??1.3 tonnes CO2-equivalents tonneâ?? 1 wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change: case of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in climate caused by human activities will have far-reaching environmental impacts. Of particular concern are the possibilities of major changes in regional water quantity and quality. An increase in average monthly temperature of 4 deg. C decreases spring runoff over 50% while increasing winter runoff nearly 35%; summer Soil moisture decreases over 30%. Changes in precipitation, whether positive or negative may have been greater consequences for the timing and magnitude of runoff and may contribute significantly to the possibility and consequences of flooding and drought. Global Climatic Changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentration of CO/sub 2/ from fuel combustion and other trace gases are likely to appear within the next few decades. One of the most important of such environmental changes will be alternations in regional hydrologic characteristics such as surface runoff and soil moisture. (author)

1997-01-01

202

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-06-01

203

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-01-01

204

Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

205

Greenhouse gases emissions inventory in 2005 by the Mexican energy sector; Inventario de emisiones en 2005 de gases de efecto invernadero por el sector energetico mexicano  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance National de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission source that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory. In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sector had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non-industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries. [Spanish] En este trabajo se calcularon las emisiones de Gases de Efecto de inventario (GEI's) del 2005 por la seccion de consumo y/o transformacion de energia en Mexico. El documento obtenido no es oficial, y como referencia, se utiliza el consumo de combustible que refiere el Balance Nacional de Energia 2005, publicado por la Secretaria de Energia. Con esto, se estandarizan las fuentes de emision que en algun momento usara el Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de GEI's 2005. Para resolver la falta de factores de emision propios de Mexico, se recurre a los factores globales de emision propuestos como valores por omision por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico. Para la estimacion de las emisiones de GEI's se utilizo el Metodo Sectorial tomando en consideracion el consumo de combustible de cada uno de los subsectores en que se encuentra dividido el sector energetico. Se encontro que los sectores transporte y de la industria de la transformacion de energia son los que mas emisiones de GEI's presentan, y que Mexico como pais no industrializado tiene menos emisiones per capita que los paises desarrollados.

Flores Velazquez, R.; Munoz Lerdo Carranza, R.; Villalba Valle, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfv@iie.org.mx; rml@iie.org.mx; danviva17@yahoo.com.mx

2010-01-15

206

Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado Protocolo de Kioto, existe reticencia por parte de algunos paises desarrollados para ratificarlo y asumir sus compromisos, y en la ultima sesion de la Conferencia de las Partes, (COP-6), celebrada en la Haya, Holanda, no se logro consolidar la entrada en operacion de los mecanismos que establece Kioto.

Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2001-07-01

207

Intramolecular halogen-halogen bonds?  

Science.gov (United States)

By analysing the properties of the electron density in the structurally simple perhalogenated ethanes, X3C-CY3 (X, Y = F, Cl), a previously overlooked non-covalent attraction between halogens attached to opposite carbon atoms is found. Quantum chemical calculations extrapolated towards the full solution of the Schrödinger equation reveal the complex nature of the interaction. When at least one of the halogens is a chlorine, the strength of the interaction is comparable to that of hydrogen bonds. Further analysis shows that the bond character is quite different from standard non-covalent halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds; no bond critical points are found between the halogens, and the ?-holes of the halogens are not utilised for bonding. Thus, the nature of the intramolecular halogen···halogen bonding studied here appears to be of an unusually strong van der Waals type. PMID:23752704

Johansson, Mikael P; Swart, Marcel

2013-07-21

208

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (â??900 kg CO2-equivalents tonneâ??1 wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO2-equivalents tonne â??1 ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh

2009-01-01

209

Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7 deg. C in south-west Sweden and 5.6 deg. C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

2009-11-01

210

New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies.

2009-06-01

211

Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable Al3+ and higher available P regarding the condition of the original soil.

Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

2014-05-01

212

Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-07

213

Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

1993-11-01

214

remote sensing of greenhouse gases with solar occultation technique using high resolution near infrared heterodyne spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared heterodyne spectrometer has been developed, which uses a distributed feedback diode laser as a tunable local oscillator, for detecting methane in the atmosphere at 1.65 ?m. The main problem of heterodyning in the near infrared range is the stringent requirements to alignment of the incident radiation fronts. Single mode quartz fiber Y-coupler was used as a diplexer to solve this problem. Radiation mixed in a fiber was detected by a balanced couple of InGaAs p-i-n diodes. The amplifier bandpass was ~ 1.75 MHz, close to local oscillator linewith. Wavelength coverage of spectral measurement was provided by sweeping local oscillator frequency in the range of 1.5 cm-1. The spectrometer noise level is demonstrated to be 1.3 of the fundamental shot-noise limit. Using Sun observations, atmospheric methane absorption line has been recorded. Achieved spectral resolution is constrained by local oscillator linewidth and stability, and constitutes about 2 MHz, which corresponds to resolving power of 10^8. The simplicity of the proposed scheme opens a perspective to use it for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in various applications, including TCCON activity. In particular, it allows solar occultation observations of CO2, C?, CH4, H2S, C2H4 and other gases from both spacecraft and ground-based platforms, as well as Doppler measurements of stratospheric winds.

Klimchuk, Artem; Nadezhdinskii, Alexander; Ponurovskii, Yakov; Rodin, Alexander; Spiridonov, Maxim

2013-04-01

215

Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3â??9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347â??371 kg CO2-eq. tonne â??1 of waste for incineration and 735â??803 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of â??480 to â??1373 kg CO2eq. tonneâ??1 of waste for incineration and within â??181 to â??2607 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ?? 1 of waste for co-combustion. N2O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob

2009-01-01

216

Hydrologic profiling for greenhouse gases on prairie potholes : part 1, hydrologic dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prairie pothole region covers 500,000 square kilometres of central North America. The many shallow depressions that characterize this unique physiographic region were created by retreating glaciers. Each pothole ranges in size from a few square metres to square kilometres, and is composed of a permanent pond surrounded by concentric bands of soils. Water content varies. The hydrologic profile is defined by the systematic soil pattern from the edge to the centre of the pothole. This profile determines biogeochemical activity, such as bringing greenhouse gas (GHG) precursors from contributing source areas into the ponds and forming sinks or sources of GHGs. A technique for defining hydrologic profiles of potholes was developed in this study, along with a model that relates hydrologic profiles to GHG exchanges within potholes. The ability to predict the hydrologic profiles of potholes was also investigated. Potholes were studied along a P-PET gradient at 5 nodes extending from the semi-arid southern extent to the semi-humid northern extent of the prairie pothole region in central Saskatchewan. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology was used to obtain fine-scale topographic data for each node. Digital terrain analyses were used to delineate landform elements such as crest, shoulder, backslope, footslope, toeslope, and wetland. Approximately 20 potholes representative of the size distribution of potholes were selected at each node. Four to 8 orthogonal transects were established from the crest to the centre of each pothole. Soil moisture was measured at 10 m intervals along each transect on a 24 day cycle from May to October 2005. Results were presented on the interactive impacts of landform elements with changing climatic conditions on the hydrologic profiles of potholes. Hydro-GHG profiling will be used in future studies to estimate the status of individual potholes or the entire region as being either a GHG sink or source.

Carlyle, S.A.; Creed, I.F. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Bourbonniere, R.A. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.; McDougal, R.L. [Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB (Canada). Inst. for Wetland and Waterfowl Research

2006-07-01

217

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0â??70 kg CO2eq. tonne â??1 of glasswaste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately â??500 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ?? 1 of glass waste for the remelting technology and â??1500 to â??600 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

2009-01-01

218

Emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane from constructed wetlands in europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential atmospheric impact of constructed wetlands (CWs) should be examined as there is a worldwide increase in the development of these systems. Fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) have been measured from CWs in Estonia, Finland, Norway, and Poland during winter and summer in horizontal and vertical subsurface flow (HSSF and VSSF), free surface water (FSW), and overland and groundwater flow (OGF) wetlands. The fluxes of N(2)O-N, CH(4)-C, and CO(2)-C ranged from -2.1 to 1000, -32 to 38 000, and -840 to 93 000 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were significantly higher during summer than during winter. The VSSF wetlands had the highest fluxes of N(2)O during both summer and winter. Methane emissions were highest from the FSW wetlands during wintertime. In the HSSF wetlands, the emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were in general highest in the inlet section. The vegetated ponds in the FSW wetlands released more N(2)O than the nonvegetated ponds. The global warming potential (GWP), summarizing the mean N(2)O and CH(4) emissions, ranged from 5700 to 26000 and 830 to 5100 mg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) d(-1) for the four CW types in summer and winter, respectively. The wintertime GWP was 8.5 to 89.5% of the corresponding summertime GWP, which highlights the importance of the cold season in the annual greenhouse gas release from north temperate and boreal CWs. However, due to their generally small area North European CWs were suggested to represent only a minor source for atmospheric N(2)O and CH(4). PMID:17071907

Søvik, A K; Augustin, J; Heikkinen, K; Huttunen, J T; Necki, J M; Karjalainen, S M; Kløve, B; Liikanen, A; Mander, U; Puustinen, M; Teiter, S; Wachniew, P

2006-01-01

219

Heterogeneous saline formations : long-term benefits for geo-sequestration of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline formations as a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions was discussed with particular reference to reservoir performance of heterogenous formations with varying permeability and porosity distributions. If CO2 is injected into such formations, the increased baffling and reduced permeability may inhibit the flow of CO2 towards potential leak points in the reservoir. Injectivity into low-quality rock is a concern for heterogeneous formations. Injection programs involving multiple wells and appropriate well- completion strategies may be able to overcome injectivity problems for these candidate formations. The opportunity for geosequestration increases if low-quality heterogeneous saline formations are considered as possible target formations. Dynamic simulation of CO2 injection into a formation was used to model possible outcomes for geosequestration projects. Heterogeneity may include stratigraphic layering in the reservoir, faults, depositional mixing, compartmentalization, and channel systems. It was determined that for underground storage, CO2 should be injected at the bottom of a heterogeneous formation to take the best advantage of vertical baffling in the reservoir to stratigraphically trap CO2 and increase reservoir contact with the formation. The trapping mechanisms for CO2 sequestration were discussed with reference to solubility; gas-water relative permeability hysteresis; geological seals; and, mineralization. Pressure rise reservoir simulation studies have shown that permeability has a pronounced influence on reservoir performance in terms of CO2 migration, local pressure changes in the formation and long-term status of the CO2. The increased travel path of CO2 causes increased trapping through greater reservoir contact and potentially improves the storage project. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

2004-09-05

220

Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG accounting for a generic AD facility with either biogas utilization at the facility or upgrading of the gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from â??375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N2O-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH 4, unburned CH4, carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWFfor a specific type of AD facility was in the range â??95 to â??4 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH4 and carbon sequestration highly influenced the result. In comparison with the few published GWFs for AD, the range of our data was much larger demonstrating the need to use a consistent and robust approach to GHG accounting and simultaneously accept that some key parameters are highly uncertain.

Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ?? 1 paper waste, were small in comparison wih the downstream activities. The GHG contributions from the downstream reprocessing of the paper waste ranged from approximately 490 to 1460 kg CO2-eq. tonne â??1 of paper waste. The system may be expanded to include crediting of avoided virgin paper production which would result in GHG contributions from â??1270 to 390 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ?? 1 paper waste. It may also be assumed that the wood not used for virgin paper production instead is used for production of energy that in turn is assumed to substitute for fossil fuel energy. This would result in GHG contributions from â??1850 to â??4400 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ?? 1 of paper waste. These system expansions reveal very large GHG savings, suggesting that the indirect upstream and operational GHG contributions are negligible in comparison with the indirect downstream emissions. However, the data for reprocessing of paper waste and the data for virgin paper production are highly variable. These differences are mainly related to different energy sources for the mills, both in regards to energy form (heat or electricity) and fuel (biomass or fossil fuels).

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders

2009-01-01

222

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO2-eq. tonne â??1 of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60â?? 1600 kg CO2-eq. tonne â??1 of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

223

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming. PMID:19748943

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

224

Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2010 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector for each of the Devolved Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Supporting data is available at http://naei.defra.gov.uk/report_link.php?report_id=692. A full report for the UK is available in the 1990-2010 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, available on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website http://nae...

2012-01-01

225

Changes of interannual NAO variability in response to greenhouse gases forcing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations show that there was change in interannual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability in the mid-1970s. This change was characterized by an eastward shift of the NAO action centres, a poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies and a downstream extension of climate anomalies associated with the NAO. The NAO interannual variability for the period after the mid-1970s has an annular mode structure that penetrates deeply into the stratosphere, indicating a strengthened relationship between the NAO and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. In this study we have investigated possible causes of these changes in the NAO by carrying out experiments with an atmospheric GCM. The model is forced either by doubling CO{sub 2}, or increasing sea surface temperatures (SST), or both. In the case of SST forcing the SST anomaly is derived from a coupled model simulation forced by increasing CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that SST and CO{sub 2} change both force a poleward and eastward shift in the pattern of interannual NAO variability and the associated poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies, similar to the observations. The effect of SST change can be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. The direct effect of CO{sub 2} change, in contrast, can not be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. However, there is a significant response in the stratosphere, characterized by a strengthened climatological polar vortex with strongly enhanced interannual variability. In this case, the NAO interannual variability has a strong link with the variability over the North Pacific, as in the annular AO pattern, and is also strongly related to the stratospheric vortex, indicating strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. The similarity of changes in many characteristics of NAO interannual variability between the model response to doubling CO{sub 2} and those in observations in the mid-1970s implies that the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, and the resulting changes in the stratosphere, might have played an important role in the multidecadal change of interannual NAO variability and its associated climate anomalies during the late twentieth century. The weak change in mean westerlies in the troposphere in response to CO{sub 2} change implies that enhanced and eastward extended mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere might not be a necessary condition for the poleward and eastward shift of the NAO action centres in the mid-1970s. (orig.)

Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Woollings, Tim [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15

226

Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

2014-09-15

227

An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

2014-01-01

228

An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Chih-Chun Kung

2014-03-01

229

An inventory of greenhouse gases from energy used at institute level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in December 2002, the New Zealand Government is encouraging industries and businesses, individuals, and communities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to prepare for and adapt to climate change. Efforts from research institutes and Universities will be needed before the first commitment period to help different sectors prepare their own emission budgets for compliance. In 2003, the New Zealand energy sector produced 32,320.92 Gg of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) equivalents, representing 42.9 per cent of country's total GHG emissions. CO{sub 2} emissions are primarily dependent on the carbon content of fuel. For emission calculations, the energy sector was divided into the following main categories: electricity, gas, coal, road transport and aviation. This paper described the approach taken to develop an inventory of GHG emissions from the energy sector at Massey University's Turitea campus and Massey Agricultural Farms. GHGs were calculated for the year 1990 and 2004 to assess the magnitude of increase in emissions in this sector since 1990 at an institute level. New Zealand specific emission factors were used for different categories of fuel. Methodological and practical issues that are of interest to other institutions looking to undertake an inventory of GHGs were then identified. Total calculated current GHG emissions from the energy sector increased by 23 per cent over the 1990 levels. Despite this, the per capita emissions were reduced by 9.3 per cent due to the reduction in the per capita energy consumption. It was suggested that since most of the vehicles at Massey run on gasoline engines, the use of hybrid-electric powered vehicles would offer higher fuel economy. Replacing all Massey fleet vehicles with the 1.5 litres hybrid vehicles in 2004 would have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions by up to 56 per cent. A comparison of the efficiency of the standard vehicles with the hybrid vehicles and the resulting CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions was presented along with the quantity of diesel and petrol that could be saved by switching to hybrid vehicles. A free bus service launched by the joint efforts of Massey University and Palmerston North City Council in February 2005 will also contribute towards the objective of reducing traffic congestion, thereby reducing GHG emissions from the campus. Car pooling is another viable option to reduce vehicle use. Other useful initiatives include the GreenBike Trust of Palmerston North, which loans out free bikes to Massey students. This scheme promotes a low cost/maintenance transport. It was concluded that although reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved through the adoption of improved technologies, the simplest way to reduce emissions is through behaviour modification. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 1 fig., 2 annex.

Butt, Z.; Valentine, I. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Inst. of Natural Resources; Tate, K.; Saggar, S. [Landcare Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

2006-07-01

230

Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

231

Gas chromatography and photoacoustic spectroscopy for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases emissions Cromatografia gasosa e espectroscopia fotoacústica para avaliação das emissões de gases de efeito estufa do solo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are critical for determination of the agricultural practices' potential to mitigate global warming. This study evaluated the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes in comparison to the standard gas chromatography (GC) method. Two long-term experiments with different tillage and cropping systems over a Paleudult were evaluated using static chambers. PAS ...

Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso; Cimélio Bayer; Genuir Luis Denega; Paulo Armando Victória de Oliveira; Martha Mayumi Higarashi; Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Letícia dos Santos Lopes

2013-01-01

232

Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

233

Outflow of Greenhouse Gases and Tracer Species from the San Francisco Metropolitan Area at a New Measurement Site in Livermore, California  

Science.gov (United States)

A 'top down' approach to estimating greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas will be critical for verifying progress toward reductions targets and identifying the effectiveness of local emissions reduction policies. Measurements of gases and particulates that are co-emitted with greenhouse gases may provide important constraints on the emissions from different sectors. In order to study the emissions from a major urban area, we are measuring a variety of tracers, atmospheric parameters, and greenhouse gases in the outflow from the San Francisco Bay area. The measurement tower is located in the eastern end of the Livermore Valley, and samples drawn from 30 m above the ground are continuously analyzed for CO2, CO2 stable isotopes, CH4, H2O, CO, NOx, NOy, SO2, O3, and VOC mixing ratios. Additionally, the local temperature, pressure, and humidity are measured along with ceilometer-derived boundary layer parameters. Patterns in measurements made in Livermore are analyzed and compared to estimates made using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, Vulcan fossil-fuel emissions inventory, and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Comparisons are made with measurements from other locations in the San Francisco Bay area and interpreted with the help of emission inventories and atmospheric transport modeling.

Bambha, R.; Schrader, P. E.; Dansson, M. A.; Liu, Z.; Michelsen, H. A.

2013-12-01

234

A new analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from a global network and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22 for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America and Europe were modest. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2 higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP. Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported timing of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual timing of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the station locations of the current global network measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl

2008-11-01

235

Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities.

2014-01-01

236

Attribution of Regional and Global Climate Change: Relative Effects of Fossil-Fuel Soot, Methane, Other Greenhouse Gases and Particles, and Urbanization  

Science.gov (United States)

Black carbon, the main component of fossil-fuel soot (FFS), warms the air first by absorbing sunlight. Its absorption is enhanced by optical focusing when it becomes coated during vapor condensation or aerosol- aerosol coagulation, when it enters cloud drops or ice crystals during nucleation scavenging or aerosol- hydrometeor coagulation, and when it is surrounded by sea ice or snow following its precipitation or dry deposition. Its absorption over snow, sea ice, desert, fog, and cloud surfaces is further enhanced by the high reflectivity of these surfaces, which increases the number of photons hitting a soot particle. Although soot has a short lifetime, the air that it warms persists to larger scales. Soot's effective lifetime is also extended when it deposits to snow and sea ice. Since the organic material emitted with FFS is mostly hydrophobic, soot's effects on cloud activation are delayed thus weaker than sulfate's effects. Here new results for the climate response of fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate), accounting for the factors listed above and for size resolution of aerosol particles and clouds and the aging of soot through the treatment of two size distributions, are presented. The results are compared with the climate responses of all anthropogenic aerosol particles, anthropogenic methane, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosol particles, and urbanization. Fossil-fuel sources of black carbon treated include land-based, shipping, and aircraft. The study finds that fossil-fuel soot appears to have a stronger effect on global near- surface temperatures than either methane or urbanization, thus it may be the second-leading cause of historic near-surface global warming after carbon dioxide. Methane is found to have a stronger effect on near-surface temperatures than urbanization. FFS exacerbates warming due to greenhouse gases in Russia and over the Arctic sea ice. FFS causes little regional cooling in contrast to all aerosol particles, which, on their own, cause strong cooling in the southeast U.S., Europe, and China. The combination of all anthropogenic aerosol particles and greenhouse gases explains much of the difference between current and historic regional temperatures on a global scale. Whereas methane and other greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, neither FFS nor urbanization do so significantly. The results here apply only to fossil-fuel soot. Biomass-burning particles, which contain black carbon, have a different composition from FFS and a different climate effect.

Jacobson, M. Z.

2006-12-01

237

Bad Greenhouse  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is designed to belie the statement that the greenhouse effect is caused when gases in the atmosphere behave as a blanket and trap radiation which is then reradiated to the Earth. Students will learn that the atmosphere does not act like a blanket, trap radiation, reradiate heat, trap heat, or behave like a greenhouse. In addition, the analogy of a closed automobile in the sun to a greenhouse is reasonable but neither has to do with the atmosphere.

Fraser, Alistair

238

Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha-1) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N2O emission factors that are relatively stable for the different grid cells across Europe wit values ranging between 1 and 2% in cut systems and between 3 and 4% under grazing (with organic N application through faeces and urine deposition). Under cutting, the simulations predict a important annual C storage (varying between 0.5 to 6 t C ha-1 y-1). However one must consider that an important part of this storage occurs in the harvested forage. C storage in grazed grasslands (0.3 to 2 t C ha-1 y-1) is lower than in cut grasslands. The simulations indicates therefore that cut grassland could represent an important net GHG sink. In France, the amplitude of this sink could vary between 0.5 and 2 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. The simulations combining cut and grazed grassland, in proportion to the dietary needs, show that,in France, these systems would be a net GHG sink of 2 to 3 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. More realistic results would be obtained if the differences between farming systems were taken into account more specifically. (author)

2004-01-01

239

Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry-global climate system: halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations and model calculations indicate that highly non-linear multiphase atmospheric processes involving inorganic Cl and Br significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, and radiative transfer. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was investigated using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry-global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) v3.6.33). Simulated results revealed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. They also point to possible physicochemical mechanisms that may account for several previously unexplained phenomena, including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile inorganic Br mixing ratios in the troposphere were generally higher than observed, due in part to the overly efficient net production of BrCl. In addition, the emission scheme for marine aerosol and associated Br-, which is the only source for Br in the model, overestimates emission fluxes from the high-latitude Southern Ocean. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived precursor organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrates a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to halogen cycling. Globally, halogen chemistry had relatively less impact on SO2 and non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- although significant regional differences were evident. Although variable geographically, much of this sensitivity is attributable to either over-vigorous activation of Br (primarily BrCl) via the chemical mechanism or overproduction of sea-salt aerosol simulated under higher-wind regimes. In regions where simulated mixing ratios of reactive Br and Cl fell within observed ranges, though, halogen chemistry drove large changes in oxidant fields and associated chemical processes relative to simulations with no halogens. However, the overall simulated impacts of Br chemistry globally are overestimated and thus caution is warranted in their interpretation.

Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, R. C.; Sander, R.; Liu, X.; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-01

240

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA / Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 G [...] g año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg. Abstract in english The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVO [...] C). These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael, Novoa S.A.; Sergio, González M.; Rosemary, Novoa J.; Rosa, Rojas.

242

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael Novoa S.A.

2000-04-01

243

Global distribution of column carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from observations of Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009. The main target of the GOSAT observation is to obtain global distribution and variation of carbon dioxide and methane abundances. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the signal of reflected solar light on the earth's surface in Short Wavelength Infra-Red (SWIR) regions as well as that of radiance emitted from the surface and the atmosphere in Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) region. TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a CCD radiometer to obtain the information on cloud and aerosols that contaminate the FTS signals. Since June 2009, TANSO-FTS and CAI have made continuous observation. Retrievals of carbon dioxide and methane column abundances from SWIR spectra for cloud-free scenes are retrieved in several processing versions. Optically thick clouds within the field of view of TANSO-FTS (approximately 10 km diameter) are detected using the TANSO-CAI radiances and optically thin cirrus using the solar reflected spectrum in the strong water vapor absorption band in the TANSO-FTS 2.0 m band. We applied an optimal estimation method (maximum a posteriori method) to the selected cloud-free scene data for retrieving column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane. Version 050.050 and version 080.080 of Level 1B products (four band spectra from TANSO-FTS and four band images from TANSO-CAI) have been open to the registered public users from late October 2009. Version 00.50 and 00.80 of Level 2 products (carbon dioxide and methane column abundances from TANSO-FTS SWIR and cloud flag from TANSO-CAI) have been opened to the registered public users from mid February 2010. At present, retrieved column abundances seem to be slightly underestimated, but global column-averaged concentration patterns and seasonal variations agree with the current knowledge. The retrieval algorithm will be improved soon.

Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Morino, Isamu; Uchino, Osamu; Maksyutov, Shamil; Watanabe, Hiroshi

244

Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air  

Science.gov (United States)

We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.

Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

2014-05-01

245

Greenhouse blues?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is given of the main issues of the greenhouse debate. It is emphasised that for the medium to longer terms - and certainly within the timeframe set by the Toronto Conference for the reduction of CO2 built up, fossil fuels (particularly coal) and nuclear remain the real options for power generation. While Australia continue to play a key role in the greenhouse debate, especially as a contributor to scientific knowledge on greenhouse gases and climate change, it is estimated that it will take many years before governments at domestic and international level come to grips with the greenhouse problem and its potential effects

1989-01-01

246

Proceedings of the 1998 CERI climate change conference : getting there from here : measures to meet targets and schedules for Canada`s commitment to reducing greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada has made renewed efforts to address the issue of climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the Third Conference of Parties to the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 1997, Canada agreed to reduce GHG emissions by six per cent of 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The agreement provides flexibility to develop and implement policies and measures in Canada which include emissions trading, Joint Implementation, and the Clean Development Mechanism. CERI`s 1998 Climate Change Conference focused on the challenges facing Canadians regarding the most appropriate programs, policies, new technologies and processes to achieve Canada`s commitment. The areas of flexibility negotiated at Kyoto and how these impact upon efforts to maximize the options available to reduce greenhouse gases were the principal subjects of debate.

NONE

1998-09-01

247

Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

2010-07-01

248

Balance of greenhouse gases emission in the life cycle of ethanol fuel; Balanco de emissao de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol combustivel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental focus of the use of biofuels is the reduction of green houses gases emissions through automobile exhaust; furthermore, the European Union has discussed the necessity of the requirement these reduction between 30 to 50% compared with the gasoline cycle. Inside this context, this paper joins and compares recent studies about green house gases emission balance of environmental life cycle of ethanol fuel derived form corn, wheat and sugar cane with the goal of recognize the reduction these emissions from the use of ethanol in function of the different alternatives of production. Results show that production of ethanol from sugar cane results higher reduction of green house gases emission compared with the gasoline. Ethanol from corn and ethanol from wheat meet, in the current conditions of Canadian production and use, the least requirement of 30% of saved emission. (author)

Silva, Cinthia Rubio Urbano da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

2008-07-01

249

Greenhouse Gas (CO2 AND N2O) Emissions from Soils: A Review Emisión de Gases invernadero (CO2 y N2O) desde Suelos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In agricultural activities, the main greenhouse gases (GHG) are those related to C and N global cycles. The impact of agriculture on GHG emissions has become a key issue, especially when considering that natural C and N cycles are influenced by agricultural development. This review focuses on CO2 and N2O soil emissions in terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis in Chilean and similar agro-ecosystems around the world. The influence of land use and crop management practices on CO2 and N2O emissio...

Cristina Muñoz; Leandro Paulino; Carlos Monreal; Erick Zagal

2010-01-01

250

Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A laser flash photolysis–resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T) = 9.0 × 10-11 exp(+98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 independent of ...

2010-01-01

251

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?; Energie et environnement - effet de serre. Les actions internationales, europeennes et nationales pour maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quel bilan et quelles perspectives?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-12-15

252

Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-07-01

253

Production of the greenhouse gases CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} by hydroelectric reservoirs of the boreal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to estimate soil-water interface (benthic) and air-water interface emissions and flux of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at two hydroelectric reservoirs in Quebec, Canada. Data were collected over 2 years at 11 sampling stations during ice-free seasons. The recorded emission fluxes were compared to water column depth, type of flooded soil, inundation history, and wind exposure. Most of the benthic fluxes measured for both gases were similar to those measured at the air-water interface. Unusual sampling conditions (e.g., strong winds, water columns less than one meter deep, or flooded peatland mats floating at the surface) resulted in above average emission fluxes. Preliminary analyses indicate that these higher emissions may be an important factor in calculating atmospheric emissions for large reservoirs. Emission fluxes at the water-air interface were determined to be controlled by molecular diffusion. Concentration profiles of the dissolved gases clearly demonstrated that oxidation and/or horizontal advection are controlling factors of atmospheric release. Neither benthic emission nor soil type appeared to control emissions of methane or carbon dioxide from the reservoirs. By rough approximation, it was proposed that hydroelectric reservoirs emit greenhouse gases on a much smaller scale than conventional thermal power plants producing equivalent amounts of energy. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Duchemin, E.; Lucotte, M.; Canuel, R. [Universite du Quebec, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

1995-12-01

254

The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterised by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO{sub 2}. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapour and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapour and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discern able long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late seventies. This leaves atmospheric CO{sub 2} as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO{sub 2}, to increase by 2 ppm yr{sup -1}, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm yr{sup -1}. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO{sub 2} climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York (United States)], e-mail: Andrew.A.Lacis@nasa.gov

2013-11-15

255

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

Science.gov (United States)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2010-03-01

256

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2010-03-01

257

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2<...

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2010-01-01

258

Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric a...

2008-01-01

259

Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fu...

Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

2009-01-01

260

Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends  

Science.gov (United States)

stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we provide evidence that changes in the concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), not WMGHG, have been the primary driver of observed Arctic lower stratospheric trends in both ozone and temperature. We do so by analyzing polar cap ozone and temperature trends in reanalysis data: these clearly suggest that both trends are mainly driven by ODS in the lower stratosphere. This observation-based finding is supported by results from a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model driven with time-varying ODS and WMGHG, specified in isolation and in combination. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that ODS are the main driver of changes in the Arctic lower stratospheric temperatures and ozone, whereas WMGHG are the primary driver of changes in the upper stratosphere.

Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Solomon, Susan

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Impacts of greenhouse gases on epicuticular waxes of Populus tremuloides Michx.: Results from an open-air exposure and a natural O3 gradient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epicuticular waxes of three trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in O3 tolerance were examined over six growing seasons (1998-2003) at three bioindicator sites in the Lake States region of the USA and at FACTS II (Aspen FACE) site in Rhinelander, WI. Differences in epicuticular wax structure were determined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified by a coefficient of occlusion. Statistically significant increases in stomatal occlusion occurred for the three O3 bioindicator sites, with the higher O3 sites having the most affected stomata for all three clones as well as for all treatments including elevated CO2, elevated O3, and elevated CO2+O3. We recorded statistically significant differences between aspen clones and between sampling period (spring, summer, fall). We found no statistically significant differences between treatments or aspen clones in stomatal frequency. - Structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of greenhouse gases on Populus tremuloides Michx

2005-10-01

262

L'effet de serre par le CO2 et les gaz traces Greenhouse Effect from CO2 and Trace Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selon une opinion assez répandue le CO2 et les gaz traces, produits par l'activité humaine depuis le début de la révolution industrielle (1850, principalement du fait de la combustion et de la déforestation, et progressivement accumulés dans l'atmosphère terrestre, pourraient par effet de serre provoquer au XXIe siècle un réchauffement de la Terre de quelques degrés. Les conséquences climatiques (fonte des glaces. . . en seraient désastreuses. Aussi avons-nous étudié les principaux paramètres impliqués par ce phénomène : nature de l'effet de serre, cycle du carbone, transfert de CO2 à l'échelle du globe, gaz traces, conséquences climatiques de l'effet de serre dû au CO2 et aux gaz traces. Nous en sommes arrivés aux conclusions suivantes : - La concentration de l'atmosphère en CO2 et en gaz traces augmente de façon exponentielle en absence de toute réglementation et cela parallèlement à une production humaine également exponentielle de ces mêmes substances. - On n'a encore décelé aucun accroissement de la température moyenne de la Terre dû à l'effet de serre, d'ailleurs depuis 1940 nous traversons une période de refroidissement. - L'activité humaine engendre aussi des effets antagonistes de refroidissement (action des poussières dans l'atmosphère. . . assez mal connus. - L'étude des climats anciens indique une succession régulière de périodes froides et chaudes, cela doit nous rassurer sur le risque d'une brusque modification irréversible du climat. - Cependant il est absolument nécessaire d'améliorer nos connaissances fondamentales sur les principaux facteurs réglant le climat terrestre (chimie de l'atmosphère, transfert océan-atmosphère. . . et éventuellement de restreindre la production de certains gaz traces (fréons en particulier. According to a fairly widespread opinion, CO2 and trace gases, which have been produced by human activity since the start of the industrial revolution (1850, mainly from combustion and deforestation, and have been progressively accumulating in the Earth's atmosphere, could result in a greenhouse effect that could cause the heating up of the Earth by several degrees in the 21st century. The climatic consequences (melting of ice, etc. would be disastrous. Therefore, we examined the leading parameters involved in this phenomenon: nature of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, CO2 transfer on a worldwide scale, trace gases, climatic consequences of the greenhouse effect due to CO2 and trace gases. We reached the following conclusions:(a The CO2 and trace-gas concentration in the atmosphere increases exponentially in the absence of any regulations, and this occurs at the same time as human production of the same substances also at an exponential rate. (b No increase has as yet been detected in the Earth's average temperature due to the greenhouse effect. Moreover, since 1940 we have been going through a period of cooling. (c Human activity also produces antagonistic cooling effects (effect of dust in the atmosphere, etc. that are rather poorly understood. (d The study of ancient climates indicates a regular succession of cool and warm periods, which should reassure us about any sudden and irreversible change in the climate. (e However, it is absolutely necessary to improve our fundamental understanding of the main factors governing the Earth's climate (chemistry of the atmosphere, ocean/ atmosphere transfers, etc. and eventually to limit the production of some trace gases (Freon, in particular.

Bertrand A.

2006-11-01

263

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development

2003-11-17

264

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development.

Muylaert, M.S.; De Campos, C.P.; Pinguelli Rosa, L. [International Virtual Institute on Global Change, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2003-11-01

265

Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

2014-05-01

266

Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning  

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Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecanismo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia.Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

Jesús Adolfo Anaya Acevedo

2011-01-01

267

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth  

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Full Text Available The last interglacial (LIG is characterized by high latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the last interglacial climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early last interglacial where GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the last interglacial. In four simulations only orbital forcing was changed, and in two simulations additionally GHG forcing was reduced to values appropriate for the early last interglacial. Our simulations show that insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in greenhouse gas forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. We also compare our modelled results to proxy data extracted from four marine sediment cores covering the entire last interglacial along a northeast-southwest transect in the North Atlantic. Our modelled North Atlantic summer sea surface temperatures capture the general trend of the proxy summer temperatures, with low values in the early last interglacial, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the last interglacial. Temperatures computed by the simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the fit as they show lower temperatures in the early last interglacial. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum surface temperatures follows the local insolation maximum. Two exceptions are the temperatures on Antarctica that show maxima at both ~ 130 ka and ~ 115 ka, and the Southern Ocean austral summer temperatures that peak early at ~ 130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing summer heat and resulting in relatively warm winter temperatures.

P. M. Langebroek

2013-08-01

268

Results of the working group on the division by four of greenhouse gases emissions in France, at the horizon of 2050, called ''factor 4''. DGEMP- Observatory of the energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This group, created by the french Government in march 2005, aims to evaluate the different possibilities to reach the objective of division by four the greenhouse gases emissions. This document presents some recalls on the climatic change and the situation today, the positions of the France and the foreign and the conclusions and the recommendations of the group. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

269

Radiation-active gases in the atmosphere and climatic changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the activity of man, various substances increasing the greenhouse effect are released into the atmosphere. They include particularly carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and halogenated hydrocarbons. The rapid accumulation of these radiation-active gases can bring about serious climatic changes as early as the first half of the next century. The topics discussed include the concentration increase of the most important radiation-active gases, their radiative effectiveness, and predictions of future emissions. Climatic changes caused by the accumulation of radiation-active gases can only be reliably studied by means of climatic models. The discussion of expected climatic changes is preceded by an outline of two different approaches to the modeling of processes in oceans, viz., the so-called equilibrium study and the transient study, which should be taken into account in the interpretation of results. The conceivable impacts of climatic changes on some sectors of economy are also discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

1991-01-01

270

Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.

T. Gardiner

2008-11-01

271

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases 2012; Danmarks energifremskrivning 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish energy Agency's baseline projection of Denmark's energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is not a forecast, but describes the development which may occur in the coming years, based on a number of assumptions about technological development, prices, economic development, etc., hypothetically assuming that no new initiatives or measures beyond those already taken are implemented. The consumption of coal and natural gas are expected to fall by 50 % and 27 %, respectively, the next 8 years, and overall Denmark's fossil fuel consumption is reduced by approx. 120 PJ by 2020. Instead, renewable energy consumption will increase by more than 40 % from 2011 to 2020. The largest contribution to new renewable energy comes from the future offshore wind farms at Anholt, Krieger's Flak and Horns Rev, and from the increased use of biomass. With this conversion, the share of renewable energy in electricity supply is expected to increase from approx. 40 % in 2011 to around 69 % in 2020 and to 75 % in 2025. Final energy consumption drops from 640 PJ in 2011 to 632 PJ in 2020 as a consequence of a decline in industrial and household energy consumption, while the transport sector's energy consumption is expected to increase. With the projection's assumptions, a renewable energy share in the transport sector of 11 % may be achieved. Denmark's total greenhouse gas emissions are expected to decrease to 45.1 million tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent in 2020. This corresponds directly to the total emissions being reduced by 35 % compared to emissions in the 1990 base year. The figure is, however, highly uncertain. (LN)

NONE

2012-09-15

272

Reduction of greenhouse gases in integrated pulp and paper mills: possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture and storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO{sub 2} from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a market pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper, it is investigated whether the same is valid for an integrated pulp and paper mill. Five configurations are compared, supplying the extra energy needed by a biofuel boiler, an NGCC, a heat pump or by reducing the steam demand at the mill in combination with a biofuel boiler or an NGCC. The configurations have been evaluated with energy market scenarios and the avoidance cost has been calculated. The NGCC configurations have the lowest avoidance costs in all scenarios and they also have the advantage of liberating biofuel for use in other parts of society. (orig.)

Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment/Heat and Power Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2009-02-15

273

Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation-induced formation of useful products. Utilization of CO2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation is observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given

2006-04-01

274

Field-Reversal Source for Negative Halogen Ions  

Science.gov (United States)

Large zero-energy electron-attachment cross sections result in intense ion beams. Concept for producing negative halogen ions takes advantage of large cross sections at zero kinetic energy for dissociative attachment of electrons to such halogen-containing gases as SF6, CFCI3, and CCI4.

Chutjian, A.; Orient, O. J.; Aladzhadzhyan, S. H.

1987-01-01

275

Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007â??1.13 kg CO2-eq. kWhâ??1). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004â??3 kg CO2-eq. kWh â??1). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01â??0.69 kg CO2-eq. kWh â??1). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO 2emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.

Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas

2009-01-01

276

ACROPOLIS: An example of international collaboration in the field of energy modelling to support greenhouse gases mitigation policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy models are considered as valuable tools to assess the impact of various energy and environment policies. The ACROPOLIS initiative, supported by the European Commission and the International Energy Agency, used up to 15 energy models to simulate and evaluate selected policy measures and instruments and then compare their impacts on energy systems essentially in terms of costs of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reduction and energy technology choice. Four case studies are formulated considering policies and measures on renewable portfolio schemes and internationally tradable green certificates, emissions trading and global GHG abatement target, energy efficiency standards and internalisation of external costs. The main focus of the project is on the electricity sector. From a large set of quantified results, ACROPOLIS provides an international scientific consensus, on some key issues, which could be useful in assessing and designing energy and environment policies at the world, European and national/regional levels. It concludes that the Kyoto targets (and their continuation beyond 2010 in specific scenarios) could be achieved at a cost around 1% of GDP through global emissions trading, indicating also that this flexibility mechanism is a more cost-effective instrument for GHG mitigation than meeting the goal domestically without trade. It demonstrates that internalising external costs through a price increase reduces local pollutants (SO x , NO x , and others) and it produces other benefits such as triggering the penetration of clean technologies in addition to the curbing of CO2 emissions

2007-02-01

277

Greenhouse gases mitigation potential and costs for Brazil's energy system from 2010 to 2030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses the potential for energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and their abatement costs in the energy system of Brazil. The analysis of mitigation options and their costs focuses on the following sectors: industry, transportation and energy supply (electricity generation and oil refining), given their large contribution to the Brazil's GHGs emissions. For the industrial and oil refining sectors, the paper estimated abatement costs based on the investments along with the energy and operational costs of the measures considered. Two discount rates were used: 15% a year (private discount rate) and 8% a year (social discount rate). Compared to a business-as-usual reference scenario, results show a potential to reduce future energy-related GHG emissions by 27% in 2030. This study shows, however, that in relation to a reference year (2007), the examined abatement measures, along with the socioeconomic dynamics of an emerging country such as Brazil, would not be enough to attain absolute reductions in GHG emissions by 2030. This result is valid both each sector individually and for the sum of the emissions from all the sectors analyzed. (author)

Borba, Bruno S.M.C.; Lucena, Andre F.P. de; Rathmann, Regis; Costa, Isabella V.L. da; Nogueira, Larissa P.P.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; H. Junior, Mauricio F.; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

2012-07-01

278

Part I. Decrepitation and degassing behaviour of quartz up to 1560 °C: Analysis of noble gases and halogens in complex fluid inclusion assemblages  

Science.gov (United States)

Stepped heating and crushing experiments have been used to investigate the noble gas and halogen degassing behaviour of quartz in detail. Samples with diverse character were selected from the Eloise and Osborne, Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) ore deposits, and the Railway Fault, 13 km south of the Mt Isa Mine, in the Proterozoic Mt Isa Inlier of northeast Australia. Quartz has been shown to have a bimodal degassing profile. The first degassing mode at temperatures of IOCG samples; the ultra high salinity, multi solid (MS) and liquid-vapour-daughter (LVD) fluid inclusions, with a predominantly primary origin, decrepitate at higher temperatures than lower salinity liquid-vapour (LV) and monophase (M) fluid inclusions that have a predominantly secondary origin. Three of the IOCG samples have primary MS and LVD fluid inclusions characterized by molar Br/Cl values of between 0.25 × 10 -3 and 0.66 × 10 -3, I/Cl between 0.37 × 10 -6 and 5.0 × 10 -6, 40Ar/ 36Ar values of IOCG genesis. One of the IOCG samples has Br/Cl of 1.3-2.0 × 10 -3 and I/Cl of 10 × 10 -6, similar to juvenile magmatic fluids in Phanerozoic Porphyry Copper Deposits. This sample also has a higher 36Ar concentration of 3.5 × 10 -6 cm 3 cm -3H 2O and a slightly elevated 40Ar/ 36Ar of 2236. Step heating reveals limited and non-systematic variation within the more homogenous population of LV fluid inclusions from the Railway Fault. The samples have mean values of 8.1 × 10 -3 for Br/Cl; 9.4-12 × 10 -6 for I/Cl; <2000 for 40Ar/ 36Ar; and 4.7-4.8 × 10 -6 cm 3 cm -3H 2O for 36Ar concentration. The Br/Cl values are similar to those previously reported for basinal brines present in silicic alteration at the Mt Isa Mine and the additional data can be explained by interaction of such a bittern brine with fine grained sedimentary rocks in the sub-surface. The second mode of quartz degassing occurs between 1200 and 1450 °C and releases a greater volume of gas than the first degassing mode. Several lines of evidence, including microscope observations, indicate that the gas released at high temperature is also from the fluid inclusion reservoir. However, its release may be triggered by a metastable phase transition of quartz (˜1200 °C) and caution is required in interpretation of the fluid compositions obtained at these temperatures. The data provide an improved understanding of fluid inclusion decrepitation behaviour that is different to that obtained in lower temperatures experiments designed by other workers to investigate H-isotope fractionation.

Kendrick, M. A.; Phillips, D.; Miller, J. McL.

2006-05-01

279

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

280

Greenhouse Gas (CO2 AND N2O Emissions from Soils: A Review Emisión de Gases invernadero (CO2 y N2O desde Suelos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In agricultural activities, the main greenhouse gases (GHG are those related to C and N global cycles. The impact of agriculture on GHG emissions has become a key issue, especially when considering that natural C and N cycles are influenced by agricultural development. This review focuses on CO2 and N2O soil emissions in terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis in Chilean and similar agro-ecosystems around the world. The influence of land use and crop management practices on CO2 and N2O emissions is analyzed; some mitigation measures to reduce such emissions are also discussed here. More knowledge on the biological processes that promote of GHG emissions from soil will allow creating opportunities for agricultural development under friendly-environmental conditions, where soil can act as a reservoir and/or emitter of GHG, depending on the balance of inputs and outputs.En actividades agrícolas los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GHG son los relacionados con los ciclos globales de C y N. El impacto de la agricultura sobre las emisiones GHG se ha convertido en una cuestión clave, especialmente si se considera que los ciclos naturales C y N se ven influidos por el desarrollo agrícola. Esta revisión se centra en emisiones de CO2 y N2O del suelo en los ecosistemas terrestres, con énfasis en agro-ecosistemas de Chile y similares alrededor del mundo. Se analiza la influencia del uso del suelo y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo sobre emisiones de CO2 y N2O, se discuten medidas de mitigación para reducir estas emisiones. Un mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos biológicos que promueven las emisiones GHG del suelo permitirá la creación de oportunidades para el desarrollo agrícola en condiciones ambientalmente amigables, donde el suelo puede actuar como un reservorio y/o emisor de GHG, dependiendo del balance de entradas y salidas.

Cristina Muñoz

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

2014-05-01

282

Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil  

Science.gov (United States)

The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, 2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

2012-02-01

283

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2008-05-01

284

Greenhouse gases embodied in the international trade and final consumption of Finland: An input-output analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with international trade and final consumption gives a more complete and balanced picture of the responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the coverage of the GHGs and their sources and assumptions regarding the emissions of imports on the results of GHG emissions associated with international trade and final consumption of Finland. In addition to a single year study, a trend covering years 1990-2003 was produced for Finland to study the development of the GHG emissions associated with domestic consumption and the reasons behind the development. According to our results Finland was in 1999 a net exporter of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, CO2 from all sources and GHGs of 4(4.2), 5 or 7 Gkg, respectively. The impact of different assumptions concerning the emissions embodied in imports in the case of Finland was tested by using the domestic emission intensities and the ratios of embodied emissions in imports in relation to domestic products by utilizing the data from the study by (OECD, 2003b. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods, STI Working Paper 2003/15, OECD, Paris). In the case of Finland, the differences of results calculated with these two methods remained rather small. The total emissions embodied in the imports changed from 33.8 to 34.4 Gkg and consequently the net export of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion changed from 4.2 to 3.6 Gkg. The results for 1990-2003 show that the GHG emissions embodied in the exports have exceeded the GHG emissions embodied in the imports from early 1990s. The reason for the increasingly positive GHG trade balance in the case of Finland has been the change in the magnitude of trade rather than the changes in its structure. The results show also that the impact of international transport on the emission intensity of imports is significant and merits further research

2007-01-01

285

Greenhouse gases embodied in the international trade and final consumption of Finland: An input-output analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with international trade and final consumption gives a more complete and balanced picture of the responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the coverage of the GHGs and their sources and assumptions regarding the emissions of imports on the results of GHG emissions associated with international trade and final consumption of Finland. In addition to a single year study, a trend covering years 1990-2003 was produced for Finland to study the development of the GHG emissions associated with domestic consumption and the reasons behind the development. According to our results Finland was in 1999 a net exporter of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion, CO{sub 2} from all sources and GHGs of 4(4.2), 5 or 7 Gkg, respectively. The impact of different assumptions concerning the emissions embodied in imports in the case of Finland was tested by using the domestic emission intensities and the ratios of embodied emissions in imports in relation to domestic products by utilizing the data from the study by (OECD, 2003b. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods, STI Working Paper 2003/15, OECD, Paris). In the case of Finland, the differences of results calculated with these two methods remained rather small. The total emissions embodied in the imports changed from 33.8 to 34.4 Gkg and consequently the net export of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion changed from 4.2 to 3.6 Gkg. The results for 1990-2003 show that the GHG emissions embodied in the exports have exceeded the GHG emissions embodied in the imports from early 1990s. The reason for the increasingly positive GHG trade balance in the case of Finland has been the change in the magnitude of trade rather than the changes in its structure. The results show also that the impact of international transport on the emission intensity of imports is significant and merits further research.

Maeenpaeae, Ilmo [University of Oulu, Thule Institute, P.O. Box 7300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: ilmo.maenpaa@oulu.fi; Siikavirta, Hanne [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 5500, FIN-02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: hanne.siikavirta@kolumbus.fi

2007-01-15

286

Landscape position affects the emission of greenhouse gases from a prairie pot-hole soil in western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to reliably estimate the contribution of agricultural soils to nitrous oxide and methane emissions, it is necessary to understand the role of landscape position in greenhouse (GHG) emissions from the prairie pot-hole region. A study was conducted at the Manitoba Zero-Tillage Research Association (MTRZA) farm located near Brandon, Manitoba. The site represents an undulating landscape with a Newdale clay loam soil. Static vented chambers were used to monitor GHG emissions from Upper, Middle, and Lower slope positions and Riparian positions from the spring to fall of 2005 to determine the impact of annual variation in weather conditions. Soil atmosphere was also sampled from August to November using silicone gas probes installed at depths of 5, 15, 35 and 65 cm. Laboratory incubations during July and September provided information on net nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) production and denitrification rates from the 4 slopes. Soil was sampled in October and treated in the laboratory to determine freeze-thaw emissions of soil from the landscape positions. Emissions of N{sub 2}O were found to be highest during spring-thaw and also after the application of fertilizer in the spring. Emissions were typically higher for Middle and Lower slope positions and lowest in the Riparian position. Only the Riparian position had considerable methane emission rates, while the other positions consumed methane. Surface soil consumed N{sub 2}O in the Riparian position, while it consumed methane in the Lower slope position. Denitrification rates were high in July with little net N{sub 2}O production. Poor soil aeration at this time probably caused a reduction in N{sub 2}O to N{sub 2}. However, during drier in September, denitrification was very low, and nearly the same as net N{sub 2}O production. Freeze-thaw N{sub 2}O emissions were unexpectedly highest for Riparian soil. The pattern of emission was linked to denitrifying enzyme activity at the landscape positions.

Dunmola, D.; Tenuta, M.; Rajendran, N.; Priyantha, Y.; Lobb, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Moulin, A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, MB (Canada). Brandon Research Centre; Burton, D. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pennock, D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

2006-07-01

287

Forest science and technology to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases - an overview, with emphasis on carbon in Canada's forests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The forest as a CO2 sink comprises, in addition to mature and immature trees, C accumulated in understorey plants, animals, forest soils, peat bogs and wetlands. Estimates of how much carbon (C) is entering and leaving a forest ecosystem cannot be obtained merely by estimating gaseous CO2 fluxes. The C cycle also involves direct transfer of CO2 to soil in rain and snow, non-photosynthetic or 'dark' fixation of CO2 by myriad soil and aquatic micro-organisms, roots, fungi and animals, and loss of C in forms other than CO2 via air, groundwater flow and runoff. The complexity of the carbon cycle challenges us to develop reliably accurate means of inventorying C accumulation in trees. In productive forests the C of wood can be determined by estimating tree merchantable volume and, by density conversion, mass of dry wood. Percentage C in dry wood varies by species and type of wood, but otherwise C of wood can be readily calculated. The C present in foliage, branches, bark and roots can, as a first approximation, be assumed to be equivalent to that in the merchantable boles. National Forestry Database statistics and our elemental analysis data on total carbon in wood were used to determine how much C is present in and being removed annually from Canadian forests. In 1998 Canada extracted 45 million tonnes of C of wood from 0.5% of its more than 244 million hectares (ha) of productive forest area. That annual harvest contained less than 0.001% of the 6400 gigatonnes of C of wood existing in boles of merchantable trees. However, harvesting over the last three centuries has reduced C content m productive forests to well below 50% of their pre-1700 sink capacity. To refill the sink, it is proposed that a ceiling of 50 million tonnes C of wood be set as the annual allowable cut. Mean temperature increases of as much as 8 oC have been forecast for Canada over the next 100 years. The impact of those increases on tree growth and survival will depend not so much on changes in the annual mean but on what individual trees actually experience during the growing season in relation to the extremes they are able to tolerate. From a physiological perspective, maintaining shelterwoods with canopies approaching full closure is the only option for modulating extremes, thus for keeping forests growing healthily. Recycling and refabricating wood and paper represent major societal and industrial opportunities to offset greenhouse gas emissions. Canadians can contribute to the C sink level of the nation by ensuring that paper and wood products have longer in-service lifetimes. (author)

2001-10-03

288

Carbon dioxide, trace gases, and greenhouse effect: their part in the future of our climate. Kohlendioxyd, Spurengase und Glashauseffekt: ihre Rolle fuer die Zukunft unseres Klimas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man's activity increasingly affects the evolution of climate in a foreseeable future. This began as early as with the neolithic revolution (by conversion of vegetation and soil), intensified by the industrial revolution (changing atmospheric constituents, aerosol particles) and by the exponential growth of world's population. Based on recent model calculations, the role of carbon dioxide and other trace gases and the so-called greenhouse effect of the atmosphere will be discussed, as well as possible sources of error of forecasting the future fate of CO/sub 2/. Since no sufficiently realistic interactive models of the climatic system (i.e. atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and biosphere) will be available quite soon, analogues from the historic and geologic past are offered and critically discussed. Of peculiar interest is the Pliocene (about 3-5 million years ago), during which the Antarctic continent was highly glaciated, while the Arctic Ocean was ice-free: this asymmetry verifes a model hypothesis proposed 1962 by BUDYKO. Critical thresholds of the CO/sub 2/ content are estimated; in the latter case large-scale displacements of the earth's climatic belts have to be expected.

Flohn, H.

1981-01-01

289

A novel method to decompose two potent greenhouse gases: Photoreduction of SF6 and SF5CF3 in the presence of propene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SF5CF3 and SF6 are the most effective greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis in the atmosphere. Original laboratory trial for photoreduction of them by use of propene as a reactant was performed to develop a novel technique to destroy them. The highly reductive radicals produced during the photolysis of propene at 184.9 nm, such as ·CH3, ·C2H3, and ·C3H5, could efficiently decompose SF6 and SF5CF3 to CH4, elemental sulfur and trace amounts of fluorinated organic compounds. It was further demonstrated that the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF5X (X represented F or CF3) was highly dependent on the initial propene-to-SF5X ratio. The addition of certain amounts of oxygen and water vapor not only enhanced the DRE but avoided the generation of deposits. In both systems, employment nitrogen as dilution gas lessened the DRE slightly. Given the advantage of less toxic products, the technique might contribute to SF5X remediation

2008-03-01

290

Carbon dioxide capture: an examination of potential absorption technologies for the collection of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases arising from power generation using fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment of the potential processes for absorption of carbon dioxide from flue gas of fossil-fuel power plants was carried out by Fluor Daniel, Inc. (FDI) for H G Process Contracting Ltd., as part of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R D Programme. Potential absorbents considered included chemical solvents (potassium carbonates sodium carbonates, dimethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA)), hybrid solvents (e.g. methanol/MEA/DEA/ or Amisol), and physical solvents (propylene carbonate, methanol etc.). A techno-economical evaluation of each solvent was considered for four power generation systems (pulverised fuel with flue gas desulfurization, natural gas combined cycle (GTCC), IGCC, and a system based on a combustion in O[sub 2] in an atmosphere of recycled CO[sub 2]). The implications for CO[sub 2] absorption processes of other fuel gases and the possibility of integrated gas removal schemes was considered. The addition of CO[sub 2] capture was found to reduce power plant efficiency by 10-13% for the first 3 power generation systems. MEA plus oxidation inhibitors was found to be the preferred solvent. Selexol was favoured for the CO[sub 2] recycle scheme. Areas for solvent improvement are identified. 21 refs.

Leci, C.L. (H G Process Contracting Ltd., Croydon (United Kingdom))

1992-08-01

291

Impact of a possible environmental externalities internalisation on energy prices: The case of the greenhouse gases from the Greek electricity sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper is concerned with the impact of the internalisation of environmental externalities on energy prices. In this context, its aim is to quantify the external cost of greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) generated during electricity production in the thermal power plants in Greece and to estimate the impact on the electricity production cost and on the electricity prices of a possible internalisation of this external cost by the producers. For this purpose, this paper applies the EcoSenseLE online tool to quantify the examined externalities. This research finds that the calculated external cost is significantly high (compared to the corresponding production cost) mainly in lignite-fired power plants. Specifically, a possible internalisation of this external cost would increase the production cost by more than 52% (on average), which, in turn, would affect similarly the electricity prices. This finding could be important for decision makers in the electricity sector to develop strategies for emission reduction and to develop environmental and energy policies. The general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work as it uses the standard method developed for the Externe project. Similarly, the data limitations as well as assumptions related to the costs and exclusions/ omissions of cost elements affect the results.

2010-01-01

292

Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Niger River (West Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km2. It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Yet, there is surprisingly little or no information on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples have been collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01° E 13.57° N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, quantification and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC ?13C-DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (partial pressure of CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct an annual budget for both particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the matter transported by the Niger River and of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Borges, Alberto V.

2013-04-01

293

Multispectral information from TANSO-FTS instrument - Part 1: Application to greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) in clear sky conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) mission, and in particular the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) instrument, has the advantage of being able to measure simultaneously the same field of view in different spectral ranges with a high spectral resolution. These features allow studying the benefits of using multispectral measurements to improve the CO2 and CH4 retrievals. In order to quantify the impact of the spectral synergy on the retrieval accuracy, we performed an information content (IC) analysis from simulated spectra corresponding to the three infrared bands of TANSO-FTS. The advantages and limitations of using thermal and shortwave infrared simultaneously are discussed according to surface type and state vector composition. The IC is then used to determine the most informative spectral channels for the simultaneous retrieval of CO2 and CH4. The results show that a channel selection spanning the three infrared bands can improve the computation time and retrieval accuracy. Therefore, a selection of less than 700 channels from the thermal infrared (TIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands allows retrieving CO2 and CH4 simultaneously with a similar accuracy to using all channels together to retrieve each gas separately.

Herbin, H.; Labonnote, L. C.; Dubuisson, P.

2013-11-01

294

Increased polar stratospheric ozone losses and delayed eventual recovery owing to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical reactions responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion are extremely sensitive to temperature. Greenhouse gases warm the Earth`s surface but cool the stratosphere radiatively and therefore affect ozone depletion. Here we investigate the interplay between projected future emissions of greenhouse gases and levels of ozone-depleting halogen species using a global climate model that incorporates simplified ozone-depletion chemistry. Temperature and wind changes induced by the increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations alter planetary-wave propagation in our model, reducing the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. This results in a more stable Arctic polar vortex, with significantly colder temperatures in the lower stratosphere and concomitantly increased ozone depletion. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases might therefore be at least partly responsible for the very large Arctic ozone losses observed in recent winters. The severity and the duration of the Antarctic ozone hole are also predicted to increase because of greenhouse-gas-induced stratospheric cooling over the coming decades. (author)

Shindell, D.T.; Rind, D.; Lonergan, P. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Center for Climate Systems (United States) Columbia Univ., New York (United States)

1998-04-09

295

Greenhouse gas emissions in Bulgaria for 1990-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study includes the following greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide but not all controlled by the Montreal protocol as chlorofluorocarbons and halogens. The estimation methods follow the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (IPCC, 1995) including 'bottom-up' approach and emission factors values. The aggregated GHG emissions as well as the anthropogenic emissions for 1990 are given in tables. Carbon dioxide had the biggest share with 65-68%, followed by methane (24-26%) and nitrous oxide (7.5%). The stationary combustion was the most important GHG emission source (64.2% of the total emissions), relatively small (in comparison to Western countries) was mobile combustion share (7.7%) followed by the emissions from industrial activities (6.6%). The analysis of the total GHG emissions and of those per capita showed a general tendency for reduction

1998-06-10

296

Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains the contributions by the Institute of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO) to a Danish Government appraisal of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures. The policy goal is a 40 per cent reduction in total Danish GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. The GHGs analysed in the present study include emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide and methane plus soil carbon sequestration. The purpose of the study is to identify GHG mitigation measures related to agriculture which can deliver cost-effective contributions to the targeted reduction in GHG emissions in Denmark. A total of 21 GHG mitigation measures are included in the assessment. The stipulated implementation period is 2013 to 2020. The cost calculations have a time horizon equal to 30 years, i.e. from 2013 to 2042. The GHG reduction potential, expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}-eq), is calculated as the sum of the effect on the emission of CO{sub 2} (with and without changes in soil carbon), methane and nitrous oxide. The 21 mitigation measures are listed below (figures in brackets show the assumed implementation potential): 1. Biogas from livestock manure/slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 2. Biogas from slurry and maize (10 % of total slurry production) 3. Biogas from organic clover 4. Additional fat in diet for dairy cows (80% of conventional dairy cow stock and 20 % of organic dairy cow stock) 5. Additional concentrated feed in diet for other cattle (25 % of cattle stock under 2 years of age) 6. Prolonged lactation period for dairy cows (10 % of dairy cow stock) 7. Acidification of slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 8. Covers on slurry containers (40 % of total slurry production) 9. Cooling of pig slurry (10 % of pig slurry) 10. Nitrification inhibitors in nitrate fertilisers (100 % of chemical fertilisers with nitrogen) 11. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for degassed slurry in nitrogen quota system (50 % of total slurry production) 12. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for certain types of slurry in nitrogen quota system (5 % mink, 10 % poultry, and 20 % liquid manure) 13. Reduction of nitrogen quota (10 % of total nitrogen quota) 14. Energy willow (100,000 ha) 15. Straw for combustion (100,000 ha) 16. Catch crops ( 240,000ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 17. Short term catch crops (240,000 ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 18. Conversion of arable land (not naturally wet) to permanent grass (100,000 ha) 19. Afforestation of arable land (50,000 ha, whereof 31,000 ha on clay soil and 19,000 ha on sandy soil ha) 20. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with continued drainage (35,000 ha) 21. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with termination of drainage (35,000 ha). The mitigation measures and their assumed implementation potentials have been chosen in cooperation with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. Marginal abatement cost functions have been constructed. The levels of the implementation potential for the individual measures have been stipulated at a scale assumed to allow implementation at approximately constant marginal costs when using existing technologies. For some measures the specified implementation potential is limited by the assumptions of the overall Government appraisal of GHG reduction measures for the non-ETS area. The focus of the Government appraisal is on the identification of cost-effective GHG reduction potentials which are not already covered by existing policy programs - such as the Danish Government's Green Growth program. For example, when the present study was initiated the Green Growth program stipulated that up to 50 per cent of the animal manure produced in Denmark should be used in biogas production by 2020. The 10 per cent specified here is in addition to this target. (LN)

Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

2013-08-15

297

Emissions of greenhouse gases from vehicles: the fuel cell is the most efficient solution at long term; Emissions de GES des vehicules: la pile a combustible reste la solution la plus efficace a long terme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the principal sectors contributing to greenhouse gases emissions have begun to reduce these emissions or are on the right way ( case of building sector) the transport sector is unable to hope a decisive progress at short term. It appears that a true industrial revolution will be necessary to reach it. This revolution will concern technology in engines and transmission as well fuels. But it will be also necessary to study our society way of life. (N.C.)

Trichet, J.C.

2003-11-01

298

Impact of dietary manipulation on nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions in cattle Impacto da manipulação dietética sobre os fluxos de nutrientes e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa na pecuária  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing global demand for meat and particularly in countries such as Brazil is expected to increase intensive animal production. Consequently the main pollutants of interest are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and greenhouse gases (GHG). Nitrogen can be a problem through nitrate leaching to water bodies, ammonia, and nitrous oxide emissions to air. Phosphorus loading in soil from manure application can be the main issue due to the tendency of P to accumulate in soil and leach to groundwater ...

Ermias Kebreab; Anders Strathe; James Fadel; Luis Moraes; James France

2010-01-01

299

Balanço de emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Balance of emissions and removals of Greenhouse Gases at campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este estudo realizar o balanço das emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa (GEE) do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), comparando a emissão de GEE do ano-base adotado (outubro de 2010 a outubro de 2011) e o incremento médio anual de carbono pelos [...] sumidouros da universidade (arborização urbana, florestas nativas e plantadas). Utilizou-se dados coletados na universidade e metodologias da ABNT NBR ISO 14064 e do IPCC. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que o campus-sede da UFV possui uma grande cobertura vegetal que representam 39,84% de sua área total. No entanto, estas áreas não foram suficientes para compensar as 6.034,18 tCO2eq. emitidas pela universidade. Portanto, o balanço geral das emissões e remoções de GEE do campus-sede da UFV foi negativo (déficit de 727,02 tCO2eq.). Embora tenha apresentado este resultado, os sumidouros de carbono foram importantes para a compensação de parte dos GEE gerados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to generate the balance of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and removals at main campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), contrasting GHG emissions in base-year (October 2010 to October 2011) and the annual average carbon increment of university si [...] nks (urban trees, native and planted forests). We used data collected at university, and ABNT NBR ISO 14064 and IPCC database. The final results indicated that main campus of UFV own huge forest field that represents 39.84% overall. However, these areas were not enough to compensate 6,034.18 tCO2eq. released of the university. Therefore, the global GHG emissions and removals at main campus of UFV was negative (727.02 tCO2eq. of shortfall). Although this result, carbon sinks were important to offset part of GHG generated.

Brianezi, Daniel; Jacovine, Laércio Antônio Gonçalves; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; Gonçalves, Wantuelfer; Rocha, Samuel José Silva Soares da.

2014-03-21

300

Balanço de emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Balance of emissions and removals of Greenhouse Gases at campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este estudo realizar o balanço das emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa (GEE) do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), comparando a emissão de GEE do ano-base adotado (outubro de 2010 a outubro de 2011) e o incremento médio anual de carbono pelos [...] sumidouros da universidade (arborização urbana, florestas nativas e plantadas). Utilizou-se dados coletados na universidade e metodologias da ABNT NBR ISO 14064 e do IPCC. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que o campus-sede da UFV possui uma grande cobertura vegetal que representam 39,84% de sua área total. No entanto, estas áreas não foram suficientes para compensar as 6.034,18 tCO2eq. emitidas pela universidade. Portanto, o balanço geral das emissões e remoções de GEE do campus-sede da UFV foi negativo (déficit de 727,02 tCO2eq.). Embora tenha apresentado este resultado, os sumidouros de carbono foram importantes para a compensação de parte dos GEE gerados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to generate the balance of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and removals at main campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), contrasting GHG emissions in base-year (October 2010 to October 2011) and the annual average carbon increment of university si [...] nks (urban trees, native and planted forests). We used data collected at university, and ABNT NBR ISO 14064 and IPCC database. The final results indicated that main campus of UFV own huge forest field that represents 39.84% overall. However, these areas were not enough to compensate 6,034.18 tCO2eq. released of the university. Therefore, the global GHG emissions and removals at main campus of UFV was negative (727.02 tCO2eq. of shortfall). Although this result, carbon sinks were important to offset part of GHG generated.

Daniel, Brianezi; Laércio Antônio Gonçalves, Jacovine; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Wantuelfer, Gonçalves; Samuel José Silva Soares da, Rocha.

 
 
 
 
301

The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA) from road traffic has been incorporated. The time series for CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, NH3 and particle emissions from road traffic have thus been recalculated. There have been some changes made to the activity data, e.g. a new data source on annual driving lengths has been utilised and more detailed information on traffic activity has been taken into account. Emissions of CH4 from gas distribution have for the first time been included in the inventory, The calculation method for NOx emissions from production of silicon metal has been revised. For national navigation, revised emission factors for NOX emissions from gas engines and emissions of particulate matter from oil based fuels and LNG have been introduced. A new uncertainty analysis for greenhouse gases has been performed, and the main results are documented in this report Furthermore, there are lower emission figures for CH4 for all years since 1990 due to revisions of Statistics Norway's waste statistics, but there are no methodological changes in the calculation of these emissions. There have also been several minor changes in the emission figures, e.g. due to changes in figures on energy combustion. Chapter 8 Recalculations gives a more thorough description of changes in the most recent emission calculations.(Author)

Sandmo, Trond

2012-07-01

302

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

Science.gov (United States)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

303

[Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem. PMID:24765843

Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

2014-01-01

304

Emissão de gases do efeito estufa em diferentes usos da terra no bioma Cerrado / Greenhouse gas emission caused by different land-uses in brazilian Savannah  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A conversão de áreas nativas com o corte e queima de vegetação seguida do cultivo do solo resultam em mudanças na dinâmica da matéria orgânica do solo, com alterações nas emissões dos gases causadores de efeito estufa (GEE: CO2, CH4 e N2O) da biosfera para a atmosfera, que causam a elevação da tempe [...] ratura média e, consequentemente, as mudanças climáticas globais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as relações entre os fluxos de CO2, CH4 e N2O com a umidade, biomassa microbiana e as formas inorgânicas de N no solo com diferentes usos das terras no bioma Cerrado (Rio Verde, Goiás). O clima da região é do tipo Aw (Köppen-Geiger), e o solo foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico caulinítico textura argilosa com vegetação original de Cerradão. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com quatro tratamentos (áreas): vegetação nativa - Cerradão (CE); pastagem (PA) de braquiária, semeadura convencional (SC) de soja; e semeadura direta (SD) de milho sucedido por milheto. As emissões anuais de CO2 e N2O não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos; isso ocorreu devido à elevada variação nos fluxos dos gases em decorrência da sazonalidade no clima, com as menores emissões observadas durante o inverno, devido à ausência da umidade do solo. A média na emissão de CO2 foi de 108,9 ± 85,6 mg m-2 h-1 , e para o N2O, de 13,5 ± 7,6 µg m-2 h-1. Os fluxos de CH4 apresentaram diferenças significativas somente para a pastagem, com emissão de 32 µg m-2 h-1 , enquanto nas demais áreas foram observados influxos entre 46 e 15 µg m-2 h-1 . Com os resultados das correlações, pode-se verificar que a umidade foi a variável do solo que apresentou maior correlação com o fluxo dos três gases de efeito estufa. O teor de N-NO3- e as emissões de CO2 mostraram correlações para todas as áreas. Quando consideradas as correlações para todos os tratamentos conjuntamente, verificou-se que os fluxos dos três gases apresentaram correlações significativas com os teores de C e N-microbiano. Contudo, a relação Cmicro:Nmicro não mostrou correlação significativa com o fluxo dos gases de efeito estufa. A pastagem foi a única situação em que os fluxos de CO2 e N2O apresentaram correlação com as quantidades de N-inorgânico. Os resultados sugerem que os fluxos dos GEE são dependentes do regime pluvial no bioma Cerrado, principalmente nas áreas cultivadas que recebem altas doses de fertilizantes para o aumento da produtividade. Abstract in english The conversion of native forests by cutting and burning into farming areas leads to alterations in the dynamics of soil organic matter, with changes in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs: CO2, CH4 and N2O) from the biosphere to the atmosphere. These cause an average temperature rise and, consequent [...] ly, global climate change. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O with moisture, microbial biomass and inorganic N forms in soil with different land uses in the Cerrado biome (Rio Verde county, State of Goias - Brazil). The climate (Köppen-Geiger) was classified as Aw and the soil as Latossolo Vermelho distrófico caulinítico / a clayey kaolinitic Oxisol under original Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) vegetation. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments (areas): Native vegetation - Cerrado (CE); brachiaria pasture (PA); soybean in conventional tillage (SC) and no-tillage (NT) corn followed by millet. No significant differences in annual CO2 and N2O emissions were observed between treatments. This can be explained by the variability of gas fluxes due to climate seasonality, with lower emissions in the winter due to low soil moisture. Mean emissions of CO2 were 108.9 ± 85.6 mg m-2 h-1 , and of N2O 13.5 ± 7.6 mg m-2 h-1 . For CH4 significant differences in the fluxes were only observed in pasture (32 mg m-2 h-1 ), while

Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Piccolo, Marisa de Cássia; Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Bernoux, Martial.

305

The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. II. Greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon budget / Balance de gases de efecto invernadero de la agroindustria de la palma de aceite en Colombia: análisis preliminar. II. Emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y balance de carbono  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el secuestro de carbono por parte de plantaciones de palma de aceite y en los productos del procesamiento y sus subproductos, como parte de un estudio del balance de gases de la producción de aceite de palma en Colombia, mostrando como este ha cambiado a través del tiempo. Se examinaron lo [...] s procesos opuestos de la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y calcula el balance neto de carbono resultante para la industria. La principales fuentes de emisiones en orden decreciente de magnitud, usando las opciones "por defecto" o "más probables" fueron el cambio de uso de tierra (40,9% del total), producción de metano en las plantas de procesamiento (21,4%), uso directo de combustibles fósiles (18,5%), uso indirecto de los combustibles fósiles (11,9%) y producción de óxido nitroso (7.3%). El total de emisiones (valor bruto) expresadas en carbono equivalente (Ceq.) fue menor que la cantidad de carbono secuestrado, resultando en un balance positivo neto de Ceq. Todas las zonas palmeras mostraron una ganancia neta con excepción de la zona Occidental en donde las emisiones dadas por el cambio de uso de tierra fueron sustanciales. De los 11 escenarios alternativos analizados solamente tres resultaron en un menor balance de Ceq. comparado al utilizado por defecto y solamente dos de ellos tuvieron un balance negativo Abstract in english In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas [...] (GHG) emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using "default" or "most probable" options, were found to be land use change (40.9% of total), mill methane production (21.4%), direct use of fossil fuel (18.5%), indirect use of fossil fuel (11.9%) and nitrous oxide production (7.3%). The total (gross) emissions, expressed in carbon equivalents (Ceq.), were less than the amount of sequestered carbon, resulting in a positive net Ceq. balance. All oil palm growing regions showed a net gain with the exception of the western zone, where emissions due to land-use change were judged to be substantial. Of the 11 alternative scenarios tested, only three resulted in Ceq. balances lower than the default and only two gave a negative balance

Ian E, Henson; Rodrigo, Ruiz R; Hernán Mauricio, Romero.

306

Greenhouse 94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 200 Australians and New Zealanders with an interest in or professional concern about the greenhouse issue participate in a conference on climate change jointly organised by CSIRO, NIWA (Atmospheric Division) New Zealand and the Australian Department of Environment, Sports and Territories. Over five days and nine conference sessions, participants debated various topics related to the science of global warming, impacts adaptation, international, national and economic perspectives, economics, energy and options as well as national responses to climate change. This paper gives and overview of the main issues under discussion and noted that if Australia is to stabilize, let alone reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases, industries will have to undergo radical changes

1994-12-01

307

Gas chromatography and photoacoustic spectroscopy for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases emissions Cromatografia gasosa e espectroscopia fotoacústica para avaliação das emissões de gases de efeito estufa do solo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions are critical for determination of the agricultural practices' potential to mitigate global warming. This study evaluated the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes in comparison to the standard gas chromatography (GC method. Two long-term experiments with different tillage and cropping systems over a Paleudult were evaluated using static chambers. PAS measurements of CO2 and N2O concentrations showed good relationship and linearity (R2=0.98 and 0.94, respectively with GC results. However, CH4 measurements were significantly affected by air sample moisture which interfered on CH4 detection by PAS. Overestimation of CO2 and N2O concentrations in air samples determined by PAS (14.6 and 18.7%, respectively were also related to sampling moisture. CO2 and N2O fluxes showed good agreement between methods (R2=0.96 and 0.95, respectively, though PAS overestimated fluxes by 18.6 and 13.6% in relation to GC results, respectively. PAS showed good sensitivity and was able to detect CO2 and N2O fluxes as low as 332mg CO2 m-2 h-1 and 21µg N2O m-2 h-1. PAS analyzer should be detailed calibrated to reduce humidity interference on CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations measurements avoiding overestimation or erroneous determination of soil GHG fluxes.As avaliações das emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2, metano (CH4 e óxido nitroso (N2O do solo são fundamentais para a determinação do potencial de práticas agrícolas em mitigar o aquecimento global. Este estudo avaliou a espectroscopia fotoacústica (EFA para a determinação dos fluxos de gases de efeito estufa (GEE do solo em comparação com o método padrão de cromatografia gasosa (CG. Dois experimentos de longa duração com diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e rotação de culturas sobre um Argissolo foram avaliados usando câmaras estáticas. As medidas das concentrações de CO2 e N2O realizadas por EFA mostraram boa correlação e linearidade (R2=0,98 e 0,94; respectivamente com os resultados de CG. Entretanto, as medidas de CH4 foram significativamente afetadas pela umidade da amostra de ar que interferiu na detecção do CH4 por EFA. A superestimativa das concentrações de CO2 e N2O nas amostras analisadas por EFA (14,6 e 18,7%; respectivamente também foram relacionadas com o conteúdo de umidade da amostra. Os fluxos de CO2 e N2O mostraram boa correlação entre os métodos (R2=0,96 e 0,95; respectivamente, apesar da superestimativa dos fluxos determinados por EFA ter sido de 18,6 e 13,6% em relação aos resultados obtidos por CG, respectivamente. A EFA mostrou boa sensibilidade e foi capaz de detectar fluxos de CO2 e N2O tão baixos quanto 332mg CO2 m-2 h-1 and 21µg N2O m-2 h-1. A calibração detalhada do analisador fotoacústico para reduzir a interferência da umidade das amostras nas medidas das concentrações de CO2, CH4 e N2O deve ser realizada a fim de evitar superestimativa ou erro na determinação dos fluxos de GEE do solo.

Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso

2013-02-01

308

Los métodos gravitacionales como herramienta para el cálculo de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero derivadas del tráfico rodado en la planificación urbana Gravity methods as a tool to calculate greenhouse gas emissions from road traffic in urban planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una metodología para la estimación de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero que se producen consecuencia del tráfico rodado en las ciudades. El método adopta como punto de partida la información relativa a los núcleos existentes en el término y los crecimientos previstos por la actividad urbanística estimando el tráfico que se prevé generarán ambos mediante un modelo gravitacional. Este modelo permite identificar los recorridos que presumiblemente seguirán los vehículos y así calcular sus emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. De esta forma se dispone de información respecto de la huella de carbono pueden incluirse medidas correctoras o compensatorias de las emisiones en la fase de diseño urbanístico.This paper proposes a methodology for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from road traffic. The method uses information about the cities and their growth estimates in order to model traffic by using a gravity model. These kind of mathematical models allow study the number of trips "originated in" or "destined for" a particular area and distribute them to calculate the greenhouse gases emissions from these trips. In this way the information regarding these emissions can be used in urban planning phase and preventive and compensatory measures can be included in these processes.

Sergio Zubelzu Mínguez

2011-08-01

309

The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered, The emission factors for particles from wood waste have been increased significantly. There are no methodical changes in the present emission documentation. In addition to changes brought about by the mentioned causes, there are several minor changes in the emission figures, e.g. due to changes in figures on energy combustion. Chapter 8 Recalculations gives a more thorough description of changes in the most recent emission calculations.(Author)

Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

2012-07-01

310

SAFT-? force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-? force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-? CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-? methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement refrigerant with promising properties. The description of the fluid-phase behavior and the prediction of the other thermophysical properties obtained by molecular simulation using our SAFT-? CG Mie force fields are found to be of comparable quality (and sometimes superior) to that obtained using the more sophisticated all-atom (AA) and united-atom (UA) models commonly employed in the field. We should emphasize that though the focus of our current work is on simple homonuclear models, the SAFT-? methodology is based on a group contribution methodology which is naturally suited to the development of more sophisticated heteronuclear models. PMID:23311931

Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2013-03-01

311

Greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems under long-term no-till: implications for global warming mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

No-till (NT) management has gained wide acceptance in US agriculture, and could contribute to global warming mitigation by offsetting fossil fuel emission. While C sequestration in NT systems is fairly well documented, the dynamics of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is less well understood. However, the literature abounds with viewpoints and assumptions. Because of crop residue accumulation on NT surface and generally higher soil moisture, it is often assumed that production of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) is greater in NT systems compared to conventional tillage (MP). But it is also possible that long-term implementation of NT could increase soil macro-porosity, lead to the evolution of an active population of methanotrophs, and ultimately result in enhanced CH4 uptake. Field data are needed to reconcile these conflicting assumptions. A 2-year (2009-2011) study was conducted to quantify C sequestration, and compare GHG fluxes in adjacent forest and cropland under MP and long-term NT (9, 13, 36 and 48 years). The study sites were located across Ohio on soil series with similar drainage characteristics (moderately well drained, MWD) so that duration of NT management is the experimental factor. We also included a site under NT for 48 years but located on somewhat poorly-drained soil (SPD) in order to assess the impact of soil drainage. Results revealed marked effect of NT duration and soil drainage characteristics on GHG fluxes. As hypothesized, we found a positive impact of NT on CH4 uptake, but significant difference with MP management was noted at sites under NT for > 10 years. At the sites under NT for 48 years, CH4 uptake rate was 10-12 times higher in MWD than in SPD soils. When data from all sites were pooled, N2O fluxes were significantly higher under MP (2.01 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1) than under NT (0.73), but the trend varied with NT duration. While at recent ( 30 years. At these older NT sites, N2O emissions accounted for 40-60 % of the global warming potential (GWP, sum of all GHG expressed as CO2 equivalents). These findings suggest that the viability of NT farming as a climate warming mitigation strategy hinges on the adoption of N fertilizer management practices (timing, amount, type and method of application) that minimize N2O emissions from cropland under long-term NT.

Jacinthe, P.; Dick, W. A.; Lal, R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Bilen, S.

2011-12-01

312

Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 ?g m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other processes. Early work by Cauer (1951) had shown that Cl/Na and Cl/Mg ratios were lower in air than in seawater, indicating loss of chlorine by "acid displacement" from sea salt by the strong acids, H2SO4 (Eriksson (1959a, b) and HNO3 (Robbins et al., 1959). Already the first measurements of bromine in aerosols by Duce et al. (1963) showed that bromine, like chlorine, was lost from the sea salt particles, whereas iodine was strongly enriched ( Duce et al., 1965). Research since the early 1980s has shown that photochemical processes are actively involved.Interest in the chemistry of atmospheric halogens took a steep upward surge after it was postulated that the release of industrially produced halocarbons, in particular the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), CFCl3, and CF2Cl2, could cause severe depletions in stratospheric ozone (Molina and Rowland, 1974) by the reactions involving the CFC photolytic product radicals, Cl and ClO, as catalysts. The first stratospheric measurements of ClO did indeed show its presence in significant quantities in the stratosphere so that by the end of the 1970s USA, Canada, and the Scandinavian countries issued laws against the use of CFC gases as propellants in spray cans. In the mid-1980s the springtime stratospheric ozone hole over Antarctica was discovered by Farman et al. (1985), involving heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds that lead to chlorine activation ( Solomon et al., 1986). Ten years later, in 1996, a complete phaseout ofthe production of the CFCs and a number of other chlorine- or bromine-containing chemicals came into effect for all nations in the developed world. In this contribution we will, however, concentrate on the impact of reactive chlorine, bromine, and iodine on tropospheric ozone chemistry.Halogens have the potential to be important in many facets of tropospheric chemistry. A multitude of gas phase reactions and gas-particle interactions occur that include coupling with the sulfur cycle and reactions with hydrocarbons. Loss of ozone by catalytic reactions

von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

2003-12-01

313

Halogen Chemical Diffusivities in Silicate Melts  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogens may exert a significant influence on the physico-chemical properties and the structure of silicate glasses and melts, as well as on their phase relations. Furthermore, the geochemistry of halogens from volcanic systems potentially provides valuable information on the nature and efficiency of the dagssing process in subduction zone volcanism. Knowledge of the transport properties of halogens in silicate melts is a necessary prerequisite in order to model the information contained in halogen concentrations of eruptive products and volcanic gases in terms of the potential influence of kinetics in controlling degassing. Towards this end, chemical diffusion of halogens (fluorine, iodine, chlorine and bromine) has been invesigated in melts in the system Na-Fe-Si-O-(F,Cl,Br,I) over a wide range of temperature (450 - 1400°C) using diffusion couple techniques. Halogens were added in the form of FeF3, FeCl3, FeI2 or FeBr3. Starting melts were fined by stirring for several hours at 1000-1100°C using a concentric cylinder viscometer. The synthesis temperature was restricted to 1100°C to limit the volatilization of halogens. Melted and doubly polished discs were then put into platinum tubes (5mm diameter), where the halogen-rich sample was located at the bottom, and sealed by welding. During the experiments the temperature was monitored with a thermocouple located at the vicinity of the capsule. Run durations were between 30 minutes and 1 hour. The recovered samples were analyzed using an electron microprobe in order to determine the diffusion profiles of the halogens. The experiments for the I-containing samples were conducted between 450 and 1025 °C and for a run duration of 30 to 45 min, for the Cl-containing samples between 800 and 1100°C and 45 to 60 min, while the Br-containing materials were investigated between 750 and 1000°C for 45 to 60 min. The preliminary results suggest a significant range of at least 3 orders of magnitude between the diffusion coefficients for F, Cl, Br and I at 1000°C. This raises the possibility of significant kinetic disequilibrium during foaming and rapid degassing of magma prior to and during eruption. The range also implies that the diffusion of halogens under these conditions in magma is intrinsic in nature and not controlled by melt viscosity.

Dingwell, D. B.

2004-12-01

314

Potencial de seqüestro de carbono em solos agrícolas sob manejo orgânico para redução da emissão de gases de efeito estufa Carbon sequestration potential in agricultural soils under organic management to reduce greenhouse effect gas emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O aumento da concentração dos gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera poderá ter conseqüências graves para toda sociedade. O desflorestamento e o uso dos solos para a produção de alimentos têm contribuído significativamente para aumentar a emissão desses gases. Com o objetivo de monitorar o teor de matéria orgânica e contabilizar o estoque de carbono de diversas unidades de solos, em área experimental de agricultura orgânica no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, foi realizado um estudo, caracterizando anualmente 12 unidades de solo, no período de 1990 a 2000. Observou-se acréscimo nos teores de matéria orgânica e de carbono do sistema. Na camada de 0 a 40 cm de profundidade, o estoque de carbono elevou-se de 34,57 t ha-1 para 58,19 t ha-1, com fixação de 23,62 t ha-1 em 10 anos, o que corresponde a 86,62 t ha-1 de CO2. Conclui-se que o manejo agroecológico em sistema orgânico de produção permite elevar o teor de matéria orgânica dos solos, pela reciclagem e seqüestro de carbono atmosférico, confirmando elevado potencial para reduzir as emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa, podendo contribuir para a redução do aquecimento global.The increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will have serious consequences for all of society. Deforestation and the use of soils for production of food have contributed significantly to increase the emission of greenhouse gases. With objectives to monitor the levels of organic matter and quantify the carbon content of diverse soil units in an organic agriculture research area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, a study was carried out characterizing annually 12 units of soil, during the period of 1990 to 2000. An increase in the levels of organic matter and carbon in the system was observed. In the soil layer from 0 to 40 cm deep, the carbon content increasedfrom 34.571 ha-1 to 58.191 ha-1, with fixation of23.62 t ha-1 in 10 years, which corresponds to 86.621 ha-1 of COt It is concluded that agroecological management in an organic production system enables an increase in the level of organic matter of soils by recycling and sequestering atmospheric carbon, confirming the increased potential of organic agriculture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to a reduction in global warming.

Jacimar Luis de Souza

2012-04-01

315

Potencial de seqüestro de carbono em solos agrícolas sob manejo orgânico para redução da emissão de gases de efeito estufa / Carbon sequestration potential in agricultural soils under organic management to reduce greenhouse effect gas emissions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aumento da concentração dos gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera poderá ter conseqüências graves para toda sociedade. O desflorestamento e o uso dos solos para a produção de alimentos têm contribuído significativamente para aumentar a emissão desses gases. Com o objetivo de monitorar o teor de maté [...] ria orgânica e contabilizar o estoque de carbono de diversas unidades de solos, em área experimental de agricultura orgânica no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, foi realizado um estudo, caracterizando anualmente 12 unidades de solo, no período de 1990 a 2000. Observou-se acréscimo nos teores de matéria orgânica e de carbono do sistema. Na camada de 0 a 40 cm de profundidade, o estoque de carbono elevou-se de 34,57 t ha-1 para 58,19 t ha-1, com fixação de 23,62 t ha-1 em 10 anos, o que corresponde a 86,62 t ha-1 de CO2. Conclui-se que o manejo agroecológico em sistema orgânico de produção permite elevar o teor de matéria orgânica dos solos, pela reciclagem e seqüestro de carbono atmosférico, confirmando elevado potencial para reduzir as emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa, podendo contribuir para a redução do aquecimento global. Abstract in english The increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will have serious consequences for all of society. Deforestation and the use of soils for production of food have contributed significantly to increase the emission of greenhouse gases. With objectives to monitor the levels of o [...] rganic matter and quantify the carbon content of diverse soil units in an organic agriculture research area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, a study was carried out characterizing annually 12 units of soil, during the period of 1990 to 2000. An increase in the levels of organic matter and carbon in the system was observed. In the soil layer from 0 to 40 cm deep, the carbon content increasedfrom 34.571 ha-1 to 58.191 ha-1, with fixation of23.62 t ha-1 in 10 years, which corresponds to 86.621 ha-1 of COt It is concluded that agroecological management in an organic production system enables an increase in the level of organic matter of soils by recycling and sequestering atmospheric carbon, confirming the increased potential of organic agriculture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to a reduction in global warming.

Jacimar Luis, de Souza; Luiz Carlos, Prezotti; André, Guarçoni M.

316

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Funding from the Nordic Energy Research Programme and from Helsinki University of Technology allowed for the preparation of this e-book, accompanied by overhead sheets as presented during the lectures. All material can be downloaded as pdf documents from the internet-address http://www.hut.fi/-rzeveho//gasbook, hence the qualification e- book Updates will be produced chapter-by-chapter in the future. Objectives and scope. Textbooks on this subject are, in general, limited to what can be called 'conventional' flue gas cleaning for conventional pulverised coal combustion processes, i.e. wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD), bag filters and electrostatic precipitators for flyash and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control. Other books address waste incineration within a discussion on waste management. The scope of this material we tried to make more up-to-date and therefore wider than these texts. Apart from pollutant control the formation of the pollutants is briefly addressed, which often provides the key to abatement methods as an alternative to control methods. Secondly, more species are addressed such HS in addition to SO{sub 2}; N{sub 2}0, HCN and NH{sub 3} in addition to NO{sub x}; alkali metals and trace elements such as mercury, halogenic compounds such as HO and dioxines and furanes; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also greenhouse gases, mainly CO{sub 2}, and ozone-depleting gases, such as CFCs, are briefly discussed. The motivation for this was to cover flue gases from combustion as well as fuel gases from gasification processes, using various types of furnaces and boilers, and to extend the range of chemical compounds to those found in the product gases in waste incineration and energy-from-waste processes. Finally, not only 'cold' gas cleaning but also 'hot' gas cleaning is addressed. All this in an attempt to cover the wide spectrum of pollutants found in gas streams in modern thermal power generation processes, being based on combustion or gasification, with a fossil fuel, biomass or waste-derived fuel as input. Recovery boilers for black liquor are, however, not specifically- dealt with. For preparing the material the most important sources were the reports from LEA Coal Research in London, UK; Chapters 9, 10 and 11 of the Finnish textbook 'Poltto ja palaminen', and the articles, papers and theses (co-)produced by the authors themselves since the 1990s. (orig.)

Zevenhoven, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)

2001-07-01

317

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

318

Greenhouse gases in the life cycle of fossil fuels: critical aspects in upstream emissions estimate and their repercussions on the overall life-cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion accounts for the main contribution to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in electricity generation via fossil fuels. To date, minor attention has been paid to pre combustion emissions associated with fossil fuel upstream segment (production, processing and transportation). This study seeks to provide insight into GHG emissions in the pre combustion step of natural gas and coal. Owing to the size/complexity of the upstream processes and to a lack of detailed site-specific data, this study just outlines some of the key aspects involved. The attention will be focused on the elements that may have a significant impact on fossil fuel life-cycle and no on the evaluation of GHG: the sources, the extent of the pre combustion GHG emissions and the accuracy of their estimate. Some key results are summarized in the following. The first one is that pre combustion GHG, owing of the huge Italy reliance on fossil fuels imports, are mainly emitted abroad. In addition, they are released to the atmosphere mainly as fugitive emissions (methane and carbon dioxide being the predominant gases). Moreover, although pre combustion emissions give a modest contribution to GHG of the whole energy sector, they may account for a consistent part of the aver all fuel life-cycle in power generation even though combustion technologies efficiency plays a key role in emission reduction. Some examples are reported, showing the potential impact of pre combustion emissions on coal and natural gas life-cycle in Italy's electricity generation. The second one is that pre combustion emissions are very site specific as they depend on several factors which may vary greatly between countries and even between individual companies. The sources and the extent of upstream emissions are in fact a function of a least three factor types: (a) technical parameters (design and operating practices, process operating conditions, efficiency of potential emission control/reduction equipment, age and conditions of infrastructure,..); (b) raw gas composition (CH4/Co2); (c) methodologies used to evaluate/measure emissions. Thus, while the uncertainly in Co2 emissions by combustion is rather low, the estimate of pre combustion emissions evaluated by using default emission factors coupled with different methodologies and/or different system boundaries, may have a wide (and, most of all, unknown) range of uncertainty especially in some fuel producing countries. All this suggests that. owing to the heavy Italian reliance on fossil imports, the emission reduction projects aimed to earn carbon credits by the Kyoto mechanisms might really play a significant role to help Italy to fulfil the Kyoto commitments and to give the private sector growth opportunities abroad. At the same time, it seems obvious that the carbon emissions can be really t rated just when data concerning them are reliable. Thus, the harmonization of the emission evaluation approaches and the adoption of recognized methodologies of measure/estimate, constitute binding items to make it possible that the Kyoto mechanisms and their environmental targets can work

2004-01-01

319

Mapping Greenhouse Gas Emissions Where You Live  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson plan, learners examine some of the of greenhouse gas emissions sources in their community. To investigate the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, learners use the Environmental Protection Agencyâs (EPA) Facility Level Information on GreenHouse gases Tool (FLIGHT). The FLIGHT Tool is a publicly accessible repository of data submitted to EPA by power plants, factories, refineries, and other U.S. facilities that emit large amounts of greenhouse gases.

Agency, United S.

2014-04-30

320

Halogen bonding in solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Halogen bonding is the electron density donation based weak interaction of halogens with Lewis bases. Its applicability for molecular recognition processes long remained unappreciated and has so far mostly been studied in silico and in solid state. As most physiological processes and chemical reactions take place in solution, investigations in solutions are of highest relevance for its use in the pharmaceutical and material scientific toolboxes. Following a short discussion of the...

Erdelyi, Mate

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four; Les travaux du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France, a l'horizon 2050, dit facteur 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2005-07-01

322

Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present project has been to establish an LCA methodology for assessing different biomass energy systems in Denmark and Ghana in relation to their emission of greenhouse gases. The biomass systems which have been studied are willow chips, surplus straw and biogas from manure for Denmark and energy forest and use of saved wood in the food preparation process for electricity production in Ghana.DenmarkThe life cycle analysis has been relatively well defined for the case of willow chips and straw as their system boundaries are relatively well-defined, whereas the definition of system boundaries are more difficult for the biogas case. For the willow chip production the uncertainty is the possible enhanced emission of N2O when the energy forest is fertilised. For the biogas study, the uncertainties are related to the definition of alternative uses and handling of the manure, and for the definition of reference technology. For all Danish case studies the reference technology has been energy produced by natural gas. The total emission for willow chips in Denmark is 99 g CO2-eq per kWh of electricity produced for willow chips, 68 g CO2-eq per kWh for surplus straw and 58 g CO2-eq per kWh for biogas. The CO2 reduction potential is determined as 310 g CO2 per kWh for willow chips, 340 g CO2-eq per kWh for surplus straw and 350 g CO2 per kWh for biogas, when they replace energy produced in a natural gas system. With a potential of 32 PJ energy forest (200,000 ha), 33 PJ of surplus straw and 20 PJ of biogas, the total CO2 reduction will be 3.8 million tonnes or 6% of present CO2 emission if biomass substitute natural gas. This relates to the use of present available technologies. In the decades to come new and more efficient technologies will be developed for biomass plants. This will increase the reduction potential for CO2. GhanaTwo different case studies have been carried out for Ghana. The first is a life cycle analysis of an energy forest plantation in Ghana which has been cultivated with modern equipment.The second LCA is extended with an energy end use chain to determine the energy conservation options in the food preparation process. The idea has been to use the saved wood in the food preparation process for electricity production.The results for the energy forest in Ghana are not very different from the willow forest in Denmark. Similar assumptions about energy consumption for use of machines have been made in the two cases. The main difference is that the energy forest in Ghana uses Nitrogen fixing species to avoid the use of fertilisers. The second Ghanaian case study was established so that one-third of the electricity produced at the power plant should be supplied by savings in the food preparation process to cover the domestic electricity consumption. The remaining two-thirds of the electricity has been produced in an energy forest to cover industrial demand.The saving options have been determined to be 65% by use of an improved woodstove and efficient cooking performances compared to the traditionalcooking performance and the use of three-stone stove. The results indicate that the energy saving options are higher by changing habits than by changing cooking stove. This implies that it is better to use an efficient cooking performance on a three-stone stove than inefficient cooking performance on an improved stove. The efficiency options for the improved stove have also been compared with the use of LPG and electric stoves.The use of a life cycle analysis for the saved wood case indicate that the energy saving options have to be taken into account when assessing the different cooking options. This is an important issue as long as cooking is the main energy service in Ghana. Life cycle analysis can be a useful tool for assessing the different saving options and for identifying environmental impacts from the cooking process.To supply sufficient woodfuel to cover one-third of the electricity production two-thirds of the households would have to change into efficient cooking performance and to use improved sto

Nielsen, Per Sieverts

1996-01-01

323

Reduction of greenhouse gases emission in the Brazilian energy matrix in the year 2000: the case of photovoltaic generation; Reducao de emissoes de gases de efeito estufa na matriz energetica brasileira do ano 2000: o caso da geracao fotovoltaica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian energy system presents today a relatively low emission of carbon dioxide. A comparison is made for the emissions of this gas in the year 2000 for alternative uses of coal, natural gas and photovoltaic solar energy for electricity generation.Solar energy should be used for controlling the greenhouse effect 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.; e-mail: mfreitas at ppe.ufrj.br

Szwarcfiter, Lila; Rocha, Patricia; Freitas, Marcos A.V. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

1996-12-31

324

Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink group...

Briggs, Adan D. M.; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

2013-01-01

325

Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions: the importance of agriculture and livestock Emissões de gases do efeito estufa do Brasil: importância da agricultura e pastagem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data from the 1990-1994 period presented in the "Brazil's Initial National Communication" document indicated that the country is one of the top world greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters. A large majority of Brazil's GHG emissions come from deforestation mainly of the Amazon biome for agriculture and livestock land uses. This unique inventory is now out of date. Thus, the aims of this review were (i) to update estimates of the GHG emissions for the Brazilian territory, (ii) to estimate the sinks to ...

Carlos Clemente Cerri; Stoecio Malta Ferreira Maia; Marcelo Valadares Galdos; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri; Brigitte Josefine Feigl; Martial Bernoux

2009-01-01

326

Automated ground-based remote sensing measurements of greenhouse gases at the Bia?ystok site in comparison with collocated in-situ measurements and model data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fully automated observatory for total greenhouse gas (GHG) column measurements introduced here complements the in-situ facilities at the Bia?ystok site in Poland. With the automated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), solar absorption measurements have been recorded nearly continuously since March 2009. In this article the automation system, including the hardware components and the automation software will be described in its basics. Furthermore the first comparison of the FTS dataset...

Messerschmidt, J.; Chen, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; Gerbig, C.; Grupe, P.; Katrynski, K.; -t Koch, F.; Lavric?, J. V.; Notholt, J.; Ro?denbeck, C.; Ruhe, W.; Warneke, T.; Weinzierl, C.

2011-01-01

327

Automated ground-based remote sensing measurements of greenhouse gases at the Bia?ystok site in comparison with collocated in situ measurements and model data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The in situ boundary layer measurement site in Bia?ystok (Poland) has been upgraded with a fully automated observatory for total greenhouse gas column measurements. The automated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) complements the on-site in situ facilities and FTS solar absorption measurements have been recorded nearly continuously in clear and partially cloudy conditions since March 2009. Here, the FTS measurements are compared with the collocated tall tower data. Additionally, simulation...

Messerschmidt, J.; Chen, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; Gerbig, C.; Grupe, P.; Katrynski, K.; -t Koch, F.; Lavric?, J. V.; Notholt, J.; Ro?denbeck, C.; Ruhe, W.; Warneke, T.; Weinzierl, C.

2012-01-01

328

Technical meeting of OREAQ (Regional Observatory of Energy in Aquitaine): energy and greenhouse gases in Aquitaine, the system of the green certificates and the green electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. This meeting is devoted to the greenhouse effect in Aquitaine. It discusses the carbon dioxide emissions bond to the energy, the green certificates and the green electricity market in France. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

329

Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union La captura y almacenamiento de carbono: una novedosa técnica de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero regulada por la Unión Europea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees regime.El presente artículo desarrolla las principales aristas de la captura y almacenamiento del dióxido de carbono emanado de las grandes instalaciones de combustión, novedosa técnica que al tornarse imprescindible para la reducción de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero ha sido regulada porla Unión Europea (UE a través de la directiva 2009/31. Así, tras reconocerlos aspectos jurídicos relevantes de su regulación —obligatoriedad, permisos de exploración y almacenamiento, entre otros— se incide en el régimen de responsabilidad y garantías.

Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

2013-08-01

330

Compilation of the results of manure digestion projects of the ROB (reduction of other greenhouse gases) subsidy regulation; Bundeling van de resultaten van de mestvergistingprojecten van de ROB-subsidieregeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report compiles the experiences and data of 14 practical farmers and three practical research centers with a biogas installation. The experiences result from projects that were conducted in the framework of the O+O programme 'Reduction of other greenhouse gases (ROB). The businesses are mainly located in the provinces of Groningen end Friesland. Ten of them are dairy farms, two are agricultural farms with broilers as sideline activity and two are specialized biogas installations. [mk]. [Dutch] In dit rapport zijn de ervaringen en gegevens samengebundeld van 14 praktijkbedrijven en drie praktijkonderzoekcentra met een biogasinstallatie. De ervaringen zijn opgedaan in projecten die zijn uitgevoerd in het kader van het O+O programma 'Reductie Overige Broeikasgassen (ROB). De bedrijven zijn voornamelijk gelegen in de provincies Groningen en Friesland. Het zijn 10 melkveehouderijbedrijven, twee akkerbouwbedrijven met als neventak vleeskuikens en twee gespecialiseerde biogasinstallaties.

Schellekens, J. [DLV Bouw Milieu en Techniek, Uden (Netherlands)

2008-08-15

331

GreenHouse Gas Online  

Science.gov (United States)

GreenHouse Gas Online catalogues greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals from around the world. Only journal articles with freely available abstracts are included. The latest general news and journal articles can be found listed by title, while links to archived material is available by topic. Pages devoted to background information on the various greenhouse gases, current scientific understanding and the potential for control of emissions are also available.

2002-08-01

332

Data for fire hazard assessment of selected non-halogenated and halogenated fire retardants: Report of Test FR 3983  

Science.gov (United States)

Five plastic materials, with and without fire retardants, were studied to compare the fire hazards of non-halogenated fire retardant additives with halogenated flame retardents. The plastic materials were identified by the sponsors as unsaturated polyesters, thermoplastic high density, low density and cross-linked low density polyethylenes, polypropylene, flexible and rigid poly(vinyl chlorides), and cross-linked and thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. The non-halogenated fire retardants tested were aluminum hydroxide, also known as alumina trihydrate, sodium alumino-carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. The halogenated flame retardants were chlorine or bromine/antimony oxides. The plastics were studied using the Cone Calorimeter and the cup furnace smoke toxicity method (high density polyethylene only). The Cone Calorimeter provided data on mass consumed; time to ignition; peak rate and peak time of heat release; total heat release; effective heat of combustion; average yields of CO, CO2, HCl, and HBr; and average smoke obscuration. The concentrations of toxic gases generated in the cup furnace smoke toxicity method were used to predict the toxic potency of the mixed thermal decomposition products. The data from the Cone Calorimeter indicate that the non-halogenated fire retardants were, in most of the tested plastic formulations, more effective than the halogenated flame retardants in increasing the time to ignition. The non-halogenated fire retardants were also more effective in reducing the mass consumed, peak rate of heat release, total heat released, and effective smoke produced. The use of halogenated flame retardants increased smoke production and CO yields and, additionally, produced the known acid gases and toxic irritants, HCl and HBr, in measureable quantities.

Harris, R. H.; Babrauskas, V.; Levin, B. C.; Paabo, M.

1991-10-01

333

Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource consists of an interactive table with a comprehensive list of 29 Greenhouse Gases, their molecular structures, a chart showing a time series of their atmospheric concentrations (at several sampling sites), their global warming potential (GWP) and their atmospheric lifetimes. References are given to the data sets that range from the mid-1990s to 2008.

Lisensky, George; College, Beloit

334

Greenhouse gases (GHG) and energy management in petroleum history, discussions and proposals; Gestao de gases do efeito estufa (GEE) e energia na historia do refino de petroleo: discussoes e propostas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil refining is an intense activity in energy consumption ends up suffering pressures to reduce this consumption and therefore the emissions. In the case of the Brazilian refining park, it is time to increase conversion and hydrotreating, adjusting the quality of the products to the growing demand for fuel allowing fleet renewal, with better efficiency and lower emissions. This article presents an overview of refining, the analysis of the technological route chosen for the Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU) and an example of emission evolution summarizing the impact of changes in greenhouse gas emissions in a refinery.

Rodrigues, Glenda Rangel; Perisse, Juarez Barbosa; Bittencourt, Roberto Carlos Pontes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

335

Impact of the penalties of the greenhouse gases emission on the electric power sector; Impactos das penalidades das emissoes de GEE na expansao do setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper resulted from the CASES project which is a joint action developed by different research institutes, intending the evaluation political options which can be implanted for the promotion of a greater efficiency in the use of energy. The paper proposes to determine the additional cost of expansion of the electric power sector in a scenario incorporating in each technology the socio environmental costs associated to that technology. The paper verifies that the penalty of greenhouse emissions make the renewable sources more competitive, however at a more increased cost to the society.

La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Centro Clima; Villar, Sandra de Castro [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, Silvia Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

336

Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4; Releve de conclusions de la 9. reunion du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France a l'horizon 2050, dit Facteur 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

Lamblin, V

2006-05-15

337

The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

338

Greater Vancouver and Fraser Valley Air Quality Management Plan : Phase 1 options for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution in the GVRD : summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presented an analytical based approach upon which the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) can develop options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This project is the first step in developing an air quality management plan for the region. The study also provides the basis for developing an interim action plan on integrated management of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air contaminants (CAC). In particular, this paper identified potential GHG emission reduction measures for various sectors within the GVRD which also produce reductions in CACs. This report also develops a first order estimate of the magnitude of GHG and CAC emissions reductions from implementing the identified emission reduction measures. The cost of individual measures were then assessed and ranked and the most effective measures were listed for further consideration in the development of interim and long term air quality management plans. The breakdown of GHG emissions in 1998 was provided for point sources such as bulk shipping, electric power generation, non-metallic minerals, petroleum refining, wood products, agricultural sources, natural sources, solvent evaporation, space heating, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and off-road vehicles. In 1998, a total of 15,769,037 tonnes of GHG were released into the atmosphere in the GVRD. The greatest contributors were light duty vehicles (27.6 per cent) and space heating (25.6 per cent). It was recommended that future GHG analysis should focus on these largest emitters. Agriculture contributed only 2.1 per cent. 3 tabs., 4 figs.

NONE

2000-10-01

339

Cytotoxicity of halogenated graphenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene and its family of derivatives possess unique and remarkable physicochemical properties which make them valuable materials for applications in many areas like electronics, energy storage and biomedicine. In response to the possibility of its large-scale manufacturing as commercial products in the future, an investigation was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of one particular family of graphene derivatives, the halogenated graphenes, for the first time. Halogenated graphenes were prepared through thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in gaseous chlorine, bromine or iodine atmospheres to yield chlorine- (TRGO-Cl), bromine- (TRGO-Br) and iodine-doped graphene (TRGO-I) respectively. 24 h exposure of human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) to the three halogenated graphenes and subsequent cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays revealed that all the halogenated graphenes examined are rather cytotoxic at the concentrations tested (3.125 ?g mL-1 to 200 ?g mL-1) and the effects are dose-dependent, with TRGO-Cl reducing the cell viability to as low as 25.7% at the maximum concentration of 200 ?g mL-1. Their levels of cytotoxicity can be arranged in the order of TRGO-Cl > TRGO-Br > TRGO-I, and it is suggested that the amount of halogen present in the graphene material is the determining factor for the observed trend. Control experiments were carried out to test for possible nanomaterial-induced interference as a consequence of reaction between the halogenated graphenes and the viability markers (MTT/WST-8 reagent) or binding of the formazan products under cell-free conditions. The data obtained eliminate the probability of significant influence by these interferents as the change in the normalized percentage of formazan formed is relatively small and thorough washings were performed prior to the viability assessments to reduce the amount of halogenated graphenes that could eventually interact with the MTT/WST-8 assays. More studies need to be carried out in the future to complement the results obtained in this initial study in an attempt to develop a better understanding of the health hazards that the halogenated graphenes pose.

Teo, Wei Zhe; Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Sofer, Zden?k; Pumera, Martin

2013-12-01

340

Evaluation of the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) in grass land and in the grass breeding. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. report of the first part of the project December 2002; Bilan des emissions de gaz a effet de serre (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) en prairie paturee et dans des exploitations d'elevage herbager. GES-Prairies. Rapport de la premiere tranche du projet Decembre 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the Kyoto protocol on the greenhouse effect gases reduction, many ecosystems as the prairies can play a main role for the carbon sequestration in soils. The conservation of french prairies and their management adaptation could allow the possibility of carbon sequestration in the soils but also could generate emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (by the breeding animals on grass) and N{sub 2}O (by the soils). This project aims to establish a detailed evaluation of the contribution of the french prairies to the the greenhouse effect gases flux and evaluate the possibilities of reduction of the emissions by adaptation of breeding systems. (A.L.B.)

Soussana, J.F

2002-12-15

 
 
 
 
341

Automated ground-based remote sensing measurements of greenhouse gases at the Bia?ystok site in comparison with collocated in-situ measurements and model data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fully automated observatory for total greenhouse gas (GHG column measurements introduced here complements the in-situ facilities at the Bia?ystok site in Poland. With the automated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, solar absorption measurements have been recorded nearly continuously since March 2009. In this article the automation system, including the hardware components and the automation software will be described in its basics. Furthermore the first comparison of the FTS dataset with the collocated in-situ measurements and the first comparison of the Jena CO2 inversion model are presented. This model identifies monthly variations in the total CO2 column and the seasonal amplitude is in good agreement with the FTS measurements.

J. Messerschmidt

2011-12-01

342

Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10{prime} positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron. 1 fig.

Hurlburt, P.K.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

1997-05-20

343

Emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the Manaus city due to burning of fossil fuels; Emissao de gases poluentes na atmosfera urbana da cidade de Manaus devida a queima de combustiveis fosseis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper intends to think over the impacts of pollutants gases in the atmosphere of the city of Manaus, caused by the thermal, the main electricity source in the State of Amazonas. The focus of the study is the urban atmosphere where physical and chemical phenomenon accelerate the effects of increased concentration of some components and secondary pollutants, which are produced due to human activities. It is based on two studies: monitoring the exhaust gas applied at a factory in the district of Aparecida, located in the urban area, and monitoring conducted by the energy operating company, about the influence of exhaust gas around the district of Mauazinho, also in urban area. It is a preliminary research that seeks to demonstrate the inconsistency of some studies and the need to make progress in search for more efficient methods and techniques. This is an important step toward a policy of environmental management that will complement future studies about air pollution in the city. (author)

Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br; Chaar, Jamal da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (ICE/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas

2009-07-01

344

Volcanic halogen emissions: sources and consequences  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an overview of our recent work concerning the sources of halogens in volcanic emissions; how inert hydrogen halides in volcanic gases become activated into environmentally reactive species, and some of the potential consequences of these species. Previous studies have suggested that the Cl in volcanic emissions is the result of efficient recycling of Cl taken down with the subducting slab. We will present new results from Nicaragua for volcanic Br and I emissions, as well as Cl. Our results are consistent with a subduction source for I. In general, the volcanic samples are more enriched in Cl than many other Earth system reservoirs. We will discuss some of the questions that this raises, and review the scale of global volcanic halogen emissions. Once emitted from the magma, volcanic halogen species may cause localised ozone depletion both in the troposphere (following activation by high-temperature mixing with atmospheric oxygen) and the stratosphere (due to their interactions with other volcanic plume components as shown in the recent studies of the Hekla plume in 2000).

Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Aiuppa, A.; Millard, G. A.; Rose, W. I.; Martin, R. S.

2007-12-01

345

Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

2011-01-01

346

Efficient voluntary measures to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG); Des mesures volontaires efficaces de reduction de gaz a effet de serre (GES)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's aluminium industry is the third largest in the world, consisting of three major companies: Alcan, Alcoa, and Aluminerie Alouette. The industry is mainly concentrated in Quebec, where 10 of 11 facilities are located. The industry is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the electrolysis process used in the manufacturing of aluminium. The aluminium industry has shown interest in developing a climate change action plan that would be advantageous and adapted to the reality of the sector, and wanted to act before the first implementation period of the Kyoto Protocol between 2008-2012. Negotiations with the Quebec's Ministries of Environment, Natural Resources, and Industry and Commerce have resulted in a framework agreement which was ratified on January 31, 2002. The agreement calls for reductions in GHG emissions to be measurable in intensity and in absolute tonnes. New techniques allow the sector to decrease the intensity of emissions. Adjustment mechanisms are in place, dependent on the production capacity and recognition of resulting reductions. The life cycle approach was promoted. Specific agreements between companies and the provincial government were also negotiated. Alcoa Canada signed the agreement on June 17, 2002, Alcan signed on October 17, 2002, and Aluminerie Alouette signed in February 2003.

Van Houtte, C.L. [Aluminium Association of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2004-07-01

347

Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading; Actualizacion y ampliacion del regimen comunitario de comercio de derechos de emision de gases de efecto invernadero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

Arrieta-Langarika, I.

2010-07-01

348

Automated ground-based remote sensing measurements of greenhouse gases at the Bia?ystok site in comparison with collocated in situ measurements and model data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The in situ boundary layer measurement site in Bia?ystok (Poland has been upgraded with a fully automated observatory for total greenhouse gas column measurements. The automated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS complements the on-site in situ facilities and FTS solar absorption measurements have been recorded nearly continuously in clear and partially cloudy conditions since March 2009. Here, the FTS measurements are compared with the collocated tall tower data. Additionally, simulations of the Jena CO2 inversion model are evaluated with the Bia?ystok measurement facilities. The simulated seasonal CO2 cycle is slightly overestimated by a mean difference of 1.2 ppm ± 0.9 ppm (1? in comparison with the FTS measurements. CO2 concentrations at the surface, measured at the tall tower (5 m, 90 m, 300 m, are slightly underestimated by ?1.5 ppm, ?1.6 ppm, and ?0.7 ppm respectively during the day and by ?9.1 ppm, ?5.9 ppm, and ?1.3 ppm during the night. The comparison of the simulated CO2 profiles with low aircraft profiles shows a slight overestimation of the lower troposphere (by up to 1 ppm and an underestimation in near-surface heights until 800 m (by up to 2.5 ppm. In an appendix the automated FTS observatory, including the hardware components and the automation software, is described in its basics.

J. Messerschmidt

2012-08-01

349

Preliminary report on inventory of greenhouse gases. Phase 1; Rapport preliminaire sur l`inventaire de gaz a effet de serre. Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) requires the signatory countries to develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by sources and removals by sinks, using comparable methodologies as well as to formulate policies and programmes to adapt to or mitigate climate change. Following the entree-into-force of the Convention, the Government of Burkina Faso requested the Danish Government to provide technical assistance and support in order to assess national contributions to global GHG accumulation and to identify the most relevant GHG mitigation and adaptation options for national target-setting and action. This report presents the results of the Phase 1 of the project. The report summarises: (i) the national inventory on GHG emissions and sinks; (ii) a preliminary forecast of GHG emissions and possible mitigation options, and (iii) a first attempt to analyse the vulnerability and possible adaptation strategies to climate change. (LN) 51 refs.

Fenhann, J.

1997-07-01

350

Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} from mangrove soil in South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmospheric fluxes of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 {mu}mol m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, 11.9 to 5168.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} h{sup -1} and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m{sup -2} h{sup -1} for N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N concentration had significant effects on CH{sub 4} fluxes.

Chen, G.C. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tam, N.F.Y., E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ye, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian (China)

2010-06-01

351

Greater Vancouver and Fraser Valley Air Quality Management Plan : Phase 1 options for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution in the GVRD : November 23, 2000 workshop proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop began with an introduction and overview of the planning development process for the Greater Vancouver - Fraser Valley Air Quality Management Plan, and an introduction to the methodology and findings of the Phase 1 Options study which was conducted in October 2000 and which was processed separately in this database. The air quality management plan is to be developed during 2001-2003. It is a joint venture between two regional districts and includes the participation of the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. The Phase 1 Option Study identified potential GHG emission reduction measures for various sectors within the GVRD. The study develops a first order estimate of the magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air contaminants (CAC) emissions reductions from implementing the identified emission reduction measures. During this workshop, it was understood that not all promising emission reduction measures will be effective for both GHG and CAC. It was also recognized that many measures which increase fuel efficiency many not offer benefits for both local and global air quality issues. It was suggested that harmonizing the reduction of GHG emissions with the reduction of CAC is the most cost-effective method. It was also noted that many of the harmonized measures to improve air quality can only be implemented over a number of years. These conference proceedings included highlights from the following breakout sessions: (1) buildings and public education, (2) industry and energy, and (3) transportation. A total of 27 organizations and associations from various sectors of the economy were represented at this conference.

Ergudenler, A.; Heap, N. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

2001-02-01

352

The potential for greenhouse gases mitigation in household sector of Iran: cases of price reform/efficiency improvement and scenario for 2000-2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iran's demographic profile is sharply youth oriented and this upcoming generation's needs for employment and housing, coupled with low-energy efficiency vectors and consumption patterns, has created a constant rise in energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions in the residential sector. Improved energy efficiency as a national policy lynchpin for demand reduction and GHGs mitigation, has become commonplace. OPEC countries however, Iran included, suffer an obvious lack of consumer incentive because of low fuel prices. This study evaluates the twin impacts of price reform and efficiency programs on energy carriers' consumption and GHGs mitigation in the Iranian housing sector. For this purpose, the demand functions for energy carriers, has been developed by econometrics process models. The results reveal that price elasticity for electricity demand in the Constant Elasticity Model for the sh