WorldWideScience
1

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

KQED

2

The greenhouse effect gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

3

Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

4

How Greenhouse Gases Absorb Heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners observe two model atmospheres -- one with normal atmospheric composition and another with an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. These two model atmospheres are exposed to light energy from a sunny window or from a lamp. This activity will help learners understand that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb and hold heat, relating to global warming and climate change.

2012-08-01

5

Greenhouse gases situation in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anthropogenic emissions situation of the greenhouse gases in Austria was analyzed. This analysis covered 1990-2002 trends, 2001-2002 development, causes and influencing factors, evolution by sectors and by type of pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O, F-gases(SF6, partial fluorinated hydrocarbons, total fluorinated hydrocarbons) including their greenhouse potential. In 2002, 84.6 millions tons of greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalent) were emitted, this represents an increase of 3 % over the year before and in comparison with the basis year (1990 and F-gases 1995) an increment of 8.5 %. Comparing 2002 data against 2001, it was found that CO2 emissions represents the 82 % (69.7 millions Tons) of the total emissions and have increased 0.9 %; methane (CH4) emissions contributes with 9 % and have decreased 2.5 %, N2O emissions are the 7 % and have decreased 3.7 %, F-gases emissions maintain the same level as 1995. 14 figs., 2 tabs. (nevyjel)

6

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO2 , SO2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

7

Greenhouse gases and emissions trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

8

The storage of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 109 tons of dissolved CO2. Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

9

Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly from the balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumping of communal biodegradable wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of greenhouses gates related with the car transportation or power industry. (authors)

10

Reporting emissions of greenhouse gases in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases are considered in "Canada's National Report on Climate Change: Actions to Meet Commitments Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". By including all major greenhouse gases and their anthropogenic sources and sinks using best available science, the Report provides a practical illustration of the "comprehensive approach" policy to implementing the Convention's requirements. In addition to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion, the Report includes information on other sources and sinks for carbon dioxide, and for methane and nitrous oxide. Other gases considered include polyflourocarbons, hydroflourocarbons, and the primary tropospheric ozone precursors, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Current Global Warming Potential indices are used to compare and integrate the best estimates of climate change impacts of the major greenhouse gases. The presentation of emission data is intended to be transparent and comparable. The relative quality of the data for various gases and sources is indicated. The existence of environmental, economic, and other benefits to limiting emissions of all greenhouse gases, in addition to carbon dioxide, should be recognized. Continuing assessments and actions on non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions, both nationally and internationally, are suggested. PMID:24213890

Finlay, P; Stobbs, R

1994-05-01

11

Thermal efficiency of the principal greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric gases are ranked according to the efficiency with which they absorb and radiate longwave radiation. The open international HITRAN database of gaseous absorption lines of high resolution together with inverse Fourier transform were used. The autocorrelation functions of the total dipole moment of the basic greenhouse gases molecules such as H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, and CH4 were obtained. Absorption coefficient spectra and emission power spectra of infrared radiation of these gases were calculated. Analysis of the emissive ability of all gases under consideration was carried out. Compared to CO2, all the gases under investigation have more effective emission except ozone. An efficiency criterion of IR absorption and emission is defined and is calculated for each studied gas, and the gases are ranked accordingly as follows (from strong to weak): H2O, CH4, CO2, N2O, and O3.

Y. Galashev, A.; R. Rakhmanova, O.

2015-01-01

12

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

OpenAIRE

Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

13

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

14

Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

15

Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

16

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01

17

Greenhouse gases and global change: International collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the current concern about the fate of the global environment is related to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases and possible effects on the global climate. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, which is changing rapidly, is, to a large degree, determined by the release and uptake of a variety of trace gases by the biosphere. The biospheric production of relatively small amounts of trace gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is of special interest, as they trap infrared radiation, thus warming the Earth's surface. These greenhouse gases and other biogenic trace gases, such as carbon monoxide, odd nitrogen oxides (NOx), and a range of volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry by affecting tropospheric concentration of ozone, the penetration of photochemically active solar ultra-violet radiation, the production of hydroxyl radicals, and, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, cloud formation. Within the decade of the 1990's, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program will launch a worldwide research effort, unprecedented in its scope, to address the functioning of the Earth system and to understand how this system is changing. The body of information generated by the IGBP will form the scientific underpinning for predictions relating to future causes and effects of global changes. Through its observational network and process studies, and the effective communication of the resulting data to sc communication of the resulting data to scientists in all nations committed to this endeavor, the IGBP will help provide the world's decision makers with the input necessary to wisely manage the global environment

18

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NOx, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO2. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N2O (16 %), CH4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

19

Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters ded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

20

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

21

Hydropower may produce more greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to this article, dam projects in hydropower development may lead to increased emission of greenhouse gases and may create great inconveniences for the local community. Hence it is not without problems to sponsor such projects through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. In many countries the great era of hydroelectric development is over and the potential is now in the developing countries. The aim of the CDM is two-fold: sustainable development in the developing countries, and cheap reduction of greenhouse gas emission from developed nations. It has been agreed upon in the climate negotiations that it is the developing country receiving the investments that shall document that the projects conform to the goal of sustainable development of that country. The concept of sustain ability is a vague one, and it is a great challenge to make it more precise so that requirements may be posed on CDM projects. This is important as projects that are suitable from a climate point of view may have undesirable environmental or social effects, which may be in conflict with the goal of sustainable development. This also pertains to hydropower. It also appears that water reservoirs are not always as clean as has been assumed

22

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01

23

Emission of greenhouse gases from Danish agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for inventories of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Danish agriculture has been reviewed and re-evaluated. This has resulted in revised estimates for most of the sources. The revised estimates predict a decline in emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Danish agriculture from 14.1 Mt CO2 equivalents in 1990 to 10.6 Mt CO2 equivalents in 2010. The new estimates give lower emission of methane (4% for 1990 and 15% for 2010), and almost unchanged emissions for nitrous oxide (1% smaller for 1990 and 3% higher for 2010) compared with previous estimates. Since nitrous oxide is a more potent greenhouse gas than methane, the revised estimates are almost identical to the old ones for 2010 when expressed as CO2 equivalents. The old and the revised estimates give a decline in emissions in CO2 equivalents from 1990 to 2010 of 23 and 24% respectively. For 1999 the estimated emissions of methane constituted 29% of the total emission of CO2 equivalents in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. The contribution of nitrous oxide derived from nitrogen turnover in the field was almost 47% of the emission. All emission sources are estimated as the product of an activity and an emission factor. The estimates are associated with uncertainties in both the activities and the emission factors. The uncertainty in the activity data is rather small for most of the items, but probably somewhat larger for N fixation, grazbably somewhat larger for N fixation, grazing, and cultivation of organic soils and N leaching. The largest uncertainty is associated with the amount of crop residues, which also constitutes one of the largest contributions to the total greenhouse gas emissions. Emission factors for methane are relatively certain, whereas there are large uncertainties associated with the emission factors for nitrous oxide. This is partly due to the fact that the emission factors are based on emission data representing many different climatic conditions, soil types and crops. The large uncertainty in the emission factors for nitrous oxide does not imply a correspondingly large uncertainty in the relative contribution of individual sources to the total emission. The different sources of nitrous oxide in the field are affected by the same mechanisms independent of location, and thus the uncertainty is mainly associated with the level of this emission in Denmark compared with other regions. In Denmark there has not previously been any concerted research effort to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The existing, somewhat scattered research has mainly been a spin-off from research programmes with other main objectives. Accordingly there is no solid foundation for evaluation of neither emission levels nor mitigation options. A proposal for a research programme on emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture is therefore presented, which should provide a better basis for quantifying individual emission sources, their development over time, and the effect of reduction measures. Emphasis is given to improve our knowledge on emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, and to the possibilities of agriculture in storing carbon and in the reduction and substitution of fossil fuel use. (au)

24

Biological processes for mitigation of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological processes driven by photosynthesis cycle through the atmosphere well over an order of magnitude more CO{sub 2} than is currently emitted from the combustion of fossils fuels. Already human activities control and appropriate almost half the primary photosynthetic productivity of the planet. Better management of natural and man-made ecosystems affords many opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gases, through sink enhancements, source reduction and substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels. Biofuels can be recovered from most organic wastes, from agricultural and forestry residues, and from biomass produced solely for energy use. However, the currently low costs of fossil fuels limits the market for biofuels. Accounting for the greenhouse mitigation value of biofuels would significantly increase their contribution to world fuel suppliers, estimated to be currently equivalent to about 15% of fossil fuel usage. Another limiting factor in expanding the use of biofuels is the relatively low solar energy conversion efficiencies of photosynthesis. Currently well below 1% of solar energy is converted into biomass energy even by intensive agricultural or forestry systems, with peak conversion efficiencies about 2 to 3% for sugar cane or microalgae cultures. One approach to increase photosynthetic efficiencies, being developed at the University of California Berkeley, is to reduce the amount of light-gathering chlorophyll in microalgae and higher plants. This would reduce mutual shading and also increase photosynthetic efficiencies under full sunlight intensities. Estimates of the potential of photosynthetic greenhouse mitigation processes vary widely. However, even conservative estimates for biofuels substituting for fossil fuels project the potential to reduce a large fraction of current increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Biofuels production will require integration with existing agronomic, forestry and animal husbandry systems, and improved utilisation-conversion processes. The diffuse nature of biomass resources requires relatively small-scale processes for their utilisation as solid fuels or conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. Earlier proposals for enormous energy plantations feeding large power plants, or for establishing huge ocean kelp farms, were impractical. As are some recent geoengineering proposals, such as ocean fertilisation. In biomass utilisation, combustion is generally preferable to more complex processes, such as thermal or biochemical conversions to oils and alcohols. The co-firing of biomass in fossil power plants avoids many of the scale, procurement, and efficiency limitations of stand-alone systems and provides significant near-term opportunities for CO{sub 2} mitigation. Landfill gas recovery, due to the large greenhouse gas forcing of methane gas, is another currently available technology that can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Wastes and residues provide many opportunities for biofuels production and CO{sub 2} mitigation. Mitigating global warming with biological processes requires overcoming many scientific, technological, financial, institutional, regulator and, perhaps most important, environment barriers. This necessitates a major, world-wide and long-term, sustained research, development and implementation effort. (Author)

Benemann, John R. [California Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-07-01

25

Per capita emissions of greenhouse gases and international trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role played by international trade in Canada's emissions of greenhouse gases is investigated. Data used in the study include Environment Canada greenhouse gas emission estimates for 1990, a Statistics Canada input-output model linking greenhouse gas emissions to economic activity in different sectors, and monetary statistics on imports and exports. Subject to some simplifying assumptions, it is estimated that nearly 20% of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the production of commodities destined for export to other countries. If the same greenhouse gas emission intensities are assumed for Canada's imports, the greenhouse gas emissions due to Canada's net trade is nearly 7% of the 660 megatonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions for 1990. Commodities from natural resource exploitation head the list of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to international trade, as expected from their large export volumes and large greenhouse gas emission intensities. 4 refs., 1 fig

26

Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended  

Science.gov (United States)

The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

27

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

28

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

Levine, Joel S.

1994-01-01

29

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

30

The changing role of non co2 greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last century, the concentrations of several greenhouse gases have increased considerably - most notably, methane and nitrous oxide. In addition, new, entirely man - made gases have been put into the atmosphere that also cause the greenhouse effect; these include the chlorofluorocarbons. Calculations have shown that the during the last century the non - CO2 greenhouse gases could together be almost as effective as the increase of carbon dioxide in causing global warming. These and similar gases were therefore included in the Kyoto Protocol to develop a comprehensive plan for controlling global warming. New studies show however that the other gases, with few exceptions, are likely to play a smaller than expected role in future global warming. The most significant non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases are methane and nitrous oxide. Methane rose from 800 ppbv about 200 years ago to about 1700 ppbv in recent times, while nitrous oxide rose from about 285 ppbv to 310 ppbv over the same time. These trends made methane the most important gas for global warming next to carbon dioxide. But now, the trends of methane have declined considerably. Budget analyses suggest that we may not see major changes of concentrations in the future comparable to the trends of the last century. Thus the role of methane in future global warming may be less than expected earlier. Nitrous oxide on the other hand, has increased slowly during the last century, but now there is an indication that it may be increasing faster. The increase of nitrous oxide is still slow, but in time it is likely to become more important than previously thought. While other greenhouse gases such as the perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are included in the Kyoto Protocol, these are present in such minute concentrations that it is unlikely that they will have an important role in future global warming. Recent studies on the perfluorocarbons show that the trend of the major gas, carbon tetrafluoride, is slowing down as a response to industry controls designed for energy savings. These considerations suggest that while there may be many non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases, and whatever their collective role is, it is will be dominated in the future by nitrous oxide and to a lesser extent by methane.

Khalil, M. A. K.

31

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP. CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone, 0.21 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric pressure, 0.13 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric pressures, or 0.07 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric pressure. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m?2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m?2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1–1 ppmv for many gases. We further calculate the reduction of radiative forcing due to gas overlap for the 20 strongest gases. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

B. Byrne

2014-05-01

32

VENTILATION RATE AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS FROM BROILER CHICKEN HOUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine emissions of greenhouse gases from broiler chicken house during one fattening period (i.e. 40 days. The greatest concentrations of water vapour (H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 were observed in the first ten days. Increasing emissions of all greenhouse gases were as a consequence of increasing ventilation rate, although their concentrations were decreasing. It was released 83.8 . 106 m3 polluted air containing 211 314 kg CO2, 5 kg N2O, 1 323 kg CH4 and 178 914 kg H2O over a period of whole fattening time.

Monika KNÍŽATOVÁ

2009-03-01

33

Stable isotope measurement techniques for atmospheric greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical requirements to perform useful measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and of their isotope ratios are of direct relevance for all laboratories engaged in this field. A meaningful interpretation of isotopes in global models on sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases depends on strict laboratory protocols and data quality control measures ensuring comparable data in time and space. Only with this precondition met, the isotope techniques can serve as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. This publication provides four contributions describing methods for the determination of the isotopic composition of trace gases in atmospheric air and in ice cores. These contributions have been indexed separately

34

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16

35

Greenhouse gases mitigation policies in the agriculture of Aragon, Spain  

OpenAIRE

Climate change is an important threat to human society. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG), but it also provides alternatives to confront climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture around the world during recent decades has generated significant environmental damages from pollution emissions. The spatial distribution of emissions is important for the design of local abatement measures. This study makes an assessment of GHG emissions in an intensive agricultural area...

José Albiac; Mohamed Taher Kahil

2013-01-01

36

Comparisons of aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases with GOSAT data  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). Airborne instruments measuring GHGs (Picarro Inc. G2301-m) and ozone (2B Technologies Inc., model 205) are installed in a wing pod and operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA (37.415°N, 120.050°W). The in situ measurement instruments mounted on the aircraft yield precise and accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric GHGs and ozone. The purpose of this work is to validate GOSAT data and estimate from Alpha Jet measurements the contribution of GHGs from urban areas. We show the result of comparison of GOSAT and Alpha Jet measurements over Railroad Valley, NV and urban areas in Northern California. The Alpha Jet aircraft performs a measurement over the Railroad Valley (RRV) desert playa, Nevada (38.497°N, 115.691°W, 1437m above mean sea level) once a month for the comparison with Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) measurements from 2011. The GOSAT was developed to measure concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from space and has been in operation from 2009. The instruments onboard GOSAT are the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) (Kuze et al., 2009). The RRV playa is a flat, high altitude desert site and an area where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal. The playa has virtually no vegetation and an overall size of 15 km× 15 km, which includes GOSAT's field of view. Reference Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Masakatsu Nakajima, and Takashi Hamazaki. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring. App. Opt., 48, 6716-6733, 2009.

Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Lopez, J. P.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.

2013-12-01

37

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

38

Halogen-Containing Gases as Boundary Lubricants for Corrosion-Resistant Alloys at 1200 F  

Science.gov (United States)

The extreme temperatures anticipated for lubricated parts in advanced flight powerplants dictate the consideration of unconventional methods of lubrication such as solid lubricants and the reactive gases described in the present research. These halogen-containing "reactive" gases such as dichlorodifluoromethane, CF2Cl2, are among the most stable of organic molecules. The high "flash" temperatures generated at the contacting asperities as a result of frictional heat are sufficient to cause local decomposition of the halogen-containing gases. The active atoms thus released (e.g., chlorine) then react with the metal to be lubricated to form halides capable of effective lubrication. The presence of small amounts of a sulfur-containing gas (e.g., 1 percent sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) was found to catalyze the formation of metal halides. Friction and wear studies were made with a hemisphere (3/16-in. rad.) rider sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (2 1/2-in. diam.). The specimens of corrosion-resistant 2 alloys were run in an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, a sliding velocity of 120 feet per minute, and temperature from 75 to 1200 F. An effective lubricant for ferritic materials (M-1 tool steel) was CF2Cl2, but significant corrosion occurred above 600 F. Corrosion evaluation in CF2Cl2 suggested a number of nickel- and cobalt-base alloys for additional lubrication study. Several combinations of gases and these metals were found to lubricate to 1200 F without excessive corrosion. The gases were CF2Cl2 Plus 1 percent SF6, monobromotrifluoromethane CF3Br plus 1 percent SF6, dibromodifluoromethane CF2Br2, iodotrifluoromethane, CF3I, and I2. Careful selection of metals and gas are necessary for successful lubrication over specific temperature ranges. Optimum combinations give friction coefficients as low as 0.05 without

Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

1959-01-01

39

International collaboration on capture, storage and utilization of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change will have world-wide implications. So it is highly appropriate that there should be international collaboration to investigate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause of the problem. Sixteen countries, as well as three industrial sponsors, support the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program and, in many cases, industry is also involved indirectly, through the national memberships. This provides a broad range of interest and expertise to guide the management of the Program, as well as ensuring that the results reach a wide audience. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program has three main activities: (1) evaluation of technologies for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from use of fossil fuels; (2) dissemination of the results of these studies; (3) identification of targets for research, development and demonstration and promotion of these findings. In its first five years of operation, the Program has studied the major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, and various means of reducing their emissions. The main emphasis has been placed on capture, storage and utilization of CO2 from power generation. This option is now much better understood and can be compared with more established measures, such as fuel switching, energy efficiency improvements and use of renewable energy. As well as studying abatement of CO2 emissions, the Program has conducted a series of studies of technologies for reducing s of studies of technologies for reducing CH4 emissions from man-made sources. The Program's activities are carried out by the Operating Agent, who develops and manages a series of technical studies to meet members' requirements

40

The greenhouse gases emissions allowances trading in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy policy of the State is very important for a state development. The aim of this policy is power energy development, which is essential for improving the quality of life and standards of people's living in every country. Unfortunately, power energy development also has a negative impact; primarily on the environment. Some possible solutions exist for reduction of the power energy negative impacts. This paper deals with reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the Czech Republic according to the Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention climate change. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The GHG emissions allowances trading as one of the instruments for stabilisation of GHG emissions is described in the paper. (authors)

41

National and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Kyoto Protocol the flexibility mechanisms - Joint Implementation (Art. 6), Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12), Emissions Trading (Art. 17)- and Bubble (Art. 4) are roughly defined, leaving much questions open about their design and functioning, about eligibility criteria, impact on compliance and their political acceptation. In the NRP research project on national and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases these questions have been researched, mainly from an economic perspective and focussing on Emissions Trading. This report summarises the major results of the research project. refs

42

Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture : Role of models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach. The scale increases from field, manure storage or rumen via herd or farm to country or continent. The scope may be restricted to a single GHG or include all gases. Multidisciplinary models may include nutrients, other substances or socio-economic parameters. Mechanistic process-based models have been developed from the knowledge of how GHG are produced in soils, animals and manures. These types of models often operate at the lower end of the scale, but they are also incorporated in farm and regional models. This paper discusses how the different types of models, as well as tools for farmers, are used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies.

Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.

2013-01-01

43

76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J...the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site http...procedure, Greenhouse gases, Incorporation...Suppliers, Reporting and recordkeeping...of Atmospheric Programs. [FR Doc....

2011-10-04

44

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

CERN Document Server

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 Wm-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting ...

Byrne, Brendan

2014-01-01

45

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01

46

Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?  

Science.gov (United States)

Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

2014-05-01

47

Beyond Vienna and Montreal: A global framework convention on greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the need for a framework treaty analogous to the Vienna Convention and to the Montreal Protocol for greenhouse gases. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the immediate need for multilateral greenhouse gas controls, including policy implications of scientific uncertainties; (2) recent steps toward a greenhouse gas convention; (3) an environmentally meaningful plan for a greenhouse gase conventions, including the ozone precident, CO2 targets, resource transfers, trading emissions allocations, institutional issues

48

Emission of greenhouse gases in Norway - today, yesterday and the present future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Norway has agreed to, by signing the Kyoto protocol, keep the emission of greenhouse gases to a level maximum 1 % over the 1990 level. By the end of 2007 the emission of greenhouse gases are at a level 10% higher then the maximum level. SSB publishes emission numbers for greenhouse gases in Norway yearly. The emission of greenhouse gases will continue to grow and the emission will be about 4 % larger in 2012 than it is today. The only way Norway can keep the Kyoto protocol is to by climate quotas

49

Beyond Vienna and Montreal: Multilateral agreements on greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major reductions in emissions of all greenhouse gases are necessary to assure the integrity of the biosphere. National commitments by individual countries and concerted action by groups of large emitting nations, such as the Group of Seven major industrialized nations, are crucial for achieving process toward meaningful reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions. Binding multilateral instruments are also needed to attack global warming on a universal scale. New international institutions and decision-making processes may be desirable or even essential. The desirability of a framework or umbrella treaty - analogous to the Vienna Convention - with associated ancillary agreements - analogous to the Montreal Protocol - has dominated the discussion of multilateral climate instruments for some time. The need for a multilateral convention on climate has become widely recognized at the highest political levels and now appears to be universally accepted. The purpose of this article is to examine the implications of the Vienna-Montreal precedent and to stimulate debate on the form and substance of a global greenhouse-gas convention

50

Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

2010-11-15

51

Verification of national halogenated greenhouse gas emissions in Europe using top-down estimates inferred from ambient air measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

To check for compliance with the reduction targets defined under the Kyoto protocol, each country has to report its greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). These emissions are calculated using a bottom-up approach, by combining categories of com-pound use with specific activity functions and using import/export statistics. The uncertainties of these estimates are not well defined, thereby making an independent validation of the reported emissions highly desirable. In this study, a novel Kalman filter inversion technique was implemented to estimate European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases including hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and SF6. The inversion is based on high-frequency measurements at two European background sites (Jungfraujoch and Mace Head) coupled to backward simulations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The sequential nature of the inversion approach allows tracing slow seasonal and interannual emission changes. Furthermore, by including the estimation of a smoothly varying concentration background into the inversion, potential inconsistencies introduced by independent background subtraction methods are avoided. Further advantages are the applicability to a potentially large number of receptor (measurement) locations and the quantification of uncertainties along with absolute emissions. Annual emissions were estimated for the years 2006 to 2009 on a country-by-country basis and compared with numbers reported to the UNFCCC. Good agreement was found for HFC-134a and HFC-125, which are ubiquitously used for refrigeration and air conditioning. Much higher emissions than reported, however, were estimated for HFC-23, a potent greenhouse gas with a 100-yr global warming potential of 14’800. HFC-23 is an unintentional by-product of HCFC-22 manufacture and our source attribution reveals significant contributions from HCFC-22 production plants in Italy, Spain and Germany. Total HFC-23 emissions over Central Europe are estimated to account for more than 6% of global emissions, which is approximately 3 times higher than calculated by the bottom-up inventories. Similar discrepancies were found for HFC-152 which, however, is only a minor greenhouse gas.

Brunner, D.; Keller, C. A.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; O'Doherty, S.

2010-12-01

52

Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the direct, radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases by the also substantial indirect—chemical and dynamical—feedbacks that greenhouse gases have via their impact on ozone. This sensitivity of the mode to greenhouse gas-induced ozone changes suggests that a consistent implementation of ozone changes due to long-lived greenhouse gases in climate models benefits the simulation of this important aspect of Southern Hemisphere climate.

Morgenstern, Olaf; Zeng, Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

2014-12-01

53

Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases and Their Sources and Sinks  

Science.gov (United States)

The man-made emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered the main drivers of anthropogenically induced climate change. Major uncertainties persist when it comes to quantifying regional scale surface fluxes of these gases or predicting the evolution of the relevant source/sink processes in a changing climate. Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from space-borne and ground-based platforms offers the opportunity to significantly advance our knowledge on spatial and temporal scales that are suitable for process attribution and mitigation actions. Overall, the most promising remote-sensing strategy exploits the rotational-vibrational absorption of CO2 and CH4 in sunlight penetrating the Earth's atmosphere. Typically, satellite sounders such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), and S5P (Sentinel-5 precursor) as well as the ground-based spectrometers of the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) cover various CO2, CH4, and O2 absorption bands in the near and shortwave infrared spectral range between 0.75 micron (13400cm-1) and 2.5 micron (4000cm-1). Accuracy of the inferred gas concentrations is contingent on the accuracy of the adopted spectroscopic parameters and spectroscopic models available in these spectral regions. Here, I will report on recent achievements and challenges within our greenhouse-gas remote-sensing activities mainly focusing on the GOSAT observational record. Since its launch in early 2009, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard GOSAT delivers solar absorption spectra with good spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise. It has been shown that the CO2 and CH4 retrievals from these observations can achieve an accuracy on the order of fractions of a percent which makes them suitable for tracking regional scale source/sink processes and their response to climate events. In order to achieve the required accuracy, it is crucial to develop highly accurate radiative-transfer algorithms and to validate the satellite soundings by ground-based observations. I will illustrate some cases where the excellent quality of the absorption spectra collected by GOSAT reveals spectroscopic deficiencies and inconsistencies among the various absorption bands covered. As such, lessons learned from GOSAT can be used as a feedback to the spectroscopy community. Beyond GOSAT, future satellite missions such as S5P or the planned S5 (Sentinel-5, launch ˜2020) will cover spectral ranges which have not yet been spectroscopically optimized for remote-sensing purposes. In that case, simulations and studies based on ground-based observations show that spectroscopic uncertainties constitute a dominant contribution to the error budget of the retrieved gas concentrations. Therefore, further improvements of spectroscopic parameters and line-shape models is of paramount interest for remote sensing of greenhouse gases.

Butz, Andre; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Bertleff, Marco; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Hahne, Philipp; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto; Landgraf, Jochen; Galli, Andre; Basu, Sourish

2014-06-01

54

Using a refrigerant leak detector to monitor waste gases from halogenated anesthetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although halogenated gas anesthetics are indispensable in laboratory animal medicine, they are hazardous when present in the working environment. A simple technique of real-time leak detection and environmental spot monitoring can provide valuable adjunct information to current techniques of time-weighted monitoring. We investigated the minimal limit of detection of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane of a leak detector for halogenated gas refrigerants which provides a qualitative response only. We connected a container to an infrared gas analyzer to create a 135-l closed-circuit system and injected liquid halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane to create calculated gas concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 parts per million (ppm). The infrared absorbance and response of the leak detector were recorded, and a total of 5 measurements were made per concentration. The actual gas concentrations were calculated by comparison with the agent-specific absorbance standard curve. The leak detector clearly and consistently responded to halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from minimal concentrations of 2.1 +/- 0.2, 1.4 +/- 0.04, 0.8 +/- 0.04, and 1.2 +/- 0.4 ppm, respectively, as determined by infrared analysis. Although the detector does not provide numerical and time-weighted results, leak testing of equipment and repeated monitoring of the environment (spot monitoring) can provide valuable real-time information. In addition, with appropriate consideration of the methodological limitations, spot monitoring can be used to predict the likelihood of compliance with time-weighted exposure recommendations. A leak detector therefore represents a simple, effective, and inexpensive instrument for monitoring the leakage of halogenated anesthetic gases from equipment and into the working environment. PMID:17877331

Rasmussen, Henrik; Thorud, Syvert

2007-09-01

55

Greenhouse gases mitigation policies in the agriculture of Aragon, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is an important threat to human society. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG, but it also provides alternatives to confront climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture around the world during recent decades has generated significant environmental damages from pollution emissions. The spatial distribution of emissions is important for the design of local abatement measures. This study makes an assessment of GHG emissions in an intensive agricultural area of Aragon (Spain, and then an economic optimization model is developed to analyze several GHG mitigation measures. The results indicate that adequate management of manure, emissions limits, and animal production restrictions are appropriate measures to abate pollution. Economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address nonpoint pollution problems. Suitable pollution abatement policies should be based on institutional instruments adapted to local conditions, and involve the cooperation of stakeholders.

José Albiac

2013-05-01

56

Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

57

Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

58

Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases  

OpenAIRE

Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a give...

Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2010-01-01

59

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

60

NF ISO 14064-1 Greenhouse gases. Part 1: specifications and guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring of greenhouse gas as well as for drafting of inventory report for organisms. Thus it suggests a method for inventory declarations for organism greenhouse gas and provides support for the monitoring and the management of their emission. It provides the terms and definitions, the principles, the greenhouse gases inventory design, development and components, the greenhouse inventory quality management, the reporting of greenhouse gases and the organization role in verification activities. (A.L.B.)

61

Inaccuracies in the prediction of the effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outgoing long wave radiation to space is significantly reduced due to heat absorption by the so-called greenhouse gases, notably water vapour, carbon dioxide, methan, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons. The dominating ones are water vapour and carbon dioxide. Since the industrial revolution the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase of 26% in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is presently increasing by about 0.5% per year. The effect on climate can not satisfactorily be estimated on radiation balance calculation only, but must incorporate the large scale atmospheric circulation and the important feedbacks with water vapour (positive feedback), clouds (both positive and negative feedbacks), surface albedo and the oceans. This requires comprehensive mathematical modelling of the coupled ocean/land atmosphere system. Several such studies have been undertaken during the last years both in Europe and United States and results from such experiments are described. Due to the enormous complexity of the problem, a number of simplified assumptions have been done and the results so far must be cautiously assessed. The overall global warming, assuming an increase of around 1% annually in the carbon dioxide concentration, is about 3 C after 100 years. There are large regional differences and the warming is generally larger over land than over sea. A particular problem is the temperature of the North Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters where changes in the deep ocean circulation are significant. (orig.)

62

Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

63

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

64

Greenhouse gases: How does heavy oil stack up?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life-cycle emissions of direct greenhouse gases (GHG) have been calculated to elucidate the global warming impacts of various fossil fuel feedstocks. Calculations were made for the transportation sector using five fossil fuel sources: natural gas, light crude oil, conventional heavy oil, crude bitumen recovered through in-situ steam stimulation, and crude bitumen recovered through mining. Results suggest that fuels sourced from light crude oil have the lowest GHG emissions, while conventional heavy oil has the highest GHG emission levels for this application. Emissions of methane can constitute a significant portion of the life-cycle GHG emissions of a fossil fuel. For all the fossil fuels examined, except conventional heavy oil, GHG emissions associated with their production, transport, processing, and distribution are less than one third of their total life-cycle emissions. The remainder is associated with end use. This confirms that consumers of fossil fuel products, rather than fossil fuel producers, have the most leverage to reduce GHG emissions. 2 figs

65

Tradeable rights for the emission of greenhouse gases in the Dutch agricultural sector. An exploratory study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outline is given of the options to apply tradeable emission rights in the Dutch agricultural sector in order to determine the contribution of such options to the national targets to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases

66

Automotive industry program and strategy for control of ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the program status and strategy for the short and long term periods for ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases from both stationary sources in manufacturing plants and mobile sources in motor vehicles. 5 refs

67

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

1993-11-10

68

Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

2014-05-01

69

Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

2012-07-01

70

Evolution of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions in Quebec : reference scenario 1996-2021  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the results from a research project on the evolution of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions. It details the main trends, by consumer sector, of energy demand and the future needs in terms of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. It also offers information on the global results on greenhouse gases emissions. This work was undertaken to support the formulation of governmental energy policies. It serves as a tool in the fight against global climate change. A model was developed jointly by the Quebec Ministere des Ressources Naturelles (Natural Resources Ministry) and the Ministere de l'Environnement (Environment Ministry) to predict greenhouse gases emissions from both the energy and non-energy sectors. The scenario examined is the most probable and does not include new programs or new measures that would permit a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions. The document first describes global results as they relate to total energy demand, and then proceeds to offer details on the main hypothesis adopted for the formulation of the model. The document is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter describes the main trends in energy demand and chapter two elaborates on the hypothesis that were adopted. Chapter three details energy uses. The next three chapters address a different source of energy, namely electricity, natural gas and petroleum. The final chapter discusses greenhouse gases emissions. 43 tabs., 1 fig., 1 annexmissions. 43 tabs., 1 fig., 1 annex

71

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

72

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level. PMID:20646920

Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

2010-11-01

73

Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

Leguet, B.

2005-09-15

74

74 FR 56260 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

...Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon...Value of Gases in Natural...Laboratory Samples of Coal...Portable Gas Chromatograph...FTIR) Spectroscopy, IBR approved...for Part-Stream Sampling...of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using...

2009-10-30

75

GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as criteria for sustainable waste management establishment. The main constituent of this system is avoiding and minimizing waste, as well as increasing the recycling and recovery level of waste and land fill gas, which also represent green house gases mitigation measures. The Waste Management Plan consists of several direct and indirect measures for green house gases emission reduction and their implementation also affects the green house gases emissions. The contribution of the methane emission from land fills amounts to about 2% of the total green house gases emissions in Croatia. The climate change control and mitigation measures as an integral part of waste management sector strategies represent the measures of achieving the national objectives to wards green house gases emission reduction which Croatia has accepted in the frame work of the Kyoto Protocol.

Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?

2010-01-01

76

Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

2008-07-01

77

Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results  

OpenAIRE

SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002) enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4). In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Tra...

Schneising, O.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Heymann, J.; Macatangay, R.; Messerschmidt, J.; Notholt, J.; Rettinger, M.; Reuter, M.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.

2011-01-01

78

Latin American and Caribbean seminar on greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 18 papers were presented at the seminar in sessions entitled: presentation of the UNEP/GEF project Economics of greenhouse gas limitations; implementation mechanisms of the climate change convection; and national communications and enabling activities. A plenary session on cooperation perspectives was also held. Documentation was either in English or Spanish. Six papers in English have been abstracted separately.

NONE

1998-12-31

79

Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations.

80

The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

Falk, I. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Mendelsohn, R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1993-07-01

81

Fluorinated greenhouse gases in photovoltaic module manufacturing. Potential emissions and abatement strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some fluorinated gases (F-gases) which are used, or considered to be used, in crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar cell and film silicon module manufacturing have a very high global warming effect. CF4, C2F6, SF6 and NF3 have global warming potentials 7390, 12200, 22800 and 17200 times higher than CO2. These gases can be used in texturing, phosphorus silicate glass removal (PSG), edge isolation and reactor cleaning operations from which unreacted species and reaction byproducts will be emitted. An inventory of the current use of fluorinated greenhouse gases by the European and USA photovoltaic industry shows that CF4 may be used in edge isolation and C2F6 or SF6 or NF3 for reactor cleaning after deposition of silicon nitride or film silicon. Currently only a few companies use these gases; however, dry texturing and PSG removal with F-gases is widely considered as replacement of wet processing. The environmental profile of these new processes can be improved by lowering the use and emissions of F-gases and energy consumption. Exhaust abatement is needed to decompose the unreacted fluorinated greenhouse gases if we want PV electricity to minimize the environmental impact of solar electricity. Although abatement equipment will also have a cost impact, we recommend installing such equipment to preserve the sustainable character of PV energy.

Alsema, E.A. [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Fthenakis, V.M. [National Photovoltaic EH and S Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Agostinelli, G.; Dekkers, H. [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-300 Leuven (Belgium); Roth, K. [Roth und Rau AG, Gewerbering 3, 09337 Hohenstein-Ernstthal (Germany); Kinzig, V. [Centrotherm Clean Solutions, Johannes-Schmid-Strasse 3, D-89143 Blaubeuren (Germany)

2007-01-15

82

Comment on "Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change"  

Science.gov (United States)

Lu (2013) (L13) argued that solar effects and anthropogenic halogenated gases can explain most of the observed warming of global mean surface air temperatures since 1850, with virtually no contribution from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Here we show that this conclusion is based on assumptions about the saturation of the CO2-induced greenhouse effect that have been experimentally falsified. L13 also confuses equilibrium and transient response, and relies on data sources that have been superseeded due to known inaccuracies. Furthermore, the statistical approach of sequential linear regression artificially shifts variance onto the first predictor. L13's artificial choice of regression order and neglect of other relevant data is the fundamental cause of the incorrect main conclusion. Consideration of more modern data and a more parsimonious multiple regression model leads to contradiction with L13's statistical results. Finally, the correlation arguments in L13 are falsified by considering either the more appropriate metric of global heat accumulation, or data on longer timescales.

Nuccitelli, Dana; Cowtan, Kevin; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Way, Robert G.; Blackburn, Anne-Marie; Stolpe, Martin B.; Cook, John

2014-04-01

83

Lidar development for measuring greenhouse gases in Tibet  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground-based lidars have been widely used for greenhouse gas measurements. The APSOS (Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System) is currently being developed for measuring the range-resolved concentrations of O3, CO2 and H2O using DIAL and Raman lidar techniques. By combining active laser remote sensing instrumentation with a passive terahertz spectrometer, the APSOS will be taking long-term mesurements over Tibetan Pleateau.

Pan, W.; Lu, D.

2012-12-01

84

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

OpenAIRE

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates...

Schmidt, C. W.

2001-01-01

85

Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. The existing database in the Los Angeles area is extremely sparse, and new methods are required that provide high spatial and temporal resolution. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. A new Fourier Transform Spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed at Mt. Wilson, California at JPL’s California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The CLARS-FTS points at ground sites in the Los Angeles basin from its location at an altitude of 1.7 km, and records atmospheric absorption spectra over a broad spectral range (4000 - 14000 cm-1) in reflected sunlight. These spectra contain the absorption features of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, CO) together with O2, which is used to quantify the atmospheric path. From these rotationally resolved spectra, the column densities of greenhouse gases along the light path are retrieved. The CLARS-FTS participated in the 2010 CalNex field campaign and measured the spatial and temporal distribution of greenhouse gases in the LA basin during 33 measurement days in May and June. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions [XGAS] of these traces gases are computed using measured column densities. The CLARS-FTS measurements during CalNex will be discussed, and compared with other correlative data sources including aircraft and ground-based instruments and a co-located UV-visible MAX DOAS spectrometer.

Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Cheung, R.; Stutz, J.

2010-12-01

86

The contribution of direct energy use for livestock breeding to the greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the contribution of direct energy use to the greenhouse gases emissions of cattle, pig and poultry breeding in Cyprus. The energy consumption was estimated using the factors of 2034 MJ/cow, 2182 MJ/sow and 0.002797 MJ/bird. The greenhouse gases emissions for each animal species and energy source were estimated using emission factor of each greenhouse gas according to fuel type as proposed by the IPCC 2006 guidelines and for electricity according to national verified data from the Electricity Authority of Cyprus. Livestock breeding in Cyprus consumes electricity, diesel oil and LPG. The results obtained, show that the emissions from energy use in livestock breeding contribute 16% to the total agricultural energy emissions. Agricultural energy emissions contribute 0.7% to the total energy greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The three species of animal considered contribute 3% to their total livestock breeding emissions when compared with enteric fermentation and manure management, of which 2.6% is CO2. These results agree with the findings in available literature. The contribution of direct energy use in the greenhouse gases emissions of livestock breeding could be further examined with the influence of anaerobic digestion to the emissions. -- Highlights: ? Energy use contribution to greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus livestock breeding. ? Energy consumption estimated using 2.034 GJ/ cow, 2.182 GJ/ sow and 2.797 kJ/ bird. ?Energy use in livestock breeding found to be 16% of agriculture energy emissions. ? Energy use found to be 3% of total livestock breeding emissions. ? 87% of the energy emissions is CO2.

87

Nonlinear response of modeled stratospheric ozone to changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances in the recent past  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent past, the evolution of stratospheric ozone (O3 was affected by both increasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs. The impact of the single forcings on O3 is well known. Interactions between the simultaneously increased GHG and ODS concentrations, however, can occur and lead to nonlinear O3 changes. In this study, we investigate if nonlinear processes have affected O3 changes between 1960 and 2000. This is done with an idealized set of timeslice simulations with the chemistry–climate model (CCM EMAC. Nonlinearity leads to a net reduction of ozone decrease throughout the stratosphere, with a maximum of 1.2% at 3 hPa. The total ozone column loss between 1960 and 2000 that is mainly attributed to the ODS increase is mitigated in the extra-polar regions by up to 1.1% due to nonlinear processes. A separation of the O3 changes into the contribution from chemistry and transport shows that nonlinear interactions occur in both. In the upper stratosphere a reduced efficiency of the ClOx-catalysed O3 loss chiefly causes the nonlinear O3 increase. An enhanced formation of halogen reservoir species through the reaction with methane (CH4 reduces the abundance of halogen radicals significantly. The temperature induced deceleration of the O3 loss reaction rate in the Chapman cycle is reduced, which leads to a nonlinear O3 decrease and counteracts the increase due to ClOx. Nonlinear effects on the NOx abundance cause hemispheric asymmetric nonlinear changes of the O3 loss. Nonlinear changes in O3 transport occur in particular in the Southern Hemisphere (SH during the months September to November. Here, the residual circulation is weakened in the lower stratosphere, which goes along with a reduced O3 transport from the tropics to high latitudes. Thus, O3 decreases in the SH polar region, but increases in the SH midlatitudes.

S. Meul

2015-03-01

88

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

2014-05-01

89

GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA  

OpenAIRE

The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as cri...

Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ružinski

2010-01-01

90

Water and wastewater services: a contribution to greenhouse gases mitigation. Methodologies and experience feedback  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency and contribution to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are at the heart of environmental concerns of communities and the public. Without waiting for the regulations that may affect them in the future on climate/energy, water and sanitation services will need to explore options aimed at saving energy, producing renewable energy and reducing direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gases on their territory. In terms of controlling emissions of greenhouse gases, the results of initial assessments of GHGs emissions (including some made with the French 'Bilan Carbone' model, developed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency - Ademe) help to identify the importance of emissions related to the management of water and wastewater services, to propose action plans to reduce them, and contribute to reducing emissions of other local actors through the creation of new renewable energy sources. A joint working group of Astee (French Scientific and Technical Association for Water and Environment) water and wastewater commissions prepared some guidelines for calculating emissions of greenhouse gases of water and wastewater services. These guidelines have been made available on the association web-site since September 2009. This article takes stock on the initial feedbacks relating to its implementation among operators of water and wastewater services. (authors)

91

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25

92

Impact of greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in the polar regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the future long-term changes of the earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the south to north poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from climate change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the earth's ozone layer in the polar regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles oencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the antarctic ozone hole. As for the global total ozone, continuous anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases will lead to significant acceleration of its recovery. In the case of the used scenario of expected long-term changes of the greenhouse gases, the global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2043. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the 21st century. (author)

93

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

94

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can rangative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

95

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-06-18

96

More greenhouse gases needed to explain warm Archean Earth  

Science.gov (United States)

Figure 1 During the Archean eon, from 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, life on Earth was thriving for the first time, growing in a world with much less land and a faster planetary rotation than today. At the same time, the energy flowing to the early Earth from the Sun was just three quarters of what it is now. Despite the drastically lower levels of solar irradiance, previous research has suggested that the Archean Earth was not a planet encased in ice but instead remained a watery world. To explain this seeming inconsistency, a dilemma known as the "faint young Sun paradox," researchers have suggested that the planetary greenhouse effect must have been much more potent than today. Previous research suggested that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels would need to have had a partial pressure of approximately 0.06 bar, equivalent to an atmospheric concentration 200 times that of the pre-Industrial modern era.

Schultz, Colin

2013-02-01

97

The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO2 and CH4. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 oC less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH4. (author)

98

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ? 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied. calculated and applied.

99

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.

2010-07-01

100

Comparison of the Different Land Use on the Emission of Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increase in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from the soil surface to the atmosphere has been of worldwide concern over the last several decades. Carbon dioxide is recognized as a significant contributor to global warming and climatic change, accounting for 60% of total greenhouse effect. The aim of this research was to determinate the emission of greenhouse gases from different land under agricultural uses. Four types of agricultural land farm, including wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land were selected to investigate the fate of CO2 in these fields. Gas chromatography technique and close chamber method were used to analyze soil gas samples. Total carbon losses from soil in form of greenhouse gases was 4.47, 3.72, 3.38 and 1.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land, respectively. Total additional carbon to soil from biomass for wheat field and canola field was 4.1 and 4.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. ECB (ecosystem carbon budget = ? C input - ? C output. For wheat field and canola field ECB was -0.37 and +0.88, respectively. This indicated that in wheat field carbon was lost and in canola field carbon was sequestrated. Under citrus garden due to changes in soil organic carbon form previous year has showed that carbon was sequestrated.

Mahdipuor

2010-07-01

101

A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

Jeremy Dobler

2013-11-01

102

Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG emissions in terms of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and thus contribute to climate change. At all three facilities significant CH4 emissions were occurring. The CH4 emission varied between 0.50 and 5.73 kg CH4 h-1. The highest CH4 emission (5.73 kg CH4 h-1) were measured at the Aarhus composting facility and was believed to be a result of the windrow lay-out with very broad and high windrows and a low turning frequency. The lowest CH4 emission (0.50 kg CH4 h-1) was measured at Fakse composting area and was most likely a result of the relatively small windrows and frequent weekly turnings. For all three facilities, the N2O emissions were significantly smaller than the CH4 emissions ranging from 0.08 to 1.18 kg N2O h-1.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh

2011-01-01

103

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

Science.gov (United States)

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

Schmidt, C W

2001-03-01

104

Long Term Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases at NOAA - a Forty Year Record  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory and its precursor organizations have been monitoring trends and distributions of greenhouse gases and other climatically relevant constituents in the atmosphere for over 40 years (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been to obtain reliable records of global trends and distributions, but the experimental design and use of these measurements have advanced over time with evolving scientific questions. In earlier days, measurements and data products were global in nature (e.g., Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi). Later, they addressed intra-hemispheric properties, continental contributions, and eventually regional sources and sinks (e.g., http://CarbonTracker.noaa.gov). Today, and into this century, scientific questions continue to progress and the observation systems will need to progress accordingly. Critical questions likely will center on greenhouse gas emission reduction efforts, ecosystem feedbacks, and climate surprises. Regional information will become increasingly important for supporting greenhouse gas emission reduction efforts, and this information must be accurate, precise, and without bias. With emerging diverse, regionalized efforts to monitor greenhouse gases, comparability of measurements and measurement systems becomes more important than ever. NOAA, with its long-standing networks and its role as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory for the major greenhouse gases, is well positioned to provide the linkages necessary to assure that regional measurements are comparable. Policy-makers, businesses, and regulatory organizations will need the best information available for decision-making. This presentation will identify major, climate-relevant findings that have come from NOAA's networks and those of others over the past several decades and will address the long-term monitoring needs to support decision-making over the next decades as society begins to seriously address climate change.

Butler, J. H.

2009-04-01

105

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

106

Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

OpenAIRE

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion c...

Mohammad Songolzadeh; Mansooreh Soleimani; Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Reza Songolzadeh

2014-01-01

107

Greenhouse gases (GHG), NOx and SOx reduction through biomass utilisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental issues such as air pollution have been given serious attention these days. Public seems to be more aware of the effects of air pollution after experiencing haze in 1997. Carbon dioxide (C02) is one of the green house gases (GHG) that traps the heat of the sun in the atmosphere and contributes to global warming. Excessive usage of fossil fuels can caused the increase in C02 emission level land this has forced the relevant authorities to find a much cleaner fuel such as biomass. A large-scale.demonstration plant under the EC-ASEAN Cogen Programme is a good reference on how biomass could reduce the GHG without interruption to its process. The company uses wood wastes as fuel for its cogeneration plant to replace diesel oil and fuel oil for power and heat. The cogeneration plant capacity is 1.5 MW of electricity and thermal heat. of 11 MW. The fuel is fed to the combustion chamber with an automatic controlled feeding system to generate 16 tonnes per hour of superheated steam at 22 bar. The steam is supplied to a backpressure turbine and part of the exhaust steam is supplied as process heat to a kiln drying plant and the rest to a condensing turbine. The GHG emission mitigation potential from this cogeneration plant is 15,632 tonnes Of C02 equivalent per year. Moreover, it is also expected to reduce the annual NOx and S0x emission level by 89.5 % and 98.3 %. Therefore, this paper will describe how biomassfore, this paper will describe how biomass utilisation through cogeneration could reduce GHG, NOx and S0x emission level. (author)

108

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

2009-07-01

109

Estimating the Greenhouse Gases Emission and the Most Important Factors in Dairy Farms (Case Study Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and dairy cows. It is recommended that the policy makers use some methods like environmental taxes, improving management and carbon sequestration to reduce these kinds of costs. This study results could help policy makers to decide better with considering to effective factors.

M. Ghorbani

2008-01-01

110

Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. PMID:15259957

Guibelin, E

2004-01-01

111

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

NONE

2000-12-01

112

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

OpenAIRE

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

113

Politics and economics of second-best regulation of greenhouse gases: the importance of regulatory credibility  

OpenAIRE

Modellers have examined a wide array of ideal-world scenarios for regulation of greenhouse gases. In this ideal world, all countries limit emissions from all economic sectors; regulations are implemented by intelligent, well-informed forward-looking agents; all abatement options, such as new energy technologies and forestry offsets, are available; trade in goods, services and emission credits is free and unfettered. Here we systematically explore more plausible second-best worlds. While analy...

Bosetti, Valentina; Victor, David G.

2010-01-01

114

A fully automated FTIR system for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the tropics  

OpenAIRE

This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automa...

Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

2010-01-01

115

A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases  

OpenAIRE

This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe th...

Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

2010-01-01

116

Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with

Rieker, Gregory B.; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Swann, William C.; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

2014-01-01

117

An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

OpenAIRE

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

2003-01-01

118

Fossil energy use and greenhouse gases emission in the integrated production of bioethanol and bio diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter concerns about the effects on food prices from diverting crops to bio fuels, questions about the magnitude of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions savings associated with switching to bio fuels and doubts about their environmental sustainability have caused many to rethink bio fuels blending targets (IEA, 2009). Despite the recent downturn, global use of bio fuels is projected to recover in the long term, reaching 2.7 mb/d by 2030 in the IEA Reference Scenario (IEA, 2009)

Seabra, Joaquim Eugenio A.; Souza, Simone Pereira

2012-07-01

119

Emissions, activity data, and emission factors of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) in Germany 1995-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Protection, the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (F-gases) aroused little public attention. Since then, the standards on surveying and reporting on national emissions have been rising constantly. Amongst others, the annual reporting to the UNFCCC secretariat makes detailed declarations on use and emissions of F-gases necessary, which have to be filled in specified formats for submission (Common Reporting Format = CRF). The scientific basis has been set out by the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting, in accordance with the instructions laid down in IPCC good practice guidance. Additionally, in Germany the Centralised System of Emissions (ZSE) shall provide a suitable tool to satisfy any quality needs of both activity data and emission factors. From 1995 onwards, activity data and emissions of each individual application sector shall be presented in a comprehensible and transparent way. Therefore, the way of data collection as well as the estimation methods applied must be well documented. Moreover, data has to be prepared for appropriate importation into ZSE. It is the objective of this study to provide the transparency demanded within 40 national application sectors of F-gases, for the period between 1995 and 2002. - Firstly, all the activity data as well as the emissions related to them are presented and commented. This applies to manufacturing of products, F-gases banked in operating systems, and decommissioning. - Secondly, the methodologies applied to calculate the emissions are described and all sources of information are revealed, e.g. literature, names of experts from the manufacturing industry, users, trade, and academia. - Thirdly, reliability and safety of data are discussed. - Fourthly, possible deviations from the IPCC default values are stated and given reasons for. Wherever this intensive reviewing of 40 sectors through eight years of reporting uncovers gaps or inconsistencies in previous reports, later corrections can be made by means of recalculations. (orig.)

Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche, Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2005-06-15

120

Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

121

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01

122

Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Explore how the Earth's atmosphere affects the energy balance between incoming and outgoing radiation. Using an interactive model, adjust realistic parameters such as how many clouds are present or how much carbon dioxide is in the air, and watch how these factors affect the global temperature.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-13

123

Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

... and there is no scientific consensus on why methane has not risen much since around 1990. Tropospheric Ozone Ultraviolet radiation and oxygen interact to form ozone in the stratosphere. Existing in a broad band, commonly called the ' ...

124

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01

125

Inventory of gases of greenhouse effect and mitigation options for Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, the possibility of a global heating due to the emissions of greenhouse gases has become a true concern for the international scientific community. As a result of it created the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the agreement mark was approved about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) that was subscribed by the countries in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro city in Brazil. The objective of the agreement is the stabilization of the concentrations of the gases of GEI effect in the atmosphere at a level that allows avoiding interferences anthropogenic dangerous for the climatic system. It is sought to reach this level inside a sufficiently long term to allow the natural adaptation from the ecosystems to the climatic change, guaranteeing this way the production of foods and the sustainable development. The government from Colombia subscribed the agreement mark about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the congress of the republic ratified it in 1995. The signatory countries of the agreement commit to elaborate and to publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of gases of greenhouse effect as well as to develop plans to reduce or to control the emissions

126

Biogenic feedbacks on the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases: overview of the GREENCYCLES network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: GREENCYCLES is a Marie Curie research training network focussed on the roles of global biogeochemistry for climate change. The project aims to reduce uncertainties associated with biogenic feedbacks on global environmental change and foster the education of the next generation of Earth system scientists. GREENCYCLES young scientists are offered a unique environment bringing together key European research modelling teams with complementary expertise in coupled earth system, oceans, field-based understanding of the terrestrial and oceanic processes, and space based observations. To improve the understanding of the important biogeochemical processes that control the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, the network is spread across six key science objectives, each involving different individual research projects undertaken by Early-Stage Researchers (ESRs) and Experienced Researchers (ERs): quantify feedbacks in the global carbon cycle; determine the effects of changing land use on climate; improve understanding of natural sources of CH4 and their responses to human activities; quantify impacts of climate change and climate variability on fire-induced emissions of greenhouse gases; quantify impacts of climate change on terrestrial and oceanic biogenic emissions of aerosols and chemically active gases, and their effects on tropospheric chemistry; quantify impacts of vegetation and climate changes on atmospheric dust, and its feedbacks on on atmospheric dust, and its feedbacks on CO2 and climate. An overview of the research and training progress to date will be presented. (author)

127

Effect of additive gases on the selective etching of tungsten films using inductively coupled halogen-based plasmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the effect of additive gases such as N2, Ar and O2 on the selective etching of tungsten (W) films relative to that of poly-Si films was investigated using inductively coupled CF4/Cl2-based plasmas. When CF4/Cl2 gas mixtures were used to etch W films and poly-Si, due to the formation of volatile etch products, the etch rates of W and poly-Si were very high. However, because the poly-Si etch product is more volatile than the W etch product, the etch selectivity of W over poly-Si was lower than 0.3. When Ar or N2 was added to a CF4/Cl2 gas mixture, the etch rates of both W and poly-Si were increased, however, the etch selectivity of W over poly-Si remained similar. When O2 was added to a CF4/Cl2 gas mixture, not only higher W etch rates (approx. 350 nm/min) but also higher etch selectivity of W over poly-Si (approx. 2.4) could be obtained by suppressing the poly-Si etch rate. The increase of W etch rates and etch selectivity by the oxygen addition to the CF4/Cl2 appears from the formation of volatile tungsten halogen oxide on the W surface and involatile silicon oxide on the poly-Si surface

128

Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

129

[Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

2011-05-01

130

The development of the brazilian amazon region and greenhouse gases emission: a dilemma to be faced!  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, which is one of the poorest in the country. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to make a comparison between the economical and the en...

Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose? Martins; David, Leticia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

2011-01-01

131

Regional development and greenhouse gases emission: the case of the Amazon Region  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, considering its economic relations with the rest of the country and the international markets. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to m...

Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose? Martins; David, Leti?cia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

2011-01-01

132

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

OpenAIRE

A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of...

Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

2010-01-01

133

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS reve interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

134

Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

2000-07-01

135

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

2006-01-01

136

NF ISO 14064-2. Greenhouse gases. Part 2: specifications and guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas emissions and reductions at projects level (activity modifying the conditions identified in a baseline scenario, intended to reduce emissions or to increase the removal of greenhouse gases). Thus it suggests a method for the declarations of inventory of projects greenhouse gases and provides support for the monitoring and the management of emissions. It provides terms and definitions, principles, the introduction to greenhouse gases projects and the requirements for greenhouse gas projects. (A.L.B.)

137

Greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere along selected roads in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised of highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by using gas samplers placed at 1, 5 and 10m away from the roads at different road segments (up/downhill, bend and flat surface) and replicated three times. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range test. The concentrations of GHGs were CO{sub 2} > CO > NO{sub x} > NO > SO{sub x} > CH{sub 4} and decreased significantly (P<0.05) as distance increased from the road. Highway with significantly (P<0.05) highest traffic density had the highest concentrations of NO, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x} and CH{sub 4} with 1.51ppm, 2.22ppm, 22.15ppm, 15.33%, 1.43ppm and 0.85ppm respectively followed by the commercial and residential. Up/downhill had the highest concentrations of GHGs among the road segments followed by flat surface and road bend.

Bada, S.B.; AKande, E.A.

2010-07-01

138

Landscape patterns of soil oxygen and atmospheric greenhouse gases in a northern hardwood forest landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O, and methane (CH4, are controlled by redox reactions in soils. Together with oxygen (O2, seasonal and spatial dynamics of these atmospheric gases can serve as robust indicators of soil redox status, respiration rates, and nitrogen cycling. We examined landscape patterns of soil oxygen and greenhouse gas dynamics in Watershed 3 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA. We analyzed depth profiles of soil O2, CO2, N2O, and CH4 approximately bimonthly for one year. Soil gas depth profiles were obtained from several different soil types encompassing a range of topographic positions, drainage classes, and organic matter content. Soil O2 was a good predictor of greenhouse gas concentrations. Unsaturated soils always had O2 concentrations >18 %, while saturated soils had O2 ranging from 0 to 18 %. For unsaturated soils, changes in CO2 were nearly stoichiometric with O2. High concentrations of CH4 (>10 ?L L?1 were typically associated with saturated soils; CH4 was typically below atmospheric concentrations (<1.8 ?L L?1 in unsaturated soils. High concentrations of N2O (>5000 nL L?1 were found only in well-aerated soils after summer rainfall events and in marginally-anoxic soils; N2O was consumed (<200 nL L?1 under anoxic conditions. The production and consumption of greenhouse gases were linked to functionally distinct biogeochemical zones of variable redox conditions (hotspots, which exhibit dynamic temporal patterns of redox fluctuations (hot moments. These soil redox hot phenomena were temporally driven by climate and spatially organized by soil type (reflective of topographic position further constrained by subsurface hydrology.

S. F. Werner

2011-11-01

139

Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO2 concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the 14C and 13C content of atmospheric CO2, pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the studies conducted within Phase II of the project, which incorporate the findings of both CRPs

140

Atmospheric Removal of Very Long-lived Greenhouse Gases in the Mesosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorofluorocarbons are known to have serious ozone depleting and global warming potentials. Perfluorinated compounds such as SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl which have very long lifetimes (ranging from a few centuries to over 3000 years) are too stable to affect stratospheric ozone but do have among the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, making them extremely potent greenhouse gases. Due to the stability of these gases in the lower atmosphere, mesospheric loss processes could significantly reduce their estimated atmospheric lifetimes and hence, overall climate impact. Potential sinks include reactions with metals and energetic particles such as electrons or short wavelength photons already present in the upper atmosphere. The metals, in this instance iron, sodium or potassium, are produced by meteoric ablation, while background and energetic electrons have the continuous source of photoionization and auroral precipitation, respectively. In this study we investigate the removal potentials of four very long lived gases (SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl). First, by four metals (Fe, Mg, Na and K), where rate coefficients are measured using the Fast Flow Tube and Pulsed Laser Flash Photolysis / Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques. Second, removal by electron attachment was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. measurements. Third, Lyman-alpha (121.56 nm) photolysis was measured in a VUV absorption cell. The resulting removal rate coefficients are currently being input into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to obtain lifetime measurements for these species.

Totterdill, A.; Kovacs, T.; Gomez Martin, J.; FENG, W.; Chipperfield, M.; Plane, J. M.

2013-12-01

141

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of Danish consumption and emissions of ozone-depleting substances and industrial greenhouse gases has been carried out in continuation of previous evaluations, partly to fulfil Denmark's international obligations to provide information within this area and partly to follow the trend in consumption of ozone-depleting substances as well as the consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2006. In this calculation the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. (BA)

Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

2007-06-15

142

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

1994-10-01

143

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported

144

The Importance of Ecosystem Thresholds in Assessing Safe Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a major strategic challenge in the public debate about global environmental change related to concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that might lead to environmentally, socially, and economically unacceptable impacts. This project takes one approach to this problem: avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" and "allowing ecosystems to adapt." But these phrases implicitly assume that the influences of climate change are likely to be gradual and that there will be substantial time for natural resources to adapt or for managers to cope with change. The current state of the science suggests that something quite different may be in the offing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other assessments of possible impacts now agree on two important points. One is that there is already well-documented evidence of the biological and ecological consequences of climate change - in the behavior of migratory birds, in corals bleached from the influence of warming ocean temperatures, in the loss of glaciers to warming air temperatures, and in the loss of sea grass beds to sea level rise. The second is that ecological systems may not in fact change gradually. Modeling studies and the historical record both suggest that changes in ecosystems can be rapid, large, and sometimes irreversible, i.e., there are thresholds that, once crossed, will present serious coping challenges to humans. Moreover, as suggested in a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) workshop on "Understanding and Responding to Multiple Environmental Stresses," dealing with threshold responses that may lead to sudden and dramatic change in societal or environmental structure and function will also require that we develop ways to proceed with decision-making despite the many uncertainties associated with thresholds. These observations present serious challenges to the modeling frameworks used in integrated assessment. Not only do the models have to characterize the dynamic behavior of ecosystems as they cross thresholds, but they also have to represent adaptation strategies that are promoted to cope with such sudden or irreversible changes. A major challenge in the discussion over the implications of tipping points and thresholds in natural resources and management systems is what lessons there are for debates over targets for concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Are there levels of greenhouse gases that would protect against ecosystems exhibiting tipping point behavior, for example? How does uncertainty in our knowledge of either the resources or the climate system influence margins of safety? What models and analytical tools are available for conducting the analyses that are needed to address these questions. The JGCRI's suite of integrated assessment models provide a systematic way of simulating different emissions and concentration scenarios that can then be used to investigate the climate triggers for ecological tipping points and thresholds.

Janetos, A. C.

2007-12-01

145

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during BARCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2009-12-01

146

Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO2, CH4 and N2O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO2-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y-1. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

147

Wavelength stabilization using a frequency comb for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies recently have investigated the active remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4, by means of differential absorption lidar systems. According to them, the accuracy of the laser wavelengths used is one of the most important issues of this technique in terms of conformance to the high measurement sensitivity requirements defined. The most common method to stabilize the wavelength of the lidar transmitter is the use of an absorption cell, filled with the respective trace gas or another gas with appropriate absorption lines. However, the performance of this method is limited. Here, we present the application of a frequency comb. It is a powerful tool for high precision wavelength stabilization purposes providing the knowledge of the absolute wavelength. By this means the online and offline radiations of a DIAL system can be stabilized to any wavelengths needed with highest accuracy and precision.

Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Quatrevalet, M.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.

2009-12-01

148

Greenhouse gases emission balances in the sector of energy recovery from waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the current greenhouse gases emission levels in the European Union, the paper describes the contribution of waste management in comparison with the other sectors. Thanks to the integrated waste management approach, to the decrease of the landfilling and to the increase of waste-to-energy practices, the waste sector is one of the few which account for a net reduction of the overall emissions in the time-span 1990-2002, at least in Italy. A further increase of the waste-to-energy practice, in both new dedicated plants and existing plants through co-combustion might result in a significant contribution to the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, which has recently come into force

149

Remote sensing of some greenhouse gases by Fourier-spectrometry in Kyiv  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The values of the total N2O and O3 amount (column amounts) in the atmosphere above Kyiv city were determined using observed IR spectra of direct solar radiation. The modelling of N2O and O3 spectra was carried out with MODTRAN3 (MODTRAN Report 01/11/96, The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL, Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate PL/G POS, 1996) program by scaling the species profiles of standard mid-latitude summer model atmosphere. The comparison with the data of other ground based and space experiments shows the good agreement. The accuracy of the experiment is enough for greenhouse gases monitoring in the observational point

150

Differences between the glacial cycles of Antarctic temperature and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ice-core measurements have indicated that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 show glacial-interglacial variations in step with Antarctic temperature. To obtain more insight into the nature of this relationship for cycles of different frequencies, measured time series of temperature, CO2, and CH4 are reanalysed. The results indicate that the temperature signal consists of a linear superposition of a component related to CO2 with a period of ~100 000 yr and a component related to variations in the obliquity of the Earth's orbital plane with a period of ~41 000 yr. This suggests that either there operate very different feedback mechanisms at the different time scales or that CO2 is not merely a~passive follower and amplifier of the glacial-interglacial variations in Antarctic temperature.

A. W. Omta

2012-03-01

151

The French contribution to the Global Climate Observing System and to the monitoring of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) is presented. The aim of such programme is the climate monitoring in four domains: atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial domain (vegetation cover, glaciers) and the spatial domain. An inventory of all these observations for climate has been compiled in 2009 for the 5. National Communication under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Here we only consider the climate observations for the atmosphere and its composition in greenhouse gases. The monitoring of the atmosphere and its composition is illustrated by a few examples. The importance of long-term records is emphasized. We conclude on the role and the importance of the GCOS programme for monitoring the earth climate in its different components. (author)

152

A theoretical analysis of the capture of greenhouse gases by single water droplet at atmospheric and elevated pressures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The mass transport phenomena of greenhouse gas uptake by a quiescent water droplet are analyzed theoretically. ? Four common greenhouse gases of CO2, N2O, CH4 and O3 are taken into consideration. ? A semi-analytical method is developed to predict the mass diffusion. ? The entire mass transfer is controlled by the liquid phase. ? A unified formula has been successfully established to estimate the solute uptake process. -- Abstract: Gas absorption by droplets is an important route to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, especially for carbon dioxide. To recognize the fundamental absorption processes of greenhouse gases by single droplets, the mass transport phenomena of greenhouse gas uptake by a quiescent water droplet at atmospheric and elevated pressures are analyzed theoretically and four common greenhouse gases of CO2, N2O, CH4 and O3 are taken into consideration. On account of piecewise function encountered at the droplet surface, it is impossible to obtain a fully analytical solution for describing the mass transfer process. Instead, a semi-analytical method is developed to predict the mass diffusion between the gas phase and the liquid phase. The obtained results indicate that, by virtue of the four greenhouse gases characterized by low mass diffusion number, the entire mass transfer is controlled by the liquid phase. A unified formula has been successfully established to aid in estimating the dimensionless solute uptake process and the dimensionless aqueous diffusion time of 0.45 is sufficiently long the implement the absorption process. For the ambient temperature and pressure in the ranges of 280-350 K and 1-20 atm, respectively, it is found that increasing the two parameters will intensify the solute absorption amount significantly and the absorption process can be accelerated by increasing temperature.

153

Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

2012-01-01

154

Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO2 concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO2 due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO2 concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

155

On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

2008-12-01

156

Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-10-15

157

A Numerical Study of the Impact of Greenhouse Gases on the South Atlantic Ocean Climatology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR CCSM, version 3) numerical coupled model is used to understand the climatic impacts on the South Atlantic Ocean due to industrialization and consequent increase of greenhouse gas emission. Two experiments are analyzed: the first one with trace/greenhouse gases at pre-industrial levels and a second one where present day levels were adopted. The results show that the annual averaged sea surface temperature, sea level pressure and barotropic transport intensify and precipitation weakens from one period to the next. With respect to the seasonal cycle, the sea surface temperature warms relative to the pre-industrial period mainly during the winter and spring; while sea level pressure presents higher values in summer and autumn. Barotropic transport has revealed significant differences between the two experiments at middle and high latitudes. Increased transport is associated with the intensification of the Subtropical Gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Changes in barotropic transport and sea surface temperature leads to an intensification of the Polar Front and associated gradients. Examination of the precipitation field differences showed an increase over the Amazon region and along the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, during summer. The changes in sea surface temperature, sea-level pressure and barotropic transport from the pre-industrial period to the present day were more pronounced at high latitudes. These reach almost 1C and 11Sv between 45-60S, respectively. Major differences in precipitation are confined to the tropics.

Wainer, I.; Taschetto, A. [Department of Physical Oceanography, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Otto-Bliesner, B.; Brady, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

2004-07-01

158

Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problemsmay be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyotocommitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concludingchapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separateworking papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report.

Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

2000-01-01

159

Limiting the emission of green-house gases: objectives and results in EU and non-EU countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on UNFCCC and EEA (European Environmental Agency data, changes in the emissions (no LULUCF considered of green-house gases in the period 1990-2004 either in the Annex 1 as well in the UE-27 countries are summarized and commented.

Hellrigl B

2008-06-01

160

Atmospheric Station Kresin u Pacova, Czech Republic - a central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Berlín : European Meteorological Society, 2014, "192-1". [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. Prague (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric station K?ešín * Czech Republic * greenhouse gases * Aerosol-climate model * air qualiti Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

Dvorská, Alice; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, Vlastimil; Hošková, K.; Michálek, J.; Prošek, P.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Sedlák, Pavel; Vá?a, Milan; Veselik, P.; Vodi?ka, Petr; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Nad?žda

161

Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

NONE

2001-12-01

162

76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office...the WWW on EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program...Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR Information...INGAA). OMB Office of Management and Budget. RFA Regulatory...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...

2011-09-27

163

75 FR 12451 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions  

Science.gov (United States)

...Carole Cook, Climate Change Division...to the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting...landfills. Manure Management \\1...Rule The Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting...this part. Manure management systems with combined...Industrial greenhouse gas...

2010-03-16

164

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered both the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures and land-ocean contrast in surface temperatures, which in turn slow down the monsoon circulation and decrease rainfall over the continents. On the other hand, heating by black carbon warms the atmosphere at elevated levels from 2 to 6 km, where most tropical glaciers are located, thus strengthening the effect of GHGs on retreat of snow packs and glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers. Globally, the surface cooling effect of ABCs may have masked as much 47% of the global warming by greenhouse gases, with an uncertainty range of 20-80%. This presents a dilemma since efforts to curb air pollution may unmask the ABC cooling effect and enhance the surface warming. Thus efforts to reduce GHGs and air pollution should be done under one common framework. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

165

Emission of greenhouse gases from sewage installations; Emissies van broeikasgassen van rwzi's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are monitored. The emission of CO2 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is related to the use of electricity, natural gas or other fossil fuels. The amount and origin of the emission of CH4 and N2O, however, is unknown. Presently emission factors from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are used to estimate those emissions. The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine the level of N2O and CH4 emission from Dutch WWTPs to understand the accuracy of the existing emission factors. In this way an estimation of the total greenhouse gas emission from a Dutch WWTP can be made. The emission of N2O and CH4 was measured at three WWTPs in the Netherlands: Papendrecht, Kortenoord and Kralingseveer [Dutch] In deze studie zijn de indirecte en directe emissies van broeikasgassen (CO2, CH4 en N2O) van rwzi's in kaart gebracht aan de hand van metingen. De resultaten hebben aanleiding gegeven voor een vervolgonderzoek waarbij onder meer kennis wordt ontwikkeld op het gebied van methaanvorming (CH4) in de riolering en mogelijkheden om de emissie van methaan op een zuivering te reduceren. Met betrekking tot lachgas N2O wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de vormingsprocessen van lachgas en de wijze waarop deze vrijkomt vanuit een rwzi. Verder worden relaties tussen lachgasemissie en procesparameters inzichtelijk gemaakt. Met deze kennis is het hopelijk in de toekomst mogelijk om maatregelen te nemen die de vorming en emissie van lachgas vanuit rwzi's te reduceren.

Van Voorthuizen, E.; Van Leusden, M.; Visser, A.; Kruit, J. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kampschreur, M.; Van Dongen, U.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

2010-03-15

166

Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the FAAM aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region. The aircraft also measured a high-CH4 plume over the sea between Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources. An overview of results from the field campaign will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola

2014-05-01

167

Progress and opportunities for monitoring greenhouse gases fluxes in Mexican ecosystems: the MexFlux network  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Para entender los procesos de los ecosistemas desde un punto de vista funcional es fundamental entender las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, los ciclos biogeoquímicos y las interacciones superficie-atmósfera. En las últimas décadas se ha aplicado de manera creciente el método de covarianz [...] a de flujos turbulentos (EC, por sus siglas en inglés) en ecosistemas terrestres, marinos y urbanos para medir los flujos de gases de invernadero (p. ej., CO2, H2O ) y energía (p. ej., calor sensible y latente). En diversas regiones se han establecido redes de sistemas EC que han aportado información científica para el diseño de políticas ambientales y de adaptación. En este contexto, el presente trabajo delimita el marco conceptual y técnico para el establecimiento de una red regional de medición de flujos de gases de efecto invernadero en México, denominada MexFlux, cuyo objetivo principal es mejorar nuestra comprensión de la forma en que la variabilidad climática y la transformación ambiental influye en la dinámica de los ecosistemas mexicanos ante los factores de cambio ambiental global. En este documento se analiza primero la importancia del intercambio de CO2 y vapor de agua entre los ecosistemas terrestres y la atmósfera. Después se describe brevemente la técnica de covarianza de flujos turbulentos para la medición de éstos, y se presentan ejemplos de mediciones en dos ecosistemas terrestres y uno urbano en México. Por último, se describen las bases conceptuales y operativas a corto, mediano y largo plazo para la continuidad de la red MexFlux. Abstract in english Understanding ecosystem processes from a functional point of view is essential to study relationships among climate variability, biogeochemical cycles, and surface-atmosphere interactions. Increasingly during the last decades, the eddy covariance (EC) method has been applied in terrestrial, marine a [...] nd urban ecosystems to quantify fluxes of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, H2O) and energy (e.g., sensible and latent heat). Networks of EC systems have been established in different regions and have provided scientific information that has been used for designing environmental and adaptation policies. In this context, this article outlines the conceptual and technical framework for the establishment of an EC regional network (i.e., MexFlux) to measure the surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and greenhouse gases in Mexico. The goal of the network is to improve our understanding of how climate variability and environmental change influence the dynamics of Mexican ecosystems. First, we discuss the relevance of CO2 and water vapor exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Second, we briefly describe the EC basis and present examples of measurements in terrestrial and urban ecosystems of Mexico. Finally, we describe the conceptual and operational goals at short-, medium-, and long-term scales for continuity of the MexFlux network.

R., VARGAS; E. A., YÉPEZ; J. L., ANDRADE; G., ÁNGELES; T., ARREDONDO; A. E., CASTELLANOS; J., DELGADO-BALBUENA; J., GARATUZA-PAYÁN; E., GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO; W., OECHEL; J. C., RODRÍGUEZ; A., SÁNCHEZ-AZOFEIFA; E., VELASCO; E. R., VIVONI; C., WATTS.

2013-06-01

168

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neu [...] tralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

Leonardo Machado, Pitombo; Janaina Braga do, Carmo; Isabela Clerici de, Maria; Cristiano Alberto de, Andrade.

2015-02-01

169

Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2014-08-01

170

Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are effective greenhouse gases, the most important of which are the HFCs. The emission estimates and i

Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

1998-11-01

171

Global what emdash control possibilities of CO2 and other greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal greenhouse gas, CO2, is joined by methane, N2O, and other trace gases in absorbing infrared radiation, which would otherwise escape into space, a process thought to be responsible for gradual increase in temperature that will melt ice caps and raise ocean levels. This paper discusses control possibilities that could be considered once there is agreement that CO2 must be controlled. Many of the responses to the energy crisis of 1974 are applicable for CO2 control. A variety of technologies, energy sources, and ideas are offered that, in combination, could be the basis for a global energy policy. Conversion and replacement of coal, oil, and eventually natural gas fired electric power plants with other energy sources such as nuclear, solar, wind, tidal, and geothermal, could significantly reduce CO2 emissions. There are, however, no good alternatives to fossil fuels used in transportation that significantly reduce CO2 emissions. Of all the fossil fuels, natural gas has the least CO2 production

172

Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth's climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model

173

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-11-01

174

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01

175

Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with <1 kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033-cm^-1 point spacing. The fitted path-averaged concentrations and temperature yield dry-air mole fractions. These are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate current absorption models for real atmospheres. In heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of <1 ppm for CO2 and <3 ppb for CH4 is achieved in 5 minutes in this initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

2014-01-01

176

Emission of greenhouse gases and soil organic matter balance in different farming systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimation of the influence of different farming systems on emission of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide was the aim of the research. The research was conducted on the basis of a special field experiment established in 1994 in the Experimental Station in Osiny in which different crop production systems are compared, and in a group of 20 organic farms organic farms located in the central part of Poland. For the first object the analysis of nitrous oxide emission and soil organic matter balance was done for 1996-2007, whereas for the second one CH4 and N2O emission and potential of sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter was done for 2004-2005. Organic farming system was characterized by significantly lower nitrous oxide emission in comparison to other systems. There was no distinct difference in CH4 emission between compared systems. In the organic farms, total CH4 and N2O emission expressed in GWP units amounted to 1623 points and this was 22% less than the average value for the Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship. Balance method showed that organic system has a great potential in sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter in comparison to integrated and conventional systems. However, measurements of humus content in soil did not confirm that observation.

A. Kawalec

2008-09-01

177

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases; Danmarks energifremskrivning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the baseline projection is to get an assessment of how energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases will evolve in the future, if no new policy measures are introduced, often referred to as a 'frozen policy' scenario. The actual development will continuously be influenced by new political initiatives, and the projection is thus not to be regarded as a long-term prognosis, but rather as a progress which from some given objectives, defines the challenges of future energy policy. The baseline projection is based on a number of general economic conditions (the output of industries, private consumption, fuel prices, etc.), a number of technology-specific assumptions (how much different types of facilities cost, what is their efficiency, etc.) and assumptions about what energy market players will do on purely market terms. Projections of this nature will always be subject to many central and uncertain assumptions. A different development than the assumed will therefore be able to move the outcome in both directions. This year's energy projections are associated with a particular uncertainty due to the large uncertainty about the duration of the economic crisis for the global economy. This uncertainty affects directly the energy projection, as economic activity and demand for energy services are closely linked. The big drop in energy consumption due to the downturn in the economy from 2008 to 2009 illustrates this. (ln)

2010-04-15

178

A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control.

First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

M. C. Geibel

2010-10-01

179

A fully automated FTIR system for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail.

First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

M. C. Geibel

2010-07-01

180

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO2-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

2009-01-01

181

Overview of existing studies on full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature on investigations into full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases is scanty. Fourteen different studies are reviewed most of which deal with energy use only in parts of the fuel chain or with CO2 only. The scatter in full-energy-chain emissions factors of individual energy sources is not very large, except that in the emission factors of gas-fired power, biomass-fueled power and hydropower generation. The sources of this scatter are discussed. Fossil fuels have emission factors in the range of 500-1200 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Wind, nuclear and geothermal power generation are in the range of low emission factors: 10-70 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Emission factors of hydropower and sustainable biomass-fueled power generation range 10-400 and 40-180 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h, resp. The solar and ocean power generating sources are in the range of 100-300 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

182

Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

2010-05-01

183

Overview and outline of the results of the project 'Identification of unknown sources of other greenhouse gases. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse gases in the title study concern CH4, N2O, CFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The research field is subdivided into biological processes, the processing industry, and production and import of greenhouse gases. Data with regard to material/source combinations are compiled from the literature, databases, and experts in the field and stored in a database, resulting in circa 90 combinations, of which 62 combinations remain, representing 1.9 Mton CO2-equivalents. The 10 largest sources are responsible for 80% of the total emission. The largest material/source combinations are from biological processes (waste processing, waste water treatment). Other combinations are SF6 emission in the production of noise insulating double glazing, use of N2O in hospitals (anesthesia), SF6 emission in the use of high voltage components. The two largest emission sources concern N2O in composting and N2O from waste water treatment plants

184

Measurement and modelling of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases from northern wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern wetlands contain ?30% of the world's terrestrial carbon store, resulting from the incomplete decomposition of plant material inhibited because oxygen diffusion is limited by water saturation of the soil. While this behaviour results in a sink for CO_2, anaerobic pathways of decomposition result in wetlands being a large, but variable, source of CH_4. Northern wetlands tend to be nitrogen-impoverished, therefore they are not an important source of N_2O. However, nitrogen deposition, peat extraction, and other land-use changes have the potential to alter their greenhouse gas (GHG) sink/source function. Until recently, most of the studies on the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of greenhouse gases from northern wetlands were short-term and seasonal. In 1998 the Peatland Carbon Study began continuous measurements of the carbon dynamics of a northern peatland and developed several ecosystem models to be used in simulations of the response of peatlands to climate variability and change. The continuous measurements have established the dominant role of climate variability in determining the magnitude and sign of the fluxes of GHGs. The Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS) was developed to use either direct measurements or modeled climate from a land surface process model such as the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) which has been modified to incorporate the physical attributes of wetlands as inputs. PCARS illustrates the relative importance of various components of the ecosystem in determining the inter-annual variability in GHG exchange. Evaluation of PCARS has helped identify significant gaps in our knowledge of peatland systems. A second, more phenomenological model, the Peat Accumulation Model (PAM), demonstrates the overall importance of precipitation in controlling decadal to millennial scale variations in sink/source strength of CO_2. The Canadian Global Coupled Climate Carbon Model (CGC^3M) Network is attempting to parameterize wetland processes for the inclusion in a global terrestrial ecosystem model for climate simulations, but it is a significant challenge to develop an efficient, yet realistic, wetland simulator for global scale modelling.

Roulet, N. T.; Frolking, S.; Lafleur, P. M.; Moore, T. R.; Richard, P. H. J.

2003-04-01

185

Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory based on the results of a study funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Case Study Program. The concepts of multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration were most useful in the preparation of this inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions such as Environment and Development in the Third World (ENDA-TM) Energy Program and the Ecological Monitoring Center in Dakar, Senegal, and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by methane (CH4), 22.3 Gg; carbon monoxide (CO), 18.7 Gg; nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.3 Gg; and nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in The Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO2 will contribute 75%, CH4 about 24.5%, and N2O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from The Gambia. This is likely to introduce some uncertainties into the results of the calculations. Factors and coefficients that are country-or region-specific are likely to provide more accurate results and should be developed. The surveys were conducted either during the wet season or just at the end of the wet season. This seasonal factor should contribute to variations in the results, particularly in the livestock numbers and composition survey. Use of one-time survey data is also likely to introduce uncertainty into the results. PMID:24197953

Jallow, B P

1995-01-01

186

Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/lnternational Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) CO{sub 2} is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by CH{sub 4}, 22.3 Gg; CO, 18.7 Gg; NO{sub x}, 0.3 Gg; and N{sub 2}O, 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO{sub 2} will contribute 75%, CH{sub 4} about 24.5%, and N{sub 2}O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from Gambia. This is likely to introduce some uncertainties into the results of the calculations. Factors and coefficients that are country- or region-specific are likely to provide more accurate results and should be developed. The surveys were conducted either during the wet season or just at the end of the wet season. This seasonal factor should contribute to variations in the results, particularly in the livestock numbers and composition survey.

Jallow, B.P. [Principal Meteorologist, Department of Water Resources, Banjul (Gambia)

1995-12-31

187

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

188

Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ? Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ? The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ? The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ? The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. ? These avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scope 1 and 2 emissions from the U.S. forest products industry.

189

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação  

OpenAIRE

The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecos...

Vd, Pillar; Cg, Tornquist; Bayer, C.

2012-01-01

190

Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although present in the atmosphere with a combined concentration approximately 100,000 times lower than carbon dioxide (i.e., the principal anthropogenic driver of climate change), halogenated organic compounds are responsible for a warming effect of approximately 10% to 15% of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding the impact of anesthetic gas release on the environment, with particular focus on its contribution to the radiative forcing of climate change.

Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John

2012-01-01

191

Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a working tank.

Morgan, E. J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

2015-02-01

192

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

193

AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its two companion microwave sounders, AMSU and HSB were launched into polar orbit onboard the NASA Aqua Satellite in May 2002. NASA required the sounding system to provide high-quality research data for climate studies and to meet NOAA's requirements for improving operational weather forecasting. The NOAA requirement translated into global retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles with accuracies approaching those of radiosondes. AIRS also provides new measurements of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3, SO2, and aerosols.The assimilation of AIRS data into operational weather forecasting has already demonstrated significant improvements in global forecast skill. At NOAA/NCEP, the improvement in the forecast skill achieved at 6 days is equivalent to gaining an extension of forecast capability of six hours. This improvement is quite significant when compared to other forecast improvements over the last decade. In addition to NCEP, ECMWF and the Met Office have also reported positive forecast impacts due AIRS.AIRS is a hyperspectral sounder with 2,378 infrared channels between 3.7 and 15.4 µm. NOAA/NESDIS routinely distributes AIRS data within 3 hours to NWP centers around the world. The AIRS design represents a breakthrough in infrared space instrumentation with measurement stability and accuracies far surpassing any current research or operational sounder. The results we describe in this paper are “work in progress,” and although significant accomplishments have already been made much more work remains in order to realize the full potential of this suite of instruments.

Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Le Marshall, John; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.; Staelin, David; Larrabee Strow, L.; Susskind, Joel; Tobin, David; Wolf, Walter; Zhou, Lihang

2006-07-01

194

Potential of native forests for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Salta, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon stocks were assessed in three archetypal forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina, namely Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands located around Chaco. Over a total area of about 7000 m2, detailed measurements of woody biomass were conducted using structural information such as diameter at breast height (dbh), total height, and stem height. At the same time, the wet weight of herbaceous, shrubs, and litter was registered within that area. Soil samples were also collected to determine parameters such as bulk density and organic carbon. The above-ground tree biomass (AGB) was quantified by two non-destructive methods. This biomass was expressed from each reservoir studied in t.ha-1 and the carbon content was then calculated using a factor of 0.5. Carbon stocks in the ecosystems studied were 162, 92, and 48 tC.ha-1 for Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands, respectively. Our results show that carbon is concentrated in the soil or as AGB. The latter is the most important reservoir in Yungas, while the soil plays this role in the other two, drier environments. In the province of Salta, native forests play a significant role in the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Our results reveal the magnitude of carbon stocks in some characteristic regional native forests, and estimate their carbon sequestration potential. These results could be useful to inform policy makers in charge of negotiations related to conservation and sustainable management of native forests, and be a relevant input for the formulation of more comprehensive land use planning processes in the region. -- Highlights: ? We assessed carbon stocks in forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina. ? The studied areas are located within ecosystems called Yungas, Chaco and shrublands. ? Main carbon reservoirs in all ecosystems were found in above-ground tree biomass and soil. ? Carbon stocks could be restored, maintained or increased with forest management. ? We conclude that the studied forests have a high potential for the mitigation of GHG.

195

Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2011-12-01

196

Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other sectors Tier 3 is a further disaggregation of emission factors compared to Tier 2. Each municipality may use different tiers for different sectors depending on the data availability. (au)

Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

2009-02-15

197

Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes gla CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

198

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950-2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

2010-09-01

199

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

D. A. Plummer

2010-09-01

200

Greenhouse gases mitigation against climate change: United States-Mexico border study case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La radiación solar es una de las fuentes de energía más importantes de nuestro planeta. El interés por su uso como energía renovable y limpia para mitigar los efectos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) se ha incrementado de manera significativa. Este artículo presenta una evaluación de las med [...] iciones de radiación solar y la estimación del potencial energético, así como una comparación de ambas, como ejemplo del esfuerzo para reducir los GEI. Las mediciones fueron realizadas con piranómetros instalados en la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, localizada en el noroeste de México, y en la ciudad de Yuma, Arizona, en el suroeste de EUA, que están separadas por una distancia de 96 km. Ambas ciudades muestran un desarrollo sostenido y características climáticas similares con numerosos días soleados, elevadas temperaturas extremas y escasa precipitación. Los resultados muestran diferencias tanto en su comportamiento como en las mediciones de radiación solar global, especialmente durante las estaciones críticas primavera y verano, con valores 15.73% (0.042 KW/m²) superiores en Mexicali con respecto a Yuma a pesar a pesar de su cercanía. Esto indica que los flujos de mesoescala parecen dominar los sistemas sinópticos prevalentes en la región. Se estima el potencial energético, y se analiza con algunas variables como radiación solar global, precipitación, temperatura del aire, humedad relativa y climatología de los días claros, parcialmente nublados y nublados. Con esto se estima la energía proyectada para Mexicali en caso de que se utilizara el recurso solar, y se calcula que se evitarían 291 ton de GEI. Los valores de energía potencial obtenidos en Mexicali son mayores que los registrados en Yuma, por lo que este estudio comparativo de radiación solar y energía contribuye al desarrollo de estas tecnologías en México. Los resultados de las mediciones en la región demuestran la importancia de la estrategia propuesta para mitigar el cambio climático. Abstract in english Solar radiation is one of the most important energy resources of our planet. The interest in its use as a renewable and clean energy to mitigate the greenhouse gases (GHG) effects has increased significantly. This paper evaluates the measurements of global solar radiation and its energy potential an [...] d presents a comparison between both of them, as an example of the effort to reduce GHG emissions. The measurements were made with pyranometers installed in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, located in northwestern Mexico, and the city of Yuma, Arizona, located in the southwestern United States. Separated by a distance of 96 km, both cities have a sustained development and are climatically similar, since they present numerous sunny days, extreme hot temperatures and little precipitation. The results presented show differences in their behavior and in the solar radiation measurement values, especially for the critical spring and summer seasons, with values 15.73% (0.042 kW/m²) higher in Mexicali with respect to Yuma. Energy power is estimated, and it is discussed with some variables as global solar radiation, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity and climatology of clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy days. With this estimation, the solar energy used and GHG avoided is projected for Mexicali. It is assessed that 291 tons of GHG are prevented. The Mexicali values of potential energy are higher than those of Yuma; therefore, this solar and energy comparative study provides reasons to develop these technologies in Mexico, but solar technologies should be deployed also in Yuma. The measured data at the regional level demonstrate their importance, and the relevance of the proposed mitigation strategy for climate change.

N., SANTILLÁN SOTO; O. R., GARCÍA CUETO; S., OJEDA BENÍTEZ; N., VELÁZQUEZ LIMÓN; M., QUINTERO NÚÑEZ; M., SCHORR.

2013-10-01

201

76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office...be posted on EPA's greenhouse gas reporting rule Web...Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division...Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas IBR incorporation...reporting rule OMB Office of Management and Budget RFA...

2011-06-27

202

Emissions from animal husbandry. Greenhouse gases, environmental assessment, state of the art; Emissionen der Tierhaltung. Treibhausgase, Umweltbewertung, Stand der Technik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the KTBL conference (KTBL = Board of trustees for technology and construction science in the field of agriculture, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) from 6th to 8th December, 2011, in the monastery Banz, Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Development and environmental impacts of livestock production worldwide (Harald Menzl); (2) Methods to assess environmental aspects of livestock (Hayo van der Werf); (3) Methological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by Life Cycle Assessment (Lorie Hamelin); (4) Life Cycle Assessment of milk production systems (Gerard Gaillard); (5) Environmental impact assessment of beef production systems demonstrated for greenhouse gases (Monika Ziehetmeier); (6) Environmental impact assessment of pig production systems in Europe - From land use to feed efficiency (Ingrid Strid); (7) Envionmental impact assessment of egg production systems in Europe as seen from the United Kingdom (Adrian Willias); (8) Environmental impacts and improvement options of chicken meat production (Juha-Matti Katajajuuri); (9) Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock farming (Annette Freibauer); (10) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock manure: The scientific basis (Soeren O. Petersen); (11) Strategic measures to influence methane emissions from livestock (Michael Kreuzer); (12) Enteric methane production - Results from respiration chambers (Michael Derno); (13) Greenhouse gas emissions from cattle housing systems (Inga Schiefler); (14) Towards reduced methane from grass-based Irish milk production systems (Eva Lewis); (15) Greenhouse gas emissions from pig housing (Knut-Haakan Jeppsson); (16) Greenhouse gas emissions from poultry housings and manure management: inventory and update of emission factors (Peter Groot Koerkamp); (17) Greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of liquid and solid manure and abatement strategies (Lena Rodhe); (18) Nitrous oxide emissions following the application of livestock manure - an integrated approach (Rachel E. Thorman); (19) Political and administrative instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from EU agriculture (Thomas Fellmann); (20) Best available techniques (BAT) - State of the revision of the BAT reference document (Ewald Grimm); (21) Emission abatement measures in pig farming (Wilhelm Pflanz); (22) Cost of ammonia emission abatement (Sebastian Wulf); (23) Measures to reduce emissions and immissions from livestock farming - implementation and inspection (Stefan Neser); (24) Emissions from animal husbandry in Austria: assessment and reporting (Barbara Amon); (25) Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing and manure storage (Barbara Amon); (26) Ascertainment and assessment of energy use in livestock farming - the example of dairy farming (Werner Berg); (27) Ammonia emissions from a broiler farm: Influence of emitted concentrations on adjacent woodland (Kristina von Bobrutzki); (28) Exhaust air treatment in animal housings - How efficient are certified systems in practice? (Lars Broer); (29) Revision of methods and data for the assessment of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (30) The effect of diet composition and feeding strategies on excretion rates in German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (31) Strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in organic dairy farming (Andreas Gattinger); (32) Calculation of emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia and particulate matter from animal husbandry within the German agricultural emission inventory (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (33) Modelling fluxes of matter and energy for mammals in the agricultural emission inventory by taking the example dairy cow (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (34) Requirements for measures to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle husbandry (Margret Keck); (35) Sustainable nutrient management in intensive livestock areas: Nitrogen and phosphorus flows in pig production (Dennis Otten); (36) Seasonal effect on emissi

NONE

2011-07-01

203

Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

Seager, Richard

2014-12-08

204

The national-economic cost of reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Comparison of investments aimed towards a reduced greenhouse gas emission in power industry, agriculture, transportation sector and other essential greenhouse gas sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a number of years the cost of reducing CO2 emissions in the energy sector in Denmark has been investigated in detail. The same has not been the case what concerns the cost of reducing other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) and especially not what concerns the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases in other sectors in the Danish economy, i.e. agriculture, transport, industry, domestic waste and forestry. Thus, the objective of this project was twofold: 1) To calculate the national economic costs related to a number of options for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) by using the same methodology for all important sectors in the economy and 2) To compare the cost efficiency of these options not only wihtin the individual sectors but also across the sectoral boundaries to achieve an overall view of the reduction possibilities in society and the associated costs. (au) 80 refs.; Prepared by Forskningscenter Risoe and Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser. Afdeling for Systemanalyse

205

Investigation of the relationship between atmospheric mercury and concentrations of key greenhouse gases at a mountainous monitoring site.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored, together with some key greenhouse gases (GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O) vapor) at hourly intervals at a mountainous monitoring site close to the highly industrialized city of Seoul, Korea. Correlations between the concentrations of Hg and those of the greenhouse gases were examined to assess their source characteristics and responses to changes in meteorological conditions. The mean Hg levels in this study (3.58 ± 2.13 ng m(-3)) were considerably lower (by, e.g., 24.3%) than those measured previously in other comparable sites during 1999-2006 (4.73 ± 1.34 ng m(-3)). Accordingly, such a reduction in Hg levels suggests the effectiveness of the regulatory measures enforced over the years. The mean Hg level observed in this study is also lower (by approximately 5%) than those in other Asian locations. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the two most important GHGs (CO2 and CH4) were moderately higher than those of other locations across the world (by approximately 4-9%). The results of our analysis indicate that the behavior of Hg is strongly correlated with water vapor and CH4 in terms of their source characteristics, despite notable differences in their diurnal patterns. PMID:25639653

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Brown, Richard J C; Sheu, Guey Rong; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Jung, Kweon; Kang, Chang-Hee

2015-03-11

206

Imbalance of Nature due to Greenhouse Gases from Land-Use Change and Forestry in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The imbalance of nature in recent years has been highlighted throughout the world due to the consequences of population and economic growth and changes land use in general. These changes are the result of complex processes between the human and natural environment. This is a very important phenomenon, especially from the point of view of sustainability, as these changes have been considered as one of the most important components of global change (Plata et al., 2009). In the same way the process of deforestation and forest degradation as a result of human activities are a major source of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico (Masera et al., 1997). However, forests in Mexico have great potential to become carbon sinks by adopting appropriate support policies, and implementation of sustainable forestry management techniques to improve their production. From this perspective, forest management and reforestation of forests are presented as options for short and medium term climate change mitigation (Sheinbaum and Masera, 2000). Based on the foregoing, the research updates emissions from the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) for the period 2000 to 2005 for the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, from activity data and national emission factors, reliable and updated to improve certainty and to determine the emissions of greenhouse gases for the sector. This paper examines the updated statewide LCLUC inventory using the gradation level 2 of the IPCC and recommends climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.t;

Guzman Galindo, T. D.; Plata Rocha, W. D.; Aguilar-Villegas, J. M.

2013-05-01

207

Climatic response to anthropogenic sulphate aerosols versus well-mixed greenhouse gases from 1850 to 2000 AD in CLIMBER-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth system model CLIMBER-2 is extended by a scheme for calculating the climatic response to anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions. The scheme calculates the direct radiative forcing, the first indirect cloud albedo effect, and the second indirect cloud lifetime effect induced by geographically resolved sulphate aerosol burden. The simulated anthropogenic sulphate aerosol burden in the year 2000 amounts to 0.47 TgS. The best guesses for the radiative forcing due to the direct effect are -0.4 W/m2 and for the decrease in short-wave radiation due to all aerosol effects -0.8 W/m2. The simulated global warming by 1 K from 1850 to 2000 caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases reduces to 0.6 K when the sulphate aerosol effects are included. The model's hydrological sensitivity of 4%/K is decreased by the second indirect effect to 0.8%/K. The quality of the geographically distributed climatic response to the historic emissions of sulphur dioxide and greenhouse gases makes the extended model relevant to computational efficient investigations of future climate change scenarios

Bauer, Eva; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Ganopolski, Andrey (Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research, PO Box, 60 12 03, D-14412 Potsdam (DE)). e-mail: eva.bauer@pik-potsdam.de; Eliseev, Alexey V. (A.M. Obukhov Inst. of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Moscow (RU))

2008-02-15

208

Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH4, CO2 and N2O on some peat mining areas in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

209

An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling. PMID:11287950

Manne, A S; Richels, R G

2001-04-01

210

Technical note on the role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in CDM Afforestation/Reforestation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ENCOFOR framework aims at the design of sustainable Clean Development Mechanism Afforestation/Reforestation (CDM-AR) projects with benefits for local communities and environment. For a project to be environmentally sustainable, it is obvious that the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) other than carbon dioxide should be minimal in such projects. It is therefore a major challenge to find out if other GHG are a relevant issue for CDM-AR projects and if so, how to account for these non-CO2 gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed a series of formulas to estimate such emissions. The revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the IPCC 1995 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories are the latest reports addressing this issue. The methodologies adopted are focused on temperate and boreal zone, are fully empirical and default parameter values are given for forest types whenever possible, otherwise general default values are given. There is a clear need for fully revised and updated guidelines. In more recent years, some attempts have been made to quantify empirically CH4 and N2O based on forest and soil classifications (Liu et al., 2000). Also mechanistic models have been implemented but even with those models, a high degree of uncertainty is observed in estimations, especially in humid tropical sandy soils (Potter et al., 1997; Potter et al., 2001). In short, studies about non-CO2 emissions from land use change and forestry activities do not show clear trends and give in some cases conflicting numbers. This note was prepared with three main objectives: (1) to obtain a clear idea about the importance of the other main GHG in relation to land-use change, forestry, agroforestry and associated activities, (2) to compare the methodologies and results of other studies in relation to those adopted and recommended by the IPCC and (3) to evaluate possibilities for the incorporation of these GHG into the total emissions balance of CDM projects.

Garcia Quijano, J.F.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Leuven (Belgium); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Energy Research, Graz (Austria); Emmer, I. [Face Foundation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

2004-06-15

211

Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups. PMID:24682309

Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

2014-08-01

212

Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

2012-07-01

213

Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

2011-12-01

214

A influência dos gases estufa no oceano Atlântico Sul: estudo climatológico / The effect of greenhouse gases on South Atlantic Ocean: a climatological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os impactos climáticos no oceano Atlântico Sul causados pela industrialização e conseqüente aumento da emissão de gases estufa para a atmosfera. Para isso utilizou-se o modelo numérico acoplado National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climat [...] e System Model, sob duas condições climáticas: a primeira para o período pré-industrial e, a segunda, para o pós-industrial. Os resultados mostraram aquecimento da superfície do mar na climatologia do período pós-industrial em relação ao pré-industrial, principalmente durante a primavera quando alcança 2,5°C ao sul do continente sulamericano. O comportamento climatológico do transporte barotrópico e da pressão ao nível do mar também mostraram diferenças significativas de um período para o outro, sugerindo a intensificação da Alta Subtropical, Giro Subtropical e Corrente Circumpolar Antártica. Sazonalmente, as diferenças no transporte barotrópico foram maiores no outono, exibindo valores superiores a 25 Sv, em torno de 0°E, 55°S. A pressão atmosférica ao nível do mar foi levemente fortalecida no verão e outono, com intensificação máxima de 2mbar, e enfraquecida no inverno do período pré-industrial para a simulação do presente. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the increase in greenhouse gases caused by the industrialization in the climate of the South Atlantic Ocean. We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model. Two climate conditions were used to force the mode [...] l, one relative to the pre-industrial levels of greenhouse gases emissions and the other to the levels of the present days. The results have shown a significant sea surface warming in pos-industrial climatology in relation to the pre-industrial one, mainly during the spring season when it reaches 2.5°C south of South America. The climatological behavior of the barotropic streamfunction and the sea level pressure also showed relevant differences from one period to the next. This suggests an intensification of the subtropical high, the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Seasonally, the differences in the barotropic streamfunction were larger in autumn with values as high as 25 Sv around 0°E, 55°S. The sea level pressure for present simulation shows a straightening in summer and autumn with an intensification of 2mbar, and a weakening in winter in relation to the pre-industrial period.

Andréa S., Taschetto; Ilana, Wainer.

215

Electric energy auctions in Brazil and its effect on emissions of greenhouse gases by the electric sector; Leiloes de energia eletrica no Brasil e sua influencia nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa pelo setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The result of the auctions of electricity, after the new regulatory framework in 2004, has shown the increased participation of fossil sources of thermal generation, contributing to increased emission of greenhouse gases by the Brazilian Electricity Sector. This article aims to analyze the correlation between growth in electric generation sector and rising greenhouse gases, especially through the study of the winning projects of electric power auctions conducted with the advent of the New Institutional Model of the Power Sector from 2004, comparing with the existing policies and prospects of the next auction of the electric sector. (author)

Alpire, Ricardo; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

2010-07-01

216

The fight against greenhouse gases requires to take all parameters into account; Pour lutter contre l'effet de serre: integrer tous les parametres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fight against greenhouse gases calls for a global energy policy. Only tax measures can lead to stabilizing our consumption of energy. We will use fewer fossil fuels by turning toward nuclear and biomass energy sources. A strong decrease of greenhouse gas emissions will imply a sharp increase of the consumption of clean electricity (produced from no-fossil sources) in sectors like industry, transport and heating. (A.C.)

Prevot, H.

2005-04-01

217

MANAGING FOR MITIGATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE MIDWEST  

Science.gov (United States)

The central USA contains some of the most productive agricultural land in the world. Due to the high proportion of land area committed to crops and pasture in this region, the carbon (C) stored and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent a large percentage of the total for US agriculture. Our objec...

218

Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

1998-08-01

219

Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO) code to account for polarization effects in space- based observations of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two centuries, anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have increased to an alarming situation. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which is in orbit since 23 January 2009, has considerable promise to improve surface flux inverse modeling. Algorithms for the operational satellite data processing must accurately account for atmospheric light scattering caused by aerosols and thin upper tropospheric clouds. Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) in short wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measures two polarized components spectra for both P- and S- polarization states. The current versions of the operational algorithms for GOSAT data processing utilize scalar radiance that is produced from combination of the polarized signals. To process both polarization states within the full physics algorithms, that utilized the solution of vectorial radiative transfer calculations, is still time consuming when utilizing the radiative transfer codes such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, SCIATRAN. In this paper we report an improved rapid code for spectral radiative transfer calculations that is refereed to as Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO). This program could be utilized in further versions of full physics algorithm for direct processing of both polarized states. Another application of this method for space-based observations of greenhouse gases resides in testing of photon path length probability density function (PPDF) method that effectively accounts of atmospheric light scattering. The CIAO code is based on the solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) with elimination of the anisotropic part of the radiance angular distribution that allows finding the solution of the discretized VRTE in the closed matrix form. There are no any limitations of the media parameters in this code. The comparison of this algorithm with known ones such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, and SCIATRAN showed that similar accuracy could be accessed under significantly lower time consuming. The difference in computation time reaches one order of magnitude and even higher with increasing the degree of scattering anisotropy the total atmospheric optical depth

Budak, V. P.; Klyuykov, D. A.; Oshchepkov, S.

2010-12-01

220

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

OpenAIRE

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 w...

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2010-01-01

221

Production of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 by hydroelectric reservoirs of the boreal region  

Science.gov (United States)

The emission fluxes and the distribution of dissolved methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were determined for 11 sampling stations in two hydroelectric reservoirs (flooded since 1978 and 1993) located in the James Bay territory of northern Québec. The measured benthic fluxes for the two greenhouse gases were found to be either higher or similar to those determined at the water-air interface during the ice-free sampling periods. For the 2 year duration of the study, emission fluxes of CH4 to the atmosphere generally varied between 5 and 10 mg m-2 d-1, while those for CO2 ranged from 500 to 1100 mg m-2 d-1. Furthermore, through the use of static chambers at the water-air interface, we determined that the emission fluxes for the gases are controlled by molecular diffusion. Our calculated fluxes have been separated into two groups: (1) regular emission fluxes and (2) above-average emission fluxes. The first type comprises the majority of fluxes measured during the sampling periods (i.e., 88% for CH4 and 87% for CO2). The second group reflects unusual sampling conditions (e.g., strong winds, water column depths of less than 1 m, or flooded peatland mats floating at the surface). Although data for this group are limited, our preliminary results suggest that they may be an important component in an atmospheric emissions budget for large reservoirs. Concentration profiles for CH4 and CO2 dissolved in the water column clearly show that oxidation and/or horizontal advection of these gases are controlling factors in their subsequent release to the atmosphere. Most of the CH4 is oxidized within the first 25 cm above the flooded soil-water interface. Consequently, neither benthic emissions of CH4 and CO2 nor the type of flooded soil appear to control atmospheric emissions of these gases from hydroelectric reservoirs.

Duchemin, E.; Lucotte, M.; Canuel, R.; Chamberland, A.

1995-12-01

222

Emissões de gases de efeito estufa pela deposição de palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre o solo / Greenhouse gases emissions due to sugarcane trash on the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Biocombustíveis contribuem para reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). No Brasil, o principal biocombustível é o etanol de cana-de-açúcar. Além dos colmos, as folhas de cana-de-açúcar também podem ser usadas para produzir etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as emissões de GEE [...] (CO2, CH4 e N2O) induzidas pela presença de palha sobre o solo. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em Latossolos, em Piracicaba: imediatamente após a colheita, aos seis e aos 12 meses após a colheita. Foram avaliados os efeitos de três doses de palha (0%, 50% e 100% da quantidade disponível na superfície) sobre as emissões. Imediatamente após a colheita, as emissões de CO2 e CH4 aumentaram com o aumento da quantidade de palha. Aos seis meses após a colheita houve consumo de CH4 à medida que a quantidade de palha aumentou. Doze meses após a colheita, as emissões dos três gases foram similares, independentemente da quantidade de palha. Remover a palha de cana-de-açúcar não aumenta as emissões de GEE do solo em comparação ao manejo sem retirada da palha da superfície. Contudo, estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os efeitos sobre a produtividade de cana-de-açúcar, sobre a erosão e sobre outros atributos do solo. Abstract in english Biofuels are important to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions to atmosphere. In Brazil, the main biofuel is ethanol from sugarcane. Beyond stalk, sugarcane sheets are also stating to be used to produce second generation ethanol. The objective of this work was evaluate soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2 [...] O) emissions induced by sugarcane trash on soil surface. Three experiments were done in an Oxisol, in Piracicaba region, taking in account three periods: immediately after sugarcane harvest, six and twelve months after harvest. In each experiment, we evaluated the effects of three sugarcane trash rates (0%, 50% and 100% of the quantity available at soil surface). Immediately after harvest, CO2 and CH4 emissions increased linearly with trash rate on soil surface. Six months after harvest there were CH4 consumption by soil as trash on surface increased. Twelve months after harvest, emissions of the three gases were similar in all trash rates. Removing sugarcane straw from soil surface do not increase soil GHGs emissions as compared to the current management, in which 100% of trash is maintained on the soil surface. However, other studies are needed to investigate its effects under sugarcane yield, soil erosion and under other soil attributes.

Diana, Signor; Luísa Lorentz Magalhães, Pissioni; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

2014-06-01

223

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

224

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

225

Have greenhouse gases intensified the contrast between wet and dry regions?  

Science.gov (United States)

While changes in land precipitation during the last 50 years have been attributed in part to human influences, results vary by season, are affected by data uncertainty and do not account for changes over ocean. One of the more physically robust responses of the water cycle to warming is the expected amplification of existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation. Here, precipitation changes in wet and dry regions are analyzed from satellite data for 1988-2010, covering land and ocean. We derive fingerprints for the expected change from climate model simulations that separately track changes in wet and dry regions. The simulations used are driven with anthropogenic and natural forcings combined, and greenhouse gas forcing or natural forcing only. Results of detection and attribution analysis show that the fingerprint of combined external forcing is detectable in observations and that this intensification of the water cycle is partly attributable to greenhouse gas forcing.

Polson, D.; Hegerl, G. C.; Allan, R. P.; Sarojini, B. Balan

2013-09-01

226

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

OpenAIRE

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upst...

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

227

Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

OpenAIRE

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. ...

Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

228

Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

2014-05-01

229

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

OpenAIRE

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributio...

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

2009-01-01

230

Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

OpenAIRE

Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) ...

Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

231

Assessing the balance between greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from Irish pastures amended with cattle slurry  

OpenAIRE

Agriculture in Ireland is the main source of ammonia (NH3) and contributes 30% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), with the majority of these emissions associated with livestock production. As a result, strategies promoting reductions in NH3 and GHG emissions are required. The aim of this work was: (i) to assess the impact of various NH3 abatement techniques on GHG release from a grassland soil; (ii) to investigate the consequences of organic nitrogen (N) applications in terms of carbon (C) se...

Bourdin, Frederic

2012-01-01

232

Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gases and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

Huang, Hann S. (Darien, IL); Sather, Norman F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01

233

Changes of Pacific decadal variability in the twentieth century driven by internal variability, greenhouse gases, and aerosols  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the contributions of internal variability, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) in driving the magnitude and evolution of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) during the twentieth century by analyzing 129 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model realizations. Evidence shows that PDV phase transition is dominated by internal variability, but it is also significantly affected by external forcing agents such as GHGs and aerosols. The combined effects of GHGs and AAs favor the positive phase of PDV with stronger ocean warming in the tropics than the extratropical Pacific. The GHG forcing induces the increased surface downward longwave radiation, especially over the tropical Pacific, and results in stronger warming in that area. The AA forcing results in a stronger cooling in the North Pacific region, due to the reduced surface downward shortwave radiation via cloud-aerosol interaction: this offsets the substantial warming caused by GHG forcing.

Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaolong

2014-12-01

234

The role of district cooling systems in reducing the emission of ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some existing and emerging technologies that can be applied in the near term to eliminate or reduce ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases were discussed. A large fraction of the total ODS emissions can be attributed to the cooling (air conditioning) of buildings. From an ecological point of view, the preferred solution to the problem of CFC-elimination in buildings is to connect to a district cooling system where cold energy storage can be applied in a cost effective manner. Ice slurry- based district cooling systems were reviewed, as well as seasonal energy storage such as deep lake water cooling, aquifer energy storage, abandoned mine thermal storage, and ice ponds. Integrated energy systems such as trigeneration, absorption chillers and combined heat and power, were outlined. The advantages of ice slurry based district cooling systems were identified. 15 refs., 10 figs

235

On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone changes. The enhanced evaporation from the ocean increases noticeably a water vapour abundance in the stratosphere that decreases global total ozone and retards the expected recovery of the ozone layer. In polar latitudes, additional stratospheric water vapour increase due to greenhouse effect noticeably strengthens the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on ozone through modification of polar stratospheric clouds and retards the expected recovery of the ozone, too. In the Northern hemisphere, the delay of the ozone recovery is about 5 years, in the Southern hemisphere the delay is about 2 years.

Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

236

Contribution of the renewable energies to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission for 2010; Contribution des EnR a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'horizon 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To illustrate the renewable energies contribution to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission in 2010 (19 Mt of CO{sub 2} per year, of greenhouse gases emission avoided), this document presents the different renewable energies sources and the international context of their implementation. Today data and estimations for 2010 are provided. (A.L.B.)

Anon.

2003-03-01

237

Utilisation of flue gases from biofuels in greenhouses as carbon dioxide source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the project is to develop technologies by which the flue gases from burning bio fuels and peat can be purified for used in green houses as a low cost source of carbon dioxide. Traditionally carbon dioxide has been produced by burning propane or natural gas or by injecting bottled carbon dioxide gas directly into the green house. The new methods should be more affordable than the present ones. (orig.)

238

Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation.

Povellato, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Economia Agraria (INEA), Via dell' Universita, 14, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Castello, 5252, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Bosello, Francesco [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Castello, 5252, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Giupponi, Carlo [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Castello, 5252, I-30122 Venice (Italy) and Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Via Celoria, 2, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: carlo.giupponi@unimi.it

2007-08-15

239

The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

NONE

2013-08-15

240

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

Abbas Asakereh

2010-08-01

241

Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

242

Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry/global climate system – Part 1: Halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM; v3.6.33. Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br? in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx, CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC's to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42? processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: the lifetime of nss-SO42? was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42? in the Southern Hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

M. S. Long

2013-03-01

243

Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-07

244

Greenhouse gases emission from sanitary landfills in Lombardy: estimation and uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantification of methane emissions from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A census has been conducted across all landfills in Lombardy in order to get a double assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1973-2007. The first approach is of a deterministic kind: it produced a GHG emission assessment of about 2,240 ktCO2 (like 2.4% of GHG emission in Lombardy in 2005). The second approach is a probabilistic approach according to Monte Carlo simulation, and allows an assessment of probabilistic distribution of emissions and uncertainty. Uncertainty in GHG emission from landfill in Lombardy is about 20% and efficiency of LFG collection and biodegradable carbon content are the most relevant parameters in this assessment. Also, a projection of GHG emission was made. Two scenarios were analyzed for the 2008-2020 period: a business as usual (BAU) one and an alternative one. It results that we are expecting a 50% reduction of GHG emission, with alternative scenario, from 2007 level: at regional scale it is like a 1% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardy.

245

Investigation into the emission of greenhouse effect gases; Onshitsu koka gas no haishutsu ni kansuru chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper grasped the situation of greenhouse effect gas emissions of advanced countries based on the reports from them. The advanced countries which concluded the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (OECD member countries, the former U.S.S.R., and East European countries) are to be reported to the office concerned with work for the framework the situation of their greenhouse effect gas emissions according to the obligation of the framework. In and after April 1997, they made the second report. The paper summarized changes in emission amount, the future trend, and the policies/measures mainly taken of nine countries which have already presented the second report (the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and New Zealand) and one country (Russia) which has made only the first report. Moreover, the literature was collected and summed up concerning the mechanism and coefficients of the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. The collected literature was classified into all fields/plural number of fields, energy relation, industrial process relation, relation with the use of organic solvent and other products, agricultural relation, relation with changes in land use and forests, and waste relation. 4 figs., 228 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

246

Greenhouse effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview on the greenhouse effect and the relative importance of carbon dioxide, methane and organic halogene compound therein. Data on carbon dioxide emission of 1990 in Austria resulting from combustion of fossile fuels and from cement industry and their forecasted increase up to 2005 are given. (Quittner)

247

Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO2-equivalents tonne —1 wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (—560 to —120 kg CO2equivalents tonne—1 wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (—1.9 to —1.3 tonnes CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2009-01-01

248

Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation induced formation of useful products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation in observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given. (author)

249

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-06-01

250

Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

251

Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the related effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased weight gains. To a lesser extent, this also applies to nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane emissions are less affected; increased weight gains result in increased emissions. As the greenhouse gas balance is dominated by methane emissions, the overall emission of greenhouse gases (expressed as CO2 equivalents) is likely to increase slightly in 2020 despite the reductions in nitrous oxide emissions.

Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas

2013-01-01

252

CO{sub 2} underground sequestration and greenhouse gases mitigation in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In June 2002, Japan ratified the Kyoto Protocol this committing it self to reducing its GHG emissions between 2008 and 2012 by 6% to below the 1990 emissions level. Since then the Japanese government has paid special attention to policies and measures for GHG reductions through fuel switching, land-use and forest management, as well as improvements in energy efficiency and implementing CO{sub 2} underground storage technology. This paper presents the CO{sub 2} gas in first order and other GHG emissions in Japan through time and in different economic sectors, it then goes on to the different abatement methods needed to achieve the UNFCC goal of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations stabilization with a particular emphasis placed on CO{sub 2} underground storage projects. We quote two CO{sub 2} underground sequestration pilot projects; one is the two-year enhanced coal bed methane recovery project in the Ishikari coal basin in Hokkaido and the other is the five-year CO{sub 2} sequestration with enhanced gas recovery pilot project in an active natural gas field located at Iwanohara Base in Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Mohammed El Rhazi; Shoji Arail; Pablo Gustavo Martinez Lestard [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan). Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science

2005-07-01

253

Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a 'seed-to-wheel' approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO2 equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO2eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N2O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation methodGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

254

Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified. PMID:21866889

Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

2011-10-01

255

Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world's population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today's risks

256

Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable Al3+ and higher available P regarding the condition of the original soil.

Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

2014-05-01

257

A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace Head, we will present the latest inversion results from the new network highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government periodically and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. These results also inform policy makers on the accuracy of inventory emissions estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases.

Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

2012-04-01

258

Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

1993-11-01

259

Estimación de gases de efecto invernadero en humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial / Assessment of Greenhouse Effect Gases in Sub-Superficial Flow Constructed Wetlands / Estimativa de gases de efeito estufa em pantanais construídos de fluxo subsuperficial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Os pantanais construídos são sistemas atraentes, de baixo custo de operação e manutenção, para países em desenvolvimento, quanto a tratamento das águas residuais. Entretanto, estes ao reduzir as cargas poluidoras das águas residuais, podem gerar metano, dióxido de carbono e óxido nitroso, chamados g [...] ases de efeito estufa. Neste sentido, foram comparadas duas espécies ornamentais e estimaram-se as emissões de metano, dióxido de carbono e óxido nitroso, mediante câmara estática, em tres pantanais construídos, a escala real, dos quais um foi plantado com Heliconia psittacorum, outro com Phragmites australis e o terceiro sem plantar (controle). Cada um, foi submetido a uma carga hidráulica de 3,5 m³d-1, equivalente a um tempo nominal de retenção hidráulico de 1,8 dias. Além disso, foram realizadas as caracterizações fisioquímicas habituais. A eficiência ficou entre 66,2% e 87,8% para a DQO, a temperatura média esteve entre 29 e 31 °C e o pH entre 6,3 a 7, em os sistemas plantados e sem plantar. Além disso, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre a vegetação estudada. Por tanto, conclui-se que as espécies Heliconia psittacorum e Phragmites australis não afetam a emissão de gases de efeito estufa nos sistemas estudados. Abstract in spanish Los humedales construidos son sistemas atractivos, de bajo costo de operación y mantenimiento, para países en vía de desarrollo, en cuanto a tratamiento de las aguas residuales. Sin embargo, estos al reducir las cargas contaminantes de las aguas residuales, pueden generar metano, dióxido de carbono [...] y óxido nitroso, llamados gases de efecto invernadero. En este sentido, se compararon dos especies ornamentales y se estimaron las emisiones de metano, dióxido de carbono y óxido nitroso, mediante cámara estática, en tres humedales construidos, a escala real, de los cuales se plantaron uno con Heliconia psittacorum, otro con Phragmites australis y un tercero sin plantar (control). Cada uno, sometido a una carga hidráulica de 3,5 m³d-1, equivalente a un tiempo nominal de retención hidráulico de 1,8 días. Además, se realizaron las caracterizaciones fisicoquímicas habituales. La eficiencia se situó entre 66,2% y 87,8% para la DQO, la temperatura tuvo en promedio del 29 y 31 °C y el pH entre 6,3 a 7, en los sistemas plantados y sin plantar. Además, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la vegetación estudiada. Por tanto, se concluye que las especies Heliconia psittacorum y Phragmites australis no afectan la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero en los sistemas estudiados. Abstract in english In developing countries, constructed wetlands are attractive systems with low operational and maintenance costs in terms of wastewater treatment. However, by reducing the pollution load of wastewater they might contribute to produce some greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous o [...] xide. This research compared two ornamental species and assessed the emissions of these gases through the use of static cameras in three full-scale constructed wetlands of which two were planted: one with Heliconia psittacorum, one with Phragmites australis, and the third one, which was not planted, was the control wetland. Each one of them received a hydraulic load of 3.5 m³d-1, which is equivalent to a nominal hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. In addition, physicochemical characterizations were performed. Efficiency was between 66.2% and 87.8% for COD; on average, the temperature was between 29 and 31 °C, and the pH was between 6.3 and 7, in both planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, no significant differences in the vegetation studied were found. We conclude that the ornamental species used do not affect the emission of greenhouse gases in the systems analyzed.

Juan Pablo, Silva-Vinasco; Arlyn, Valverde-Solís.

2011-07-01

260

Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full-energy-chain emission factors of greenhouse gases. Proceedings of an IAEA advisory group meeting/workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable and therefore climate benign energy planning is becoming a cornerstone of national energy policies in many countries that ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The ratification implies a commitment to lowering greenhouse gas emissions by the so-called Annex I countries, i.e. the developed countries. Sustainable energy planning requires comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources. Such comparison cannot be done objectively without accounting for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) - not only CO2 - from the whole energy chain, from ''cradle to grave''. The greenhouse gas emissions upstream and downstream of the energy conversion step are inherently associated with the production of any energy carrier, such as electricity. Therefore, analysis of the emissions of all greenhouse gases from the full energy chain FENCH is considered to be the only fair approach in comparing energy sources for climate benign energy planning. This publication reports on the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Analysis of Net Energy Balance and Full-Energy-Chain Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Nuclear and Other Energy Systems, held in Beijing, China, 4-7 October 1994. Refs., figs., tabs

261

Hydrologic Profiling for Greenhouse Gases from Prairie Potholes in Western Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prairie Pothole Region is a unique physiographic region covering a large portion of the central Great Plains of North America that is populated by shallow depressions or “potholes” of varying size. Potholes typically fill with water after snowmelt, forming ephemeral or permanent ponds surrounded by concentric bands of soils with water contents. These ponds vary both in space and time, defining the “hydrologic profile” of the pothole. We tested the hypothesis that hydrologic profiles are important drivers of biogeochemical activity, including the transport of the greenhouse gas (GHG) precursors, which influence GHG exchanges from contributing source areas towards the ponds. Potholes at five study nodes along a N-S climatic gradient in south central Saskatchewan (with precipitation-potential evapotranspiration ranging from -520 mm/yr to -270 mm/yr) were selected for study. Topographic features representing positions along the hydrologic profile from dry to wet (crest, shoulder, backslope, footslope and toeslope) were derived through digital terrain analysis of LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) and were used as the basis for satellite (Radarsat-1) estimates of soil water content. The satellite derived soil water contents were then related to CO2, CH4 and N2O GHG effluxes during the growing season (May to September). Within potholes, nonlinear relationships between hydrological profiles and soil GHG effluxes were observed. In general, backslopes yielded the highest N2O fluxes, footslopes and toeslopes yielded the highest CO2, and inundated portions of the pothole yielded the highest CH4. However, the magnitude of GHG effluxes varied over the growing season, with peak magnitudes typically occurring in late summer. Among the study nodes, GHG global warming potential decreased from south (dry) to north (wet). These findings illustrate that static topographic features derived from LiDAR DEMs can be fused with dynamic soil water contents derived from radar satellite imagery to predict the changing nature of hydrologic controls on GHG dynamics in prairie pothole landscapes.

Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D. A.; Bourbonniere, R. A.

2010-12-01

262

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible. PMID:19767324

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

263

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne emissions from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in Kenya and Brazil were measured during typical operating conditions. Emission factors were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total nonmethane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspended particulates (TSP) along with charcoal production efficiency and charcoal and fuelwood carbon and energy contents. The conversion of wood carbon to charcoal carbon ranged from 37 to 69%, depending on kiln type. Emission factors, expressed as grams of pollutant per kilogram of charcoal produced, for the eight kilns ranged from 543 to 3027 for CO2, 32-62 for CH4, 143-373 for CO, 24-124 for total nonmethane organic compounds, 0.011-0.30 for N2O, 0.0054-0.13 for NOx, and 13-41 for TSP. On average, fuelwood carbon was approximately diverted as follows: 51% to charcoal, 27% to CO2, and 13% to products of incomplete combustion (PIC). Due to the higher global warming potentials (GWPs) of PIC relative to CO2 on a carbon atom basis, such kilns can produce rather large net greenhouse gas emissions, even when the wood is harvested renewably. Based on published GWPs for CO2, CH4, and N2O only, we estimate that 0.77-1.63 kg C-CO2 (carbon as carbon dioxide equivalents) is emitted per kilogram of charcoal produced. We estimate that the total primary global warming commitment (GWC) of Kenyan and Brazilian charcoal-making kiln emissions is about 2.7 and 7.5 million tons (Mt) C-CO2, respectively. For comparison, the primary GWC from fossil fuel use in the United States is almost 1700 Mt C-CO2.

Pennise, David M.; Smith, Kirk R.; Kithinji, Jacob P.; Rezende, Maria Emilia; Raad, Tulio Jardim; Zhang, Junfeng; Fan, Chengwei

2001-10-01

264

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360—1260 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of recovered aluminium and 400— 1020 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040—19 340 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated aluminium and 560—2360 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible.

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

265

Heterogeneous saline formations : long-term benefits for geo-sequestration of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline formations as a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions was discussed with particular reference to reservoir performance of heterogenous formations with varying permeability and porosity distributions. If CO2 is injected into such formations, the increased baffling and reduced permeability may inhibit the flow of CO2 towards potential leak points in the reservoir. Injectivity into low-quality rock is a concern for heterogeneous formations. Injection programs involving multiple wells and appropriate well- completion strategies may be able to overcome injectivity problems for these candidate formations. The opportunity for geosequestration increases if low-quality heterogeneous saline formations are considered as possible target formations. Dynamic simulation of CO2 injection into a formation was used to model possible outcomes for geosequestration projects. Heterogeneity may include stratigraphic layering in the reservoir, faults, depositional mixing, compartmentalization, and channel systems. It was determined that for underground storage, CO2 should be injected at the bottom of a heterogeneous formation to take the best advantage of vertical baffling in the reservoir to stratigraphically trap CO2 and increase reservoir contact with the formation. The trapping mechanisms for CO2 sequestration were discussed wsub>2 sequestration were discussed with reference to solubility; gas-water relative permeability hysteresis; geological seals; and, mineralization. Pressure rise reservoir simulation studies have shown that permeability has a pronounced influence on reservoir performance in terms of CO2 migration, local pressure changes in the formation and long-term status of the CO2. The increased travel path of CO2 causes increased trapping through greater reservoir contact and potentially improves the storage project. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

266

A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to greenhouse gases and water usage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The general perception that livestock is a major contributor to global warming resulted mainly from the FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, in 2006, which indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This figure has since been proved to be an o [...] verestimation, since it includes deforestation and other indirect contributions. The most recent figure is in the order of 5% - 10%. Although only ruminants can convert the world's high-fibre vegetation into high-quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on questionable assumptions and the perception that all sources of food production require a similar and equal quantity and quality of water. In the case of ruminants, extensive systems are usually found to have a lower per-area carbon footprint than grain-fed systems, but a higher footprint if expressed in terms of kg product. Feedlots maximize efficiency of meat production, resulting in a lower carbon footprint, whereas organic production systems consume more energy and have a bigger carbon footprint than conventional production systems. Cows on pastures produce more methane than cows on high concentrate diets. In South Africa, as in most of the countries in the sub-tropics, livestock production is the only option on about 70% of the agricultural land, since the marginal soils and rainfall do not allow for crop production and the utilization of green water. An effective way to reduce the carbon and water footprint of livestock is to decrease livestock numbers and increase production per animal, thereby improving their efficiency.

M.M., Scholtz; J.B.J., van Ryssen; H.H., Meissner; M.C., Laker.

267

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

2014-07-01

268

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in comparison wih the downstream activities. The GHG contributions from the downstream reprocessing of the paper waste ranged from approximately 490 to 1460 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of paper waste. The system may be expanded to include crediting of avoided virgin paper production which would result in GHG contributions from —1270 to 390 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste. It may also be assumed that the wood not used for virgin paper production instead is used for production of energy that in turn is assumed to substitute for fossil fuel energy. This would result in GHG contributions from —1850 to —4400 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of paper waste. These system expansions reveal very large GHG savings, suggesting that the indirect upstream and operational GHG contributions are negligible in comparison with the indirect downstream emissions. However, the data for reprocessing of paper waste and the data for virgin paper production are highly variable. These differences are mainly related to different energy sources for the mills, both in regards to energy form (heat or electricity) and fuel (biomass or fossil fuels).

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders

2009-01-01

269

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for the open dump, 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1. On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about —70 to 30 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1, obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1. This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide

2009-01-01

270

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0—70 kg CO2eq. tonne —1 of glasswaste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately —500 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of glass waste for the remelting technology and —1500 to —600 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

2009-01-01

271

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60— 1600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

272

Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3—9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347—371 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of waste for incineration and 735—803 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of —480 to —1373 kg CO2eq. tonne—1 of waste for incineration and within —181 to —2607 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of waste for co-combustion. N2O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

Astrup, Thomas; MØller, Jacob

2009-01-01

273

Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG accounting for a generic AD facility with either biogas utilization at the facility or upgrading of the gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from —375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N2O-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH 4, unburned CH4, carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWFfor a specific type of AD facility was in the range —95 to —4 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH4 and carbon sequestration highly influenced the result. In comparison with the few published GWFs for AD, the range of our data was much larger demonstrating the need to use a consistent and robust approach to GHG accounting and simultaneously accept that some key parameters are highly uncertain.

MØller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio

2009-01-01

274

A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatment with greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towards a regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. The CO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins when considering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for the county of Västmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed MILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emission by gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be useful for providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regional energy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies and assessing the associated economic implications. -- Highlights: ? A dynamic MILP model is developed to study a regional energy system under five waste scenarios. ? Municipal waste and energy crops work as main raw materials to replace fossil fuels. ? Gradual GHG mitigation is achieved for a fossil fuel free energy system. ? The obstacles to achieve a fossil fuel free energy system have been investigated and studied. ? How to come to a fossil fuel free energy system is given in this study.

275

Anthropogenic effects on the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere: aerosols versus long-lived greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use single-forcing historical simulations with a coupled atmosphere–ocean global climate model to compare the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) on simulated winter circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Our primary focus is on the subtropical jet, which is an important source of baroclinic instability, especially in the Australasian region, where the speed of the jet is largest. For the period 1950 to 2005, our simulations suggest that AAs weaken the jet, whereas increasing LLGHGs strengthen the jet. The different responses are explained in terms of thermal wind balance: increasing LLGHGs preferentially warm the tropical mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, whereas AAs have a similar effect of opposite sign. In the mid-troposphere, the warming (cooling) effect of LLGHGs (AAs) is maximal between 20S and 30S; this coincides with the descending branch of the Hadley circulation, which may advect temperature changes from the tropical upper troposphere to the subtropics of the SH. It follows that LLGHGs (AAs) increase (decrease) the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between low latitudes and the SH mid-latitudes. The strongest effects are seen at longitudes where the southward branches of the Hadley cell in the upper troposphere are strongest, notably at those that correspond to Asia and the western Pacific warm pool. (letter)

276

An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Chih-Chun Kung

2014-03-01

277

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15

278

Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-power mobile sensing platform has been developed with multiple open-path gas sensors to measure the ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases and air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolutions over extensive spatial domains. The sensing system consists of four trace gas sensors including two custom quantum cascade laser-based open-path sensors and two LICOR open-path sensors to measure CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 10 Hz. In addition, sensors for meteorological and geolocation data are incorporated into the system. The system is powered by car batteries with a low total power consumption (~200 W) and is easily transportable due to its low total mass (35 kg). Multiple measures have been taken to ensure robust performance of the custom, open-path sensors located on top of the vehicle where the optics are exposed to the harsh on-road environment. The mobile sensing system has been integrated and installed on top of common passenger vehicles and participated in extensive field campaigns (>400 h on-road time with >18,000 km total distance) in both the USA and China. The simultaneous detection of multiple trace gas species makes the mobile sensing platform a unique and powerful tool to identify and quantify different emission sources through mobile mapping.

Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Miller, David J.; Pan, Dan; Golston, Levi M.; Zondlo, Mark A.

2015-03-01

279

Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

2014-09-15

280

An inventory of greenhouse gases from energy used at institute level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in December 2002, the New Zealand Government is encouraging industries and businesses, individuals, and communities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to prepare for and adapt to climate change. Efforts from research institutes and Universities will be needed before the first commitment period to help different sectors prepare their own emission budgets for compliance. In 2003, the New Zealand energy sector produced 32,320.92 Gg of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) equivalents, representing 42.9 per cent of country's total GHG emissions. CO{sub 2} emissions are primarily dependent on the carbon content of fuel. For emission calculations, the energy sector was divided into the following main categories: electricity, gas, coal, road transport and aviation. This paper described the approach taken to develop an inventory of GHG emissions from the energy sector at Massey University's Turitea campus and Massey Agricultural Farms. GHGs were calculated for the year 1990 and 2004 to assess the magnitude of increase in emissions in this sector since 1990 at an institute level. New Zealand specific emission factors were used for different categories of fuel. Methodological and practical issues that are of interest to other institutions looking to undertake an inventory of GHGs were then identified. Total calculated current GHG emissions from the energy sector increased by 23 per cent over the 1990 levels. Despite this, the per capita emissions were reduced by 9.3 per cent due to the reduction in the per capita energy consumption. It was suggested that since most of the vehicles at Massey run on gasoline engines, the use of hybrid-electric powered vehicles would offer higher fuel economy. Replacing all Massey fleet vehicles with the 1.5 litres hybrid vehicles in 2004 would have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions by up to 56 per cent. A comparison of the efficiency of the standard vehicles with the hybrid vehicles and the resulting CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions was presented along with the quantity of diesel and petrol that could be saved by switching to hybrid vehicles. A free bus service launched by the joint efforts of Massey University and Palmerston North City Council in February 2005 will also contribute towards the objective of reducing traffic congestion, thereby reducing GHG emissions from the campus. Car pooling is another viable option to reduce vehicle use. Other useful initiatives include the GreenBike Trust of Palmerston North, which loans out free bikes to Massey students. This scheme promotes a low cost/maintenance transport. It was concluded that although reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved through the adoption of improved technologies, the simplest way to reduce emissions is through behaviour modification. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 1 fig., 2 annex.

Butt, Z.; Valentine, I. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Inst. of Natural Resources; Tate, K.; Saggar, S. [Landcare Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

2006-07-01

281

Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

282

Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work is to assess through the avoided health cost method what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air pollut...

Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabia?n; Perone, Elizabeth; So?rensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

2002-01-01

283

Multispectral information from TANSO-FTS instrument – Part 1: Application to greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) in clear sky conditions  

OpenAIRE

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) mission, and in particular the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations–Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) instrument, has the advantage of being able to measure simultaneously the same field of view in different spectral ranges with a high spectral resolution. These features allow studying the benefits of using multispectral measurements to improve the CO2 and CH4 retrievals. In order to quantify th...

Herbin, H.; C -labonnote, L.; Dubuisson, P.

2013-01-01

284

Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

285

The impact of 59 Green Deals on the contribution of renewable energy and emission of non-ETS greenhouse gases. A quick scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential additional effect was mapped for the first round of 59 Green Deals (agreements between the Dutch government and various sectors of society). The effect was determined with regard to the bandwidths, which were estimated in the recent Outlook for the Halsema motion. The bandwidths concern the contribution of renewable energy and the emission of greenhouse gases that are not covered by the EU Emissions Trading system (ETS)

286

Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry-global climate system: halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations and model calculations indicate that highly non-linear multiphase atmospheric processes involving inorganic Cl and Br significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, and radiative transfer. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was investigated using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry-global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) v3.6.33). Simulated results revealed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. They also point to possible physicochemical mechanisms that may account for several previously unexplained phenomena, including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile inorganic Br mixing ratios in the troposphere were generally higher than observed, due in part to the overly efficient net production of BrCl. In addition, the emission scheme for marine aerosol and associated Br-, which is the only source for Br in the model, overestimates emission fluxes from the high-latitude Southern Ocean. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived precursor organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrates a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to halogen cycling. Globally, halogen chemistry had relatively less impact on SO2 and non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- although significant regional differences were evident. Although variable geographically, much of this sensitivity is attributable to either over-vigorous activation of Br (primarily BrCl) via the chemical mechanism or overproduction of sea-salt aerosol simulated under higher-wind regimes. In regions where simulated mixing ratios of reactive Br and Cl fell within observed ranges, though, halogen chemistry drove large changes in oxidant fields and associated chemical processes relative to simulations with no halogens. However, the overall simulated impacts of Br chemistry globally are overestimated and thus caution is warranted in their interpretation.

Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, R. C.; Sander, R.; Liu, X.; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-01

287

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22 for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America (?9%, 23%, 17%, respectively and Europe (11%, 11%, ?4%, respectively were mostly smaller and less systematic. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2 higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP. Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported time of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual time of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the geographical distribution of stations measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl

2009-03-01

288

Spatial and Temporal Variation of Multiyear Sea Ice Distributions: Relationships among Melt Duration, Recruitment, Export, Clouds, and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the spatial and temporal variation of multiyear (MY) sea ice distributions: relationships among melt duration, recruitment, export, clouds, and greenhouse gases in the Arctic. Melt onset dates, freeze onset dates were estimated over Arctic sea-ice for the past 25-years using standardized SMMR-SSM/I data sets (1979-2002). Sea ice melt dynamics were compared between annual and perennial ice, and between different geographic regions. Average annual melt dates, freeze dates, and melt durations in annual ice were significantly correlated with seasonal strength of the Arctic oscillation (AO). Following high-index AO winters (January-March), spring melt tended to be earlier and autumn freeze later, leading to longer melt season durations. The largest increases in melt duration were observed in the eastern Siberian Arctic, coinciding with cyclonic low pressure and ice motion anomalies associated with the AO's high-index phase (1989-2002). In the northern Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, mean annual melt duration increased 2-3 weeks following the positive AO phase shift, compared to prior years (1979-1988). Different methods of MY sea ice inversions from SSM/I Tb data were compared using different multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks (NN) constructed with learning data based on ERS SAR and OKEAN-01 MY ice map products. Monthly Arctic MY sea ice concentration maps (1979 - 2003) were generated from SSM/I Tbs (19 GHz V, 19 GHz H and 37 GHz V) using a modified MLP with error back propagation, and then compared with respective MY sea ice concentration maps derived with the NASA Team algorithm. Three MLP NN ice-type classification methods utilizing SSM/I passive microwave data were originally developed and compared. Each used the same OKEAN-derived MY sea ice learning data, but each used a different learning algorithm: error back propagation with simulated annealing, dynamic learning with polynomial basis functions, and dynamic learning with two-step optimization. For MY sea ice inversions, the modified MLP NN with error back propagation was determined more efficient. NN analyses of MY sea ice distribution revealed considerable interannual dynamics and variability. Linear trends in MY sea ice area during 1979-2003 were negative and most significant for the NN estimates. MY sea ice distribution revealed considerable interannual dynamics and regional variability. Overall decreases in MY ice area over the 14-year period resulted from average net losses in the far western and near eastern Arctic, however, the losses were partially compensated by increases in the central Siberian sector. In conclusion of our studies we estimated Fram Strait MY sea ice export, constructed January MY ice area concurrently regressed on the previous winter's AO index and the previous year's average sea level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait, and correlation between melting events, clouds, and greenhouse gases.

Belchansky, G. I.; Douglas, D. C.; Eremeev, V. A.; Platonov, N. G.

2004-05-01

289

Comment on "Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change"  

Science.gov (United States)

Lu's "cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced reaction (CRE) theory" is based on the assumption that the CRE reaction of halogenated molecules (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCl, ClONO2) adsorbed or trapped in polar stratospheric clouds in the winter polar stratosphere is the key step in forming photoactive halogen species that are the cause of the springtime ozone hole. This theory has been extended to a warming theory of halogenated molecules for climate change. In this comment, we discuss the chemical and physical foundations of these theories and the conclusions derived from the theories. First, it is unclear whether the loss rates of halogenated molecules induced by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) observed in the laboratory can also be interpreted as atmospheric loss rates, but even if this were the case, the impact of DEA-induced reactions on polar chlorine activation and ozone loss in the stratosphere is limited. Second, we falsify several conclusions that are reported on the basis of the CRE theory: There is no polar ozone loss in darkness, there is no apparent 11-year periodicity in polar total ozone measurements, the age of air in the polar lower stratosphere is much older than 1-2 years, and the reported detection of a pronounced recovery (by about 20-25%) in Antarctic total ozone measurements by the year 2010 is in error. There are also conclusions about the future development of sea ice and global sea level which are fundamentally flawed because Archimedes' principle is neglected. Many elements of the CRE theory are based solely on correlations between certain datasets which are no substitute for providing physical and chemical mechanisms causing a particular behavior noticeable in observations. In summary, the CRE theory cannot be considered as an independent, alternative mechanism for polar stratospheric ozone loss and the conclusions on recent and future surface temperature and global sea level change do not have a physical basis.

Müller, Rolf; Grooß, Jens-Uwe

2014-04-01

290

Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

2015-01-01

291

Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities. PMID:24910776

2014-01-01

292

GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and mitigation measures for public district heating plants in the Republic of Serbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a non-Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol signatory, the Republic of Serbia has committed to develop GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and prepare comprehensive program of mitigation measures at national level. The paper presents results of 2000–2008 GHG emission inventory assembled for PDH (Public District Heating) sub-sector in accordance with revised IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Tier 1 methodology. Evaluation of proposed mitigation measures was performed based on 2012 and 2015 GHG emission projections, obtained for basic and four alternative scenarios, all characterized by the same energy demand but with different fuel mix used. The first alternative scenario addresses GHG emissions in case that solid fuel is substituted by natural gas. The second alternative scenario represents a sub-scenario of the first alternative scenario, with additional substitution of liquid fuel with locally available biomass. Third alternative scenario addresses emissions resulting from complete fuel switch from natural gas to liquid fuel oil, while the final alternative scenario considers the case when natural gas is the only energy resource used. GHG emission trends in the period until 2015, examined in case of previously mentioned basic and four alternative scenarios, point out to the positive impact of fuel switch on GHG emission reduction and pathways for future implementation of proposed mitigation measures. Results obtained clearly quantified assumption that fuel substitution by locally available biomass could solve environmental problems, overcome problems associated with high prices of imported fuels, improve energy supply security and increase local employment

293

Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha-1) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N2O emission factors that are relatively stable for the different grid cells across Europe wit values ranging between 1 and 2% in cut systems and between 3 and 4% under grazing (with organic N application through faeces and urine deposition). Under cutting, the simulations predict a important annual C storage (varying between 0.5 to 6 t C ha-1 y-1). However one must consider that an important part of this storage occurs in the harvested forage. C storage in grazed grasslands (0.3 to 2 t C ha-1 y-1) is lower than in cut grasslands. The simulations indicates therefore that cut grassland could represent an important net GHG sink. In France, the amplitude of this sink could vary between 0.5 and 2 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. The simulations combining cut and grazed grassland, in proportion to the dietary needs, show that,in France, these systems would be a net GHG sink of 2 to 3 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. More realistic results would be obtained if the differences between farming systems were taken into account more specifically. (author)

294

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S

2003-07-01

295

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael Novoa S.A.

2000-04-01

296

Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model as a Link between Local-Scale Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Larger-Scale Models  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to represent small-scale variability in greenhouse gases we are considering a chain of nested models. First, a regional scale meteorological and transport is nested within a global transport model. In our studies SiB-RAMS (CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with Simple Biosphere model) is using CO2 fields from PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model) with the aid nudging approach. SiB-RAMS is capable to realistically represent regional and mesoscale transport over complex terrain. However, the simulated tracer fields are still available as grid cell averages which are difficult to compare directly to point observations from a tower network To overcame this problem, we run Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) backward in time from each tower to derive influence functions (footprints) for both concentration and flux measurements. In turn, the observation can be expressed as a sum of contribution from surface fluxes, advection fluxes across lateral boundaries and from initial concentration field. LPDM can be used over arbitrary subdomain ( rectangular or cylindrical) and any time period. The LPDM subdomain can be as large as the RAMS domain as in our regional CO2 inversion studies or just to cover a few grid cells of RAMS to provide a subgrid scale transport parameterization. The advantages of the LPDM in this application include: - accurate representation of a point observation which is not possible in a grid transport model - implementing additional transport/mixing process which are not represented in RAMS but may significantly affect the tower measurements. We implemented a parameterization of non-Gaussian (skewed) turbulence within the convective boundary layer and are considering a parameterization of intermittent turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer in the same framework. - including surface fluxes with resolution finer (if available) than provided by a grid transport model near the tower. We will illustrate this modeling approach using the results from our CO2 studies in meso to regional scales (~10km - Tapajos River region in the Amazon, ~100km - 2004 ring of towers in Wisconsin, ~1000km - USA continental domain). The proposed modeling approach involving the backward in time LPDM is capable of represent any observational system including integrated column measurements. Reactive species with first order chemistry can be easily included. Currently, we are implementing tracing water vapor in term of the influence functions.

Uliasz, M.; Lu, L.; Denning, S.

2008-12-01

297

Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the Tropics and high latitudes, are consistent with predictions of a number of previous GCM studies. Finally, direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is predicted to induce strong regional cooling over East and South Asia. Wintertime rainfall over southeastern China and the Indian subcontinent is predicted to decrease because of the increased atmospheric stability and decreased surface evaporation, while the geographic distribution of precipitation is also predicted to be altered as a result of aerosol-induced changes in wind flow.

Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

2007-01-01

298

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA / Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 G [...] g año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg. Abstract in english The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVO [...] C). These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael, Novoa S.A.; Sergio, González M.; Rosemary, Novoa J.; Rosa, Rojas.

2000-04-01

299

Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

2010-07-01

300

Balance of greenhouse gases emission in the life cycle of ethanol fuel; Balanco de emissao de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol combustivel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental focus of the use of biofuels is the reduction of green houses gases emissions through automobile exhaust; furthermore, the European Union has discussed the necessity of the requirement these reduction between 30 to 50% compared with the gasoline cycle. Inside this context, this paper joins and compares recent studies about green house gases emission balance of environmental life cycle of ethanol fuel derived form corn, wheat and sugar cane with the goal of recognize the reduction these emissions from the use of ethanol in function of the different alternatives of production. Results show that production of ethanol from sugar cane results higher reduction of green house gases emission compared with the gasoline. Ethanol from corn and ethanol from wheat meet, in the current conditions of Canadian production and use, the least requirement of 30% of saved emission. (author)

Silva, Cinthia Rubio Urbano da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

2008-07-01

301

Emission projectories for Austria of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O. IPCC-sectors energy, industrial processes, agriculture and waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results of emission projections for Austria of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O. The projections consider the IPCC sectors 'Energy', 'Industrial Processes', 'Agriculture' and 'Waste' and cover the period 1998-2020. The projections refer to the FCCC scenarios 'with measures' and 'with additional measures'. Assumptions for the possible future development are based on an existing energy prognosis (by the Austrian Economic Research Institute), on projections from a carbon flow model (by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf), and on expert knowledge. The projections were supported with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. (author)

302

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000–2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2  

OpenAIRE

We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 20...

Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; -m Greet, J.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

2013-01-01

303

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?; Energie et environnement - effet de serre. Les actions internationales, europeennes et nationales pour maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quel bilan et quelles perspectives?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-12-15

304

The Rhone-Alpes Observatory of Energy and Greenhouse Gases. Key data for 2012, February 2014 release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maps, graphs and tables related to greenhouse gas emissions are presented and briefly commented. They illustrate a comparison between the Rhone-Alpes region and France, the European objectives in this region, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy production. They also illustrate an analysis of final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per sector (housing, office building, industry, transports, agriculture, and uses of energy). They present the renewable energy production in Rhone-Alpes: production of electricity from renewable sources, production of renewable heat, carbon sinks

305

Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on some peat mining areas in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Silvola, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

1996-12-31

306

Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

2014-05-01

307

Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate Impacts of VSL Halogens: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-CHEM). The model has a full representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al. 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions; specifically the importance of iodine chemistry.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Ordoñez, Carlos; Fernandez, Rafael; Tilmes, Simone

2013-04-01

308

Selection of groundwater sites in Egypt, using geographic information systems, for desalination by solar energy in order to reduce greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Egypt has already reached the water poverty limit, it possesses a high potential of brackish groundwater available from different aquifers. All Arab countries lie in the best sun-belt region in the world and Egypt has the highest number of sun hours all year round. Solar energy for groundwater desalination is an independent infinite energy resource; it has low running costs and reduces the contribution of greenhouse gases (GHG to global warming. Perfect meteorological conditions and land space are available in remote areas, where solar desalination could supply freshwater for drinking, industry, and for greenhouse agriculture. The present study uses Geographic Information System(s (GIS as a spatial decision support tool to select appropriate sites in Egypt for groundwater solar desalination. Solar radiation, aquifer depth, aquifer salinity, distance from the Delta and the Nile Valley, incidence of flash floods, sand dunes, rock faults, and seawater intrusion in the North Delta, are the criteria that have been taken into consideration in the process of analysis. A specific weight is given to each criterion according to its relative influence on the process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology determine the relative suitability of sites for groundwater solar desalination. These sites are ranked in descending order to help decision-makers in Egypt. The results show that groundwater solar desalination is suitable in remote regions on the North Western Coast, on the North Sinai Coast, and at the Southern Oasis, for reducing greenhouse gases and that it is particularly useful for poor communities suffering from polluted water.

Mariam G. Salim

2012-01-01

309

Part I. Decrepitation and degassing behaviour of quartz up to 1560 °C: Analysis of noble gases and halogens in complex fluid inclusion assemblages  

Science.gov (United States)

Stepped heating and crushing experiments have been used to investigate the noble gas and halogen degassing behaviour of quartz in detail. Samples with diverse character were selected from the Eloise and Osborne, Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) ore deposits, and the Railway Fault, 13 km south of the Mt Isa Mine, in the Proterozoic Mt Isa Inlier of northeast Australia. Quartz has been shown to have a bimodal degassing profile. The first degassing mode at temperatures of molar Br/Cl values of between 0.25 × 10 -3 and 0.66 × 10 -3, I/Cl between 0.37 × 10 -6 and 5.0 × 10 -6, 40Ar/ 36Ar values of volume of gas than the first degassing mode. Several lines of evidence, including microscope observations, indicate that the gas released at high temperature is also from the fluid inclusion reservoir. However, its release may be triggered by a metastable phase transition of quartz (˜1200 °C) and caution is required in interpretation of the fluid compositions obtained at these temperatures. The data provide an improved understanding of fluid inclusion decrepitation behaviour that is different to that obtained in lower temperatures experiments designed by other workers to investigate H-isotope fractionation.

Kendrick, M. A.; Phillips, D.; Miller, J. McL.

2006-05-01

310

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

2010-12-01

311

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2010-03-01

312

Field-Reversal Source for Negative Halogen Ions  

Science.gov (United States)

Large zero-energy electron-attachment cross sections result in intense ion beams. Concept for producing negative halogen ions takes advantage of large cross sections at zero kinetic energy for dissociative attachment of electrons to such halogen-containing gases as SF6, CFCI3, and CCI4.

Chutjian, A.; Orient, O. J.; Aladzhadzhyan, S. H.

1987-01-01

313

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation / Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os campos do sul do Brasil são ecossistemas naturais com alta diversidade e têm sido há séculos importantes para a atividade pastoril e para outros importantes serviços ambientais. Este trabalho aponta os principais fatores que controlam os processos ecossistêmicos, revisa e discute os dados disponí [...] veis sobre os estoques de carbono no solo e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa dos solos, e sugere oportunidades de mitigação das mudanças climáticas. A pesquisa sobre as emissões de carbono e gases de efeito estufa nos campos do sul do Brasil é recente e os resultados são ainda fragmentados. Os dados disponíveis indicam que os ecossistemas campestres naturais manejados adequadamente contêm estoques importantes de carbono orgânico no solo e, portanto, sua conservação é relevante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas. Além disso, esses ecossistemas apresentam uma grande e rápida perda de carbono orgânico do solo quando convertidos para lavouras com preparo convencional do solo. No entanto, nas áreas já convertidas, há potencial para mitigar as emissões de gases de efeito estufa por meio de sistemas de cultivo usando plantio direto e rotações de culturas baseadas em plantas de cobertura de solo. O efeito está relacionado principalmente ao potencial desses sistemas de cultivo para acumular matéria orgânica do solo em taxas que superam o aumento das emissões de óxido nitroso. O uso de modelos com esses resultados associados aos sistemas de informação geográfica poderá gerar estimativas regionais de balanço de carbono. Abstract in english The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available d [...] ata on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

VD, Pillar; CG, Tornquist; C, Bayer.

2012-08-01

314

L'effet de serre par le CO2 et les gaz traces Greenhouse Effect from CO2 and Trace Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selon une opinion assez répandue le CO2 et les gaz traces, produits par l'activité humaine depuis le début de la révolution industrielle (1850, principalement du fait de la combustion et de la déforestation, et progressivement accumulés dans l'atmosphère terrestre, pourraient par effet de serre provoquer au XXIe siècle un réchauffement de la Terre de quelques degrés. Les conséquences climatiques (fonte des glaces. . . en seraient désastreuses. Aussi avons-nous étudié les principaux paramètres impliqués par ce phénomène : nature de l'effet de serre, cycle du carbone, transfert de CO2 à l'échelle du globe, gaz traces, conséquences climatiques de l'effet de serre dû au CO2 et aux gaz traces. Nous en sommes arrivés aux conclusions suivantes : - La concentration de l'atmosphère en CO2 et en gaz traces augmente de façon exponentielle en absence de toute réglementation et cela parallèlement à une production humaine également exponentielle de ces mêmes substances. - On n'a encore décelé aucun accroissement de la température moyenne de la Terre dû à l'effet de serre, d'ailleurs depuis 1940 nous traversons une période de refroidissement. - L'activité humaine engendre aussi des effets antagonistes de refroidissement (action des poussières dans l'atmosphère. . . assez mal connus. - L'étude des climats anciens indique une succession régulière de périodes froides et chaudes, cela doit nous rassurer sur le risque d'une brusque modification irréversible du climat. - Cependant il est absolument nécessaire d'améliorer nos connaissances fondamentales sur les principaux facteurs réglant le climat terrestre (chimie de l'atmosphère, transfert océan-atmosphère. . . et éventuellement de restreindre la production de certains gaz traces (fréons en particulier. According to a fairly widespread opinion, CO2 and trace gases, which have been produced by human activity since the start of the industrial revolution (1850, mainly from combustion and deforestation, and have been progressively accumulating in the Earth's atmosphere, could result in a greenhouse effect that could cause the heating up of the Earth by several degrees in the 21st century. The climatic consequences (melting of ice, etc. would be disastrous. Therefore, we examined the leading parameters involved in this phenomenon: nature of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, CO2 transfer on a worldwide scale, trace gases, climatic consequences of the greenhouse effect due to CO2 and trace gases. We reached the following conclusions:(a The CO2 and trace-gas concentration in the atmosphere increases exponentially in the absence of any regulations, and this occurs at the same time as human production of the same substances also at an exponential rate. (b No increase has as yet been detected in the Earth's average temperature due to the greenhouse effect. Moreover, since 1940 we have been going through a period of cooling. (c Human activity also produces antagonistic cooling effects (effect of dust in the atmosphere, etc. that are rather poorly understood. (d The study of ancient climates indicates a regular succession of cool and warm periods, which should reassure us about any sudden and irreversible change in the climate. (e However, it is absolutely necessary to improve our fundamental understanding of the main factors governing the Earth's climate (chemistry of the atmosphere, ocean/ atmosphere transfers, etc. and eventually to limit the production of some trace gases (Freon, in particular.

Bertrand A.

2006-11-01

315

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development

316

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development.

Muylaert, M.S.; De Campos, C.P.; Pinguelli Rosa, L. [International Virtual Institute on Global Change, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2003-11-01

317

Impacts of greenhouse gases on epicuticular waxes of Populus tremuloides Michx.: Results from an open-air exposure and a natural O3 gradient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epicuticular waxes of three trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in O3 tolerance were examined over six growing seasons (1998-2003) at three bioindicator sites in the Lake States region of the USA and at FACTS II (Aspen FACE) site in Rhinelander, WI. Differences in epicuticular wax structure were determined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified by a coefficient of occlusion. Statistically significant increases in stomatal occlusion occurred for the three O3 bioindicator sites, with the higher O3 sites having the most affected stomata for all three clones as well as for all treatments including elevated CO2, elevated O3, and elevated CO2+O3. We recorded statistically significant differences between aspen clones and between sampling period (spring, summer, fall). We found no statistically significant differences between treatments or aspen clones in stomatal frequency. - Structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of greenhouse gases on Populus tremuloides Michx

318

Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects; Les contraintes: gaz a effet de serre, ressources, securite d'approvisionnement, aspects economiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Braconnot, P. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-05-15

319

Results from the ICOS Fall 2008 intensive campaign for boundary layer height detection and greenhouse gases vertical distribution study at Orleans forest, France.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensive field campaign of three weeks has been carried out in October 2008 in Orléans Forest, France, dedicated 1/ to the assessment of different instrument types for retrieval of the continental boundary layer (CBL) height and 2/ to the study of vertical distribution and diurnal cycle of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). This campaign occured in the framework of ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observing System) which is one of the infrastructures selected in the ESFRI roadmap. ICOS aims at getting a homogeneous and dense network for greenhouse gases monitoring in Europe operating for the next 25 years. Launched in 2008, ICOS is currently in its preliminary phase (until 2012). One current mandatory step is to identify the instrumentation that will be deployed in the stations of the network. All stations will be equiped with GHG analysers, as well as CBL probes to allow calculation of GHG budget in the CBL. During the campaign, one Lidar, one ceilometer and one cloud telemeter have been intercompared for CBL height detection. Radiosoundings have been carried out simultaneously to serve as a reference for this intercomparison. In parallel, GHG (and especially CO2) in-situ measurements have been recorded at four altitude levels on a tall tower (5m, 50m, 100m and 180m), between 100m and 3000m using in-situ and flask sampling instruments onboard a small aircraft, and between the surface and 200m using a probe attached to a captive balloon deployed by Meteo France. We will hereby present ICOS, the test site, the instrumentation and selected results from the intensive campaign.

Xueref-Remy, I.; Loaec, S.; Feist, D.; Lavric, J.-V.; Roininen, R.; Romanini, D.; Delmotte, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Ciais, P.

2009-04-01

320

Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements; Estimation des flux de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle regionale a partir de mesures atmospheriques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

build up a new system to measure continuously CO{sub 2} (or CO), CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO{sub 2}, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH{sub 4}, 0.2 ppb for N{sub 2}O and 0.05 ppt for SF{sub 6}. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

Messager, C

2007-07-15

321

The role of transport sector within the German energy system under greenhouse gas reduction constraints and effects on other exhaust gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German Federal Government pledged itself to make a 25% reduction in national CO{sub 2} emissions by 2005 on the basis of 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions. This reduction target is valid for the entire Federal Republic. Within that context the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology initiated the IKARUS project (Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies) in 1990. The aim of the project is to provide tools for developing strategies to reduce energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany. A range of instruments has been developed consisting of models, a data base and various tools with the aid of which different action sequences can be simulated and evaluated until the year 2020. By using the database and mainly one of the models of the project a scenario in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions will be sown as it could be expected for the year 2005. For this scenario as base two different strategies that hit the 25% reduction target will be discussed. Special attention is given to the transport sector. (au)

Walbeck, M.; Martinsen, D. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

1996-12-01

322

Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecanismo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia.Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

Jesús Adolfo Anaya Acevedo

2011-01-01

323

Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT was launched on 23 January 2009 to monitor the global distributions of carbon dioxide and methane from space. It has operated continuously since then. Here we describe a retrieval algorithm for column abundances of these gases from the short-wavelength infrared spectra obtained by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, cloud-free observational scenes are selected by several cloud-detection methods. Then, column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane are retrieved based on the optimal estimation method. Finally, the retrieval quality is examined to exclude low-quality and/or aerosol-contaminated results. Most of the retrieval random errors come from the instrumental noise. The interferences by auxiliary parameters retrieved simultaneously with gas abundances are small. The evaluated precisions of the retrieved column abundances for single observations are less than 1% in most cases. The interhemispherical differences and the temporal variation patterns of the retrieved column abundances agree well with the current state of knowledge.

I. Morino

2010-11-01

324

Results of the working group on the division by four of greenhouse gases emissions in France, at the horizon of 2050, called ''factor 4''. DGEMP- Observatory of the energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This group, created by the french Government in march 2005, aims to evaluate the different possibilities to reach the objective of division by four the greenhouse gases emissions. This document presents some recalls on the climatic change and the situation today, the positions of the France and the foreign and the conclusions and the recommendations of the group. (A.L.B.)

325

Determinación de las tasas de ventilación natural en un invernadero mediante modelos teóricos y gases trazadores / Determination of rates of natural ventilation in a greenhouse using theoretical models and tracer gases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mayoría de los invernaderos en México utilizan ventilación natural como mecanismo principal de controlar el clima. La cuantificación de las tasas de ventilación es difícil porque éstas dependen del efecto de la fluctuación de viento, resistencia de las ventanas al paso del aire y geometría del in [...] vernadero en el campo de presiones del viento sobre la estructura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar las tasas de ventilación natural de un invernadero, bajo tres configuraciones de ventilación: ventanas laterales, cenitales y laterales-cenitales, mediante el método dinámico de gases trazadores. Se compararon mediciones contra predicciones de modelos teóricos de ventilación natural y se analizó el efecto de velocidad del viento sobre las tasas de ventilación. El invernadero está ubicado en el campo experimental San Ignacio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Chapingo, México. El experimento se realizó en 2010 y el invernadero estuvo libre de cultivo. El gas trazador utilizado fue dióxido de carbono. Para la estimación de parámetros se usó el algoritmo de mínimos cuadrados no lineales. Los resultados mostraron que las tasas de ventilación son dependientes de la velocidad del viento y de la configuración de ventanas existente. Las tasas de ventilación más altas se observaron cuando ambas ventanas laterales y cenitales estuvieron abiertas. Los modelos teóricos predijeron de manera aceptable las tasas de ventilación tomando en cuenta los valores de los estadísticos coeficientes de determinación y cuadrado medio de error, así como el comportamiento de la línea 1:1 entre predicciones y mediciones. Abstract in english In Mexico, most greenhouses use natural ventilation as the main mechanism to control the weather. Quantification of ventilation rates is difficult because these depend on the effect of fluctuating wind, resistance to airflow windows and geometry ofthe greenhouse in the field ofwind pressure on the s [...] tructure. The objective of the present study was to determine the rates of natural ventilation in a greenhouse under three ventilation configurations: side windows, zenith and side-zenith, by the dynamic method of tracer gases. Measurements were compared against predictions of theoretical models of natural ventilation and analyzed the effect of wind speed on ventilation rates. The greenhouse is located at the experimental field of San Ignacio in the University of Chapingo, Chapingo, Mexico. The experiment was conducted in 2010 and the greenhouse was free of crops. The tracer gas used was carbon dioxide. To estimate the parameters the non-linear least squares algorithm was used. The results showed that ventilation rates are dependent on the wind speed and configuration ofthe existing windows. The higher ventilation rates were observed when both side and zenith windows were open. Theoretical models acceptably predicted ventilation rates, taking into account the values of the statistical coefficients of determination and mean square error, as the behavior ofthe 1:1 line between predictions and measurements.

Daniel, Espejel Trujano; Irineo Lorenzo, López Cruz.

2013-03-01

326

Method and system for reducing or eliminating the greenhouse-gas content of a gas or mixture of gases  

OpenAIRE

El método comprende el uso de un microscopio atómico de la fuerza (AFM) para la aplicación de un campo eléctrico alto (~10 V/nm) por medio de la aplicación de una tensión moderada correspondiente (10-100 V) (v) a través de un punto (p) del microscopio y de un semiconductor o el sustrato el conducir (s) entre el cual hay un volumen de gas del invernadero o de contener del (G) de la mezcla de gases mismo, por ejemplo el dióxido de carbono o el metano, las moléculas de los cuales son qu...

Garci?a Garci?a, Ricardo; Zerbetto, Francesco

2009-01-01

327

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

OpenAIRE

Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para ...

Rafael Novoa S. A.; Sergio González M.; Rosemary Novoa J.; Rosa Rojas

2000-01-01

328

EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

2000-08-01

329

Calculations of greenhouse gas emissions of waste sector and F-gases for policy scenarios in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UN's climate agreement and European Union necessitate evaluation of the policy sectors, the implementation of policy measures, and the achievement of the set goals. Last reporting about policies and measures for EU was done in 2011. In this report the emission impact calculations of policies and measures targeting on waste sector and F-gases are described. Policy measures of these sectors fall in the remit of ministry of environment in Finland. The procedure of calculations in waste sector is explained in detail from methods and required input data. The calculations include emissions related to solid wastes, waste waters and composting. The scenario calculations are done with the aid of Excel-spreadsheet at the Finnish Environment Institute. In addition, the report discusses briefly the economical assessment of waste sector that has been identified as a target for development. In the second part of the report, the data collection, calculation and reporting process of the F-gases are explained. More detailed explanation of emission scenario calculations has been documented in two reports written at the Finnish Environment Institute. This report presents briefly the main sources in sub-sector emission scenarios and gives and overview about the calculations. (orig.)

Mattinen, M.; Hilden, M.; Petaejae, J.

2012-04-15

330

The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACON): Measuring Greenhouse Gases and Criteria Pollutants within the Urban Dome  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, while global in their impacts, often focus on local and regional scales for execution and are dependent on the actions of communities and individuals. Evaluating the effectiveness of local policies requires observations with much higher spatial resolution than are currently available---kilometer scale. The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACON):, launched at the end of 2011, aims to provide measurements of urban-scale concentrations of CO2, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, O3, CO, and NO2 with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the sources of CO2 within cities. Our initial deployment in Oakland, California uses ~40 sensor packages at a roughly 2 km spacing throughout the city. We will present an initial analysis of the vertical gradients and other spatial patterns observed to date.

Teige, V. E.; Weichsel, K.; Hooker, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.

2012-12-01

331

Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation-induced formation of useful products. Utilization of CO2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation is observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given

332

Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation-induced formation of useful products. Utilization of CO 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation is observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given.

Getoff, Nikola

2006-04-01

333

Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa / A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecani [...] smo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia. Abstract in english Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orie [...] ntales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

Jesús Adolfo, Anaya Acevedo; Emilio, Chuvieco Salinero; Alicia, Palacios-Orueta.

2011-01-01

334

Applying California's AB 32 targets to the regional level: A study of San Diego County greenhouse gases and reduction strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of a local effort in California to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and identify potential mitigation measures. Local policymakers in California already have been searching for ways to reduce GHG emissions but it was the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), which seeks to reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, that has provided a framework for regions to evaluate their ability to reduce GHG emissions. We conducted a GHG inventory for the San Diego region from 1990 to 2006, with forecasts to 2020. The region emitted approximately 34 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMT CO2E) in 2006 from anthropogenic sources, which represents a 17% increase over the 1990 level of 29 MMT CO2E. Applying a combination of 21 existing or pending state GHG reduction mandates and feasible regional measures we show that the region could achieve the AB 32 target. Although the largest reductions are achieved through state mandates, all measures, including at the local level, will be required to achieve the AB 32 target. Thus local regions retain control over a fairly significant portion of reductions, and remain important actors in the implementation and compliance of state mandates.

335

Measurements and modeling of greenhouse gases and the planetary boundary layer for the Boston metro area and the Northeastern Megalopolis  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and air quality simulations reflects the fidelity of the atmospheric transport model employed that in turn is highly dependent on the accuracy of the meteorological input data. We begin by describing a multi-scale measurement network and model-data analysis framework for the Boston Metro region, with extension to the mid-Atlantic urban corridor. Observations include a network of automated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 inside and outside the urban domain, near the surface, on towers and tall buildings, total column measurements using the sun as a source, aerosol LiDAR data defining atmospheric structure, and meteorological data. The model-data analysis framework includes a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT), driven by meteorological fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and an inversion framework. We show examples of data and discuss the observational network's sampling design and a plan for extension to the NE urban corridor of the US. These urban studies are demonstrating the feasibility and value of incorporating advanced instrumentation such as the Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR to evaluate and improve the fidelity of the WRF simulations of atmospheric transport and structure in the planetary boundary layer. We also present examples of inverse analyses assessing anthropogenic emission rates for CH4 and CO2 in the urban region of metro Boston and along the urban-rural gradient.

DeCola, Philip; Jones, Taylor; Wofsy, Steven; McKain, Kathryn; Chen, Jia; Bererra, Yanina; Gottlieb, Elaine; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Hegarty, Jennifer; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Hutyra, Lucy; Callahan, William

2014-05-01

336

Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 micromol m(-2)h(-1), 11.9 to 5168.6 micromol m(-2)h(-1) and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2), respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N(2)O and CO(2) fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH(4)(+)-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH(4)(+)-N concentration had significant effects on CH(4) fluxes. PMID:20381125

Chen, G C; Tam, N F Y; Ye, Y

2010-06-01

337

ACROPOLIS: An example of international collaboration in the field of energy modelling to support greenhouse gases mitigation policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy models are considered as valuable tools to assess the impact of various energy and environment policies. The ACROPOLIS initiative, supported by the European Commission and the International Energy Agency, used up to 15 energy models to simulate and evaluate selected policy measures and instruments and then compare their impacts on energy systems essentially in terms of costs of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reduction and energy technology choice. Four case studies are formulated considering policies and measures on renewable portfolio schemes and internationally tradable green certificates, emissions trading and global GHG abatement target, energy efficiency standards and internalisation of external costs. The main focus of the project is on the electricity sector. From a large set of quantified results, ACROPOLIS provides an international scientific consensus, on some key issues, which could be useful in assessing and designing energy and environment policies at the world, European and national/regional levels. It concludes that the Kyoto targets (and their continuation beyond 2010 in specific scenarios) could be achieved at a cost around 1% of GDP through global emissions trading, indicating also that this flexibility mechanism is a more cost-effective instrument for GHG mitigation than meeting the goal domestically without trade. It demonstrates that internalising external costs through a price increase reduces local pollutants (SO x , NO xx , NO x , and others) and it produces other benefits such as triggering the penetration of clean technologies in addition to the curbing of CO2 emissions

338

Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH?, N?O, and CO?) abatement: state of the art and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified. PMID:23389341

López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

2013-03-01

339

Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 ?mol m-2 h-1, 11.9 to 5168.6 ?mol m-2 h-1 and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m-2 h-1 for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N2O and CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH4+-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH4+-N concentration had significant effects on CH4 fluxes.

340

Greenhouse Gas (CO2 AND N2O) Emissions from Soils: A Review / Emisión de Gases invernadero (CO2 y N2O) desde Suelos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En actividades agrícolas los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) son los relacionados con los ciclos globales de C y N. El impacto de la agricultura sobre las emisiones GHG se ha convertido en una cuestión clave, especialmente si se considera que los ciclos naturales C y N se ven influidos [...] por el desarrollo agrícola. Esta revisión se centra en emisiones de CO2 y N2O del suelo en los ecosistemas terrestres, con énfasis en agro-ecosistemas de Chile y similares alrededor del mundo. Se analiza la influencia del uso del suelo y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo sobre emisiones de CO2 y N2O, se discuten medidas de mitigación para reducir estas emisiones. Un mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos biológicos que promueven las emisiones GHG del suelo permitirá la creación de oportunidades para el desarrollo agrícola en condiciones ambientalmente amigables, donde el suelo puede actuar como un reservorio y/o emisor de GHG, dependiendo del balance de entradas y salidas. Abstract in english In agricultural activities, the main greenhouse gases (GHG) are those related to C and N global cycles. The impact of agriculture on GHG emissions has become a key issue, especially when considering that natural C and N cycles are influenced by agricultural development. This review focuses on CO2 an [...] d N2O soil emissions in terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis in Chilean and similar agro-ecosystems around the world. The influence of land use and crop management practices on CO2 and N2O emissions is analyzed; some mitigation measures to reduce such emissions are also discussed here. More knowledge on the biological processes that promote of GHG emissions from soil will allow creating opportunities for agricultural development under friendly-environmental conditions, where soil can act as a reservoir and/or emitter of GHG, depending on the balance of inputs and outputs.

Cristina, Muñoz; Leandro, Paulino; Carlos, Monreal; Erick, Zagal.

2010-09-01

341

Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

2015-01-01

342

Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

Alexander Malaver

2015-02-01

343

Greenhouse gas emissions in Bulgaria for 1990-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study includes the following greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide but not all controlled by the Montreal protocol as chlorofluorocarbons and halogens. The estimation methods follow the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (IPCC, 1995) including 'bottom-up' approach and emission factors values. The aggregated GHG emissions as well as the anthropogenic emissions for 1990 are given in tables. Carbon dioxide had the biggest share with 65-68%, followed by methane (24-26%) and nitrous oxide (7.5%). The stationary combustion was the most important GHG emission source (64.2% of the total emissions), relatively small (in comparison to Western countries) was mobile combustion share (7.7%) followed by the emissions from industrial activities (6.6%). The analysis of the total GHG emissions and of those per capita showed a general tendency for reduction

344

Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

2014-05-01

345

Landscape position affects the emission of greenhouse gases from a prairie pot-hole soil in western Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reliably estimate the contribution of agricultural soils to nitrous oxide and methane emissions, it is necessary to understand the role of landscape position in greenhouse (GHG) emissions from the prairie pot-hole region. A study was conducted at the Manitoba Zero-Tillage Research Association (MTRZA) farm located near Brandon, Manitoba. The site represents an undulating landscape with a Newdale clay loam soil. Static vented chambers were used to monitor GHG emissions from Upper, Middle, and Lower slope positions and Riparian positions from the spring to fall of 2005 to determine the impact of annual variation in weather conditions. Soil atmosphere was also sampled from August to November using silicone gas probes installed at depths of 5, 15, 35 and 65 cm. Laboratory incubations during July and September provided information on net nitrous oxide (N2O) production and denitrification rates from the 4 slopes. Soil was sampled in October and treated in the laboratory to determine freeze-thaw emissions of soil from the landscape positions. Emissions of N2O were found to be highest during spring-thaw and also after the application of fertilizer in the spring. Emissions were typically higher for Middle and Lower slope positions and lowest in the Riparian position. Only the Riparian position had considerable methane emission rates, while the other positions consumed methane. Surface soil consumed N2O in the Riparian position, whileb>2O in the Riparian position, while it consumed methane in the Lower slope position. Denitrification rates were high in July with little net N2O production. Poor soil aeration at this time probably caused a reduction in N2O to N2. However, during drier in September, denitrification was very low, and nearly the same as net N2O production. Freeze-thaw N2O emissions were unexpectedly highest for Riparian soil. The pattern of emission was linked to denitrifying enzyme activity at the landscape positions

346

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

R. J. Martin

2011-10-01

347

Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR), an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north-south (N-S) transect (46-51° S, 72° E meridian) and the west-east (W-E) transect (66-75° E, 48.3° S latitude), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W-E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to light supersaturation (120%) with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF). There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a) levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N-S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m-2d-1), and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m-2d-1) reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

Farías, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Fernández, C.

2014-08-01

348

Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise in the Southern Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs like nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR, an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north–south (N–S transect (46–51° S, 72° E meridian and the west–east (W–E transect (66–75° E, 48.3° S latitude, both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W–E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105% to light supersaturation (120% with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120–970% in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF. There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N–S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations, where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air–sea fluxes for N2O (from ?10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m?2d?1, and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m?2d?1 reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

L. Farías

2014-08-01

349

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2008-05-01

350

Halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen: CSD search and theoretical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cambridge Structure Database search shows that there are over seventy crystal structures containing halogen bonds in which hypervalent halogens, not monovalent halogens as usual, behave as acceptors of electron density. The nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen has been investigated by using several theoretical methods with different basis sets. The HF calculations for the complexes studied cover most of their binding energies, which indicates the electrostatic nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen. The MP2 methods with medium basis sets fail to predict the relative strength of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen and the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen. Accurate computational results show that the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen may be weaker than the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen even in the case that the hypervalent halogen is more positively charged than the monovalent halogen, the reasons of which were discussed in some detail. In comparison with the halogen bond involving monovalent halogen, the bonding characteristic and electron-density transfer of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen were also analyzed with the "atoms in molecules" theory and the natural bond orbital theory. PMID:21770446

Wang, Weizhou

2011-08-25

351

Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in Romania, by rehabilitation of the aged power plants based on a new circulating fluidized bed combustion technology - CFBC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low quality of coal available for Romania power generation, mainly lignite with a low calorific value (6.5-7 MJ/kg) and high in sulfur content (1.5-2%) has caused severe damage to the stations and environmental problems. The local capability existing in clean and efficient Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology, well suited to least costs refurbishment, is discussed. The retrofit operation using this clean technology would also address the problem of serious air pollution caused by local coal use with little or no control of dust or greenhouse gases like NOx and SOx. The paper presents the results obtained on an experimental facility, 1 MWth CFBC pilot plant. A comparison among several rehabilitation possibilities with the view to diminishing polluting emissions is included. The CFBC technology advantages and environmental benefits for Romania and its neighbouring countries, by choosing this clean coal technology, are reviewed. In addition, the paper presents the main aspects of technical investments for a few power plants equipped with supplementary devices for controlling the SOx and NOx in comparison with retrofit by using CFBC boilers. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

352

Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management

353

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

Science.gov (United States)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

354

A novel method to decompose two potent greenhouse gases: Photoreduction of SF6 and SF5CF3 in the presence of propene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SF5CF3 and SF6 are the most effective greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis in the atmosphere. Original laboratory trial for photoreduction of them by use of propene as a reactant was performed to develop a novel technique to destroy them. The highly reductive radicals produced during the photolysis of propene at 184.9 nm, such as ·CH3, ·C2H3, and ·C3H5, could efficiently decompose SF6 and SF5CF3 to CH4, elemental sulfur and trace amounts of fluorinated organic compounds. It was further demonstrated that the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF5X (X represented F or CF3) was highly dependent on the initial propene-to-SF5X ratio. The addition of certain amounts of oxygen and water vapor not only enhanced the DRE but avoided the generation of deposits. In both systems, employment nitrogen as dilution gas lessened the DRE slightly. Given the advantage of less toxic products, the technique might contribute to SF5X remediation

355

Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One way of producing nearly CO2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

356

Forest science and technology to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases - an overview, with emphasis on carbon in Canada's forests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The forest as a CO2 sink comprises, in addition to mature and immature trees, C accumulated in understorey plants, animals, forest soils, peat bogs and wetlands. Estimates of how much carbon (C) is entering and leaving a forest ecosystem cannot be obtained merely by estimating gaseous CO2 fluxes. The C cycle also involves direct transfer of CO2 to soil in rain and snow, non-photosynthetic or 'dark' fixation of CO2 by myriad soil and aquatic micro-organisms, roots, fungi and animals, and loss of C in forms other than CO2 via air, groundwater flow and runoff. The complexity of the carbon cycle challenges us to develop reliably accurate means of inventorying C accumulation in trees. In productive forests the C of wood can be determined by estimating tree merchantable volume and, by density conversion, mass of dry wood. Percentage C in dry wood varies by species and type of wood, but otherwise C of wood can be readily calculated. The C present in foliage, branches, bark and roots can, as a first approximation, be assumed to be equivalent to that in the merchantable boles. National Forestry Database statistics and our elemental analysis data on total carbon in wood were used to determine how much C is present in and being removed annually from Canadian forests. In 1998 Canada extracted 45 million tonnes of C of wood from 0.5% of its more than 244 million hectares (ha) of productive forest area. That annual harvest conttive forest area. That annual harvest contained less than 0.001% of the 6400 gigatonnes of C of wood existing in boles of merchantable trees. However, harvesting over the last three centuries has reduced C content m productive forests to well below 50% of their pre-1700 sink capacity. To refill the sink, it is proposed that a ceiling of 50 million tonnes C of wood be set as the annual allowable cut. Mean temperature increases of as much as 8 oC have been forecast for Canada over the next 100 years. The impact of those increases on tree growth and survival will depend not so much on changes in the annual mean but on what individual trees actually experience during the growing season in relation to the extremes they are able to tolerate. From a physiological perspective, maintaining shelterwoods with canopies approaching full closure is the only option for modulating extremes, thus for keeping forests growing healthily. Recycling and refabricating wood and paper represent major societal and industrial opportunities to offset greenhouse gas emissions. Canadians can contribute to the C sink level of the nation by ensuring that paper and wood products have longer in-service lifetimes. (author)

357

Greenhouse gases embodied in the international trade and final consumption of Finland: An input-output analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with international trade and final consumption gives a more complete and balanced picture of the responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the coverage of the GHGs and their sources and assumptions regarding the emissions of imports on the results of GHG emissions associated with international trade and final consumption of Finland. In addition to a single year study, a trend covering years 1990-2003 was produced for Finland to study the development of the GHG emissions associated with domestic consumption and the reasons behind the development. According to our results Finland was in 1999 a net exporter of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, CO2 from all sources and GHGs of 4(4.2), 5 or 7 Gkg, respectively. The impact of different assumptions concerning the emissions embodied in imports in the case of Finland was tested by using the domestic emission intensities and the ratios of embodied emissions in imports in relation to domestic products by utilizing the data from the study by (OECD, 2003b. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods, STI Working Paper 2003/15, OECD, Paris). In the case of Finland, the differences of results calculated with these two methods remained rather small. The total emissions embodied in the imports changed from 33.8 to 34.4 Gkg and consequentlyged from 33.8 to 34.4 Gkg and consequently the net export of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion changed from 4.2 to 3.6 Gkg. The results for 1990-2003 show that the GHG emissions embodied in the exports have exceeded the GHG emissions embodied in the imports from early 1990s. The reason for the increasingly positive GHG trade balance in the case of Finland has been the change in the magnitude of trade rather than the changes in its structure. The results show also that the impact of international transport on the emission intensity of imports is significant and merits further research

358

Greenhouse gases embodied in the international trade and final consumption of Finland: An input-output analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with international trade and final consumption gives a more complete and balanced picture of the responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the coverage of the GHGs and their sources and assumptions regarding the emissions of imports on the results of GHG emissions associated with international trade and final consumption of Finland. In addition to a single year study, a trend covering years 1990-2003 was produced for Finland to study the development of the GHG emissions associated with domestic consumption and the reasons behind the development. According to our results Finland was in 1999 a net exporter of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion, CO{sub 2} from all sources and GHGs of 4(4.2), 5 or 7 Gkg, respectively. The impact of different assumptions concerning the emissions embodied in imports in the case of Finland was tested by using the domestic emission intensities and the ratios of embodied emissions in imports in relation to domestic products by utilizing the data from the study by (OECD, 2003b. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods, STI Working Paper 2003/15, OECD, Paris). In the case of Finland, the differences of results calculated with these two methods remained rather small. The total emissions embodied in the imports changed from 33.8 to 34.4 Gkg and consequently the net export of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion changed from 4.2 to 3.6 Gkg. The results for 1990-2003 show that the GHG emissions embodied in the exports have exceeded the GHG emissions embodied in the imports from early 1990s. The reason for the increasingly positive GHG trade balance in the case of Finland has been the change in the magnitude of trade rather than the changes in its structure. The results show also that the impact of international transport on the emission intensity of imports is significant and merits further research.

Maeenpaeae, Ilmo [University of Oulu, Thule Institute, P.O. Box 7300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: ilmo.maenpaa@oulu.fi; Siikavirta, Hanne [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 5500, FIN-02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: hanne.siikavirta@kolumbus.fi

2007-01-15

359

Photochemistry of biogenic gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases. 37 refs

360

Halogens and Halides (GCMP)  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogens and Halides: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will study the oxidation-reduction reactions between the halogens and the halide ions. The halogens and halides will be dissolved in water and hexane. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

361

The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA) from road traffic has been incorporated. The time series for CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, NH3 and particle emissions from road traffic have thus been recalculated. There have been some changes made to the activity data, e.g. a new data source on annual driving lengths has been utilised and more detailed information on traffic activity has been taken into account. Emissions of CH4 from gas distribution have for the first time been included in the inventory, The calculation method for NOx emissions from production of silicon metal has been revised. For national navigation, revised emission factors for NOX emissions from gas engines and emissions of particulate matter from oil based fuels and LNG have been introduced. A new uncertainty analysis for greenhouse gases has been performed, and the main results are documented in this report Furthermore, there are lower emission figures for CH4 for all years since 1990 due to revisions of Statistics Norway's waste statistics, but there are no methodological changes in the calculation of these emissions. There have also been several minor changes in the emission figures, e.g. due to changes in figures on energy combustion. Chapter 8 Recalculations gives a more thorough description of changes in the most recent emission calculations.(Author)

Sandmo, Trond

2012-07-01