WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

2

The greenhouse effect gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

3

The greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. They are greenhouse gases as they absorb radiation from the Earth and thus impede its emission back to space. CO{sub 2} is responsible for about half the enhanced greenhouse effect. A global warming of only a few degrees would have a profound effect on climate. Increased levels of CO{sub 2} promote plant growth, but may not benefit agriculture overall. Sea levels may rise. It is difficult to predict the effects of global warming in society. It would be possible to reduce the scale of the greenhouse effect by energy conservation, using alternative energy sources, and possibly by capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power stations and disposing of it on the ocean floor. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Clarke, R.

1987-01-01

4

Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human activities produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), and thus contribute to global warming. The use of fossil fuels is the primary source of CO2 emissions, but the removal of trees from forested land has also ...

2012-01-01

5

Greenhouse gases and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

1995-01-01

6

Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.

2009-09-01

7

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

8

Efficient abatement of different greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although CO{sub 2} is the most important greenhouse gas, there are a number of other greenhouse gases which are important for the development of the climate. An efficient climate policy should in principle be related to emissions of all climate gases, weighed together with their impact on the climate. Constructing a climate policy which is efficient across greenhouse gases would in principle be straightforward if the relative impact of different greenhouse gases on the climate was given some fixed physical coefficients. This is, however, not the case. The most important reason for this is that the relationship between emissions and the development of atmospheric concentration differs significantly across greenhouse gases, since different greenhouse gases have different lifetimes in the atmosphere. In the paper we present a model which illustrates the importance of the above issues for the appropriate weights of the different greenhouse gases. Using optimal control theory, the conditions for intertemporally efficient time paths of greenhouse gas emissions are derived. The weights of the different greenhouse gases relative to CO{sub 2} are at any time given by the relative costate variables associated with the differential equations describing the development of the different greenhouse gases. It is shown how these weights depend on assumptions about important characteristics of the future economy. In particular, the discount rate and the assumed growth rate of the economy are important for the weights of the different greenhouse gases. Properties of the function describing the cost of climate change are also important. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Hoel, M.; Isaksen, I.

1993-04-01

9

Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

2002-07-01

10

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO2 , SO2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states.

1996-01-01

11

Tropospheric halogen gases: inorganic and organic components.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inorganic and organic components of the gaseous tropospheric halogens chlorine, bromine, and iodine have been simultaneously measured. At four diverse remote locations the organic component contained the bulk of the halogen mass, varied less than the inorganic component, and was comparable in concentration to the independently measured halocarbon component.

Rahn KA; Borys RD; Duce RA

1976-05-01

12

Greenhouse gases: The UAE experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases present a threat to the environment all over the globe, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE), especially because of the dependency of its economy on fossil fuel. Additionally, the economic boost of the region has caused a surge in fuel consumption for vehicles. Traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi, the UAE capital, for instance has caused nitrogen dioxides levels to exceed air quality in the outskirts and center of the city and surrounding the industrial areas. Furthermore, in other parts of the UAE, pollution levels are either close to or exceed the air pollution guidelines where SO{sub 2} levels are of particular concern. The main pollution sources are the region's oil and gas and related heavy industries both on and offshore. Substantial effort is being supported by the UAE government to reduce such pollutants. From 1995 to 2004, for instance, the UAE successfully reduced flaring of hydrocarbon gas that comes from buring of waste gas or oil during testing or production processes from 7.5 down to 2.5 million cubic meters per day. Moreover, in 2003 the UAE introduced unleaded petrol on the local market as part of its program which involved 500 filling stations. Also the government introduced compressed natural gas vehicles into the transportation fleet, which will convert 20% of the most polluting fleet in Abu Dhabi to CNG by 2012. Additionally the government is switching the diesel fuel supply to only ultra low sulfur diesel by 2015. In short, the UAE government is trying to minimize the negative impacts of its environmental challenges while continuing its economic development.

Alshaigy, N.O.; Alhassany, A.R. [United Arab Emirates Univ. (United Arab Emirates)

2008-09-30

13

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone depletion in the stratosphere and increases in greenhouse gases in the troposphere are both subjects of growing concern - even alarm - among scientists, policy makers, and the public. At the same time, recent data show that these atmospheric developments are interconnected and in turn profoundly affect climatic conditions. To arrive at a better understanding of this complex relationship, major institutions in the field of atmospheric study convened a symposium of noted researchers. In the volume, they present the results of their most recent research, with the most up-to-date data and theories available on ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climatic change.

1989-01-01

14

Non-combustion sources of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current global trends are the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations and the associated increase in the earth's surface temperature. Both the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases are important considerations as they effectively determine the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases. While CO{sub 2} is currently the most significant greenhouse gas, CH{sub 4} is becoming increasingly important due to its rate of increase and its physical and chemical nature. Global emissions of CH{sub 4} range from 305-775 T(10{sup 12})g CH{sub 4}/yr. Wetlands are the largest source of CH{sub 4}, followed by rice paddies, fossil fuels, ruminants, biomass burning, land-fill, termites and CH{sub 4} hydrates. Termites are therefore not major contributors to the CH{sub 4} emissions with estimates ranging from 10-50 Tg CH{sub 4}/yr. The primary methane sink is the reaction with hydroxyl radicals within the troposphere. The amount of CO{sub 2} emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels is 5500 TG/yr and is therefore a significant source of greenhouse gases. Therefore, CH{sub 4} has the potential for greater significance, in terms of its contribution to the greenhouse effect in the future.

Juniper, M.

2000-07-01

15

Alkali and Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Gases on Io  

CERN Document Server

We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of alkalis and halogens in volcanic gases emitted on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K) and pressure (10^-6 to 10^+1 bars) ranges, which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (T = 1760 K, P = 0.01 bars). About 230 compounds of 11 elements (O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, I) are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry of the alkalis and halogens in the volcanic plume. Based on this work and our prior modeling for Na, K, and Cl in a volcanic plume, we predict the major loss processes for the alkali halide gases are photolysis and/or condensation onto grains. On the basis of elemental abundances and photochemical lifetimes, we recommend searching for gaseous KCl, NaF, LiF, LiCl, RbF, RbCl, CsF, and CsCl around volcanic vents during eruptions. Based on abundance considerations and observation...

Schaefer, L

2004-01-01

16

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

17

Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

2001-10-01

18

Global warming - greenhouse gases versus aerosols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man's activities have led to an increase in the atmospheric concentration of aerosols and the aerosol precursors as well as to an increase of greenhouse gases. A crude measure of man's global activities, which cause these increases, is the annual emission of carbon in the form of CO[sub 2] from the burning of fossil fuels. Hence as a first approximation, the additional releases of greenhouse gases and the additional production of aerosols are assumed to be proportional to the annual carbon emissions. A simple OD-model provides an estimate of the responses of the global annual average surface temperature to the increase of greenhouse gases of aerosols. The albedo increase is estimated under the assumption that the additional aerosol production leads to a proportional increase in available cloud condensation nuclei and that the increase of greenhouse gases leads to a proportional decrease in the infrared transmittance of the atmosphere. Both effects are of the same magnitude but of opposite sign; hence, climate modelling requires the full inclusion of aerosols.

Preining, O. (Vienna University, Vienna (Austria). Institute of Experimental Physics)

1992-09-11

19

Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly fromthe balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumpingof communal biodegradace wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of grenhouses gates related with the cartransportation or power industry.

Buryan Petr

2012-01-01

20

Synthetic greenhouse gases under control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N2O by soil process, and CH4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O and SF6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO2 concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO2 concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH4 concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N2O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N2O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF6 concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H2 gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

2006-01-01

22

Greenhouse Gases Observation from the GOSAT Satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. The two instruments are accommodated on GOSAT. The Greenhouse gases Observing Sensor is a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth_fs surface as well as of the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. The FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. The cloud and aerosol sensor is an imager of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The presentation includes the instrument design, pre-launch calibration and onboard calibration schemes; as well as, some test results using the Bread Board Model (BBM).

Kuze, A.; Kondo, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2005-12-01

23

(Greenhouse gases and national energy options)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. L. D. Hamilton and Mr. G. A. Goldstein attended the 1st Workshop International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Annex IV, Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, Energy Study Center, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, The Netherlands, April 9--11, 1990. As global interest in evaluating the impacts of policies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases at national and international levels increases, the IEA ETSAP group could be in a good position to make a direct contribution. The group, applying the MARKAL energy/environment linear program as its primary modeling tool, was a forum for international collaboration on energy issues for over a decade. The purpose of this trip was to reassert US DOE interest in the activities of ETSAP Annex IV; obtain knowledge as to the current status of various national efforts; demonstrate the PC version of the US energy system the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model, together with the Brookhaven developed MARKAL Users Support System (MUSS), as a tool to improve greatly MARKAL usability for upcoming analysis and by non-IEA countries, especially developing countries; and participate in establishing a Work Plan for Annex IV.

Hamilton, L.D.

1990-04-18

24

Greenhouse gases and global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop on ''Greenhouse Gases and Global Climate Change'' that was conducted at the Science Education Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 1, 2, and 3, 1988, was the first step in a major effort to develop educational programs on this important topic. This document is a synthesis of the discussions that occurred. Accomplishments were summarized at the conclusion of the workshop by several of its organizers: An alliance of scientists and educators successfully generated a long list of ideas for educational programs in this area. The Workshop resulted in a detailed plan for an educational program. A Group of Advisors for this project has already been formed. The drawing power of the topic, ''Greenhouse Gases and Global Climate Change'' cannot be overestimated. The ideas described on the following pages will form the basis for a three to five-year project aimed at developing instructional materials on ''Greenhouse Gases and Global Climate Change.''

Sneider, C.; Golden, R. (comps.)

1988-06-15

25

Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

2001-01-01

26

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01

27

Emission of greenhouse effect gases; Emissao de gases de efeito estufa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the environmental aspects related to the emission of greenhouse effects gases, and the possible actions and strategies to be applied as a contribution for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases.

Lima, Magda Aparecida de [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Jaguariuna, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: magda@cnpma.embrapa.br

2000-12-01

28

Greenhouse gases and global change: International collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Much of the current concern about the fate of the global environment is related to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases and possible effects on the global climate. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, which is changing rapidly, is, to a large degree, determined by the release and uptake of a variety of trace gases by the biosphere. The biospheric production of relatively small amounts of trace gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is of special interest, as they trap infrared radiation, thus warming the Earth's surface. These greenhouse gases and other biogenic trace gases, such as carbon monoxide, odd nitrogen oxides (NOx), and a range of volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry by affecting tropospheric concentration of ozone, the penetration of photochemically active solar ultra-violet radiation, the production of hydroxyl radicals, and, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, cloud formation. Within the decade of the 1990's, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program will launch a worldwide research effort, unprecedented in its scope, to address the functioning of the Earth system and to understand how this system is changing. The body of information generated by the IGBP will form the scientific underpinning for predictions relating to future causes and effects of global changes. Through its observational network and process studies, and the effective communication of the resulting data to scientists in all nations committed to this endeavor, the IGBP will help provide the world's decision makers with the input necessary to wisely manage the global environment

1991-01-01

29

Greenhouse gases - a dilemma for transportation planners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenge facing Canada and other countries regarding how transportation planners and operators should respond to the Kyoto proposition to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) while continuing to operate a transportation system that meets essential societal needs. This paper focused on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from the transportation sector. CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas which contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Estimates have shown that the Canadian transportation sector is responsible for 27 per cent of the CO{sub 2} being produced in the country. When fully implemented the Kyoto Protocol will commit Canada to reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels by the years 2008-2010. If Canada is to meet that target, a reduction of about 15 per cent below today`s levels is needed over the next 9 to 13 years. There has been no clear set strategy which indicates that Canada will be able to meet this target. It was concluded that the major obstacle in meeting GHG emission standards is a fundamental shift in motivation and attitude. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Wilson, F.R.; Stevens, A.M.; Innes, J.D. [New Brunswick Univ., Frederiction, NB (Canada).Transportation Group

1999-10-01

30

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NOx, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO2. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N2O (16 %), CH4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

2000-01-01

31

Critical UN Conference on Greenhouse Gases Begins  

Science.gov (United States)

Yesterday at the Hague, delegates from over 160 nations began meeting to try to hammer out details of the 1997 Kyoto agreement which mandated that nations reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to pre-1990 levels by the year 2012. This sixth session of the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change will have to overcome significant obstacles if delegates are to emerge with an agreement within the conference's scheduled two weeks. To begin with, there is disagreement between the European Union and the United States on the use of "clean development mechanisms" (CDMs), which give states a number of ways of reaching the treaty's targets without actually reducing emissions. Among these is a proposal to allow for the trading of emissions credits -- disparagingly viewed by most environmentalists as licenses to pollute -- and the possibility of states with high emissions investing in reforestation projects in developing countries that would serve as "Carbon sinks" to absorb these emissions. Naturally, the US, responsible for 24 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, favors such measures, while the EU -- believing its recent coastal flood to be greenhouse-related -- opposes them in favor of across-the-board reductions and tough sanctions for noncompliance. The US is also concerned that the current draft allows developing nations, including China and India, to pledge to reach emissions limits in the future, but does not hold them to any legal obligation for failure to do so. The United Kingdom has stated that an effective agreement can be reached with or without US support. However, given that the US is the main producer of greenhouse gases, most analysts feel that an agreement without US cooperation is liable to have little long-term consequence.

Charbonneau, David D.

32

Greenhouse gases: Changing the global climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model calculations, supported by paleoclimatic and analytic studies and verified against a variety of cases of past climatic change, suggest that the global average surface-air temperatures will increase several degrees during the next century if the increasing rates of emission of greenhouse gases continue. High-confidence predictions of global-scale temperature increases of such magnitude may provide sufficient information for the world to institute measures to slow the rate of increase for emissions and thereby the rate of temperature increase. Because continuation of at least present emissions levels seems highly probable, projections of potential changes at the regional level are needed to plan possible adaptive measures. Climate model results suggest that potential global environmental change may justify an ameliorative policy of reducing current emissions of man-made greenhouse gases but that expensive and comprehensive adaptive actions should generally await more certain results from improved models. While the authors labor at improving their models, they should also be identifying society's vulnerabilities to climatic change and setting in place programs to moderate potential impacts.

1991-01-01

33

The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Halogenated compounds in the atmosphere are of great environmental concern due to their demonstrated negative effect on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Detailed knowledge of the emission budgets of halogenated compounds has to be gained to understand better their specific impact on ozone chemistry and the climate. Such data are also highly relevant to guide policy decisions in connexion with international agreements about protection of the ozone layer. In selected cases, the relevance of specific emission sources for certain compounds were unclear. In this study we present new and comprehensive evidence regarding the existence and relevance of a volcanic contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons (bromine containing halo(hydro)carbons), and fully fluorinated compounds (e.g. CF4 and SF6) to the atmospheric budget. METHODS: In order to obtain new evidence of a volcanic origin of these compounds, we collected repeatedly, during four field campaigns covering a period of two years, gases from fumaroles discharging over a wide range of temperatures at the Nicaraguan subduction zone volcanoes Momotombo, Cerro Negro and Mombacho, and analysed them with very sensitive GC/MS systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In most fumarolic samples certain CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, halons, and the fully fluorinated compounds CF4 and SF6 were present above detection limits. However, these compounds occur in the fumarole gases in relative proportions characteristic for ambient air. CONCLUSION: This atmospheric fingerprint can be explained by variable amounts of air entering the porous volcanic edifices and successively being incorporated into the fumarolic gas discharges. Recommendation and Outlook. Our results suggest that the investigated volcanoes do not constitute a significant natural source for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, halons, CF4, SF6 and NF3.

Frische M; Garofalo K; Hansteen TH; Borchers R; Harnisch J

2006-10-01

34

Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

2009-12-01

35

Computing land use emissions of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model has been developed to estimate the regional emission of greenhouse gases from land-use related sources. Driving forces for this model are the changing regional demand for food and wood products driven by demographic and economic developments. To include the environmental conditions, which are essential factors determining the flux for certain sources, emissions are grid-based where possible. Grid-based explicit calculations are given for CH[sub 4] emission from rice, wetlands, emissions from deforestation, savanna burning and agricultural waste burning and N[sub 2]O from natural soils, arable lands and deforestation. For a number of sources (landfills, domestic sewage treatment, termites, methane hydrates and aquatic sources) geographically explicit calculations are not yet possible because of data limitations. For most of the sources the global results of the calculations are in agreement with other scenario studies, although there are differences for a number of individual sources. 59 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bouwman, A.F. (National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands))

1994-07-01

36

Computing land use emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model has been developed to estimate the regional emission of greenhouse gases from land-use related sources. Driving forces for this model are the changing regional demand for food and wood products driven by demographic and economic developments. To include the environmental conditions, which are essential factors determining the flux for certain sources, emissions are grid-based where possible. Grid-based explicit calculations are given for CH4 emission from rice, wetlands, emissions from deforestation, savanna burning and agricultural waste burning and N2O from natural soils, arable lands and deforestation. For a number of sources (landfills, domestic sewage treatment, termites, methane hydrates and aquatic sources) geographically explicit calculations are not yet possible because of data limitations. For most of the sources the global results of the calculations are in agreement with other scenario studies, although there are differences for a number of individual sources. 59 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

1994-01-01

37

The challenges of the greenhouse gases emissions reduction in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The building sector is responsible of 18% of the greenhouse gases emissions in France. This document aims to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions of the sector and then defines technical and financial avenues worth exploring to reduce them. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

38

Emission of greenhouse gases from Danish agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for inventories of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Danish agriculture has been reviewed and re-evaluated. This has resulted in revised estimates for most of the sources. The revised estimates predict a decline in emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Danish agriculture from 14.1 Mt CO2 equivalents in 1990 to 10.6 Mt CO2 equivalents in 2010. The new estimates give lower emission of methane (4% for 1990 and 15% for 2010), and almost unchanged emissions for nitrous oxide (1% smaller for 1990 and 3% higher for 2010) compared with previous estimates. Since nitrous oxide is a more potent greenhouse gas than methane, the revised estimates are almost identical to the old ones for 2010 when expressed as CO2 equivalents. The old and the revised estimates give a decline in emissions in CO2 equivalents from 1990 to 2010 of 23 and 24% respectively. For 1999 the estimated emissions of methane constituted 29% of the total emission of CO2 equivalents in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. The contribution of nitrous oxide derived from nitrogen turnover in the field was almost 47% of the emission. All emission sources are estimated as the product of an activity and an emission factor. The estimates are associated with uncertainties in both the activities and the emission factors. The uncertainty in the activity data is rather small for most of the items, but probably somewhat larger for N fixation, grazing, and cultivation of organic soils and N leaching. The largest uncertainty is associated with the amount of crop residues, which also constitutes one of the largest contributions to the total greenhouse gas emissions. Emission factors for methane are relatively certain, whereas there are large uncertainties associated with the emission factors for nitrous oxide. This is partly due to the fact that the emission factors are based on emission data representing many different climatic conditions, soil types and crops. The large uncertainty in the emission factors for nitrous oxide does not imply a correspondingly large uncertainty in the relative contribution of individual sources to the total emission. The different sources of nitrous oxide in the field are affected by the same mechanisms independent of location, and thus the uncertainty is mainly associated with the level of this emission in Denmark compared with other regions. In Denmark there has not previously been any concerted research effort to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The existing, somewhat scattered research has mainly been a spin-off from research programmes with other main objectives. Accordingly there is no solid foundation for evaluation of neither emission levels nor mitigation options. A proposal for a research programme on emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture is therefore presented, which should provide a better basis for quantifying individual emission sources, their development over time, and the effect of reduction measures. Emphasis is given to improve our knowledge on emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, and to the possibilities of agriculture in storing carbon and in the reduction and substitution of fossil fuel use. (au)

39

Quotation systems for greenhouse gases; Kvotesystem for klimagasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article surveys recommendations from a Norwegian committee for implementing at a national level, the Kyoto protocol aims for reducing the total emissions of greenhouse gases from the industrial countries through quotation systems.

Trong, Maj Dang

2000-07-01

40

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01

42

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

43

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997  

Science.gov (United States)

The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997 publication was prepared under the guidance of Mary Hutzler, Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. This report "presents the latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases." The paper states that 82% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are caused by coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Gases such as hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, methane, and other carbon dioxide gases comprise the other 18% of U.S. emissions. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Methane Emissions, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Halocarbons and Other Gases, and Land Use Issues, among others.

44

Greenhouse gases in the metallurgical industries: policies, abatement, treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This symposium volume contains over thirty papers on greenhouse gases and the metallurgical industry. The majority of papers originate from industry and deal with greenhouse gas reduction techniques. Papers are drawn from an international group of authors from the United States, Australia, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom, Canada, Iran, Norway, France and other countries. Several of the papers deal with the iron and steel industry, given that this industry is the major metallurgical source of greenhouse gases. In addition, there are papers from the aluminium, magnesium, non-ferrous, ferroalloy and uranium industries. In total, the papers demonstrate the degree of seriousness with which the metallurgical industry is striving to improve its image by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Session titles include : (1) Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical industries, (2) Greenhouse gases and the iron and steel industry, (3) Greenhouse gases and iron making processes, (4) Emission reduction techniques in iron and steel, (5) Emission reduction techniques in light metals and ferroalloys, and (6) Emission reduction techniques in non-ferrous metals. An author and keyword index complete the volume.

Pickles, C.A. (ed.)

2001-07-01

45

The greenhouse effect gases; Les gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2006-06-15

46

Monitors greenhouse gases in Laos; Maaler drivhusgasser i Laos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity from hydropower is clean energy production. But there are environmental consequences. In some shallow ponds the amounts of greenhouse gases produced are large, and in the tropics the emissions can be particularly large. An international working group is working together with the hydropower industry to establish methods for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower magazine. (AG)

Sundt, Haakon

2009-07-01

47

Modelling economically efficient abatement of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cost-benefit analysis of greenhouse gas emissions is presented using models, and the author`s findings are compared with other studies. The economic damage of climate change is first assessed, and then the cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is estimated and the issue of the proper time discount rate examined. The author`s analysis is compared with Nordhaus`s Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) model. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Cline, W.R. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

48

Cosmic-Ray Reaction and Greenhouse Effect of Halogenated Molecules: Culprits for Atmospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the effects of cosmic rays (solar activity) and halogen-containing molecules (mainly chlorofluorocarbons — CFCs) on atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Brief reviews are first given on the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for O3 depletion and the warming theory of halogenated molecules for climate change. Then natural and anthropogenic contributions to these phenomena are examined in detail and separated well through in-depth statistical analyses of comprehensive measured datasets of quantities, including cosmic rays (CRs), total solar irradiance, sunspot number, halogenated gases (CFCs, CCl4 and HCFCs), CO2, total O3, lower stratospheric temperatures and global surface temperatures. For O3 depletion, it is shown that an analytical equation derived from the CRE theory reproduces well 11-year cyclic variations of both polar O3 loss and stratospheric cooling, and new statistical analyses of the CRE equation with observed data of total O3 and stratospheric temperature give high linear correlation coefficients ? 0.92. After the removal of the CR effect, a pronounced recovery by 20 25 % of the Antarctic O3 hole is found, while no recovery of O3 loss in mid-latitudes has been observed. These results show both the correctness and dominance of the CRE mechanism and the success of the Montreal Protocol. For global climate change, in-depth analyses of the observed data clearly show that the solar effect and human-made halogenated gases played the dominant role in Earth's climate change prior to and after 1970, respectively. Remarkably, a statistical analysis gives a nearly zero correlation coefficient (R = -0.05) between corrected global surface temperature data by removing the solar effect and CO2 concentration during 1850-1970. In striking contrast, a nearly perfect linear correlation with coefficients as high as 0.96-0.97 is found between corrected or uncorrected global surface temperature and total amount of stratospheric halogenated gases during 1970-2012. Furthermore, a new theoretical calculation on the greenhouse effect of halogenated gases shows that they (mainly CFCs) could alone result in the global surface temperature rise of 0.6°C in 1970-2002. These results provide solid evidence that recent global warming was indeed caused by the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic halogenated gases. Thus, a slow reversal of global temperature to the 1950 value is predicted for coming 5 7 decades. It is also expected that the global sea level will continue to rise in coming 1 2 decades until the effect of the global temperature recovery dominates over that of the polar O3 hole recovery; after that, both will drop concurrently. All the observed, analytical and theoretical results presented lead to a convincing conclusion that both the CRE mechanism and the CFC-warming mechanism not only provide new fundamental understandings of the O3 hole and global climate change but have superior predictive capabilities, compared with the conventional models.

Lu, Q.-B.

2013-07-01

49

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01

50

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

51

Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?  

Science.gov (United States)

has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis data sets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC-nor changes in their probability density functions-over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

2013-08-01

52

Energy, greenhouse gases and climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the relationship between climate and society and the growth of scientific, political and public concern about climate change. Discusses the scientific assessment of global warming and the sources of rising greenhouse gas concentrations. Technical and other opportunities available to reduce the risk of rapid global warming are identified and include increasing the efficiency of energy use, fuel switching from coal to natural gas and from fossil fuels to nonfossil fuel energy sources, suitable agricultural and forestry policies and controlling the use of chlorofluorocarbons. Finally, future energy use and the rate of greenhouse gas buildup are considered.

Mintzer, I.M. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Center for Global Change)

1990-01-01

53

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01

54

Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander

55

European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe.

Keller CA; Hill M; Vollmer MK; Henne S; Brunner D; Reimann S; O'Doherty S; Arduini J; Maione M; Ferenczi Z; Haszpra L; Manning AJ; Peter T

2012-01-01

56

76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To Provide Flexibility...calculation and monitoring provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion of the Greenhouse...Electronics...

2011-09-27

57

Changing by degrees: Steps to reduce greenhouse gases: Summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are discussed: (1) climate change and greenhouse gases; (2) U.S. sectoral analysis and projections of CO{sub 2} emissions; (3) options for reducing U.S. emissions; and (4) U.S. influence on the rest of the world.

1991-01-01

58

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

59

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical two-dimension zonally average interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere is used for investigation the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of types I and II. The scenarios of future changes of the greenhouse gases and chlorine and bromine species are taken from Climate Change 1995. The calculations show that expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by the increasing of the greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, enhances the ozone concentration in the stratosphere due to a weakness of the efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction caused by temperature dependencies of photochemical reactions. The result of this effect is a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine species. On the other hand, the cooling of the stratosphere intensifies a formation of the polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere in the Polar Regions. Heterogeneous reactions on the polar stratospheric clouds, which are the key processes in the destruction of the ozone layer at the high latitudes, lead to more intensive ozone depletion here, which causes a delay of the ozone layer recovery. The calculations show that this effect is weaker than the first one so that the global ozone will recover faster under conditions of continuing anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases. The model predicts in this case that the annual average global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the growth of the greenhouse gases is stopped, the global ozone will reach this level only in the end of the 21st century.

Dyominov, I. G.; Zadorozhny, A. M.

60

76 FR 56009 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and...proposes technical revisions to the electronics manufacturing and the petroleum...

2011-09-09

 
 
 
 
61

Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

1997-06-01

62

Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

1996-12-31

63

VENTILATION RATE AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS FROM BROILER CHICKEN HOUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine emissions of greenhouse gases from broiler chicken house during one fattening period (i.e. 40 days). The greatest concentrations of water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were observed in the first ten days. Increasing emissions of all greenhouse gases were as a consequence of increasing ventilation rate, although their concentrations were decreasing. It was released 83.8 . 106 m3 polluted air containing 211 314 kg CO2, 5 kg N2O, 1 323 kg CH4 and 178 914 kg H2O over a period of whole fattening time.

Monika KNÍŽATOVÁ; Štefan MIHINA; Ján ORSÁG; Ingrid KARANDUŠOVSKÁ; Jaroslav ŠOTTNÍK

2009-01-01

64

Stable isotope measurement techniques for atmospheric greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The technical requirements to perform useful measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and of their isotope ratios are of direct relevance for all laboratories engaged in this field. A meaningful interpretation of isotopes in global models on sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases depends on strict laboratory protocols and data quality control measures ensuring comparable data in time and space. Only with this precondition met, the isotope techniques can serve as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. This publication provides four contributions describing methods for the determination of the isotopic composition of trace gases in atmospheric air and in ice cores. These contributions have been indexed separately

2002-01-01

65

Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO2 emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

2007-01-01

66

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16

67

Methanol`s role in reducing greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methanex New Zealand produces methanol, a globally traded commodity, at its Taranaki petrochemical plants. Methanol is an input into a number of products that have positive environmental impacts in reducing greenhouse gases. The methanol industry and Methanex, being a key player in that industry, continue to focus on initiatives to reduce greenhouse gases. The paper explains how methanol is manufactured from gas in the Maui and Kapuni fields. Although CO{sub 2} is emitted during its production, it is the building block of a number of products that aid the environment and reduce greenhouse gases. These include formaldehyde, acetic acid, terephthalic acid, chlorine dioxide and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Methanex is supporting a project to develop a diesel/methanol mixture which can be used interchangeably with standard diesel fuels in existing vehicles. Trials carried out on buses in Santiago showed large reductions in particulates and nitrous oxide emissions. Commercialisation of a methanol based fuel cell for electric vehicles is progressing. Text accompanies 14 slides shown at the conference.

Aiken, B. [Methanex New Zealand Limited (New Zealand)

1998-12-31

68

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

69

Flux measurements of greenhouse gases: A review and needs assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the theory and application of the major approaches used to measure emissive and depositional fluxes of greenhouse gases. Strengths, weaknesses and applications of the major approaches are discussed. Studies are proposed which would help validate the measurement approaches. A monitoring program and measurement strategy to measure regional and global fluxes is suggested. The major gases related to global warming are carbon dioxide and methane. Other gases, including water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and some hydrocarbons are also radiatively important, as are ambient particulates, including carbon. The net vertical transfer or flux of chemicals from the atmosphere to the biosphere is referred to as deposition, while emission fluxes refer to transfers from surfaces to the atmosphere. The prediction and possible mitigation of climatic changes requires an understanding and quantification of both types of fluxes.

1991-01-01

70

Estimations of greenhouse gases from solid waste landfills in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the estimates of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases emitted from landfills in Malaysia. The estimation of the gases was taken from Bukit Bakri landfill in Johor, Malaysia by measuring the flow rate of the total gases emitted and the concentration of 16 gases including CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. The results showed the annual amount of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emitted from the landfill were 0.52 and 1.53 Gg, respectively. By assuming a similar amount of the gases released from other landfills the annual amount of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emitted from the landfills in Malaysia were calculated to be 119.73 and 351.21 Gg respectively. The result of CH{sub 4} emissions calculated was compared to the estimated value using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The uncertainties of the results were discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Haron, M.J.; Awang, M.; Hassan, M.N.; Abdullah, A.M.; Yusoff, M.K.; Yaacob, T.N.T. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selanger (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Faculty of Sciences and Environmental Studies

2002-07-01

71

Ozone Depletion, Increasing Greenhouse Gases, and Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of integrations with IPPC/AR4 ocean-atmosphere coupled models, and with stratosphere-resolving chemistry-coupled models from the SPARC/CCMVal inter comparison project, suggest that ozone depletion is capable of producing a considerable impact on the tropospheric circulation of the entire Southern Hemisphere, notably on the poleward shift of the midlatitude jet and the widening of the Hadley cell during austral summer. However, integrations without ozone depletion show that increasing greenhouse gases are also responsible for the such shifts. Hence the relative roles of ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase remain unclear. Part of the difficulty in assesing the relative importance of these two forcings is the large interannual variability, which is comparable in magnitude to the response to ozone and greenhouse forcings in the recent past. To address this limitation, we have performed a new set of long, time-slice integrations with NCAR's atmospheric model (CAM) in which ozone depletion and increased green house gases are specified independently. Analysis of this new set of integrations reveals that, for the Southern Hemisphere summer in the second half of the 20th century, only ozone depletion is able to produce statistically significant climate shifts in the model. This suggests that ozone depletion may in fact have been the dominant driver of climate change in the Southern Hemisphere in the last half century.

Polvani, L. M.; Waugh, D. W.; Correa, G.; Son, S. W.

2010-05-01

72

75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0841; FRL-9228-2] PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...recently posted guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

2010-11-17

73

Changing by degrees: Steps to reduce Greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report focuses specifically on potential emissions reductions in the next 25 years. The analysis is structured around six key sectors of the U.S. economy: buildings, transportation, manufacturing, energy supply, forestry, and food. The report quantifies the potential for emissions reduction within each sector--areas where gains in efficiency, product substitution, conservation, or other technical options can ameliorate increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A selection of policy options that appear to offer the most promise for achieving these reductions in the U.S. is presented.

1991-02-01

74

National and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Kyoto Protocol the flexibility mechanisms - Joint Implementation (Art. 6), Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12), Emissions Trading (Art. 17)- and Bubble (Art. 4) are roughly defined, leaving much questions open about their design and functioning, about eligibility criteria, impact on compliance and their political acceptation. In the NRP research project on national and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases these questions have been researched, mainly from an economic perspective and focussing on Emissions Trading. This report summarises the major results of the research project. refs.

Nentjes, A.; Dijkstra, B.R.; Woerdman, E.; Boom, J.T.; Koster, M.; Zhang, Z.X. [Faculty of Law, Department of Economics and Public Finance, Groningen University, Groningen (Netherlands)

2002-01-01

75

National and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Kyoto Protocol the flexibility mechanisms - Joint Implementation (Art. 6), Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12), Emissions Trading (Art. 17)- and Bubble (Art. 4) are roughly defined, leaving much questions open about their design and functioning, about eligibility criteria, impact on compliance and their political acceptation. In the NRP research project on national and international emissions trading for greenhouse gases these questions have been researched, mainly from an economic perspective and focussing on Emissions Trading. This report summarises the major results of the research project. refs

2002-01-01

76

Inventory of greenhouse gases in Quebec 1990-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec for the period 1990-2000 resulting from human activity was discussed. Added to the emissions that occur naturally, the emissions contribute to disrupt the equilibrium of the global system, resulting in global warming. The greenhouse gases selected for this inventory are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur fluorides, polyfluorocarbons, and some hydrofluorocarbons. The emissions of greenhouse gases were at 86,36 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 1990, and rose to 88,34 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 2000, representing an increase of 2.3 per cent. In 2000, the energy sector was responsible for the largest quantities of greenhouse gas emissions (62.64 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent), of which 33.56 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from transport activities. For the year 2000, the emissions generated by the energy sector represented 70.91 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec., followed by industrial processes with 12.05 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent and 13.64 per cent, and agriculture with 8.37 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 9.48 per cent, wastes with 5.16 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 5.84 per cent, the use of solvents and other products with 0.11 metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent and 0.13 per cent. the land use and forestry sector was not included in this inventory, as data was not available. The largest increase in emissions originated from the energy sector for the period 1990-2000, for an increase of 5.3 per cent. For the same period, the emissions from the industrial processes sector decreased by 4.1 per cent. This sector does not include the emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, as they were included in the energy sector figures. For the agriculture sector, the increase was 1.9 per cent, and the waste sector decreased by 13.3 per cent. The use of solvents and other products, representing a small proportion of greenhouse gas emissions, saw an increase of 4.7 per cent. This report shows the evolution of emissions for each sector, and will be updated annually. 14 refs., 8 tabs., 34 figs.

2002-01-01

77

Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

build up a new system to measure continuously CO2 (or CO), CH4, N2O and SF6 mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO2, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH4, 0.2 ppb for N2O and 0.05 ppt for SF6. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

2007-01-01

78

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01

79

Beyond Vienna and Montreal: A global framework convention on greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This chapter discusses the need for a framework treaty analogous to the Vienna Convention and to the Montreal Protocol for greenhouse gases. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the immediate need for multilateral greenhouse gas controls, including policy implications of scientific uncertainties; (2) recent steps toward a greenhouse gas convention; (3) an environmentally meaningful plan for a greenhouse gase conventions, including the ozone precident, CO2 targets, resource transfers, trading emissions allocations, institutional issues

1993-01-01

80

Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

Auffhammer, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States); Vincent, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies

2007-12-26

 
 
 
 
81

76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing (Subpart I) To Provide...calculation and monitoring provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion (Subpart I...Electronics Manufacturing............

2011-06-22

82

Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

2010-11-15

83

Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share would be significantly higher. The commercial refrigeration sub sector and the air conditioning (stationary and mobile) sector will account for about 75% of F-gas emissions in 2050. In most sectors, emissions from developing countries will exceed emissions from developed countries. Large banks of HFCs will cause F-gas emissions well beyond 2050. In order to limit F-gas emissions, it appears crucial to consider measures to reduce emissions from all sectors in both developed and developing countries. The current post- Kyoto negotiation process might provide an opportunity to address these issues within a wider scope. A switch from substances that cause global warming to climate friendly alternatives is considered inevitable to be undertaken in the near future in developed countries. Developing countries, in contrast, are facing the chance to replace ozonedepleting substances directly by climate friendly alternatives, and could hence benefit from technologies developed in the last decades. The study does not exclude other scenarios on future HFC emissions. Like earlier projections, it underlines the urgent need for mitigation measures of F-gas emissions. (orig.)

Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

2009-11-15

84

Greenhouse gases trade. STEPS, an internal trading system for the reduction of greenhouse gases emission; Handelen in broeikasgas. STEPS, intern handelssysteem voor reductie uitstoot broeikasgassen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shell set up an own trading system of emission rights for greenhouse gases: STEPS or Shell Tradeable Emission Permit System. It's aim is to gain experience with that subject within the company. It can also serve to become a demonstration project with, hopefully for Shell, the result that STEPS appears to be the most cost-effective system to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

NONE

2000-06-01

85

Control of the emission of greenhouse gases; Bestrijding uitstoot broeikasgassen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a study, carried out by the Dutch General Accounting Office, on the Dutch policy to control the emission of greenhouse gases between 1989 and 2001 are presented. [Dutch] De Algemene Rekenkamer heeft tussen december 2000 en oktober 2001 onderzoek gedaan naar het Nederlandse beleid gericht op de bestrijding van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen tussen 1989 en 2001. Hoofdstuk 2 van dit rapport bespreekt het nationale klimaatbeleid. De Algemene Rekenkamer heeft de beleidsdoelen, de recente beleidskeuzes alsmede de onderbouwing daarvan onderzocht. Ook wordt de coordinatie van het klimaatbeleid beoordeeld. Hoofdstuk 3 bespreekt het generieke fiscale beleid. Dit hoofdstuk wordt gevolgd door een beoordeling van de vijf sectoren Industrie, Energie, Verkeer, Landbouw en Huishoudens (hoofdstukken 4 tot en met 8). In deze hoofdstukken wordt steeds eerst het ingezette beleid voor de sector als geheel behandeld, en daarna voor de geselecteerde beleidsmaatregelen. Hoofdstuk 9 behandelt de resultaten voor de sectoren in hun samenhang. Aan de hand hiervan worden conclusies en aanbevelingen geformuleerd.

NONE

2002-03-21

86

Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of energy on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is reflected by the fact that 65% of said emissions in the World are currently due to the use and production of energy. However, most empirical emission models are found within the Environmental Kuznetz Curve (EKC) framework, which focuses on the relationship between emissions and economic development. Ang's (2007, 2008) papers are some of the exceptions that simultaneously study the relationship between emissions, growth and energy. With respect to Ang's research, we contribute on two important aspects. First, while Ang uses a particular country as the study and use time series techniques, we take advantage of a panel data set of 24 European countries between 1990 and 2006 and use a Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) framework. Second, the impact of energy consumption on emissions would depend on the primary energy mix and on the final use of this energy, and we consider both factors in the model.

2010-01-01

87

Greenhouse gases mitigation policies in the agriculture of Aragon, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is an important threat to human society. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG), but it also provides alternatives to confront climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture around the world during recent decades has generated significant environmental damages from pollution emissions. The spatial distribution of emissions is important for the design of local abatement measures. This study makes an assessment of GHG emissions in an intensive agricultural area of Aragon (Spain), and then an economic optimization model is developed to analyze several GHG mitigation measures. The results indicate that adequate management of manure, emissions limits, and animal production restrictions are appropriate measures to abate pollution. Economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address nonpoint pollution problems. Suitable pollution abatement policies should be based on institutional instruments adapted to local conditions, and involve the cooperation of stakeholders.

Mohamed Taher Kahil; José Albiac

2013-01-01

88

Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

2011-01-01

89

Greenhouse gases: the time of settlements; Gaz a effet de serre: le temps des comptes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first thing is to be able to count the greenhouse gases emissions. The emissions of carbon dioxide do not give the impact on environment, the other greenhouse gases are not negligible but it is not so obvious to take them into account. (N.C.)

Michaut, C.; Anheim, S.

2004-02-01

90

A????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS REDUCTION IN UKRAINE A????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?. ????????????? ?????? ? ???’??????? ????????? ????? ???????. There was conducted the analysis of measures on greenhouse gases emissions reduction according to various Ukrainian economic development scenarios, assessment of greenhouse gases emissions reduction potential until 2020 and proposed approaches for the development of mitigation to climate change. ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?. ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.

Oleksandr I. Zaporozhets; Yaroslav I. Movchan; Liubov ?. Galperina; Natalia V. Stranadko; Iryna V. Loyik

2010-01-01

91

ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS REDUCTION IN UKRAINE A????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? A????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  There was conducted the analysis of measures on greenhouse gases emissions reduction according to various Ukrainian economic development scenarios, assessment of greenhouse gases emissions reduction potential until 2020 and proposed approaches for the development of mitigation to climate change. ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?. ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?. ????????????? ?????? ? ???’??????? ????????? ????? ???????.

Oleksandr I. Zaporozhets; Yaroslav I. Movchan; Liubov ?. Galperina; Natalia V. Stranadko; Iryna V. Loyik

2010-01-01

92

Grain saving type feedstuff substituting food to reduce greenhouse gases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a grain-saving type feed replacing the grain to deduce the greenhouse gasses, which is mainly composed of a lees and / or Jerusalem artichoke, drugs reducing the emission of animal waste gas, straws, grazing, tree or normal feeds. The invention, besides suits the normal feeding, is also applicable for multi-functional grain-saving type ''carbon culture'' and ''lees or Jerusalem artichoke feed, fuel and ethanol industrial integrating livestock breeding, forest industry and firedamp with compact shaped fuel as ''alcohol to gasline'', ''ordure to electricity'', ''fart to cylinder gas'', ''branch to coal'', ''forest to meats'' co-produced meat, eggs and milk, ethanol and canned firedamp. Farmers, besides using feeding with castoff and planting trees and grasses to resolve the meat demanding in China, also can become the industrial worker for planting ''energy'' by conducting the multi-functional production for reducing the greenhouse gases, which is beneficial for the reusing the castoff, promoting the construction of the energy forest and fast-growing and high-yield plantation with low cost, small investment, simpleness and practicability and conforms to the harmonious circulation between human and nature.

GUANYI DOU

93

Preliminary study of greenhouse gases in loess in Weinan, Shaanxi Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and soil is one of the main tasks in global change research project. At present, flux monitoring data of greenhouse gases discharging from soil is being accumulated, but scientists understand little about greenhouse gases within soil, especially in deeper soil. There are widely distributed loess sediments of great thickness in Northwest China, which in fact are paleosols that have experienced weaker pedogenesis under arid to semi-arid climate conditions. Study on concentration and distribution of greenhouse gases in deeper loess sediments will contribute to a better comprehensive understanding of discharging mechanism of greenhouse gases from soil to the atmosphere. This note reports results and gives a preliminary discussion. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, J.; Zhong, H.; Liu, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geology

1997-06-01

94

The Use of Greenhouse Gases as Climate Proxy Data in Interpreting Climatic Variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greenhouse gas data were utilized as proxy data in interpreting climate variability. These greenhouse gases were related to temperature records using standard deviation (SD) as the transfer function based on observed correlations between them and global warming records. The annual SD used as warming index for the concentrations of these greenhouse gases for the period 1996 to 2005 at the various stations considered showed good correlation with 1998 as the warmest for these stations.

Oluseyi Enitan Ogunsola; Ezekiel Oluyemi Oladiran

2013-01-01

95

Using a refrigerant leak detector to monitor waste gases from halogenated anesthetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although halogenated gas anesthetics are indispensable in laboratory animal medicine, they are hazardous when present in the working environment. A simple technique of real-time leak detection and environmental spot monitoring can provide valuable adjunct information to current techniques of time-weighted monitoring. We investigated the minimal limit of detection of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane of a leak detector for halogenated gas refrigerants which provides a qualitative response only. We connected a container to an infrared gas analyzer to create a 135-l closed-circuit system and injected liquid halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane to create calculated gas concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 parts per million (ppm). The infrared absorbance and response of the leak detector were recorded, and a total of 5 measurements were made per concentration. The actual gas concentrations were calculated by comparison with the agent-specific absorbance standard curve. The leak detector clearly and consistently responded to halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from minimal concentrations of 2.1 +/- 0.2, 1.4 +/- 0.04, 0.8 +/- 0.04, and 1.2 +/- 0.4 ppm, respectively, as determined by infrared analysis. Although the detector does not provide numerical and time-weighted results, leak testing of equipment and repeated monitoring of the environment (spot monitoring) can provide valuable real-time information. In addition, with appropriate consideration of the methodological limitations, spot monitoring can be used to predict the likelihood of compliance with time-weighted exposure recommendations. A leak detector therefore represents a simple, effective, and inexpensive instrument for monitoring the leakage of halogenated anesthetic gases from equipment and into the working environment.

Rasmussen H; Thorud S

2007-09-01

96

Using a refrigerant leak detector to monitor waste gases from halogenated anesthetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although halogenated gas anesthetics are indispensable in laboratory animal medicine, they are hazardous when present in the working environment. A simple technique of real-time leak detection and environmental spot monitoring can provide valuable adjunct information to current techniques of time-weighted monitoring. We investigated the minimal limit of detection of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane of a leak detector for halogenated gas refrigerants which provides a qualitative response only. We connected a container to an infrared gas analyzer to create a 135-l closed-circuit system and injected liquid halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane to create calculated gas concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 parts per million (ppm). The infrared absorbance and response of the leak detector were recorded, and a total of 5 measurements were made per concentration. The actual gas concentrations were calculated by comparison with the agent-specific absorbance standard curve. The leak detector clearly and consistently responded to halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from minimal concentrations of 2.1 +/- 0.2, 1.4 +/- 0.04, 0.8 +/- 0.04, and 1.2 +/- 0.4 ppm, respectively, as determined by infrared analysis. Although the detector does not provide numerical and time-weighted results, leak testing of equipment and repeated monitoring of the environment (spot monitoring) can provide valuable real-time information. In addition, with appropriate consideration of the methodological limitations, spot monitoring can be used to predict the likelihood of compliance with time-weighted exposure recommendations. A leak detector therefore represents a simple, effective, and inexpensive instrument for monitoring the leakage of halogenated anesthetic gases from equipment and into the working environment. PMID:17877331

Rasmussen, Henrik; Thorud, Syvert

2007-09-01

97

Prototype System for Monitoring and Computing Greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming is not only the problem of the government or individual organization it is the fundamental problem of every individual. The main cause for global warming is green house gases (GHG). Monitoring and computing the greenhouse gases are a major challenging work. Globally, over the past several decades, human-induced activities like industrial revolution and burning of fossil fuels in power stations, vehicle transport systems and industries contribute significantly to the emission and concentration of GHG in atmosphere. Avoiding their usage may reduce the emission of GHG, but it may not be a practical approach as they are mandatory in modern day-to-day life, alternatively regular monitoring and reporting of GHG parameters may create awareness to individuals and organization for effective and proper use of human induced activities. There are very few works done in developing embedded systems for computing GHG. We have implemented a prototype system for sensing and computing the level of existence of GHG parameters (like CO2, CO, temperature and humidity) in atmosphere using environmental sensors and advanced microcontrollers and energy efficient wireless technologies. The Prototype supports quality in terms of low cost, energy efficiency, flexibility and user friendliness. Data is collected, consistency models are define for analyzing the quality of data and the level of GHG in the deployed environment is computed. The results show that the prototype is capable for monitoring and computation of GHG in the deployed environment and can be applied at all levels of organization for creating awareness, performing scientific studies and to forecast re mediation policies by the authorities to individuals and organization in controlling GHG parameters.

R. Jaichandran; A. Anthony Irudhayarj

2011-01-01

98

Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

2003-07-01

99

Inaccuracies in the prediction of the effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outgoing long wave radiation to space is significantly reduced due to heat absorption by the so-called greenhouse gases, notably water vapour, carbon dioxide, methan, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons. The dominating ones are water vapour and carbon dioxide. Since the industrial revolution the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase of 26% in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is presently increasing by about 0.5% per year. The effect on climate can not satisfactorily be estimated on radiation balance calculation only, but must incorporate the large scale atmospheric circulation and the important feedbacks with water vapour (positive feedback), clouds (both positive and negative feedbacks), surface albedo and the oceans. This requires comprehensive mathematical modelling of the coupled ocean/land atmosphere system. Several such studies have been undertaken during the last years both in Europe and United States and results from such experiments are described. Due to the enormous complexity of the problem, a number of simplified assumptions have been done and the results so far must be cautiously assessed. The overall global warming, assuming an increase of around 1% annually in the carbon dioxide concentration, is about 3 C after 100 years. There are large regional differences and the warming is generally larger over land than over sea. A particular problem is the temperature of the North Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters where changes in the deep ocean circulation are significant. (orig.)

1993-01-01

100

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

 
 
 
 
101

Greenhouse gases - observed tendencies contra scenarios; Drivhusgasser - observerte trender mot scenarier  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article presents a study of the increase in greenhouse gases and concludes that it will be necessary to substantially reduce the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere in order to avoid serious climatic changes.

Groenaas, Sigbjoern

2006-07-01

102

Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4). Science, Control, Policy and Implementation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The title symposium addressed the role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in human-induced climate change. Apart from the greenhouse gases methane, nitrous oxide, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), the perfluorocarbons (CF4, C2F6 and others) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), air pollutants like aerosols and ozone affect the radiation balance. Developments in integrated approaches are expected to increase cost-effectiveness of measures. For the reduction of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases many cost-effective options have been developed and tested in recent years. The symposium will focus on the non-CO2 greenhouse gases, in particular the themes: Sources, sinks and inventories; Atmospheric monitoring and modelling; and Mitigation and policy implementation.

Van Amstel, A. (ed.)

2005-07-01

103

Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

NONE

1996-08-01

104

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

1993-11-10

105

Using the energy from land fill gases reduces the greenhouse effect of methane; Utnytter energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several Norwegian land fills have established systems for utilisation of the energy from the gases extracted from the waste. The energy is used to produce electricity and heating. This is becoming more profitable as the energy price increases. The gas contains about 50 percent methane and its greenhouse effect is 20 times that of carbon dioxide. Thus, using it also reduces the greenhouse effect.

Bartnes, Joergen

2002-07-01

106

The Use of Greenhouse Gases as Climate Proxy Data in Interpreting Climatic Variability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas data were utilized as proxy data in interpreting climate variability. These greenhouse gases were related to temperature records using standard deviation (SD) as the transfer function based on observed correlations between them and global warming records.

107

Design of a low power -- high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect halogen gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The design, construction and optimization of a low power-high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect leaking of halogen gases in refrigeration systems are presented. The manufacturing process was done with microelectronic assembly and the Low Temperature Cofire Ceramic (LTCC) technique. Four basic sensor materials were fabricated and tested: Li2SiO3, Na2SiO3, K2SiO3, and CaSiO 3. The evaluation of the sensor material, sensor size, operating temperature, bias voltage, electrodes size, firing temperature, gas flow, and sensor life was done. All sensors responded to the gas showing stability and reproducibility. Before exposing the sensor to the gas, the sensor was modeled like a resistor in series and the calculations obtained were in agreement with the experimental values. The sensor response to the gas was divided in surface diffusion and bulk diffusion; both were analyzed showing agreement between the calculations and the experimental values. The sensor with 51.5%CaSiO3 + 48.5%Li 2SiO3 shows the best results, including a stable current and response to the gas.

Ruales Ortega, Mary Cristina

108

Contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to investigate the mechanisms by which GHGs and ODSs affect the evolution of ozone, including changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation of the stratosphere and cooling of the upper stratosphere by CO2. Separating the effects of GHGs and ODSs on ozone, we find the decrease in upper stratospheric ozone from ODSs up to the year 2000 is approximately 30% larger than the actual decrease in ozone due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in upper stratospheric ozone. Changes below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation, while globally averaged the amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century. Further analysis by linear regression shows that changes associated with GHGs do not appreciably alter the recovery of stratospheric ozone from the effects of ODSs; over much of the stratosphere ozone recovery follows the decline of halogen concentrations within statistical uncertainty, though the lower polar stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere is an exception with ozone concentrations recovering more slowly than indicated by the halogen concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which climate change, and stratospheric CO2 cooling in particular, mutes the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

D. A. Plummer; J. F. Scinocca; T. G. Shepherd; M. C. Reader; A. I. Jonsson

2010-01-01

109

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

110

Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

111

Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

2012-07-01

112

Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

Leguet, B.

2005-09-15

113

Inventory of greenhouse gases from waste treatment facilities in Japan; Inventario de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero en las instalaciones de tratamiento de residuos de Japon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Methane (CH{sub 4}), Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub 2}) and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are major greenhouse gases. This article attempts to estimate a emission inventory of greenhouse gases mainly from waste treatment facilities in Japan. (Author)

Yasuda, K.

1996-12-01

114

GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as criteria for sustainable waste management establishment. The main constituent of this system is avoiding and minimizing waste, as well as increasing the recycling and recovery level of waste and land fill gas, which also represent green house gases mitigation measures. The Waste Management Plan consists of several direct and indirect measures for green house gases emission reduction and their implementation also affects the green house gases emissions. The contribution of the methane emission from land fills amounts to about 2% of the total green house gases emissions in Croatia. The climate change control and mitigation measures as an integral part of waste management sector strategies represent the measures of achieving the national objectives to wards green house gases emission reduction which Croatia has accepted in the frame work of the Kyoto Protocol.

Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ružinski

2010-01-01

115

The emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced by a new proposal for trade of quotas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emission quota system will stimulate enterprises that do not currently have to pay a CO2 tax and which are not subjected to any other political instrument to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, the main part of the total Norwegian emission of greenhouse gases will be covered by climate policy instruments. The quota system enters into force on January 1, 2005, from which date the EU quota system will also be in force. The quota system will comprise CO2 emissions from oil refineries, iron and steel manufacturers, producers of cement, lime, glass and ceramic products, and certain energy plants. Not all firms that are obliged to obtain quotas will receive as many quotas as they are expected to need. Norway introduced a CO2 tax in 1991 and is among the countries with the strongest and most extensive political instruments against emission of greenhouse gases.

2004-01-01

116

Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

Galloway, T.R.

1998-07-01

117

Using the energy from land fill gases reduces the greenhouse effect of methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several Norwegian land fills have established systems for utilisation of the energy from the gases extracted from the waste. The energy is used to produce electricity and heating. This is becoming more profitable as the energy price increases. The gas contains about 50 percent methane and its greenhouse effect is 20 times that of carbon dioxide. Thus, using it also reduces the greenhouse effect

2002-01-01

118

Potential of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in ukraine on period to 2020 year ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Article is devoted to the assessment of potential of green-house gases mitigation, taking into account basic priorities of national development and providing an implementation of international obligations of Ukraine in this question after 2012 year. A macroeconomic and particular branch forecasting of national development was carried out, basic scenarios were defined, an analysis and estimation of technological potential of measures on reduction of green-house gases due to different scenarios were done on a period between 2010?2020 years. Recommendations are given in relation to optimization of energy-efficient approaches in Ukraine. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? 2012 ?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? 2010?2020 ??. ???? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????’????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? (2012?2020 ??).

?.?. ??????????; ?.?. ?????????????; ?.?. ??????; ?.?. ????????????; ?.?. ??????????; ?.?. ???????

2010-01-01

119

????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ???? Potential of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in ukraine on period to 2020 year ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????’????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? (2012?2020 ??). Article is devoted to the assessment of potential of green-house gases mitigation, taking into account basic priorities of national development and providing an implementation of international obligations of Ukraine in this question after 2012 year. A macroeconomic and particular branch forecasting of national development was carried out, basic scenarios were defined, an analysis and estimation of technological potential of measures on reduction of green-house gases due to different scenarios were done on a period between 2010?2020 years. Recommendations are given in relation to optimization of energy-efficient approaches in Ukraine. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? 2012 ?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? 2010?2020 ??. ???? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????.

?.?. ??????????; ?.?. ?????????????; ?.?. ??????; ?.?. ????????????; ?.?. ??????????; ?.?. ???????

2010-01-01

120

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the prob...

Schmidt, C W

 
 
 
 
121

Latin American and Caribbean seminar on greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 18 papers were presented at the seminar in sessions entitled: presentation of the UNEP/GEF project Economics of greenhouse gas limitations; implementation mechanisms of the climate change convection; and national communications and enabling activities. A plenary session on cooperation perspectives was also held. Documentation was either in English or Spanish. Six papers in English have been abstracted separately.

NONE

1998-12-31

122

Total electron-detachment cross sections for collisions of negative halogen ions and rare gases for energies around threshold  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threshold behavior of the absolute total electron-detachment cross section for collisions of Cl- and Br- with rare gases has been determined in an ion-beam--gas-target apparatus. The relative collision energies investigated range from below the electron affinity of the halogen up to about 100 eV. For all of the reactants studied, the threshold for detachment is found to occur at about twice the electron affinity of the negative ion. The general features of measurements are in agreement with the ideas of a simple collision model. Upper limits to detachment-rate constants which are based upon the measurements are presented

1978-01-01

123

Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-1998; Emission af drivhusgasser 1990-1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistics only include CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. To see how the contribution of the different greenhouse gases and impacts on the atmosphere, the emission of the gases are recalculated to joint unit Global Heating Potential (GWP). For each gas there is a factor, wich corresponds to the contribution of 1 kg of this gas relative to the same contribution quantity of C{sub O}2. (EHS)

Anon

2000-07-01

124

Effect of greenhouse gases on climate change and Indian ruminant livestock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All countries are concerned about environmental pollution causing depletion of the ozone layer. Global warming is an international problem. But health hazards due to toxic gases in air differ from country to country and also from city to city, depending on their industrial status. This article discusses the emission of greenhouse gases and the role of Indian ruminants in respect of methane production. Methane may to a certain extent be reduced by a change of diet. 28 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Singh, G.P. [National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (India)

1997-04-10

125

Emissions of HCFCs, HFCs and other greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phase out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) under the Montreal Protocol has resulted in (i) elimination of production of most CFCs, (ii) increased use of existing hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), (iii) production of a wide range of fluorine-containing chemicals, including new types of HCFCs, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), (iv) use of non-halogenated chemical substitutes and (v) development of not-in-kind alternative technologies. Due to their impact on global warming, HCFCs and PFCs are controlled under the Kyoto Protocol. The effect of international regulations on the production, emissions and atmospheric abundance of these industrial fluorocarbons to date and in the future will be described. (orig.)

Midgley, P.M. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)]|[M und D Consulting, Leinfelden (Germany)

2007-07-01

126

Study of greenhouse effect due to radiation active gases, fleon and others  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects to surface temperature due to radiation active trace gases (greenhouse effect gases) such as CO/sub 2/, methane (CH/sub 4/), nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O), Ozon (O/sub 3/), chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and others have been studied through a meteorology simulation. The outline of the study was introduced. The meteorology simulation was used in the theoritical calculations to estimate the variations of radiation and ambient temperature in the convection sphere correspond to the variations of radiation active trace gases in the atmosphere. The meteorology simulation can be divided into a thermodynamic model and a hydrodynamic model. As for the magnitude of greenhouse effect due to radiation active trace gases, in case of CFC, it accounts for about 10 per cent of total gases in the period of 1850 to 1980. And in the period of 1980 to 2030, it will be enlarged to 10 to 30 per cent, accordingly, the uncertainties of the effects will become larger. The ambient temperature increase in the period of about one hundred years in future will be predicted to be 1.5 to 4.5K due to greenhouse effects of CO/sub 2/ and other trace gases. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 8 refs)

Muramatsu, Hisashi

1988-07-01

127

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

Calabrò, Paolo S

2009-03-21

128

Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

|An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

2010-01-01

129

An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but neve...

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

130

Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-2010. Trends and driving forces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway from 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces, a report that presents emission trends in Norway with the analysis of the main drivers and trends, and a review and analysis of the effectiveness of implemented measures.(Author)

NONE

2013-03-01

131

The emission of greenhouse gases from the EU increases; EUs utslipp av klimagasser oeker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the European Environmental Agency (EEA), the emission of greenhouse gases from the EU countries increased by one per cent from 2000 to 2001. The main reason for the increase is the cold winter, which caused an increase in the use of fossil fuels, notably coal. Road traffic also increased. Most of the EU countries exceed the targets defined by the Kyoto protocol.

NONE

2003-07-01

132

Emission reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gases Emissie reductie van niet CO2 broeikasgassen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract niet beschikbaar , In this study an international inventory is made of the emission reduction technologies and potentials for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGGs) in such a way that they can be used for policy formulation (both directed at direct implementation and long-term R&D development...

Jager D de; Hendriks; CA; Byers C; Brummelen M van; Petersdorff C; Struker AHM; Blok K; Oonk J; Gerbens S; Zeeman G

133

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the me...

2011-01-01

134

Constraining equitable allocations of tradable greenhouse gases emission quotas by acceptability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allocations of tradable greenhouse gases (GHG) emission quotas among countries may take place according to several sharing rules corresponding to a certain perception of equity. For instance, allocating quotas in direct proportion to population, in inverse relation to GDP or according to past emissi...

Germain, Marc; Van Steenberghe, Vincent

135

Further decrease of the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Calculations of the CBS (Statistics Netherlands) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) show that in 2006, for the second year in a row, the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands have decreased. At 208 billion kg CO2-equivalents it was 3% below the level of 1990, the base year of the Kyoto protocol.(mk)

2007-01-01

136

Assessing the DICE model: uncertainty associated with the emission and retention of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analysis of the DICE model indicates that it contains unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and mis-specifications that cause it to understate the rate at which economic activity emits greenhouse gases and the rate at which the atmosphere retains greenhouse gases. The model assumes a world population that is 2 billion people lower than the 'base case' projected by demographers. The model extrapolates a decline in the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of economic activity that is possible only if there is a structural break in the economic and engineering factors have determined this ratio over the last century. The model uses a single equation to simulate the rate at which greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere. The forecast for the airborne fraction generated by this equation contradicts forecasts generated by models that represent the physical and chemical processes which determine the movement of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean. When these unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and misspecifications are remedied with simple fixes, the economic impact of global climate change increases several fold. Similarly, these remedies increase the impact of uncertainty on estimates for the economic impact of global climate change. Together, these results indicate that considerable scientific and economic research is needed before the threat of climate change can be dismissed with any degree of certainty. 23 refs., 3 figs

1997-01-01

137

Assessing the DICE model: uncertainty associated with the emission and retention of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of the DICE model indicates that it contains unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and mis-specifications that cause it to understate the rate at which economic activity emits greenhouse gases and the rate at which the atmosphere retains greenhouse gases. The model assumes a world population that is 2 billion people lower than the `base case` projected by demographers. The model extrapolates a decline in the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of economic activity that is possible only if there is a structural break in the economic and engineering factors have determined this ratio over the last century. The model uses a single equation to simulate the rate at which greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere. The forecast for the airborne fraction generated by this equation contradicts forecasts generated by models that represent the physical and chemical processes which determine the movement of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean. When these unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and misspecifications are remedied with simple fixes, the economic impact of global climate change increases several fold. Similarly, these remedies increase the impact of uncertainty on estimates for the economic impact of global climate change. Together, these results indicate that considerable scientific and economic research is needed before the threat of climate change can be dismissed with any degree of certainty. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Kaufmann, R.K. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

1997-04-01

138

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, N2O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

2009-01-01

139

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth’s ozone layer  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth’s ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. A weakness in efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere caused by greenhouse gases is shown to be a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer. Numerical experiments show that the total ozone changes caused by greenhouse gases will be comparable in absolute value with the changes due to chlorine and bromine species in the middle of the 21st century. Continuous anthropogenic growth of CO2 will lead to a significantly faster recovery of the ozone layer. In this case, the global total ozone in the latitude range from 60°S to 60°N will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the century.

Dyominov, Igor G.; Zadorozhny, Alexander M.

140

Water and wastewater services: a contribution to greenhouse gases mitigation. Methodologies and experience feedback  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency and contribution to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are at the heart of environmental concerns of communities and the public. Without waiting for the regulations that may affect them in the future on climate/energy, water and sanitation services will need to explore options aimed at saving energy, producing renewable energy and reducing direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gases on their territory. In terms of controlling emissions of greenhouse gases, the results of initial assessments of GHGs emissions (including some made with the French 'Bilan Carbone' model, developed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency - Ademe) help to identify the importance of emissions related to the management of water and wastewater services, to propose action plans to reduce them, and contribute to reducing emissions of other local actors through the creation of new renewable energy sources. A joint working group of Astee (French Scientific and Technical Association for Water and Environment) water and wastewater commissions prepared some guidelines for calculating emissions of greenhouse gases of water and wastewater services. These guidelines have been made available on the association web-site since September 2009. This article takes stock on the initial feedbacks relating to its implementation among operators of water and wastewater services. (authors)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Changes in the regional emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the wake of the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols, there is a need to verify whether policies to reduce emissions are working. We present data showing that emissions of ozone-depleting compounds, such as the chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform, are decreasing from some regions of the United States but emissions of the greenhouse gases do not appear to be declining.

Khalil MA; Rasmussen RA

2004-01-01

142

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25

143

Controlling greenhouse gases: a survey of global macroeconomic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper surveys studies of the global macroeconomic costs of abating greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. It sets out a conceptual framework which identifies the main factors influencing the costs of abatement, and then surveys the main modelling approaches and cost estimates. It seeks to explain the wide dispersion of the latter in terms of their assumptions concerning the key factors, as identified by the conceptual framework, and their choices of parameter values. It concludes that an abatement of 40 to 50 percent in carbon dioxide emissions relative to base might be expected to reduce GDP by no more than 3 percent. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Boero, G.; Clarke, R.; Winters, L.A.

1991-01-01

144

Impact of greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in the polar regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the future long-term changes of the earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the south to north poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from climate change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the earth's ozone layer in the polar regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the antarctic ozone hole. As for the global total ozone, continuous anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases will lead to significant acceleration of its recovery. In the case of the used scenario of expected long-term changes of the greenhouse gases, the global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2043. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the 21st century. (author)

2008-01-01

145

Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases: physical, biological and socio-economic implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the material in the IPCC Second Assessment Report, this paper expands and clarifies the scientific and technical issues relevant to interpreting the objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climates Change as stated in Article 2, requiring stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations. It first reviews the results of a range of standardized calculations used to analyse the relationships between emissions and concentrations for several levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilization, including two pathways to reach each level. It then considers the effect of other greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosol (from SO{sub 2} emissions) and estimates the temperature and sea level changes associated with the various stabilization levels studied. Finally, it reviews the potential positive and negative impacts associated with the projected temperature and sea level changes and discusses the mitigation costs associated with stabilizing greenhouse gases. 26 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

Schimel, D.; Grubb, M.; Joos, F.; Kaufmann, R.; Moss, R.; Ogana, W.; Richels, R.; Wigley, T.; Houghton, J.T. [ed.; Meira Filho, L.G. [ed.; Griggs, D.J. [ed.; Maskell, K. [ed.

1997-02-01

146

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

1998-01-01

147

Synthetic greenhouse gases under control; Synthetische Treibhausgase unter Kontrolle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed.

Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

2003-07-01

148

ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”). This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term) or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term). The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free). The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009).

Marius Deac

2013-01-01

149

The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 {sup o}C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH{sub 4}. (author)

Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern

2001-07-01

150

Benchmarking the energy efficiency and greenhouse gases emissions of school buildings in central Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy efficiency and emissions of greenhouse gases were estimated for 15 public school buildings in the city of Santa Rosa, in a central area of Argentina. The annual energy consumption of electricity and natural gas by square meter of construction and by student was measured in each case. The greenhouse gases emissions were estimated using a standard method applied in the UK. The consumption of electricity and gas over the estimated needs of auxiliary heating, and the economic cost of the consumed energy, were used as indicators of energy efficiency in the study buildings. The need for auxiliary heating varied from school to school, but was lower than the current levels of heating, revealing an inefficient use of energy. A low emission of greenhouse gases was estimated for the local buildings in comparison to school buildings located in other environments of the northern hemisphere. However, such emissions seem to be unnecessarily high for the local climatic conditions. It is concluded that some standardized designs and management practices, as well as the development of local standards for energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to improve the energy efficiency of buildings in the study region and to contribute to the prevention of environmental change globally. (author)

Filippin, C. [National Research Council, La Pampa (Argentina)

2000-07-01

151

Comparison of the Different Land Use on the Emission of Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increase in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil surface to the atmosphere has been of worldwide concern over the last several decades. Carbon dioxide is recognized as a significant contributor to global warming and climatic change, accounting for 60% of total greenhouse effect. The aim of this research was to determinate the emission of greenhouse gases from different land under agricultural uses. Four types of agricultural land farm, including wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land were selected to investigate the fate of CO2 in these fields. Gas chromatography technique and close chamber method were used to analyze soil gas samples. Total carbon losses from soil in form of greenhouse gases was 4.47, 3.72, 3.38 and 1.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land, respectively. Total additional carbon to soil from biomass for wheat field and canola field was 4.1 and 4.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. ECB (ecosystem carbon budget) = ? C input - ? C output. For wheat field and canola field ECB was -0.37 and +0.88, respectively. This indicated that in wheat field carbon was lost and in canola field carbon was sequestrated. Under citrus garden due to changes in soil organic carbon form previous year has showed that carbon was sequestrated.

Mahdipuor; Landi

2010-01-01

152

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ? 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

2010-01-01

153

On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases – the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the Integrated Temperature Change Potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that GWP and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 years), and the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity. Finally, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the Sustained Global Temperature change Potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs, i.e. a constant background temperature and a constant background concentration of greenhouse gases.

C. Azar; D. J. A. Johansson

2012-01-01

154

Abatement of emissions of other greenhouse gases nitrous oxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is a substantially more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, with a global warming potential over a 100-year time horizon around 310 times that of CO{sub 2}. Although N{sub 2}O appears naturally in the atmosphere, the concentration of N{sub 2}O has increased by around 13% since pre-industrial times. The observed increase indicates that anthropogenic sources are contributing to global atmospheric N{sub 2}O concentrations. The main natural sources of N{sub 2}O are the oceans, and tropical and temperate soils. The main anthropogenic sources of N{sub 2}O emissions are agriculture, industrial processes, and fuel combustion. Emissions from natural sources are roughly equal to those from human activities. This paper examines each of the major anthropogenic sources of N{sub 2}O emissions of an estimates the current levels of global emissions. The current technology employed in each sector has been considered and how they lead to nitrous oxide emissions. For each case control technologies or practices have been identified. The cost-effectiveness of some options for reducing or eliminating N{sub 2}O emissions is presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Gale, J.; Sankovski, A.; Crook, L. [IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

155

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

Science.gov (United States)

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

Schmidt, C W

2001-03-01

156

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda.

Schmidt CW

2001-03-01

157

Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG emissions in terms of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and thus contribute to climate change. At all three facilities significant CH4 emissions were occurring. The CH4 emission varied between 0.50 and 5.73 kg CH4 h-1. The highest CH4 emission (5.73 kg CH4 h-1) were measured at the Aarhus composting facility and was believed to be a result of the windrow lay-out with very broad and high windrows and a low turning frequency. The lowest CH4 emission (0.50 kg CH4 h-1) was measured at Fakse composting area and was most likely a result of the relatively small windrows and frequent weekly turnings. For all three facilities, the N2O emissions were significantly smaller than the CH4 emissions ranging from 0.08 to 1.18 kg N2O h-1.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh

2011-01-01

158

Inventory of greenhouse effect gases - methane gas; Inventario sobre gases de efeito estufa - gas metano  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents aspects of a Fugitive emissions of Methane deriving from Natural Gas Distribution System and shows what was elaborated on this item for the Greenhouse Effect National Inventory, as described in United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, that has been rectified by Brazil. (author)

Paterno, Nadia Taconelli [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), SP (Brazil)

1998-07-01

159

Reference projections for non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Emission projections for 2001 - 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented of the project 'reference projection for energy and greenhouse gases' carried out by RIVM and ECN for the Ministries of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, and of Economic Affairs. The emission are considered of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the Netherlands in 2010. Emission sources and trends up to 2000 were analysed, and expected developments with respect to economic growth for the period 2001-2010 updated. This led to new estimates for the non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. Differences with previous scenario studies were analysed, and the effects of both announced and implemented policy measures assessed.The total expected non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions for the Netherlands in 2010 are concluded to be 34 Mton CO2 equivalent, which represents a 9 Mton decrease for 2000.s in 2010 is estimated at 5 Mton (95% confidence interval) due to identified uncertain future societal developments and possible future improvements in greenhouse gas emission inventories. The results will be used to evaluate the current progress with respect to the national climate change policy in the Netherlands, described in 'The Netherlands' Climate Policy Implementation Plan, Part 1: inland measures' (June 1999). 20 refs.

2002-01-01

160

Greenhouse gases: Changing the nature of our environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Emissions of carbon dioxide and other agriculturally, industrially, and energy-related gases are altering the composition of the atmosphere in a manner that will enhance the trapping of infrared radiation and lend to increasing global average temperatures. Analysis of the historical climate record is under way to identify evidence that the changes in atmospheric concentration to data have already initiated the model-predicted warming. Observations suggest that the global average temperature has risen ?0.5 ± 0.2 degree C over the past 150 yr, which is, depending on how account is taken of the ocean heat lag and of natural variability, roughly consistent with the lower half of the model-estimated range. The most recent model estimates are, however, in the upper half of this range, suggesting a factor of 2 disagreement and prompting intensive studies of the role of clouds in influencing climate change. What is certain is that the atmospheric composition is changing and that climate will respond, almost certainly by a few-degrees warming if emissions continue unabated. Reducing the uncertainties and refining estimates of impacts to the point where energy and other policies may be affected, however, poses a significant research challenge

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Greenhouse gases: Changing the nature of our environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of carbon dioxide and other agriculturally, industrially, and energy-related gases are altering the composition of the atmosphere in a manner that will enhance the trapping of infrared radiation and lend to increasing global average temperatures. Analysis of the historical climate record is under way to identify evidence that the changes in atmospheric concentration to data have already initiated the model-predicted warming. Observations suggest that the global average temperature has risen {approximately}0.5 {plus minus} 0.2{degree}C over the past 150 yr, which is, depending on how account is taken of the ocean heat lag and of natural variability, roughly consistent with the lower half of the model-estimated range. The most recent model estimates are, however, in the upper half of this range, suggesting a factor of 2 disagreement and prompting intensive studies of the role of clouds in influencing climate change. What is certain is that the atmospheric composition is changing and that climate will respond, almost certainly by a few-degrees warming if emissions continue unabated. Reducing the uncertainties and refining estimates of impacts to the point where energy and other policies may be affected, however, poses a significant research challenge.

MacCracken, M.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA))

1989-11-01

162

Projection of the gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GEI), Colombia 1998-2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Greenhouse Gas Emissions baseline scenario 1998-2010 was developed from the energy and no-energy sector projections. This study considered the same greenhouse gases as the 1990 inventory. One of the major findings is the increase in the participation share of the energy sector from 31% in 1990 up to 72% in 2010, while the non-energy sector decrease its share from 69% to 28% in the same period the total emissions increase from 167 mt/year in 1990 to 174 mt/year in 2010, an increase of only 4%

1999-01-01

163

A comparison of the contribution of various gases to the greenhouse effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current concern about an anthropogenic impact on global climate has made it of interest to compare the potential effect of various human activities. A case in point is the comparison between the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of natural gas and that from other fossil fuels. This comparison requires an evaluation of the effect of methane emissions relative to that of carbon dioxide emissions. A rough analysis based on the use of currently accepted values shows that natural gas is preferable to other fossil fuels in consideration of the greenhouse effect as long as its leakage can be limited to 3 to 6 percent.

Rodhe H

1990-06-01

164

Greenhouse gases and their role in climate changes: the status of research in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the eve of the Kyoto Conference an International workshop was organised to clarify the role of greenhouse gases in climate change. The aim was to review the past and on-going research with a view to providing a synthesis of the most relevant findings in this area and to promote interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. As a result of this workshop, recommendations for future research activities have been formulated in order to fill gaps in our knowledge and to guide future greenhouse gas and climate change research programmes.

Ghazi, A.; Bruning, C. [eds.] [Global Change Biodiversity Unit (Belgium)

1999-07-01

165

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

166

Estimating the Greenhouse Gases Emission and the Most Important Factors in Dairy Farms (Case Study Iran)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and dairy cows. It is recommended that the policy makers use some methods like environmental taxes, improving management and carbon sequestration to reduce these kinds of costs. This study results could help policy makers to decide better with considering to effective factors.

M. Ghorbani; A.R. Koocheki; M. Motallebi

2008-01-01

167

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

2009-07-01

168

Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission.

Guibelin E

2004-01-01

169

Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. PMID:15259957

Guibelin, E

2004-01-01

170

Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions

2006-01-01

171

The reduction of greenhouse gases emission in 2005; Uitstoot van broeikasgassen in 2005 gedaald  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2005 the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands was circa 2% less than in 2004: 214 billion kg CO2-equivalents. According to provisional data from Statistics Netherlands (CBS) this is almost equal to the emission of greenhouse gases for the Kyoto reference year 1990. The reduction was completely realized by a reduction of the emission of CO2. [Dutch] In 2005 was de emissie van broeikasgassen ongeveer 2% minder dan in 2004: 214 miljard kg CO2-equivalenten. Volgens voorlopige cijfers van het CBS is dit vrijwel gelijk aan de uitstoot van broeikasgassen voor het Kyoto-referentiejaar 1990. De daling is volledig tot stand gekomen door de daling van de uitstoot van CO2. De uitstoot van de andere broeikasgassen is vrijwel onveranderd gebleven.

Olsthoorn, K.

2006-10-15

172

Emissions, activity data, and emission factors of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) in Germany 1995-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Protection, the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (F-gases) aroused little public attention. Since then, the standards on surveying and reporting on national emissions have been rising constantly. Amongst others, the annual reporting to the UNFCCC secretariat makes detailed declarations on use and emissions of F-gases necessary, which have to be filled in specified formats for submission (Common Reporting Format = CRF). The scientific basis has been set out by the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting, in accordance with the instructions laid down in IPCC good practice guidance. Additionally, in Germany the Centralised System of Emissions (ZSE) shall provide a suitable tool to satisfy any quality needs of both activity data and emission factors. From 1995 onwards, activity data and emissions of each individual application sector shall be presented in a comprehensible and transparent way. Therefore, the way of data collection as well as the estimation methods applied must be well documented. Moreover, data has to be prepared for appropriate importation into ZSE. It is the objective of this study to provide the transparency demanded within 40 national application sectors of F-gases, for the period between 1995 and 2002. - Firstly, all the activity data as well as the emissions related to them are presented and commented. This applies to manufacturing of products, F-gases banked in operating systems, and decommissioning. - Secondly, the methodologies applied to calculate the emissions are described and all sources of information are revealed, e.g. literature, names of experts from the manufacturing industry, users, trade, and academia. - Thirdly, reliability and safety of data are discussed. - Fourthly, possible deviations from the IPCC default values are stated and given reasons for. Wherever this intensive reviewing of 40 sectors through eight years of reporting uncovers gaps or inconsistencies in previous reports, later corrections can be made by means of recalculations. (orig.)

Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche, Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2005-06-15

173

Fossil energy use and greenhouse gases emission in the integrated production of bioethanol and bio diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter concerns about the effects on food prices from diverting crops to bio fuels, questions about the magnitude of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions savings associated with switching to bio fuels and doubts about their environmental sustainability have caused many to rethink bio fuels blending targets (IEA, 2009). Despite the recent downturn, global use of bio fuels is projected to recover in the long term, reaching 2.7 mb/d by 2030 in the IEA Reference Scenario (IEA, 2009)

Seabra, Joaquim Eugenio A.; Souza, Simone Pereira

2012-07-01

174

Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

Jain, Atul K.

2005-09-30

175

Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases; Avtaler om utslipp av klimagasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy.

Aulstad, Johan Greger

2001-07-01

176

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

NONE

2000-12-01

177

Non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases - emissions and control from coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane and nitrous oxide are important greenhouse gases. This report assesses emissions of these gases from coal production and use on both a global and regional basis. Focusing on the coal mining industry, recent data on methane release and utilisation are collected for different countries. Emissions of methane from coal-fired power generation are negligible. Coal is not a major source of nitrous oxide emissions. However, fluidised bed combustion systems give rise to higher nitrous oxide emissions than other power generating technologies. The factors influencing nitrous oxide emissions from FBC systems, including methods to reduce emissions are summarised. The capture of methane from coal mines not only reduces the greenhouse contribution but the methane can also be put to beneficial use such as in power generation. Market opportunities for such applications are reviewed. In many cases greenhouse gas abatement costs are lower for methane and nitrous oxide than for CO{sub 2} alone. Hence coal mine methane projects can play a major role in cost effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required under the Kyoto Protocol. 139 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

Sloss, L.L.

2002-09-01

178

Landscape patterns of soil oxygen and atmospheric greenhouse gases in a northern hardwood forest landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), are controlled by redox reactions in soils. Together with oxygen (O2), seasonal and spatial dynamics of these atmospheric gases can serve as robust indicators of soil redox status, respiration rates, and nitrogen cycling. We examined landscape patterns of soil oxygen and greenhouse gas dynamics in Watershed 3 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA. We analyzed depth profiles of soil O2, CO2, N2O, and CH4 approximately bimonthly for one year. Soil gas depth profiles were obtained from several different soil types encompassing a range of topographic positions, drainage classes, and organic matter content. Soil O2 was a good predictor of greenhouse gas concentrations. Unsaturated soils always had O2 concentrations >18 %, while saturated soils had O2 ranging from 0 to 18 %. For unsaturated soils, changes in CO2 were nearly stoichiometric with O2. High concentrations of CH4 (>10 ?L L?1) were typically associated with saturated soils; CH4 was typically below atmospheric concentrations (?1) in unsaturated soils. High concentrations of N2O (>5000 nL L?1) were found only in well-aerated soils after summer rainfall events and in marginally-anoxic soils; N2O was consumed (?1) under anoxic conditions. The production and consumption of greenhouse gases were linked to functionally distinct biogeochemical zones of variable redox conditions (hotspots), which exhibit dynamic temporal patterns of redox fluctuations (hot moments). These soil redox hot phenomena were temporally driven by climate and spatially organized by soil type (reflective of topographic position) further constrained by subsurface hydrology.

S. F. Werner; C. T. Driscoll; P. M. Groffman; J. B. Yavitt

2011-01-01

179

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

2010-07-15

180

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Inventory of gases of greenhouse effect and mitigation options for Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the last years, the possibility of a global heating due to the emissions of greenhouse gases has become a true concern for the international scientific community. As a result of it created the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the agreement mark was approved about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) that was subscribed by the countries in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro city in Brazil. The objective of the agreement is the stabilization of the concentrations of the gases of GEI effect in the atmosphere at a level that allows avoiding interferences anthropogenic dangerous for the climatic system. It is sought to reach this level inside a sufficiently long term to allow the natural adaptation from the ecosystems to the climatic change, guaranteeing this way the production of foods and the sustainable development. The government from Colombia subscribed the agreement mark about the climatic change of the United Nations (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the congress of the republic ratified it in 1995. The signatory countries of the agreement commit to elaborate and to publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of gases of greenhouse effect as well as to develop plans to reduce or to control the emissions

1998-01-01

182

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH{sub 4} concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N{sub 2}O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N{sub 2}O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF{sub 6} concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H{sub 2} gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

2006-07-01

183

Monitoring Greenhouse Gases and Their Pollutions in Sarakhs Region Influenced by the Sourest Natural Gas Resource in the Middle East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shahid Hashemi-Nezhad Gas Processing Company (S.G.P.C.), located in Sarakhs region of Iran, processes wells that consist of the sourest gases in Middle East. The gas entering the company from gas wells includes 3.5 percent H2S and 6.5 percent CO2 that is quite rare among similar wells for sweetening such large quantities as it does. As a result, greenhouse gases and their possible harmful results are sometimes unavoidable in the area. In this study, greenhouse gases in Sarakhs region, the atmosphere of the company and also the output metering of S.G.P.C. were monitored and analyzed in a three-month period, considering elimination of preliminary contaminants in the sweetening process. Later, sources, fluctuations and deviations of greenhouse gases from global standards were observed and analyzed.

Nader Nabhani; Mojtaba Mirdrikvand; Saeedeh Imani Moqadam; Amirali Rezazadeh; Seyed Alireza Sakaki

2012-01-01

184

[Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period.

Liu LH; Jiang JY; Zong LG

2011-05-01

185

Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

1999-01-01

186

Norwegian environmental policy: From continued increase of the emission of greenhouse gases to decrease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Norway's Minister of the Environment, Norway will be one of the first among the industrialized countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on the emission of greenhouse gases. The tax on carbon dioxide will be continued and from 2005 there will be a national quota system for emission from sources not previously included. Several other measures have also been proposed. The current regulations admit 16 percent increase in the emissions up to 2008, while the measures proposed by the government and listed in this article may give a reduction of 12 percent

2002-01-01

187

Further decrease of the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands; Verdere daling uitstoot broeikasgassen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations of the CBS (Statistics Netherlands) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) show that in 2006, for the second year in a row, the emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands have decreased. At 208 billion kg CO2-equivalents it was 3% below the level of 1990, the base year of the Kyoto protocol.(mk) [Dutch] Uit berekeningen van het CBS en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau blijkt dat in 2006 voor het tweede opeenvolgende jaar de uitstoot van broeikasgassen in Nederland is verminderd. Deze lag met 208 miljard kg CO2-equivalenten 3% onder het niveau van 1990, het basisjaar van het Kyoto Protocol.

Olsthoorn, K. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Voorburg (Netherlands)

2007-11-15

188

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

2005-01-01

189

Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture.

Nkonglolo NV; Johnson S; Schmidt K; Eivazi F

2010-01-01

190

Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture. PMID:21174993

Nkonglolo, Nsalambi Vakanda; Johnson, Shane; Schmidt, Kent; Eivazi, Frieda

2010-01-01

191

An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

2003-01-01

192

Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

Guibelin, Eric

2003-07-01

193

The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 8130, 6700 EW, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2006-04-15

194

An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

2003-07-01

195

Photoacoustic Experimental System To Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily available components and is suitable for small-group experiments. The PA signal from a greenhouse gas (GHG), such as CO(2), H(2)O, and CH(4), can be detected down to a concentration of 0.1%. Since the basic theory of the PA effect in gases due to IR absorption is straightforward, the experiments with this PA system are accessible to students. It can be shown that there is a significant difference in IR absorption between GHGs and the major components of the atmosphere, N(2), O(2), and Ar, which helps students understand that the minor components, that is, the GHGs, determine the IR absorptivity of the atmosphere.

Kaneko F; Monjushiro H; Nishiyama M; Kasai T

2010-01-01

196

Emission of greenhouse gases in Norway - today, yesterday and the present future; Utslipp av klimagasser i Norge - i dag, i gaar og den naere framtid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Norway has agreed to, by signing the Kyoto protocol, keep the emission of greenhouse gases to a level maximum 1 % over the 1990 level. By the end of 2007 the emission of greenhouse gases are at a level 10% higher then the maximum level. SSB publishes emission numbers for greenhouse gases in Norway yearly. The emission of greenhouse gases will continue to grow and the emission will be about 4 % larger in 2012 than it is today. The only way Norway can keep the Kyoto protocol is to by climate quotas

Hansen, K L; Bye, T; Spilde, D

2008-05-15

197

Minimum requirements on implementation of the greenhouse gases ordinance. EU ordinance on fluorinated greenhouse gases; Mindestanforderungen zur Implementierung der F-Gase-Verordnung. Die EG-Verordnung zu fluorierten Treibhausgasen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 4 July 2006, the EU ordinance 842/2006 on fluorinated greenhouse gases came into force. Since 4 July 2007, it has been in effect with the exception of article 9 and appendix II both of which had been effective since 4 July 2006. However, some articles of the ordinance necessitate the definition of minimum requirements resp. of form and contents by the EU commission. The minimum requirements for training and certification will provide a basis for national implementation of these measures in the EU member states. (orig.)

Preisegger, E. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Environmental and Public Affairs Fluorochemicals

2008-04-15

198

Evaluation of the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grass land and in the grass breeding. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. report of the first part of the project December 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the Kyoto protocol on the greenhouse effect gases reduction, many ecosystems as the prairies can play a main role for the carbon sequestration in soils. The conservation of french prairies and their management adaptation could allow the possibility of carbon sequestration in the soils but also could generate emissions of CO2 and CH4 (by the breeding animals on grass) and N2O (by the soils). This project aims to establish a detailed evaluation of the contribution of the french prairies to the the greenhouse effect gases flux and evaluate the possibilities of reduction of the emissions by adaptation of breeding systems. (A.L.B.)

2002-01-01

199

Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO2 concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the 14C and 13C content of atmospheric CO2, pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the studies conducted within Phase II of the project, which incorporate the findings of both CRPs

2002-01-01

200

On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases – the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

C. Azar; D. J. A. Johansson

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of Danish consumption and emissions of ozone-depleting substances and industrial greenhouse gases has been carried out in continuation of previous evaluations, partly to fulfil Denmark's international obligations to provide information within this area and partly to follow the trend in consumption of ozone-depleting substances as well as the consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2006. In this calculation the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. (BA)

Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

2007-06-15

202

Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

2005-07-13

203

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

1994-10-01

204

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

H. Chen; J. Winderlich; C. Gerbig; A. Hoefer; C. W. Rella; E. R. Crosson; A. D. Van Pelt; J. Steinbach; O. Kolle; V. Beck; B. C. Daube; E. W. Gottlieb; V. Y. Chow; G. W. Santoni; S. C. Wofsy

2009-01-01

205

Greenhouse gases emission balances in the sector of energy recovery from waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the current greenhouse gases emission levels in the European Union, the paper describes the contribution of waste management in comparison with the other sectors. Thanks to the integrated waste management approach, to the decrease of the landfilling and to the increase of waste-to-energy practices, the waste sector is one of the few which account for a net reduction of the overall emissions in the time-span 1990-2002, at least in Italy. A further increase of the waste-to-energy practice, in both new dedicated plants and existing plants through co-combustion might result in a significant contribution to the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, which has recently come into force

2006-01-01

206

A STRATEGIC PROGRAM TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS PRODUCED FROM FOOD INDUSTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming.

A. Kilic [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, Nigde (Turkey); A. Midilli [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde (Turkey); I. Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

2008-09-30

207

Remote sensing of some greenhouse gases by Fourier-spectrometry in Kyiv  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The values of the total N2O and O3 amount (column amounts) in the atmosphere above Kyiv city were determined using observed IR spectra of direct solar radiation. The modelling of N2O and O3 spectra was carried out with MODTRAN3 (MODTRAN Report 01/11/96, The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL, Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate PL/G POS, 1996) program by scaling the species profiles of standard mid-latitude summer model atmosphere. The comparison with the data of other ground based and space experiments shows the good agreement. The accuracy of the experiment is enough for greenhouse gases monitoring in the observational point.

Shavrina, Angelina V. [Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: shavrina@mao.kiev.ua; Veles, Alexander A. [Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: veles@mao.kiev.ua

2004-10-15

208

Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO2, CH4 and N2O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO2-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y-1. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

209

Remote sensing of some greenhouse gases by Fourier-spectrometry in Kyiv  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The values of the total N2O and O3 amount (column amounts) in the atmosphere above Kyiv city were determined using observed IR spectra of direct solar radiation. The modelling of N2O and O3 spectra was carried out with MODTRAN3 (MODTRAN Report 01/11/96, The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL, Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate PL/G POS, 1996) program by scaling the species profiles of standard mid-latitude summer model atmosphere. The comparison with the data of other ground based and space experiments shows the good agreement. The accuracy of the experiment is enough for greenhouse gases monitoring in the observational point

2004-10-15

210

Differences between the glacial cycles of Antarctic temperature and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ice-core measurements have indicated that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 show glacial-interglacial variations in step with Antarctic temperature. To obtain more insight into the nature of this relationship for cycles of different frequencies, measured time series of temperature, CO2, and CH4 are reanalysed. The results indicate that the temperature signal consists of a linear superposition of a component related to CO2 with a period of ~100 000 yr and a component related to variations in the obliquity of the Earth's orbital plane with a period of ~41 000 yr. This suggests that either there operate very different feedback mechanisms at the different time scales or that CO2 is not merely a~passive follower and amplifier of the glacial-interglacial variations in Antarctic temperature.

A. W. Omta

2012-01-01

211

Implications of a dynamic target of greenhouse gases emission reduction: the case of Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission target adopted by Argentina. It contains a summary of the process that led to the formulation of the emission target, including GHG inventories, macroeconomic and sectoral projections, and mitigation options. Fixed and dynamic indexes such as the Carbon Intensity Index are discussed, concluding that the latter is not appropriate for most developing countries. This is the case, in particular, for countries whose GHG emissions are not solely dependent on GDP growth, but also on other variables, such as international prices and market conditions for their agricultural products. The index recommended for Argentina was based on the square root of GDP. It went a step further by producing, for the chosen level of reduction, not only a positive relation between GDP and allowable emissions, but also a relation of the same sign between GDP and emission reductions. (author)

Barros, V. [Universidad de Beunos Aires (Argentina); Grand, M.C. [Universidad del CEMA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2002-07-01

212

Trace gases, CO/sub 2/, climate, and the greenhouse effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weather is driven by the sun's energy input and the difference between insolation per unit area of the poles and the equator. The energy flux of the Earth is in long-term balance: as much is radiated away by the Earth as is absorbed, or the mean temperature would have to increase or decrease steadily (and, of course, this is not observed). CO/sub 2/ and other ''trace gases'' can cause the Earth's mean temperature to rise through the Greenhouse Effect. The mean temperature in the Little Ice Age was only 1 /sup 0/C cooler, but large effects were felt, especially toward the poles. The CO/sub 2/ which stays in the atmosphere will raise Earth's mean temperature, with effects which are relatively certain: a lot of warming at the poles, and a very small amount of warming at the equator.

Aubrecht G.J. II

1988-03-01

213

Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO2 concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO2 due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO2 concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

214

Influence of the Stratosphere on the Northern Annular Mode Response to Increasing Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Obtaining credible climate change projections in NH extratropical winter is challenging as the current generation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models shows a wide range in the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) response to increasing greenhouse gases. Previous studies have suggested that the NAM response critically depends on the stratospheric representation in climate models. In this study, we assess the influence of the stratosphere on the tropospheric circulation response to increasing greenhouse gases by comparing the response in various versions of a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) without a well-resolved stratosphere ('low-top' model), to the response in a version of the same AGCM with a well-resolved stratosphere ('high-top' model). We show that the circulation response is more sensitive to orographic gravity wave drag (OGWD) parameter settings than to the model lid height. The causal relationship between OGWD and changes in NH wintertime circulation response is further investigated by introducing a methodology that allows OGWD forcing fixed to its 1×CO2 value when CO2 is doubled. Such experiments show that the changes in GWD forcing due to CO2 doubling have essentially no impact on the NAM response. The primary conclusion is that the OGWD influence is limited to its impact on the 1×CO2 basic-state climatology, which defines the propagation characteristics of resolved planetary waves. It is shown that the action of planetary waves explains essentially all of the NH wintertime circulation sensitivity. Finally, we will show preliminary results of an investigation of the sensitivity of the NH wintertime circulation response between IPCC models and its possible relation to the basic state climate.

Sigmond, M.; Scinocca, J.

2009-05-01

215

The challenges of the greenhouse gases emissions reduction in buildings; Les enjeux de la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre dans le batiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The building sector is responsible of 18% of the greenhouse gases emissions in France. This document aims to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions of the sector and then defines technical and financial avenues worth exploring to reduce them. (A.L.B.)

Arnaud, E

2005-09-15

216

Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

van Groenigen KJ; Osenberg CW; Hungate BA

2011-07-01

217

Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-10-15

218

The processing industries in Norway reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in spite of increased production; Produserer mer - forurenser mindre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The processing industries in Norway have reduced the emission of greenhouse gases by 11 per cent in the period 1990 to 2001, in spite of increased production. So far the reductions have been economically tolerable, but further reductions are getting difficult. This sector will be the one mostly affected by the coming quota system.

Helstad, Jan

2003-07-01

219

Atmospheric greenhouse gases emission inventory for Manitoba, non-energy sources, 1990. Report No. 94-04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study details emission estimates for the base year 1990 for common greenhouse gases associated with non-energy sources. The study was conducted using the methodology and reporting conventions recommended in the OECD 1991 report. Emission estimates were made for manufacturing plants, landfills, agriculture, and burning of forests and biomass and various land uses.

1994-01-01

220

Limiting the emission of green-house gases: objectives and results in EU and non-EU countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on UNFCCC and EEA (European Environmental Agency) data, changes in the emissions (no LULUCF considered) of green-house gases in the period 1990-2004 either in the Annex 1 as well in the UE-27 countries are summarized and commented.

Hellrigl B

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Mad Perturbations of Trace Gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 microm and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb the nitrogen cycle, leading to increases in atmospheric N(2)O, and the same perturbing processes may increase the amounts of atmospheric CH(4) and NH(3). We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for the atmospheric thermal structure to compute the change in the surface temperature of the earth for large assumed increases in the trace gas concentrations; doubling the N(2)O, CH(4), and NH(3) concentrations is found to cause additive increases in the surface temperature of 0.7 degrees , 0.3 degrees , and 0.1 degrees K, respectively. These systematic effects on the earth's radiation budget would have substantial climatic significance. It is therefore important that the abundances of these trace gases be accurately monitored to determine the actual trends of their concentrations. PMID:17832523

Wang, W C; Yung, Y L; Lacis, A A; Mo, T; Hansen, J E

1976-11-12

222

Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Mad Perturbations of Trace Gases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 microm and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb the nitrogen cycle, leading to increases in atmospheric N(2)O, and the same perturbing processes may increase the amounts of atmospheric CH(4) and NH(3). We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for the atmospheric thermal structure to compute the change in the surface temperature of the earth for large assumed increases in the trace gas concentrations; doubling the N(2)O, CH(4), and NH(3) concentrations is found to cause additive increases in the surface temperature of 0.7 degrees , 0.3 degrees , and 0.1 degrees K, respectively. These systematic effects on the earth's radiation budget would have substantial climatic significance. It is therefore important that the abundances of these trace gases be accurately monitored to determine the actual trends of their concentrations.

Wang WC; Yung YL; Lacis AA; Mo T; Hansen JE

1976-11-01

223

Modeling of Global Biogenic Emissions for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

One key element of assessing the impact of human activities on climate change is to accurately estimate the emissions of not only direct but also indirect (reactive) greenhouse gases (GHGs). Direct GHGs, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ozone (O3), can warm up the Earths surface by absorbing the terrestrial infrared (IR) radiation. Reactive gases, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), though transparent to IR radiation, can impact the climate system by altering CH4 and tropospheric O3 concentrations, two important GHGs, through complex chemical processes. In this study, we integrated a biogenic model within a terrestrial ecosystem model to investigate the vegetation and soil emissions of key indirect GHGs, e.g., isoprene, monoterpene, other NMVOCs (OVOC), CO, and NOx. The combination of a high-resolution terrestrial ecosystem model with satellite data allows investigation of the potential changes in biogenic emissions of indirect GHGs due to atmospheric CO2 increases, and changes in climate and land-use practices.

Jain, A.; Yang, X.

2009-12-01

224

Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4) generation.

Maia GD; Day GB 5th; Gates RS; Taraba JL; Coyne MS

2012-06-01

225

Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

NONE

2001-12-01

226

A comparative analysis of methodology for inventory of greenhouse gases emissions - IPCC and CORINAIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG) is performed by two accepted methods - CORINAIR (of EU) and IPCC (of UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes). The first one is applied only in European countries, the second is conformable to GHG emissions from all over the world. The versions IPCC-95 and CORINAIR94 are compared from theoretical and methodological point of view. In Bulgaria the version CORINAIR95 is not applied yet and the inventory analysis for 1994 uses CORINAIR90. The emissions of main GHG and gases-precursors are compared. The main elements of inventory are analyzed. The values recommended by CORINAIR94 are taken into account. A table for accordance between the two methods is used. The differences concerning transport vehicles are taken into account also. Differences between the two methods are noticed in the following directions: nomenclature of the activities emitting GHG; organization of the inventory guides; kind of the activities and technologies included. The qualitative comparison are done for energy sector and for industry separately. The results show too big differences in the volume of the emitted GHG and the reasons could be classified as methodological ones and differences in the kind and values of the emission coefficients. For their determining standard values for Eastern Europe from IPCC guide have been applied as well as data from experimental investigations. Respectively, in the method CORINAIR emission coefficients CORINAIR90 are used. The differences between the emission coefficients determined in the two methods are as big as twice or even more for CO at solid fuels, i.g. at energy production; as big as three times at NOx and up to twenty times at methane also at solid fuels. The two methods do not read the emissions of gases-precursors at some industrial processes. This disadvantage is overcome at IPCC96 and it is necessary to complement the emission coefficients in the data base, especially for gases-precursors regarding the local investigations and the latest assessments of climate changes done by IPCC. Data of the method CORINAIR94 could be used for this purpose

1998-01-01

227

Future trends of land-use emissions of major greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land-use emissions of greenhouse gases make up over one-third of current total anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and about three-quarters of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O. Considering their contribution to global emissions, it is important to understand their future trends in order to anticipate and mitigate climate change. This paper reviews published scenarios of major categories of these emissions with the aim to provide background information for the development of new scenarios. These categories include CO2 from deforestation, CH4 from rice cultivation, CH4 from enteric fermentation of cattle, and N2O from fertilizer application. Base year estimates of all these categories varied greatly from reference to reference, and hence emissions of all scenarios were normalized relative to their 1990 value before being compared to one another. The range of published scenarios of CO2 emissions from deforestation is widest around the middle of the 21st century and then all scenarios converge to low values towards 2100. By contrast, the different scenarios of CH4 and N2O diverge with time, showing their widest range in 2100. Global emissions of CH4 from rice cultivation vary by a factor of three in 2100 and N2O from fertilized soils by a factor of 2.3. Emissions of CH4 from enteric fermentation of animals have the smallest range (factor of 2.0). The typical long-range trends of land-use emission scenarios vary greatly from region to region - they stabilize in industrialized regions after a few decades, but tend to stabilize later in developing regions or continue to grow throughout the 21st century. To improve the realism of the estimates of future trends of land-use emissions, it is especially important to improve the estimation of the future extent of agricultural land and the rate of deforestation, while taking into account significant driving forces such as the demand for agricultural commodities and crop yields. 39 refs.

Alcamo, J. [Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Swart, R. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, The Hague (Netherlands)

1998-12-31

228

Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are effective greenhouse gases, the most important of which are the HFCs. The emission estimates and i

Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

1998-11-01

229

Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

230

Environmental hazards and health risk of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes, potent greenhouse gases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article aimed at introducing the main physical properties and commercial/industrial uses of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes (including perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorononane) and the environment and health hazards posed by their toxic decomposition products (especially in hydrogen fluoride and perfluoroisobutylene) because these perfluorocompounds are potent greenhouse gases, which have been blanketed into the Kyoto Protocol, but was rarely described in the National Inventory Reports by Annex I Parties. The environmental properties (including octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility and Henry's law constant) of liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes were evaluated, and further discussed were its atmospheric implications according to the predicted properties and possible proposal for the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (CF(3)COOH) in the atmosphere by the ionized photolysis. These predicted values revealed that liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes tend to be hydrophobic and partitioned into organic matter, and they have exceptionally low solubility in water and extremely high vaporization from the water bodies, suggesting that it will sink into the atmosphere if it is released into the environment.

Tsai WT

2009-02-01

231

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO2-equivalent (kg CO2-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, andtravel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

232

SIDE BY SIDE MEASUREMENTS OF GREENHOUSE GASES BY GROUND-BASED FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED (FTIR) SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric inversion studies of greenhouse gases currently rely on a combination of in situ measurements. In-situ measurements are highly precise but also have their limitations. The spatial coverege is limited and the vertical transport is not well known. These two factors limit the confidence in source-sink estimates derived from the corresponding models. Satellite observations can cover the whole globe, and their analysis does not depend on the vertical transport. They need to be validated by ground-based observations, measuring the same quantity, the total column. The ground-based solar absorption FTIR-spectrometry has been found suitable for this purpose. However, all ground-based instruments involved in a validation need to be absolutely comparable. The Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) in Bremen, Germany performs intensive side-by-side measurements. In the framework of two EU-projects GEOMON and IMECC two fully automated FTIR-systems were built at the Institute and were successfully installed in Bialystok (Poland) and Orleans (France). Preliminary results of these comparability studies and first measurements of the sites will be presented.

Messerschmidt, J.; Weinzierl, C.; Macatangay, R.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

2009-12-01

233

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO2-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

2009-01-01

234

A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control. First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months. After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

M. C. Geibel; C. Gerbig; D. G. Feist

2010-01-01

235

A fully automated FTIR system for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months. After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

M. C. Geibel; C. Gerbig; D. G. Feist

2010-01-01

236

Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth's climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model.

1994-01-01

237

Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth`s climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model.

Singh, S.V. [Indian Inst. of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Storch, H.V. [Max Planck Inst. fur Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

1994-12-31

238

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

239

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

240

National implications of a 50% global reduction of greenhouse gases, and its feasibility in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers three questions concerning a low-carbon society. The first is the implication of a 50% reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 2050. In the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report, released in 2007 (IPCC 2007b; http://www.gtp89.dial.pipex.com/chpt.htm), the suggested limit of increase in average worldwide temperatures is 2-3 C above the current level, but is this consistent with a 50% reduction by 2050? Second, when a 50% reduction in global emissions is envisioned, what is the level of reduction needed in Japan? Should the 50% reduction be uniform for advanced industrial countries and developing countries, or differentiated based on a country's emissions? Third, how feasible are emission reduction targets in Japan? Even if the emission reduction target set for each country takes into account climate change impact and equity, whether the target is technically, or socially and economically, acceptable is another matter.

Matsuoka, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan); Fujino, J.; Kainuma, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

2008-09-30

 
 
 
 
241

The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As European Union (EU) candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference) scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

Dedinec Aleksandar; Markovska Natasa; Taseska Verica; Kanevce Gligor; Bosevski Tome; Pop-Jordanov Jordan

2012-01-01

242

Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory in 2005 by the Mexican Energy Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance Nacional de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission sources that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory. In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sectors had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non–industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries.

R. Flores–Velázquez; R. Muñoz Ledo–Carranza.; D. Villalba–Valle.

2010-01-01

243

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases; Danmarks energifremskrivning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the baseline projection is to get an assessment of how energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases will evolve in the future, if no new policy measures are introduced, often referred to as a 'frozen policy' scenario. The actual development will continuously be influenced by new political initiatives, and the projection is thus not to be regarded as a long-term prognosis, but rather as a progress which from some given objectives, defines the challenges of future energy policy. The baseline projection is based on a number of general economic conditions (the output of industries, private consumption, fuel prices, etc.), a number of technology-specific assumptions (how much different types of facilities cost, what is their efficiency, etc.) and assumptions about what energy market players will do on purely market terms. Projections of this nature will always be subject to many central and uncertain assumptions. A different development than the assumed will therefore be able to move the outcome in both directions. This year's energy projections are associated with a particular uncertainty due to the large uncertainty about the duration of the economic crisis for the global economy. This uncertainty affects directly the energy projection, as economic activity and demand for energy services are closely linked. The big drop in energy consumption due to the downturn in the economy from 2008 to 2009 illustrates this. (ln)

2010-04-15

244

Emission of greenhouse gases and soil organic matter balance in different farming systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimation of the influence of different farming systems on emission of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) was the aim of the research. The research was conducted on the basis of a special field experiment established in 1994 in the Experimental Station in Osiny in which different crop production systems are compared, and in a group of 20 organic farms organic farms located in the central part of Poland. For the first object the analysis of nitrous oxide emission and soil organic matter balance was done for 1996-2007, whereas for the second one CH4 and N2O emission and potential of sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter was done for 2004-2005. Organic farming system was characterized by significantly lower nitrous oxide emission in comparison to other systems. There was no distinct difference in CH4 emission between compared systems. In the organic farms, total CH4 and N2O emission expressed in GWP units amounted to 1623 points and this was 22% less than the average value for the Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship. Balance method showed that organic system has a great potential in sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter in comparison to integrated and conventional systems. However, measurements of humus content in soil did not confirm that observation.

J. Stalenga; A. Kawalec

2008-01-01

245

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

246

The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the evolution of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 1960 and 2005 is examined using a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM) with a combined troposphere-stratosphere chemical mechanism. Simulations are performed to isolate the relative role of increases in methane (CH4) and stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODSs) on tropospheric O3. The 1960 to 2005 increases in GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4, and ODSs) cause increases of around 1-8% in zonal-mean tropospheric O3 in the tropics and northern extratropics, but decreases of 2-4% in most of the southern extratropics. These O3 changes are due primarily to increases in CH4 and ODSs, which cause changes of comparable magnitude but opposite sign. The CH4-related increases in O3are similar in each hemisphere (˜6%), but the ODS-related decreases in the southern extratropics are much larger than in northern extratropics (10% compared to 2%). This results in an interhemispheric difference in the sign of past O3 change. Increases in the other GHGs (CO2 and N2O) and SSTs have only a small impact on the total burden over this period, but do cause zonal variations in the sign of changes in tropical O3 that are coupled to changes in vertical velocities and water vapor.

Lang, C.; Waugh, D. W.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.; Liang, Q.; Nielsen, J. E.; Oman, L. D.; Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R. S.

2012-12-01

247

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

248

How to (really) reduce the greenhouse gases releases; Comment (vraiment) reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the last 2008 GIEC report, 'Sauvons le Climat' presupposes the character essentially anthropic of the climatic change and concludes to the requirement to divide by four, between now and 2050, the releases of greenhouse gases of the OECD countries. The world energetic balance is composed, for 80% of carbonaceous energies: petroleum, coal and natural gas. At the world-wide level, the preoccupations of the energetic resources and those of climate protection go therefore hand in hand. It is the same thing for the European Union but not for France whose carbonaceous energies part is only of 50%. That is to say, in France, an energy savings has only one chance of two to improve its energetic independence and to protect the climate. Especially for France, 'Sauvons le Climat' gives then here some advices to really reduce the greenhouse gases releases. (O.M.)

Masurel, J.; Frot, J. [Sauvons le Climat (France)

2009-03-15

249

Overview and outline of the results of the project 'Identification of unknown sources of other greenhouse gases. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The greenhouse gases in the title study concern CH4, N2O, CFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The research field is subdivided into biological processes, the processing industry, and production and import of greenhouse gases. Data with regard to material/source combinations are compiled from the literature, databases, and experts in the field and stored in a database, resulting in circa 90 combinations, of which 62 combinations remain, representing 1.9 Mton CO2-equivalents. The 10 largest sources are responsible for 80% of the total emission. The largest material/source combinations are from biological processes (waste processing, waste water treatment). Other combinations are SF6 emission in the production of noise insulating double glazing, use of N2O in hospitals (anesthesia), SF6 emission in the use of high voltage components. The two largest emission sources concern N2O in composting and N2O from waste water treatment plants

2000-01-01

250

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

251

Geologic Storage of Greenhouse Gases: Multiphase andNon-isothermal Effects, and Implications for Leakage Behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage of greenhouse gases, primarily CO2, in geologic formations has been proposed as a means by which atmospheric emissions of such gases may be reduced (Bachu et al., 1994; Orr, 2004). Possible storage reservoirs currently under consideration include saline aquifers, depleted or depleting oil and gas fields, and unmineable coal seams (Baines and Worden, 2004). The amount of CO2 emitted from fossil-fueled power plants is very large, of the order of 30,000 tons per day (10 million tons per year) for a large 1,000 MW coal-fired plant (Hitchon,1996). In order to make a significant impact on reducing emissions, very large amounts of CO2 would have to be injected into subsurface formations, resulting in CO2 disposal plumes with an areal extent of order 100 km2 or more (Pruess et al., 2003). It appears inevitable, then, that such plumes will encounter imperfections in caprocks, such as fracture zones or faults, that would allow CO2 to leak from the primary storage reservoir. At typical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is always less dense than aqueous fluids; thus buoyancy forces will tend to drive CO2 upward, towards the land surface, whenever adequate (sub-)vertical permeability is available. Upward migration of CO2 could also occur along wells, including pre-existing wells in sedimentary basins where oil and gas exploration and production may have been conducted (Celia et al., 2004), or along wells drilled as part of a CO2 storage operation. Concerns with leakage of CO2 from a geologic storage reservoir include (1) keeping the CO2 contained and out of the atmosphere, (2) avoiding CO2 entering groundwater aquifers, (3)asphyxiation hazard if CO2 is released at the land surface, and (4) the possibility of a self-enhancing runaway discharge, that may culminate in a ''pneumatic eruption'' (Giggenbach et al., 1991). The manner in which CO2 may leak from storage reservoirs must be understood in order to avoid hazards and design monitoring systems.

Pruess, Karsten

2005-08-05

252

Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the eastern European taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{+-}A three year long record of regular vertical aircraft profiling for continuous atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio measurements as well as for flask sampling to derive the climatology of other greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, SF{sub 6} and N{sub 2}O), is presented. Measurements were undertaken in the lower troposphere between 100 and 3000 m over the eastern European taiga about 100 km south east of the city of Syktyvkar (61 deg 24 min N, 52 deg 18 min E). From the continuous profiles mean CO{sub 2} mixing ratios were calculated for the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and for the 'free troposphere' up to 3000 m. The amplitudes of the respective seasonal cycles are 22.1 {+-} 3.5 and 14.0 {+-} 2.1 ppm. ABL mixing ratios are generally larger than free tropospheric values during the winter period, and smaller during the summer due to the change of the continental biosphere from a source to a sink. The phasing of the seasonal cycles is slightly different between the two height intervals (by about 30 days), with the ABL extremes occurring earlier. Very abrupt concentration changes up to 8 ppm are observed in the free troposphere associated with changes in air mass origin. Mean CO{sub 2} mixing ratios derived from flask samples at 3000 m compare well with the respective integrated values measured in the continuous profiles above the ABL ({delta} CO{sub 2} = 0.3 {+-} 1.6 ppm). CH{sub 4} mixing ratios also show a pronounced seasonality, and winter time vertical gradients correlate well with those of CO{sub 2}. Similarly, SF{sub 6} vertical gradients are correlated with CO{sub 2} gradients possibly pointing to some anthropogenic origin of the boundary layer CO{sub 2} signal during winter. N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} also show a slight seasonality with almost the same phasing. The main reasons for the seasonality of both gases are probably transport processes with a possible contribution from stratosphere/troposphere exchange.

Sidorov, K.; Sogachev, A.; Nepomniachii, I.L.; Vygodskaya, N.N. [Severtzov Inst. for Evolution and Ecology Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Langendoerfer, U.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I. [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Lloyd, J. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Biogeochemie, Hamburg (Germany)

2002-11-01

253

Microbial CO sub 2 fixation - 1 - its effect on total emission of greenhouse effect gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increase in the concentrations of greenhouse effect gases (GHG) in the atmosphere might cause global climate changes. Carbon dioxide is a dominant GHG in the atmosphere. The electric power industry is emitting a large amount of CO{sub 2} from their thermal power plants. In this report, we describe the conversion of CO{sub 2} into organic matter by microorganisms and evaluate its effects on the total GHG emission. Microalgae and hydrogen bacteria are able to fix a large amount of CO{sub 2} gas in flue gases. Microalgae require a wide area to absorb solar energy. Hydrogen bacteria need hydrogen gas as an energy source. In order to fix 1% of the total CO{sub 2} emitted from the thermal power plants in Japan, a 700 km{sup 2} area will be required for the microalgal cultivation, or 500,000 tons of hydrogen gas for the hydrogen bacteria. The products of microorganisms (Single Cell Protein, SCP) can be used as feed to substitute feed crops. Such utilization will be effective in decreasing GHG emission. If feed crop production is replaced by the microalgal cell production, it will result in some more CO{sub 2} emission due to the energy consumption for the cell production and in less emission of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the farmland. If the effects of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are normalized to the value of CO{sub 2}, the total reduction of GHG emission is expected to be 7.1 tonC/tonC-cell by the microalgal replacement. In the case of hydrogen bacteria, GHG emission will be reduced by 5.2 tonC/tonC-cell, even though hydrogen must be produced from natural gas. In addition to these effects, the alternatives for the crop production will prevent deforestation which is caused by field development, since they do not need any farmland. This effect would correspond to saving 208 tonC by preventing the deforestation by 1 tonC of yearly feed production.

Shima, S. (and others) (CRIEPI, Abiko-shi (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.)

1990-09-01

254

Regulation for fluorinated gases to reduce greenhouse gas emission; F/gassenverordening moet helpen broeikasgasemissies terug te dringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the Kyoto Protocol the EU committed itself to reducing greenhouse gas emissions with 8% in the period 2008-2012 compared to reference year 1990. Among other things, the Kyoto Protocol encompasses three groups of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F gases): hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Most of these F gases have a high Global Warming Potential. These gases are used for various purposes, including coolants in stationary cooling installations, climate control systems and heart pump equipment. [Dutch] In het kader van het Kyoto Protocol heeft de EU zich ertoe verbonden haar broeikasgasemissies gedurende de periode van 2008 tot 2012 met acht procent terug te dringen ten opzichte van het referentiejaar 1990. Het Protocol van Kyoto heeft onder meer betrekking op drie groepen gefluoreerde broeikasgassen (F-gassen): fluorkoolwaterstoffen (HFK's), perfluorkoolstoffen (PFK's) en zwavelhexafluoride (SF6). De meeste van deze F-gassen hebben een hoog aardopwarmingsvermogen (Global Warming Potential). Deze gassen worden voor uiteenlopende toepassingen gebruikt, onder meer als koelmiddelen in stationaire koelinstallaties, klimaatregelingsystemen en warmtepompapparatuur.

NONE

2009-07-01

255

Comportamiento de los gases de efecto invernadero y las temperaturas atmosféricas con sus escenarios de incremento potencial/ Behavior of greenhouse gases and atmospheric temperatures with increased potential scenarios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los últimos decenios se ha establecido que las actividades antropogénicas han incrementado las concentraciones de los gases de efecto invernadero en la atmósfera, así, la posibilidad de un cambio climático global se ha convertido en una preocupación real. El objetivo de la investigación es analizar el comportamiento de las concentraciones de los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), y el de las temperaturas atmosféricas, desde las épocas geológicas h (more) asta la actualidad, con sus escenarios potenciales de incremento al año 2100, bajo varias hipótesis. Adicionalmente, se presentan sus potenciales impactos ambientales. El estudio consiste en una extensa investigación documental, realizada con el propósito de ampliar los conocimientos sobre el cambio climático antropogénico y sus impactos potenciales sobre el ecosistema humano, a fin de renovar el alerta a la comunidad científica y público en general. Se basa en la revisión y discusión de trabajos científicos recientes publicados por varios investigadores. Se concluye que las concentraciones globales de los principales GEI han aumentado como resultado de las actividades humanas, incidiendo en el aumento de la temperatura con impactos ambientales negativos. Se propone promover la participación ciudadana para lograr políticas a fin de enfrentar las consecuencias del cambio climático. Abstract in english In recent decades, it has been established that anthropogenic activities have increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, so the possibility of global climate change has become a concern. The objective of this research is to analyze the behavior of the concentrations of major greenhouse gases and air temperatures from geological times to the present, with increased potential scenarios to 2100, under various hypotheses. Additionally, there are potential (more) social and environmental impacts. The study consists of an extensive desk research, conducted with the aim of expanding knowledge about anthropogenic climate change and its impacts on the human ecosystem in order to renew the alert to the scientific community and general public. It is based on review and discussion of recent scientific papers published by various researchers. We conclude that global concentrations of the main greenhouse gases have increased as a result of human activities, focusing on increasing the temperature with negative environmental impacts. It aims to promote citizen participation to achieve policies to deal with the consequences of climate change.

Olivo, María de Lourdes; Soto-Olivo, Alejandra

2010-12-01

256

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

257

Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2011-12-01

258

Offset system for greenhouse gases : papers for consultation : overview paper and technical background document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's domestic Offset System for greenhouse gases (GHGs) is an important element in meeting Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. The domestic offset system encourages cost-effective domestic reductions or removal of GHG emissions in activities that are not covered by federal GHG regulations. The system allows individuals, businesses and organizations to earn offset credits when they implement projects that result in GHG reductions or removal beyond what they would have done under normal business activities. Once created, verified offset credits can be sold to the Climate Fund, or to sectors that contribute significantly to GHG emissions such as oil and gas, mining and manufacturing and thermal electricity sectors. Potential offset projects exist across the economy and society. These include property developers who include renewable energy elements in their design; farmers who implement low-till practices that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it as carbon in the soil and energy utilities that have demand side management (DSM) programs that reduce energy consumption. Other opportunities may present for forestry companies that invest in reforestation; municipalities that capture methane from landfill sites; companies that encourage public transit or telework and companies covered by the large final emitters (LFE) regulations when they reduce GHG emissions from activities that are not covered by the LFE regulatory requirements. This overview paper invites feedback on the latest proposals for the Offset System. It sets out the overall policy context and the proposed principles and rules to guide the system. The Offset System is built around the principle of environmental benefits, transformational change of all sectors of the Canadian economy, and promotes projects that reduce GHG emissions in all sectors. The system is designed to be simple and cost-effective to administer. tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-08-01

259

Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

2010-12-02

260

Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although present in the atmosphere with a combined concentration approximately 100,000 times lower than carbon dioxide (i.e., the principal anthropogenic driver of climate change), halogenated organic compounds are responsible for a warming effect of approximately 10% to 15% of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding the impact of anesthetic gas release on the environment, with particular focus on its contribution to the radiative forcing of climate change.

Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Greenhouse gas emissions of Dutch biomass. Quantification of greenhouse gases emission of Dutch biomass for electricity and heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The greenhouse gas emissions of all available flows of the biomass chain have been established. This report has the following aims: (1) to establish the greenhouse gas emission of Dutch biomass available for generating electricity and heat; (2) to obtain insight in the opportunities and threats for using the potential of the biomass chains that have the highest potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report can be seen as a supplement to the report 'Availability of Dutch biomass for electricity and heat in 2020' (2009)[nl] Van alle beschikbare stromen is de broeikasgasemissie van de biomassaketen vastgesteld. De doelstellingen van dit rapport zijn (1) De broeikasgasemissie vaststellen van Nederlandse biomassa die beschikbaar is voor de opwekking van elektriciteit en warmte; (2) Van de biomassaketens die het grootste potentieel hebben om broeikasgasemissie te reduceren, inzicht krijgen in kansen en bedreigingen voor het benutten van het potentieel. Dit rapport kan worden beschouwd als een aanvulling op het rapport 'Beschikbaarheid van Nederlandse biomassa voor elektriciteit en warmte in 2020' (2009)

2010-01-01

262

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance. PMID:23011297

Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

2012-08-01

263

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

Pillar VD; Tornquist CG; Bayer C

2012-08-01

264

Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002) enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4). In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling. It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the SCIAMACHY and CarbonTracker carbon dioxide annual increases (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr?1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr?1 on global average). The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy of 1.1–1.2 ppm for monthly average composites within a radius of 500 km. For methane, prior to November 2005, the regional relative precision amounts to 12 ppb and the relative accuracy is about 3 ppb with respect to model simulations for monthly composite averages within the same radius. The loss of some spectral detector pixels results in a degradation of performance thereafter in the spectral range currently used for the methane column retrieval. This leads to larger scatter and less methane retrieved in the tropics for the subsequent time period degrading the relative accuracy. As a result, the overall relative precision is estimated to be 17 ppb and the relative accuracy is in the range of about 10–20 ppb for monthly averages within a radius of 500 km. The derived estimates show that the SCIAMACHY XCH4 data set before November 2005 is suitable for regional source/sink determination via inverse modelling worldwide. In addition, the XCO2 monthly data potentially provide valuable information in continental regions, where there is sparse sampling by surface flask measurements.

O. Schneising; P. Bergamaschi; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. P. Burrows; N. M. Deutscher; D. W. T. Griffith; J. Heymann; R. Macatangay; J. Messerschmidt; J. Notholt; M. Rettinger; M. Reuter; R. Sussmann; V. A. Velazco; T. Warneke; P. O. Wennberg; D. Wunch

2011-01-01

265

Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002) enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4). In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling. It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the carbon dioxide annual increases of SCIAMACHY and the assimilation system CarbonTracker (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr?1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr?1 on global average). The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant for a subset of the analysed TCCON sites when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision (mean standard deviation of the differences) of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy (standard deviation of the mean differences) of 1.1–1.2 ppm for monthly average composites within a radius of 500 km. For methane, prior to November 2005, the regional relative precision amounts to 12 ppb and the relative accuracy is about 3 ppb for monthly composite averages within the same radius. The loss of some spectral detector pixels results in a degradation of performance thereafter in the spectral range currently used for the methane column retrieval. This leads to larger scatter and lower XCH4 values are retrieved in the tropics for the subsequent time period degrading the relative accuracy. As a result, the overall relative precision is estimated to be 17 ppb and the relative accuracy is in the range of about 10–20 ppb for monthly averages within a radius of 500 km. The derived estimates show that the SCIAMACHY XCH4 data set before November 2005 is suitable for regional source/sink determination and regional-scale flux uncertainty reduction via inverse modelling worldwide. In addition, the XCO2 monthly data potentially provide valuable information in continental regions, where there is sparse sampling by surface flask measurements.

O. Schneising; P. Bergamaschi; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. P. Burrows; N. M. Deutscher; D. W. T. Griffith; J. Heymann; R. Macatangay; J. Messerschmidt; J. Notholt; M. Rettinger; M. Reuter; R. Sussmann; V. A. Velazco; T. Warneke; P. O. Wennberg; D. Wunch

2012-01-01

266

O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study.

Baasandorj M; Fleming EL; Jackman CH; Burkholder JB

2013-03-01

267

O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study. PMID:23441917

Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

2013-03-18

268

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

D. A. Plummer; J. F. Scinocca; T. G. Shepherd; M. C. Reader; A. I. Jonsson

2010-01-01

269

The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

2012-04-01

270

Protection of the atmosphere - reduction of the emission of energy related greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Impairing the stability of the global climate system the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are threatening fundamental conditions for the existence of mankind. Today the problem is mainly caused by the high level of consumption of fossil fuels in the industrialized countries; but in future it may become more severe first of all by growing population and energy demand in developing countries. Since a high standard of technology and of social stability will be necessary for any solution of this global problem, it cannot be solved before the developing countries had been industrialized in a certain degree. There are far reaching strategic uncertainties how to provide such conditions. Today immediate economic uncertainties are a result of the non-existence of compulsary international CO2-reduction targets. Therefore it is necessary for a realistic CO2-reduction policy in Germany, on the one hand to concentrate the efforts on cost efficient so called ''non regret measures'', and on the other hand to keep open all significant future option. A very important option for a CO2-free energy supply will be the nuclear energy including the helium cooled high temperature reactor. (orig.)[de] Erdatmosphaere und Klimasystem stellen globale Existenzbedingungen der Menschheit dar, die durch CO2- und andere klimarelevante Emissionen langfristig bedroht sind. Hauptverursacher sind derzeit die Industrielaender, besonders durch ihren erheblichen Verbrauch an fossilen Brennstoffen. Der groesste kuenftige Zuwachs ist jedoch seitens der Entwicklungslaender zu erwarten, weshalb Loesungen letztlich nur gemeinsam moeglich sind. Der erreichte Stand von Wissenschaft, Produktion und Lebensniveau in den Industrielaendern ist vordergruendig Ursache von Energieverbrauch und Emissionen, zugleich aber ist er die entscheidende materielle und soziale Grundlage dafuer, sich ueberhaupt derartigen globalen Herausforderungen stellen zu koennen. Eben solche elementaren Voraussetzungen muessen in der Mehrzahl der Entwicklungslaender erst noch geschaffen werden, woraus sich neben nicht restlos geklaerten wissenschaftlich-technischen Fragen die groessten Unsicherheiten in bezug auf globale Problemloesungen ergeben. Unmittelbar oekonomische Unsicherheiten resultieren heute daraus, dass noch keine international verbindlichen Emissionsminderungsabkommen bestehen. Diese Unschaerfen zwingen dazu, sich zunaechst auf moeglichst robuste kosteneffiziente Minderungsmassnahmen zu konzentrieren, zugleich aber alle entscheidenden Optionen offenzuhalten. Hierin eingeschlossen ist die Kernenergie einschliesslich des Hochtemperaturreaktors, der sich langfristig als wichtige Vorleistung und Beitrag Deutschlands fuer den Schutz der Erdatmosphaere erweisen koennte. (orig.)

1993-01-01

271

Improving Solid Waste Management in Gulf Co-operation Council States: Developing Integrated Plans to Achieve Reduction in Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Landfills are a significant source of greenhouse gases, which contribute to the process of global warming. In the region covered by the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC), changes in consumption patterns have led to an excessive dump of municipal solid waste (MSW). Thus, it is clearly an important time to re-evaluate conventional waste management protocols in order to establish methods that not only deal with increased demand but also minimize greenhouse gas emissions and improve efficiency of resource management, in general.  Here, I advocate the use of a new hierarchy in integrated municipal solid waste schemes, with the aim of designing more eco-friendly management plans for use in GCC states.

Mohammed Saleh Al.Ansari

2012-01-01

272

Main methods for decreasing the emission of greenhouse gases formed in the production and processing of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantitative characteristics of methods proposed for decreasing the greenhouse effect of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and NOx formed in the production and combustion of solid, liquid, and gas fuels are compared: change from the combustion of one type of fuel to another; the pumping of CO{sub 2} into aquatic environments, underground voids and lakes, and coal and gas-bearing (oil-bearing) beds; the chemisorption of CO{sub 2} by rocks; the combustion and utilization of coalmine and associated methane; and photosynthesis. Parameters were proposed for evaluating the relative efficiency of well-known methods for decreasing the anthropogenic green-house effect of these gases.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

273

Effects of aerosols and greenhouse gases on the radiation budget and the climate forcing in and around the Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

While central Europe's temperature rose by more than 1°C since the early 1980s, the overall surface of the glaciers declined by about 20%, and total ice volume decreased by more than 30% in the Alps. This analysis shows measured shortwave and longwave surface forcings in and around the Alps and relates them to humidity and temperature increases through the radiation and energy budget. At low altitudes around the Alps, shortwave climate forcing, primarily related to declining air pollution and solar brightening by the direct aerosol effect, is found to be considerably larger than longwave forcing due to rising greenhouse gases. However, in the Alps, where there is low air pollution at high altitudes, solar radiation increase over the last decades has been small, whereas longwave radiation increase due to the rising greenhouse effect is similar to that at low altitudes. At low and high altitudes, shortwave and longwave forcing energy increases the turbulent fluxes, which raise atmospheric humidity, and enhance the longwave forcing through water vapour feedback. Overall, the analysis shows that during the last two decades, declining aerosols had an important effect on climate forcing at low altitudes, superimposing a shortwave forcing on the longwave greenhouse warming. At high altitudes however, this shortwave component is missing and climate forcing is primarily due to the rising greenhouse effect, which resulted in a lower surface warming in the Alps when compared to the temperature rise at low altitudes in central Europe.

Philipona, Rolf; Ruckstuhl, Christian

2010-05-01

274

More greenhouse gases as a result of winter cold and growth of production; Meer broeikasgassen door winterkou en productiegroei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases was 6 percent higher compared to 2009. It is the First time in seven years that the emission has increased. The emission is only one percent below the level of 1990, the reference year of the Kyoto protocol. [Dutch] In 2010 was de uitstoot van broeikasgassen 6 procent hoger dan in 2009. Hiermee neemt voor het eerst in zeven jaar de uitstoot van broeikasgassen weer toe. De uitstoot ligt slechts 1 procent onder het niveau van 1990, het basisjaar van het Kyotoprotocol.

Olsthoorn, K. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peek, K. [Emissieregistratie, Rijksinstituut voor volksgezondheid en milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2011-08-22

275

Inventory of greenhouse gases in Quebec 1990-2000; Inventaire quebecois des gaz a effet de serre 1990-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec for the period 1990-2000 resulting from human activity was discussed. Added to the emissions that occur naturally, the emissions contribute to disrupt the equilibrium of the global system, resulting in global warming. The greenhouse gases selected for this inventory are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur fluorides, polyfluorocarbons, and some hydrofluorocarbons. The emissions of greenhouse gases were at 86,36 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 1990, and rose to 88,34 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent in 2000, representing an increase of 2.3 per cent. In 2000, the energy sector was responsible for the largest quantities of greenhouse gas emissions (62.64 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent), of which 33.56 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from transport activities. For the year 2000, the emissions generated by the energy sector represented 70.91 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec., followed by industrial processes with 12.05 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent and 13.64 per cent, and agriculture with 8.37 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 9.48 per cent, wastes with 5.16 metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent and 5.84 per cent, the use of solvents and other products with 0.11 metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent and 0.13 per cent. the land use and forestry sector was not included in this inventory, as data was not available. The largest increase in emissions originated from the energy sector for the period 1990-2000, for an increase of 5.3 per cent. For the same period, the emissions from the industrial processes sector decreased by 4.1 per cent. This sector does not include the emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, as they were included in the energy sector figures. For the agriculture sector, the increase was 1.9 per cent, and the waste sector decreased by 13.3 per cent. The use of solvents and other products, representing a small proportion of greenhouse gas emissions, saw an increase of 4.7 per cent. This report shows the evolution of emissions for each sector, and will be updated annually. 14 refs., 8 tabs., 34 figs.

Houle, G.; Chhem, C.; Bougie, R. [Quebec Ministere de l' Environnement, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

2002-09-01

276

Inventory preliminary of gases of greenhouse effect in Colombia. Sources and drains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document presents a summary of the results of the national greenhouse gas emissions inventory sources sinks and reservoirs project, which has been developed within the framework of the national study to address climate change. The study was initiated by a professionals group on behalf of the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales in July 1995, with financial support of the German Organization of Cooperation GTZ and the technical assistance of the Venezuelan Country Study Greenhouse gas Inventory team

1997-01-01

277

The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N{sub 2}O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed oil and oil from soybeans and oil palms cultivated on recently deforested soils have higher life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional diesel. (author)

Reijnders, L. [IBED, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2011-02-15

278

Assessment of net emissions of greenhouse gases from ethanol-gasoline blends in Southern Ontario R-2000-1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To comply with the protocol to the Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol adopted in December 1997, Canada must reduce by 21 to 26 per cent under a business-as-usual scenario its greenhouse gases emissions to reach the six per cent below its 1990 level agreed upon. An analysis of the life-cycle emissions and life-cycle energy balance of the production of ethanol from corn and its use as a motor fuel in blends with gasoline was performed and the results included in this document. This fuel system proved to have a positive energy balance. Southern Ontario being the largest corn growing region in Canada, was the focus of the study. Ethanol production volume of 225 ML per year in 2000 and 2010 was analysed for energy and emission. Annual ethanol production volumes of 500 ML, 750 ML, and 1,000 ML were also evaluated. Due to the extensive use of manure as a source of nitrogen in Ontario, the overall energy use to produce corn is lower than most areas of the United States. Ethanol produced in Ontario and blended with gasoline proved to reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 3.9 per cent compared with gasoline. It is expected that as operating experience is gained, ethanol production in Ontario will become more efficient. 41 refs., 33 tabs., 3 figs.

Henderson, S. (ed.) [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2000-01-01

279

Greenhouse gases and ozone depleting compounds in the earth`s atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming and ozone depletion are the main environmental problems caused by changes in atmospheric composition. These changes come from human activities that add to the natural cycles of atmospheric gases or put entirely new compounds into the earth`s atmosphere. At present only a few gases play a major role in global climate change and ozone depletion. These are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, trichlorofluoromethane (F-11), and dichlorofluoromethane (F-12). There are other gases that also add to these problems but to a lesser extent. This paper is about global warming, ozone depletion and the trends and budgets of the gases that can change the climate or deplete the ozone layer. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Khalil, M.A.K. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

280

Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Glacial interglacial evolution of greenhouse gases as inferred from ice core analysis - a review of recent results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ice core analysis provides the most direct evidence of changes in some major greenhouse gases (CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and N[sub 2]O) over the climatic cycle covering approximately the last 150,000 years. A remarkable overall correlation is observed between the CO[sub 2] or CH[sub 4] record and the climatic changes in the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, with lowest greenhouse gas concentrations found under full glacial conditions. In terms of phase relationship, CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4] are roughly in phase with the climatic signal during the deglaciation periods; when entering the glaciation, CH[sub 4] appears to decrease in phase with the Antarctic cooling but CO[sub 2] lags strikingly behind. The CH[sub 4] record exhibits a marked signal which is most likely associated with the abrupt cooling of the Younger Dryas. Existing differences between CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4] records in comparison with climate reflect differences in sources which are mainly oceanic in the case of CO[sub 2] and continental in the case of CH[sub 4]. For N[sub 2]O only few data are available suggesting that the N[sub 2] concentrations may also have been lower during the Last Glacial Maximum than during the Holocene. Greenhouse gases are likely to have played an important climatic role in amplifying, together with continental ice, the initial orbital forcing of the glacial-interglacial climatic changes.

Raynaud, D.; Barnola, J.M.; Chappellaz, J.; Zardini, D.; Jouzel, J.; Lorius, C.

1992-01-01

282

A influência dos gases estufa no oceano Atlântico Sul: estudo climatológico The effect of greenhouse gases on South Atlantic Ocean: a climatological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os impactos climáticos no oceano Atlântico Sul causados pela industrialização e conseqüente aumento da emissão de gases estufa para a atmosfera. Para isso utilizou-se o modelo numérico acoplado National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model, sob duas condições climáticas: a primeira para o período pré-industrial e, a segunda, para o pós-industrial. Os resultados mostraram aquecimento da superfície do mar na climatologia do período pós-industrial em relação ao pré-industrial, principalmente durante a primavera quando alcança 2,5°C ao sul do continente sulamericano. O comportamento climatológico do transporte barotrópico e da pressão ao nível do mar também mostraram diferenças significativas de um período para o outro, sugerindo a intensificação da Alta Subtropical, Giro Subtropical e Corrente Circumpolar Antártica. Sazonalmente, as diferenças no transporte barotrópico foram maiores no outono, exibindo valores superiores a 25 Sv, em torno de 0°E, 55°S. A pressão atmosférica ao nível do mar foi levemente fortalecida no verão e outono, com intensificação máxima de 2mbar, e enfraquecida no inverno do período pré-industrial para a simulação do presente.The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the increase in greenhouse gases caused by the industrialization in the climate of the South Atlantic Ocean. We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model. Two climate conditions were used to force the model, one relative to the pre-industrial levels of greenhouse gases emissions and the other to the levels of the present days. The results have shown a significant sea surface warming in pos-industrial climatology in relation to the pre-industrial one, mainly during the spring season when it reaches 2.5°C south of South America. The climatological behavior of the barotropic streamfunction and the sea level pressure also showed relevant differences from one period to the next. This suggests an intensification of the subtropical high, the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Seasonally, the differences in the barotropic streamfunction were larger in autumn with values as high as 25 Sv around 0°E, 55°S. The sea level pressure for present simulation shows a straightening in summer and autumn with an intensification of 2mbar, and a weakening in winter in relation to the pre-industrial period.

Andréa S. Taschetto; Ilana Wainer

2003-01-01

283

A influência dos gases estufa no oceano Atlântico Sul: estudo climatológico/ The effect of greenhouse gases on South Atlantic Ocean: a climatological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os impactos climáticos no oceano Atlântico Sul causados pela industrialização e conseqüente aumento da emissão de gases estufa para a atmosfera. Para isso utilizou-se o modelo numérico acoplado National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model, sob duas condições climáticas: a primeira para o período pré-industrial e, a segunda, para o pós-industrial. Os resultados mostraram aquecimento da (more) superfície do mar na climatologia do período pós-industrial em relação ao pré-industrial, principalmente durante a primavera quando alcança 2,5°C ao sul do continente sulamericano. O comportamento climatológico do transporte barotrópico e da pressão ao nível do mar também mostraram diferenças significativas de um período para o outro, sugerindo a intensificação da Alta Subtropical, Giro Subtropical e Corrente Circumpolar Antártica. Sazonalmente, as diferenças no transporte barotrópico foram maiores no outono, exibindo valores superiores a 25 Sv, em torno de 0°E, 55°S. A pressão atmosférica ao nível do mar foi levemente fortalecida no verão e outono, com intensificação máxima de 2mbar, e enfraquecida no inverno do período pré-industrial para a simulação do presente. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the increase in greenhouse gases caused by the industrialization in the climate of the South Atlantic Ocean. We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model. Two climate conditions were used to force the model, one relative to the pre-industrial levels of greenhouse gases emissions and the other to the levels of the present days. The results have shown a significant sea surface war (more) ming in pos-industrial climatology in relation to the pre-industrial one, mainly during the spring season when it reaches 2.5°C south of South America. The climatological behavior of the barotropic streamfunction and the sea level pressure also showed relevant differences from one period to the next. This suggests an intensification of the subtropical high, the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Seasonally, the differences in the barotropic streamfunction were larger in autumn with values as high as 25 Sv around 0°E, 55°S. The sea level pressure for present simulation shows a straightening in summer and autumn with an intensification of 2mbar, and a weakening in winter in relation to the pre-industrial period.

Taschetto, Andréa S.; Wainer, Ilana

2003-01-01

284

Modeling the Infrastructure Dynamics of China -- Water, Agriculture, Energy, and Greenhouse Gases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People's Republic of China wasperformed to address questions about China's ability to meet its long-term grain requirementsand energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result fromincreased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models ofChina's infrastructures---water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gas---were developed tosimulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption,energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models wereiiintegrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China.This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhousegas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. Themodel was used to generate projections of China's available water resources...

Stephen H. Conrad; Thomas E. Drennen; Dennis Engi; David L. Harris; Richard P. Thomas

285

Electric energy auctions in Brazil and its effect on emissions of greenhouse gases by the electric sector; Leiloes de energia eletrica no Brasil e sua influencia nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa pelo setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The result of the auctions of electricity, after the new regulatory framework in 2004, has shown the increased participation of fossil sources of thermal generation, contributing to increased emission of greenhouse gases by the Brazilian Electricity Sector. This article aims to analyze the correlation between growth in electric generation sector and rising greenhouse gases, especially through the study of the winning projects of electric power auctions conducted with the advent of the New Institutional Model of the Power Sector from 2004, comparing with the existing policies and prospects of the next auction of the electric sector. (author)

Alpire, Ricardo; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

2010-07-01

286

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases to 2025; Fremskrivning af Danmarks energiforbrug og udledning af drivhusgasser frem til 2025  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy policies are changing in Denmark as well as internationally. Since the latest projection was published January 2008 the Danish political system has agreed on a national energy agreement, furthermore EU has presented a proposal concerning promotion of renewable energy and reduction of greenhouse gases. Thus a need for an update of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases has arisen. Two scenarios are presented: 1) An agreement projection - Danish Energy Authority's new basic projection, 2) An updated basic projection without the energy agreement. It must be stressed that long term projections imply uncertainties which are expected to increase during the projection period. (BA)

2008-07-15

287

PLANIFICACIÓN CONTABLE Y DERECHOS DE EMISIÓN DE GASES DEEFECTO INVERNADERO ACCOUNTING PLANNING AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION RIGHTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A implementação do comércio de direitos de emissão de Gases do Efeito Estufa (GEE), em 2005, na Espanha, tem suscitado múltiplas incertezas tanto contábeis como fiscais. Antes de junho de 2005, as empresas espanholas deviam ter recebido a cota de CO2 fixada pelo Governo através da abertura de uma conta no Registro Nacional de emissões. Qualquer empresa que pretender exceder a sua cota de emissão de gases deve adquirir ou gerar os direitos de emissão correspondentes que não detenha. Porém, toda companhia, que tenha emitido um volume de gases inferior à cota recebida ou que tenha gerado direitos num montante superior ao que necessitava, poderá repassá-los a outros atores econômicos. Este regime de comércio de direitos de emissão recém-lançado gera um novo cenário, pleno de desafios e oportunidades e uma ou outra ameaça derivada da possibilidade de se gerarem excedentes ou a necessidade de se adquirirem novos direitos, com as conseqüentes receitas e aumentos de custos. O problema que estudamos neste trabalho é como contabilizar estes movimentos e que efeito essas operações podem ter na determinação da base de cálculo do Imposto de Sociedades à luz da recente publicação da Resolução do ICAC sobre direitos de emissão. A única referência disponível para as empresas espanholas que devem apresentar contas em conformidade com as NIIF era a Final Interpretation 3 (IFRIC 3), publicada em dezembro de 2004, através do IASB, mas revogada em junho de 2005, devido às numerosas críticas recebidas de outros organismos privados. Palavras-chave: Planejamento Contábil. Direitos de Emissão de Gases do Efeito Estufa. Provisões. Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade. In January 2005, the European Union established a greenhouse gas emission trading plan. In Spain, several doubts about the accountant effects of this plan have arisen. All installations emitting greenhouse gases must be in possession of an appropriate permit issued by competent authorities. A government (or government agency) issues rights (allowances) to participating entities for them to emit a specified level of emissions. Participants in the scheme are able to buy and sell allowances in the CO2 stock exchange market. At the end of a specified period, participants are required to deliver allowances equal to their actual emissions. The accounting to be adopted by participants and its effect on earnings due to the new Spanish regulation (ICAC Resolution) is the study objective of this paper. For firms ruled by IFR’s the only reference was IFRIC 3 which, however, was withdrawn in June 2005 due to the EFRAG recommendation. The Spanish Accounting Plan and the ICAC Resolutions remain the legal frameworks for the rest of the firms. We demonstrate how in the new Spanish legal context it will be possible to differ or anticipate incomes, making for a very useful tool for accounting planning. Keywords: Allowances. Accounting planning. Provisions. IFRs. Earnings. La implantación del comercio de los derechos de emisión de Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI) en 2005 en España ha suscitado múltiples incertidumbres tanto contables como fiscales. Antes de junio de 2005 las empresas españolas debían haber recibido la asignación de CO2 fijada por el Gobierno a través de la apertura de una cuenta en el Registro Nacional de emisiones. Cualquier empresa que pretenda emitir más gases de los que se le han asignado, deberá adquirir o generar los correspondientes derechos de emisión de los que carezca. En cambio, toda aquella compañía que haya emitido gases por debajo de la cantidad asignada o que haya generado derechos en cuantía superior a la que necesitaba podrá transmitirlos a otros agentes económicos. Este recién estrenado régimen de comercio de derechos de emisión genera un nuevo entorno repleto de retos y oportunidades y alguna que otra amenaza, derivadas de la posibilidad de generar excedentes o la necesidad de adquirir nuevos derechos con los consiguientes beneficios o incremento de costes. El problema que nos oc

Ana Isabel Mateos Ansótegui; Iñaki Bilbao Estrada

2008-01-01

288

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

289

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

290

Less greenhouse gases because of the economical crisis; Minder broeikasgassen door economische crisis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009 greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands decreased for the fifth consecutive year. The emissions amount to 201 billion CO2 equivalents, which is nearly 6 percent below 1990 levels, the base year of the Kyoto Protocol. [Dutch] In 2009 is voor het vijfde opeenvolgende jaar de uitstoot van broeikasgassen in ons land verminderd. De uitstoot lag met 201 miljard CO2-equivalenten bijna 6 procent onder het niveau van 1990, het basisjaar van het Kyoto protocol.

Olsthoorn, K. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peek, K. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2010-09-08

291

Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1990-1999; Emission af drivhusgasser og forsurende stoffer 1990-1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In relation to the emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas and methane the emission of carbon dioxide has increased from 52 million tonnes in 1990 to 56 million tonnes in 1999, while the emission of laughing gas and methane nearly have been on a constant level in the period. The emission of laughing gas in 1993 31 thousand tonnes and for methane the emission is 623 thousand tonnes. For the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxide there have been a decrease in the emission, still mostly for sulphur dioxide there has shown a decrease from 183 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 56 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of nitrogen has decreased from 272 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 210 thousand tonnes in 1999. The emission of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tonnes in 1990 to 96 thousand tonnes in 1999. (EHS)

Anon.

2001-07-01

292

Emission of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances 1991-2000; Emission af drivhusgasser og forsurende stoffer 1991-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emission of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, laughing gas, and methane has decreased from 1991 to 2000. The carbon dioxide emission has decreased from 63 mill. tons in 1991 to 52 mill. tons in 2000. The decrease of emission of laughing gas and methane only decreased slightly during the period. In 2000 the emission of laughing gas and methane is 29 thousand tons and 628 thousand tons, respectively. For all the acidifying substances sulphur dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides a decrease is observed. The emission of sulphur dioxide has decreased from 239 thousand tons in 1991 to 28 thousand tons in 2000. Emission of nitrogen oxides has decreased from 319 thousand tons in 1991 to 208 thousand tons in 2000. Emissione of ammonia has decreased from 128 thousand tons to 104 thousand tons during the same period. (LN)

Anon.

2002-07-01

293

The role of district cooling systems in reducing the emission of ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some existing and emerging technologies that can be applied in the near term to eliminate or reduce ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases were discussed. A large fraction of the total ODS emissions can be attributed to the cooling (air conditioning) of buildings. From an ecological point of view, the preferred solution to the problem of CFC-elimination in buildings is to connect to a district cooling system where cold energy storage can be applied in a cost effective manner. Ice slurry- based district cooling systems were reviewed, as well as seasonal energy storage such as deep lake water cooling, aquifer energy storage, abandoned mine thermal storage, and ice ponds. Integrated energy systems such as trigeneration, absorption chillers and combined heat and power, were outlined. The advantages of ice slurry based district cooling systems were identified. 15 refs., 10 figs

1994-01-01

294

Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

1992-01-01

295

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm?1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm?1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

A. Butz; S. Guerlet; O. P. Hasekamp; A. Kuze; H. Suto

2013-01-01

296

Greenhouse  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The greenhouse is made from profile bars made of metal, frame parts built-up from brackets (10), bars (11), roof beams (12) and rails (16), particularly made of aluminum and its alloys. Other devices for heat insulation are arranged in the area of the glass retaining profiles or in the area of the cover shroud or in the area of the impulse gap between the filling plates (14,15) or in the area of air gap between the ventilation edge profiles.

ERSTLING ERICH; GANSEN KLAUS DIETER

297

Contribution of the renewable energies to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission for 2010; Contribution des EnR a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'horizon 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To illustrate the renewable energies contribution to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission in 2010 (19 Mt of CO{sub 2} per year, of greenhouse gases emission avoided), this document presents the different renewable energies sources and the international context of their implementation. Today data and estimations for 2010 are provided. (A.L.B.)

Anon.

2003-03-01

298

Utilisation of flue gases from biofuels in greenhouses as carbon dioxide source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the project is to develop technologies by which the flue gases from burning bio fuels and peat can be purified for used in green houses as a low cost source of carbon dioxide. Traditionally carbon dioxide has been produced by burning propane or natural gas or by injecting bottled carbon dioxide gas directly into the green house. The new methods should be more affordable than the present ones. (orig.)

2006-01-01

299

Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation.

2007-01-01

300

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

Abbas Asakereh; Asadalah Akram; Shahin Rafiee; Afshin Marzban

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

302

Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions; Gaz a effet de serre et changement climatique: quantification et instruments de lutte contre des emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

Bizec, R.F

2006-07-01

303

Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill  

Science.gov (United States)

There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

2012-04-01

304

Options for the reduction of gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GEI), Colombia 1998 -2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Taking into account the greenhouse gas emissions for Colombia in year 2010, different options for reduction of GHG emissions were considered. Twenty-four options were evaluated from economical and technical points of view, with a total reduction potential of 31.7 M ton/ year of CO2 equivalent. About 75% of this potential could be developed in the forestry sector and 25% in energy projects. If the proposed measures can to be implemented, the country's emissions will be 143.5 M ton/year of co2 by 2010: this means that Colombia will have lowered its emissions not only to the 1990 level but down to 14% below this level

1999-01-01

305

Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations.

Molinos-Senante M; Hernández-Sancho F; Sala-Garrido R; Cirelli G

2013-07-01

306

Method for evaluating trends in greenhouse gases from ground-based remote FTIR measurements over Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.

T. Gardiner; A. Forbes; P. Woods; M. deMaziere; C. Vigouroux; E. Mahieu; P. Demoulin; V. Velazco; J. Notholt; T. Blumenstock; F. Hase; I. Kramer; R. Sussman; W. Stremme; J. Mellqvist; A. Strandberg; K. Ellingsen; M. Gauss

2007-01-01

307

Estimación de gases de efecto invernadero en humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial/ Assessment of Greenhouse Effect Gases in Sub-Superficial Flow Constructed Wetlands/ Estimativa de gases de efeito estufa em pantanais construídos de fluxo subsuperficial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os pantanais construídos são sistemas atraentes, de baixo custo de operação e manutenção, para países em desenvolvimento, quanto a tratamento das águas residuais. Entretanto, estes ao reduzir as cargas poluidoras das águas residuais, podem gerar metano, dióxido de carbono e óxido nitroso, chamados gases de efeito estufa. Neste sentido, foram comparadas duas espécies ornamentais e estimaram-se as emissões de metano, dióxido de carbono e óxido nitroso, median (more) te câmara estática, em tres pantanais construídos, a escala real, dos quais um foi plantado com Heliconia psittacorum, outro com Phragmites australis e o terceiro sem plantar (controle). Cada um, foi submetido a uma carga hidráulica de 3,5 m³d-1, equivalente a um tempo nominal de retenção hidráulico de 1,8 dias. Além disso, foram realizadas as caracterizações fisioquímicas habituais. A eficiência ficou entre 66,2% e 87,8% para a DQO, a temperatura média esteve entre 29 e 31 °C e o pH entre 6,3 a 7, em os sistemas plantados e sem plantar. Além disso, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre a vegetação estudada. Por tanto, conclui-se que as espécies Heliconia psittacorum e Phragmites australis não afetam a emissão de gases de efeito estufa nos sistemas estudados. Abstract in spanish Los humedales construidos son sistemas atractivos, de bajo costo de operación y mantenimiento, para países en vía de desarrollo, en cuanto a tratamiento de las aguas residuales. Sin embargo, estos al reducir las cargas contaminantes de las aguas residuales, pueden generar metano, dióxido de carbono y óxido nitroso, llamados gases de efecto invernadero. En este sentido, se compararon dos especies ornamentales y se estimaron las emisiones de metano, dióxido de carbono (more) y óxido nitroso, mediante cámara estática, en tres humedales construidos, a escala real, de los cuales se plantaron uno con Heliconia psittacorum, otro con Phragmites australis y un tercero sin plantar (control). Cada uno, sometido a una carga hidráulica de 3,5 m³d-1, equivalente a un tiempo nominal de retención hidráulico de 1,8 días. Además, se realizaron las caracterizaciones fisicoquímicas habituales. La eficiencia se situó entre 66,2% y 87,8% para la DQO, la temperatura tuvo en promedio del 29 y 31 °C y el pH entre 6,3 a 7, en los sistemas plantados y sin plantar. Además, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la vegetación estudiada. Por tanto, se concluye que las especies Heliconia psittacorum y Phragmites australis no afectan la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero en los sistemas estudiados. Abstract in english In developing countries, constructed wetlands are attractive systems with low operational and maintenance costs in terms of wastewater treatment. However, by reducing the pollution load of wastewater they might contribute to produce some greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. This research compared two ornamental species and assessed the emissions of these gases through the use of static cameras in three full-scale constructed wetlands of whic (more) h two were planted: one with Heliconia psittacorum, one with Phragmites australis, and the third one, which was not planted, was the control wetland. Each one of them received a hydraulic load of 3.5 m³d-1, which is equivalent to a nominal hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. In addition, physicochemical characterizations were performed. Efficiency was between 66.2% and 87.8% for COD; on average, the temperature was between 29 and 31 °C, and the pH was between 6.3 and 7, in both planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, no significant differences in the vegetation studied were found. We conclude that the ornamental species used do not affect the emission of greenhouse gases in the systems analyzed.

Silva-Vinasco, Juan Pablo; Valverde-Solís, Arlyn

2011-07-01

308

Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO2-equivalents tonne —1 wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (—560 to —120 kg CO2equivalents tonne—1 wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (—1.9 to —1.3 tonnes CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2009-01-01

309

Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

Merrild H; Christensen TH

2009-11-01

310

Inventario de emisiones en 2005 de gases de efecto invernadero por el sector energético mexicano/ Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory in 2005 by the Mexican Energy Sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se calcularon las emisiones de Gases de Efecto de Invernadero (GEI's) del 2005 por la sección de consumo y/o transformación de energía en México. El documento obtenido no es oficial, y como referencia, se utiliza el consumo de combustible que refiere el Balance Nacional de Energía 2005, publicado por la Secretaría de Energía. Con esto, se estandarizan las fuentes de emisión que en algún momento usará el Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de GEI's 2 (more) 005. Para resolver la falta de factores de emisión propios de México, se recurre a los factores globales de emisión propuestos como valores por omisión por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático. Para la estimación de las emisiones de GEI's se utilizó el Método Sectorial tomando en consideración el consumo de combustible de cada uno de los subsectores en que se encuentra dividido el sector energético. Se encontró que los sectores transporte y de la industria de la transformación de energía son los que más emisiones de GEI's presentan, y que México como país no industrializado tiene menos emisiones percápita que los países desarrollados. Abstract in english In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance Nacional de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission sources that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory (more) . In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sectors had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non-industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries.

Flores-Velázquez, R.; Muñoz Ledo-Carranza, R.; Villalba-Valle, D.

2010-03-01

311

Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gases and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

Huang, Hann S. (Darien, IL); Sather, Norman F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01

312

The greenhouse effect and its intensification by changing concentrations of atmospheric trace gases. Der Treibhauseffekt und seine Verstaerkung durch Konzentrationsaenderungen atmosphaerischer Spurenstoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A precondition for understanding the greenhouse effect is the determination of the part played by trace gases in the radiation balance of the system earth/atmosphere. Such knowledge shows changing concentrations of atmospheric trace gases to entail a modification of the radiation balance and, thus, the greenhouse effect. Said changes in concentrations have been proved beyond doubt for trace gases with a long retention time in the atmosphere. Spectral analysis of the radiation effects in the atmosphere caused by the changes of concentration of trace gases yields qualitative information rendering the greenhouse effect understandable. Detailed radiation transfer calculations permit relatively precise quantification of effects in the radiation flows. Uncertainties exist mainly because of limited accuracy with regard to the future development of trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Climate models permit to predict the future state of the atmosphere taking into account these changes in the radiation flows. The calculated climate changes are still fraught with a number of uncertainties, though, as models have not been able so far to consider back-coupling effects adequately. (orig./KW).

Fischer, H. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung)

1990-01-01

313

Intramolecular halogen-halogen bonds?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By analysing the properties of the electron density in the structurally simple perhalogenated ethanes, X3C-CY3 (X, Y = F, Cl), a previously overlooked non-covalent attraction between halogens attached to opposite carbon atoms is found. Quantum chemical calculations extrapolated towards the full solution of the Schrödinger equation reveal the complex nature of the interaction. When at least one of the halogens is a chlorine, the strength of the interaction is comparable to that of hydrogen bonds. Further analysis shows that the bond character is quite different from standard non-covalent halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds; no bond critical points are found between the halogens, and the ?-holes of the halogens are not utilised for bonding. Thus, the nature of the intramolecular halogen···halogen bonding studied here appears to be of an unusually strong van der Waals type.

Johansson MP; Swart M

2013-07-01

314

Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified.

Schwietzke S; Griffin WM; Matthews HS

2011-10-01

315

Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small. PMID:15296295

West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

2004-07-01

316

Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

West JJ; Osnaya P; Laguna I; Martínez J; Fernández A

2004-07-01

317

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (—900 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO2-equivalents tonne —1 ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh

2009-01-01

318

Alternative Technologies for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emission from Palm Oil Mills in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 metric ton (MT) of CPO from mills with biogas capture (4 mills) and without biogas capture (2 mills) in 2010 emitted GHG emissions of 935 kgCO2eq, on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture emitted GHG of 64% and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the fresh fruit bunches acquisition. The establishment of biogas recovery system must be the first step for GHG reduction. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/MT CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/MT CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before entering the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be done by I) using a wastewater dispersed unit for cooling; II) using a covered pond; III) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system; and IV) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options I), II), III), and IV), GHG reductions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/MT CPO, respectively, can be achieved.

Kaewmai R; H-Kittikun A; Suksaroj C; Musikavong C

2013-09-01

319

New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies.

2009-01-01

320

New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Qiang Liu; Minjun Shi; Kejun Jiang [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
321

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available. PMID:19748950

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

2009-09-11

322

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

Boldrin A; Andersen JK; Møller J; Christensen TH; Favoino E

2009-11-01

323

Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a "seed-to-wheel" approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO(2) equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO(2)eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N(2)O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

Scacchi CC; González-García S; Caserini S; Rigamonti L

2010-10-01

324

Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

1993-11-01

325

remote sensing of greenhouse gases with solar occultation technique using high resolution near infrared heterodyne spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared heterodyne spectrometer has been developed, which uses a distributed feedback diode laser as a tunable local oscillator, for detecting methane in the atmosphere at 1.65 ?m. The main problem of heterodyning in the near infrared range is the stringent requirements to alignment of the incident radiation fronts. Single mode quartz fiber Y-coupler was used as a diplexer to solve this problem. Radiation mixed in a fiber was detected by a balanced couple of InGaAs p-i-n diodes. The amplifier bandpass was ~ 1.75 MHz, close to local oscillator linewith. Wavelength coverage of spectral measurement was provided by sweeping local oscillator frequency in the range of 1.5 cm-1. The spectrometer noise level is demonstrated to be 1.3 of the fundamental shot-noise limit. Using Sun observations, atmospheric methane absorption line has been recorded. Achieved spectral resolution is constrained by local oscillator linewidth and stability, and constitutes about 2 MHz, which corresponds to resolving power of 10^8. The simplicity of the proposed scheme opens a perspective to use it for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in various applications, including TCCON activity. In particular, it allows solar occultation observations of CO2, C?, CH4, H2S, C2H4 and other gases from both spacecraft and ground-based platforms, as well as Doppler measurements of stratospheric winds.

Klimchuk, Artem; Nadezhdinskii, Alexander; Ponurovskii, Yakov; Rodin, Alexander; Spiridonov, Maxim

2013-04-01

326

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360—1260 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of recovered aluminium and 400— 1020 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040—19 340 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated aluminium and 560—2360 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible.

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

327

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in comparison wih the downstream activities. The GHG contributions from the downstream reprocessing of the paper waste ranged from approximately 490 to 1460 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of paper waste. The system may be expanded to include crediting of avoided virgin paper production which would result in GHG contributions from —1270 to 390 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste. It may also be assumed that the wood not used for virgin paper production instead is used for production of energy that in turn is assumed to substitute for fossil fuel energy. This would result in GHG contributions from —1850 to —4400 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of paper waste. These system expansions reveal very large GHG savings, suggesting that the indirect upstream and operational GHG contributions are negligible in comparison with the indirect downstream emissions. However, the data for reprocessing of paper waste and the data for virgin paper production are highly variable. These differences are mainly related to different energy sources for the mills, both in regards to energy form (heat or electricity) and fuel (biomass or fossil fuels).

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders

2009-01-01

328

Heterogeneous saline formations : long-term benefits for geo-sequestration of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline formations as a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions was discussed with particular reference to reservoir performance of heterogenous formations with varying permeability and porosity distributions. If CO2 is injected into such formations, the increased baffling and reduced permeability may inhibit the flow of CO2 towards potential leak points in the reservoir. Injectivity into low-quality rock is a concern for heterogeneous formations. Injection programs involving multiple wells and appropriate well- completion strategies may be able to overcome injectivity problems for these candidate formations. The opportunity for geosequestration increases if low-quality heterogeneous saline formations are considered as possible target formations. Dynamic simulation of CO2 injection into a formation was used to model possible outcomes for geosequestration projects. Heterogeneity may include stratigraphic layering in the reservoir, faults, depositional mixing, compartmentalization, and channel systems. It was determined that for underground storage, CO2 should be injected at the bottom of a heterogeneous formation to take the best advantage of vertical baffling in the reservoir to stratigraphically trap CO2 and increase reservoir contact with the formation. The trapping mechanisms for CO2 sequestration were discussed with reference to solubility; gas-water relative permeability hysteresis; geological seals; and, mineralization. Pressure rise reservoir simulation studies have shown that permeability has a pronounced influence on reservoir performance in terms of CO2 migration, local pressure changes in the formation and long-term status of the CO2. The increased travel path of CO2 causes increased trapping through greater reservoir contact and potentially improves the storage project. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

2005-01-01

329

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for the open dump, 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1. On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about —70 to 30 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1, obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1. This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide

2009-01-01

330

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

Manfredi S; Tonini D; Christensen TH; Scharff H

2009-11-01

331

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution. PMID:19710108

Larsen, Anna W; Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-08-26

332

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0—70 kg CO2eq. tonne —1 of glasswaste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately —500 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of glass waste for the remelting technology and —1500 to —600 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

2009-01-01

333

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

Larsen AW; Merrild H; Christensen TH

2009-11-01

334

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60— 1600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

335

Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric CO2 and light path modification from space-based spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases: methodology and application to GOSAT measurements over TCCON sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents an improved photon path length probability density function method that permits simultaneous retrievals of column-average greenhouse gas mole fractions and light path modifications through the atmosphere when processing high-resolution radiance spectra acquired from space. We primarily describe the methodology and retrieval setup and then apply them to the processing of spectra measured by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We have demonstrated substantial improvements of the data processing with simultaneous carbon dioxide and light path retrievals and reasonable agreement of the satellite-based retrievals against ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON).

Oshchepkov S; Bril A; Yokota T; Yoshida Y; Blumenstock T; Deutscher NM; Dohe S; Macatangay R; Morino I; Notholt J; Rettinger M; Petri C; Schneider M; Sussman R; Uchino O; Velazco V; Wunch D; Belikov D

2013-02-01

336

Anthropogenic effects on the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere: aerosols versus long-lived greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We use single-forcing historical simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model to compare the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) on simulated winter circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Our primary focus is on the subtropical jet, which is an important source of baroclinic instability, especially in the Australasian region, where the speed of the jet is largest. For the period 1950 to 2005, our simulations suggest that AAs weaken the jet, whereas increasing LLGHGs strengthen the jet. The different responses are explained in terms of thermal wind balance: increasing LLGHGs preferentially warm the tropical mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, whereas AAs have a similar effect of opposite sign. In the mid-troposphere, the warming (cooling) effect of LLGHGs (AAs) is maximal between 20S and 30S; this coincides with the descending branch of the Hadley circulation, which may advect temperature changes from the tropical upper troposphere to the subtropics of the SH. It follows that LLGHGs (AAs) increase (decrease) the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between low latitudes and the SH mid-latitudes. The strongest effects are seen at longitudes where the southward branches of the Hadley cell in the upper troposphere are strongest, notably at those that correspond to Asia and the western Pacific warm pool.

Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Kidston, J.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.

2013-03-01

337

[Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

Li HF; Zhang XF

2010-03-01

338

[Diurnal changes in greenhouse gases at water-air interface of Xiangxi River in autumn and their influencing factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the closed chamber and gas chromatography method, a 24-hour continuous monitoring was carried out to understand the greenhouse gases fluxes across the water-air interface of the Xiangxi River Bay, the Three-Gorges Reservoir in Autumn. Results indicated that the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O across the water-air interface showed an obvious diurnal variation. The absorption and emission process of CH4 showed strong diurnal variation during the experimental period, reaching the highest emission at 1 am, whereas CO2 and N2O were emitted all day. The fluxes of CO2 ranged from 20.1-97.5 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) at day and 32.7-42.5 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) at night, the fluxes of N2O ranged from 18.4-133.7 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) at day and 42.1-102.6 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) at night. The fluxes of CO2 had positive correlation with wind speed and negative correlation with pH. The fluxes of N2O had positive correlation with pH.

Huang WM; Zhu KX; Zhao W; Yu BS; Yuan XG; Feng RJ; Bi YH; Hu ZY

2013-04-01

339

Wood materials used as a means to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). An examination of wooden utility poles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There has been growing concern over the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), as a cause of global warming. The IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) suggests two ways in which the choice of materials could be relevant. First, some materials, particularly wood, have the advantage that they continue to hold carbon (C)in their cells even after being converted to products. The implications of this feature are well researched. Second, an area that is not well researched relates to the different energy requirements for producing similar products made with different materials. Using the findings of recent research, this paper compares the energy requirements and C emissions of manufacturing a product using wood with that of other materials. The case study of utility poles demonstrates the positive C and global warming consequences of the lower energy requirements of wood in the U.S., compared to other materials such as steel or concrete. It demonstrates that GHG emissions associated with utility poles are a small but significant percent of total US annual emissions. Wood utility poles are associated with GHG emission reductions of 163 Terragrams (Tg) of CO2 when compared with steel poles. This is about 2.8 percent of US annual GHG emissions, which are estimated at about 5.28 Petragrams (Pg) of CO2 annually. Thus, the use of wooden utility poles rather than steel results in a small but significant reduction in total US emissions

2002-01-01

340

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO(2), biogenic CO(2), CH(4,) and avoided CO(2) as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO(2)-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO(2)), while the net CO(2)-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO(2)). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO(2)-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO(2)-eq reduction.

Niu DJ; Huang H; Dai XH; Zhao YC

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Emission of greenhouse gases from a waste dump. Emissie van broeikasgassen uit een afvalstortplaats; Metingen op 'De Keyenberg', Wageningen, zomer 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the title study is to determine the emissions of the greenhouse gases CH[sub 4], CO[sub 2] and N[sub 2]O from the surface of a waste dump. Use has been made of photo-acoustic spectroscopy to determine the three gases simultaneously and continue. The emissions of CH[sub 4] and N[sub 2]O from the waste dump, which is not in use anymore for four years, are low. The emission of CO[sub 2], however, is considerably higher. Digging off the top layer and the drilling of wells to win gas result in higher emissions

Verhage, A.J.L.; Rooth, R.A.; Wouters, L.W. (KEMA Milieu Services, Arnhem (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

342

Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

343

Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

344

Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

Kim, D.; Na, U.

2010-12-01

345

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a) and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22) for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively) from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America (?9%, 23%, 17%, respectively) and Europe (11%, 11%, ?4%, respectively) were mostly smaller and less systematic. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2) higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported time of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual time of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the geographical distribution of stations measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl; P. Seibert; J. Arduini; S. Eckhardt; P. Fraser; B. R. Greally; C. Lunder; M. Maione; J. Mühle; S. O'Doherty; R. G. Prinn; S. Reimann; T. Saito; N. Schmidbauer; P. G. Simmonds; M. K. Vollmer; R. F. Weiss; Y. Yokouchi

2009-01-01

346

A new analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from a global network and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a) and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22) for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively) from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America and Europe were modest. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2) higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported timing of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual timing of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the station locations of the current global network measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl; P. Seibert; J. Arduini; S. Eckhardt; P. Fraser; B. R. Greally; M. Maione; S. O'Doherty; R. G. Prinn; S. Reimann; T. Saito; N. Schmidbauer; P. G. Simmonds; M. K. Vollmer; R. F. Weiss; Y. Yokouchi

2008-01-01

347

[Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

Xie YB; Li W

2013-05-01

348

Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 million patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists' offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have potential significant impact on global warming. The widely used anesthetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metabolized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous oxide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. The primary goal of this article is to critically review the current data on the potential effects of general anesthetics on the global environment and to describe possible alternatives and new technologies that may prevent these gases from being discharged into the atmosphere.

Ishizawa Y

2011-01-01

349

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S

2003-07-01

350

Halogen emissions from coal combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the pathways of the halogens in coal, peat and other feedstocks such as sorbents, through combustion and pollution control equipment, to eventual release to the environment. The extent to which the combustion conditions and pollution control equipment affect the release of these elements is discussed. The report also evaluates the contribution of coal to the total regional and global halogen emissions and concentrations and indicates the extent to which coal combustion may be responsible for any detrimental environmental effects. The individual halogen contents of coal can vary by a factor of ten or more, proximity of the mine to the sea being the greatest influence. Combustion conditions and pollution control equipment may appreciably reduce the eventual emissions of halogens to the atmosphere from coal combustion. Those processes designed to control emissions of SO{sub x}, such as limestone addition to the boiler and FGD, can be especially effective in reducing emissions of the acidic halogen gases. The report concludes that halogen emissions from coal combustion are not generally of environmental concern. Indeed, with the continued implementation of FGD, emissions of halogens from coal combustion are not likely to be a problem in the future. 150 refs., 17 figs., 29 tabs.

Sloss, L.L.

1992-02-01

351

Remote sensing of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using hyperspectral observations in the thermal infrared  

Science.gov (United States)

Densely sampling the atmosphere in time and space, satellite measurements of the distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration could in principle provide a way to constrain atmo-spheric inversions of CO2 surface fluxes. Until the recent launch of the first dedicated CO2 observing instrument JAXA/GOSAT in January 2009, information on CO2 and other green-house gas atmospheric distribution have been obtained for several years from thermal infrared sounders, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) launched onboard the NASA/Aqua satellite in May 2002 or the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched on-board the European MetOp platform in October 2006. We use coupled observations in the thermal infrared from IASI, and in the microwave from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), also launched onboard MetOp, to retrieve mid-to-upper tropospheric contents of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in clear-sky conditions, in the tropics. Thermal observations, sensitive to both temperature and either CO2 or CH4, are used in conjunction with microwave observations, only sensitive to temperature, to decorrelate both signals through a non-linear inference scheme based on neural networks. A key point of this approach is that no use is made of prior information in terms of gas seasonality, trend, or geographical patterns. The precision of the IASI retrieval is estimated to be about 2 ppmv (less than 1 Features of the retrieved CO2-CH4 space-time distributions include: (1) a CO2 trend of 2.1 ppmv.yr-1 in average, and a CH4 trend of 10 ppbv.yr-1 in the last couple of years, which confirms the recent increase of methane detected at surface stations; (2) a strong seasonal cycle in the northern tropics, and a lower seasonal cycle in the southern tropics, in agreement with in-situ measurements; in particular, comparison between AIRS and IASI retrievals highlights the time-lag of CO2 cycle while transported from the surface to the upper troposphere; (3) a latitudinal decrease from 20 N to 20 S lower than what is observed at the surface but in excellent agreement with tropospheric aircraft measurements; (4) geographical patterns in good agree-ment with simulations from atmospheric transport and chemistry models, but with a higher variability; (5) signatures of CO2 and CH4 emissions transported to the troposphere such as CO2 emissions from biomass burnings, or a large plume of elevated tropospheric methane south of the Asian continent, which might be due to Asian emissions from rice paddies uplifted by deep convection during the monsoon period and then transported towards Indonesia. More-over, these retrievals, performed from the same instrument and with the same retrieval process, provide the means to study the correlation between CO2 and CH4, in particular its seasonal variation over regions of specific interest, which leads the way to a multi-species study of surface fluxes and atmospheric transport. In addition to bringing a greatly improved view of CO2 and CH4 atmospheric distribution, these results from thermal infrared observations should provide a means to observe and understand atmospheric transport pathways of these two greenhouse gases from the surface to the upper troposphere.

Crevoisier, Cyril; Chedin, Alain; Nobileau, Delphine; Armante, Raymond; Thonat, Thibaud; Scott, Noelle A.

352

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC). These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael Novoa S.A.; Sergio González M.; Rosemary Novoa J.; Rosa Rojas

2000-01-01

353

Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

2010-07-01

354

Greenhouse gases in the life cycle of fossil fuels: critical points in the assessment of pre-combustion emissions and repercussions on the complete life cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A previous life cycle assessment on power generation via fossil fuels showed the weak points for coal, oil and gas in the combustion step. The attention is now focused on the upstream segment of natural gas and coal. The results show the extent of upstream greenhouse gases emissions, their impact on the overall cycle and the uncertainty in emissions estimate which is largely a function of the site-specific sources of the upstream step and of the estimation methodology. In the light of the environmental and economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (and of the black market for greenhouse gas emission permits), standardized procedures and guidance are needed in order to develop complete and accurate emissions inventories. 35 refs., 12 figs.

Tiziana Zerlia [Stazione sperimentale per i Combustibili, Milan (Italy)

2005-07-01

355

Balance of greenhouse gases emission in the life cycle of ethanol fuel; Balanco de emissao de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol combustivel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental focus of the use of biofuels is the reduction of green houses gases emissions through automobile exhaust; furthermore, the European Union has discussed the necessity of the requirement these reduction between 30 to 50% compared with the gasoline cycle. Inside this context, this paper joins and compares recent studies about green house gases emission balance of environmental life cycle of ethanol fuel derived form corn, wheat and sugar cane with the goal of recognize the reduction these emissions from the use of ethanol in function of the different alternatives of production. Results show that production of ethanol from sugar cane results higher reduction of green house gases emission compared with the gasoline. Ethanol from corn and ethanol from wheat meet, in the current conditions of Canadian production and use, the least requirement of 30% of saved emission. (author)

Silva, Cinthia Rubio Urbano da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

2008-07-01

356

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.Os campos do sul do Brasil são ecossistemas naturais com alta diversidade e têm sido há séculos importantes para a atividade pastoril e para outros importantes serviços ambientais. Este trabalho aponta os principais fatores que controlam os processos ecossistêmicos, revisa e discute os dados disponíveis sobre os estoques de carbono no solo e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa dos solos, e sugere oportunidades de mitigação das mudanças climáticas. A pesquisa sobre as emissões de carbono e gases de efeito estufa nos campos do sul do Brasil é recente e os resultados são ainda fragmentados. Os dados disponíveis indicam que os ecossistemas campestres naturais manejados adequadamente contêm estoques importantes de carbono orgânico no solo e, portanto, sua conservação é relevante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas. Além disso, esses ecossistemas apresentam uma grande e rápida perda de carbono orgânico do solo quando convertidos para lavouras com preparo convencional do solo. No entanto, nas áreas já convertidas, há potencial para mitigar as emissões de gases de efeito estufa por meio de sistemas de cultivo usando plantio direto e rotações de culturas baseadas em plantas de cobertura de solo. O efeito está relacionado principalmente ao potencial desses sistemas de cultivo para acumular matéria orgânica do solo em taxas que superam o aumento das emissões de óxido nitroso. O uso de modelos com esses resultados associados aos sistemas de informação geográfica poderá gerar estimativas regionais de balanço de carbono.

VD Pillar; CG Tornquist; C Bayer

2012-01-01

357

Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source.

Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

1998-01-01

358

Study of trace gas species including greenhouse gases over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX precampaign cruises of 1996, 1997 and 1998 on Sagar Kanya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of surface concentration of trace gas species including greenhouse gases, viz, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O have been carried out over the Indian Ocean region on board the research vessel Sagar Kanya from 4 January to 7 February 1996, 27 December 1996 to 31 January 1997 and 18 January to 31 March 1998 respectively. The positive latitudinal gradient from south to north has been observed for various measured trace species during the above pre-campaigns. It could be attributed to the continental air-mass flow across the Inter-Tropical Convergence zone (ITCZ).

Gupta, P.K.; Sharma, R.C.; Koul, S.; Parashar, D.C.; Mandal, T.K.; Mitra, A.P. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

1999-04-10

359

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?; Energie et environnement - effet de serre. Les actions internationales, europeennes et nationales pour maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quel bilan et quelles perspectives?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-12-15

360

Quebec`s action plan for the implementation of the 1992 Rio Summit on climate change: monitoring and control of greenhouse gases; Plan d`action quebecois de mise en oeuvre de la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques : etat d`avancement des mesures et bilan des emissions de gas a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measures taken by the Quebec government to monitor and control emissions of greenhouse gases in accordance with the Rio Summit of 1992, were summarized. The document presents the provincial plan to control and limit emissions of greenhouses gases to 1990-levels by the year 2000. The effects of greenhouse gases on climate change were reviewed. Ongoing research programs which investigate the effects of greenhouse gas production in the agricultural, energy, environmental and transportation sectors, were described, along with methods to control greenhouse gases in these same sectors. Quebec`s ECOGESTE program for voluntary control of greenhouse gases was outlined. The report also includes a detailed assessment of sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the province. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-07-01

362

Worldwide emission of greenhouse gases from Dutch consumption not reduced; Wereldwijde uitstoot broeikasgassen door Nederlandse consumptie niet verminderd  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009 the greenhouse gas emission of the Dutch economy was almost 6% lower than in 1996. However the global greenhouse gas emission from Dutch consumption, the carbon footprint, has remained the same. [Dutch] In 2009 was de uitstoot van broeikasgassen door de Nederlandse economie bijna 6 procent lager dan in 1996. De wereldwijde uitstoot van broeikasgassen door Nederlandse consumptie, de carbon footprint, is echter gelijk gebleven.

Delahaye, R.; Edens, B.; Schenau, S.

2010-11-17

363

Overcoming the greenhouse effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article defines the greenhouse effect and describes the greenhouse gases. It examines the various strategies that have been suggested to deal with the greenhouse effect and the actions taken by the Australian Government so far to deal with the possible results of the greenhouse effect.

1989-03-01

364

Integrated approach for combining sustainability and safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety) towards greenhouse gases emission targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to present an approach to integrate sustainability and safety concerns on top of a typical RAM Analysis to support new enterprises to find alternatives to align themselves to the greenhouse gases emission targets, measured as CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) equivalent. This approach can be used to measure the impact of the potential CO{sub 2} equivalent emission levels mainly related to new enterprises with high CO{sub 2} content towards environment and production, as per example, the extraction of oil and gas from the Brazilian Pre-salt layers. In this sense, this integrated approach, combining Sustainability and Safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety), can be used to assess the impact of CO{sub 2} 'production' along the entire enterprise life-cycle, including the impact of possible facility shutdown due to emission restrictions limits, as well as due to the occurrence of additional failures modes related to CO{sub 2} corrosion capabilities. Thus, at the end, this integrated approach would allow companies to find out a more cost-effective alternative to adapt their business into the global warming reality, overcoming the inherent threats of greenhouse gases. (author)

Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hovik, Oslo (Norway)

2009-07-01

365

Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on some peat mining areas in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Silvola, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

1996-12-31

366

Greenhouse gas trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents recent trends in one production and distribution of greenhouse gases. Gases include: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone. Global tropospheric chemistry and stratospheric ozone and circulation are also discussed.

1990-01-01

367

[Anesthetic gases, the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. How harmful are the anesthetic emissions for the global environment?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decade, world society has acknowledged the harmful effects on the environment of the greenhouse effect and of depletion of the ozone layer, caused by industrial emissions of man-made compounds. Ozone depletion is caused mainly by chlorine compounds or nitrogen oxides released by degradation in the stratosphere. The greenhouse effect is caused by increased trapping of terrestrial heat radiation. Degradation of the anaesthetic vapours halothane, enflurane and isoflurane releases chlorine, and nitrous oxide degradation produces reactive nitrogen oxides. Nitrous oxide in particular, but also the vapours, absorb terrestrial radiation. The total discharge of anaesthetic vapours contributes to less than 0.01% of the total atmospheric chlorine load, and the annual Norwegian release of approximately two tons accounts for 0.2% of the world total. It is estimated that the total amount of nitrous oxide released from anaesthetics accounts for 0.05% of the greenhouse effect, while annual Norwegian emissions of nitrous oxide (less than 160 tons) comprise 0.2-0.4% of world total. Because of their favourable clinical properties and their modest contribution to ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, medical use of inhalational anaesthetic agents should not be banned. However, low flow anaesthetic techniques should be employed, in order to reduce their negative impacts on the atmosphere.

Dale O; Dale T

1991-06-01

368

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

H. Chen; J. Winderlich; C. Gerbig; A. Hoefer; C. W. Rella; E. R. Crosson; A. D. Van Pelt; J. Steinbach; O. Kolle; V. Beck; B. C. Daube; E. W. Gottlieb; V. Y. Chow; G. W. Santoni; S. C. Wofsy

2010-01-01

369

Monitoring Greenhouse Gases and Their Pollutions in Sarakhs Region Influenced by the Sourest Natural Gas Resource in the Middle East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shahid Hashemi-Nezhad Gas Processing Company (S.G.P.C.), located in Sarakhs region of Iran, processes wells that consist of the sourest gases in Middle East. The gas entering the company from gas wells includes 3.5 percent H2S and 6.5 percent CO2

Nader Nabhani; Mojtaba Mirdrikvand; Saeedeh Imani Moqadam; Amirali Rezazadeh; Seyed Alireza Sakaki

370

Switching from 20% to 30% of greenhouse gases emissions in case of international agreement: consequences for the ETS sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a commitment to reduce of 8%, and then 20% its greenhouse gas emissions with respect to 1990, the European Union could set this objective to 30% for the ETS (Emission Trading Scheme) sector if an international agreement is signed to succeed the Kyoto protocol. The authors describe this European Commission proposition, and give an overview of the current negotiations. Then, they comment the domestic implications for the UE and the 'Climate and Energy' package, and the international dimension of these negotiations

2008-01-01

371

Emission reduction of greenhouse trace gases in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Baden-Wuerttemberg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The importance of individual energy sectors for greenhouse gas emission -above all CO2 - is explained. Different ways for CO2 reductions are presented and evaluated with regard to costs. Particularly the variants ''price policy'', ''abandonment of nuclear energy'' and ''efficient measures'' are analysed. In case of the third variant even cost reductions can be attained by simultaneously reducing CO2 emissions by up to 30% till the year 2005. (KW)

372

Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

1997-12-31

373

Future requirements on emission of greenhouse gases. Possible long-term emission commitments for Norway; Framtidige krav til klimagassutslipp. Mulige langsiktige utslippsforpliktelser for Norge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This nine-page document first describes the 1997 Kyoto Protocol with an emphasis on its implications for Norway and then considers some requirements which may be expected to be placed on emission reductions. According to the agreement, Norway may increase its emission of greenhouse gases by 1% relative to the 1990 emissions. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step although the emission reductions obtainable by obeying it will reduce the global rise in temperature by only 0.1 degrees during the next one hundred years. It is found that requirements on the Norwegian emission for a given year may be strongly affected by how the future emissions are envisaged, even subjected to the additional constraint of a long-term stabilization of the concentration on a given level. 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Alfsen, Knut H.

1998-11-01

374

Impacts of greenhouse gases on epicuticular waxes of Populus tremuloides Michx.: Results from an open-air exposure and a natural O3 gradient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epicuticular waxes of three trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in O3 tolerance were examined over six growing seasons (1998-2003) at three bioindicator sites in the Lake States region of the USA and at FACTS II (Aspen FACE) site in Rhinelander, WI. Differences in epicuticular wax structure were determined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified by a coefficient of occlusion. Statistically significant increases in stomatal occlusion occurred for the three O3 bioindicator sites, with the higher O3 sites having the most affected stomata for all three clones as well as for all treatments including elevated CO2, elevated O3, and elevated CO2+O3. We recorded statistically significant differences between aspen clones and between sampling period (spring, summer, fall). We found no statistically significant differences between treatments or aspen clones in stomatal frequency. - Structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of greenhouse gases on Populus tremuloides Michx.

2005-01-01

375

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development.

Muylaert, M.S.; De Campos, C.P.; Pinguelli Rosa, L. [International Virtual Institute on Global Change, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2003-11-01

376

L'effet de serre par le CO2 et les gaz traces Greenhouse Effect from CO2 and Trace Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selon une opinion assez répandue le CO2 et les gaz traces, produits par l'activité humaine depuis le début de la révolution industrielle (1850), principalement du fait de la combustion et de la déforestation, et progressivement accumulés dans l'atmosphère terrestre, pourraient par effet de serre provoquer au XXIe siècle un réchauffement de la Terre de