WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

... CFCs CO Additional Information Introduction What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave ... a greenhouse gas. Carbon Monoxide and other reactive gases Carbon monoxide (CO) is not considered a direct ...

2

Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students’ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

3

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

KQED

4

The greenhouse effect gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

5

Greenhouse Gases Exposed  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students learn about the relationship between greenhouse gases and global warming through a simple teacher demo or hands-on lab activity. Everyday materials are used: beakers, baking soda, vinegar, candle, thermometers, heat source such as a goose-necked lamp, etc. Students shine a light onto three thermometers: a control, an upside down beaker w/ a thermometer and air, and a beaker in which CO2 had been poured.

Victoria Babcock

6

Greenhouse gases and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

7

Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

8

Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.

2009-09-01

9

How Greenhouse Gases Absorb Heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners observe two model atmospheres -- one with normal atmospheric composition and another with an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. These two model atmospheres are exposed to light energy from a sunny window or from a lamp. This activity will help learners understand that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb and hold heat, relating to global warming and climate change.

2012-08-01

10

Greenhouse gases thinning the thermosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Orbital decay rates of satellites and other objects that have flown continually for more than 30 years were analyzed to determine the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the thermosphere. A decrease of 25 percent per decade was found in the thermosphere's density since 1966. Implications are discussed.

Emmert et al.

11

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

12

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO2 , SO2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

13

GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest c...

Dušica Stojanovi?; Svetlana Pejovi?; Zoran Miloševi?

2013-01-01

14

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01

15

GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

Dušica Stojanovi?

2013-09-01

16

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

17

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

18

Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

19

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N2O by soil process, and CH4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O and SF6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO2 concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO2 concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH4 concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N2O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N2O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF6 concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H2 gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

20

Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG)  

Science.gov (United States)

A satellite borne FTIR called IMG(Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases) was developed by JAROS (Japan Resources Observation System Organization) deputed by MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry). It was installed on ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) which was launched on Aug. 1966 by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). IMG is a very high spectral resolution (0.1cm-1) spectrometer that covers a wide range of infrared spectrum (3.3 - 15 ?m). With these features, IMG could detect and monitor spatial and vertical distribution of greenhouse effect gases such as CO2, CH4, 03, etc. over the entire Earth. Unfortunately, ADEOS stopped its operation on 30, June 1997, but about 8 months of data have been collected. IMG sensor characteristics and some of the initial scientific results are described

Shimoda, H.; Ogawa, T.

 
 
 
 
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Module for greenhouse gases in BBPR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BBPR is the Dutch program for calculating the effect of management decisions of the farmer on the corresponding use of feed, fertilizers, herd composition, investment costs, and annual costs. This report describes the extension of BBPR with a module for greenhouse gases. The present level of methane and nitrous oxide emissions is indicated as well as the result of measures to reduce these emissions. Measures taken into account are increasing the share of fodder maize ...

Rlm, Schils; Da, Oudendag; Kw, Hoek; Ja, Boer; Ag, Evers; Mh, Haan

2007-01-01

22

Greenhouse gases and global change: International collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the current concern about the fate of the global environment is related to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases and possible effects on the global climate. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, which is changing rapidly, is, to a large degree, determined by the release and uptake of a variety of trace gases by the biosphere. The biospheric production of relatively small amounts of trace gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is of special interest, as they trap infrared radiation, thus warming the Earth's surface. These greenhouse gases and other biogenic trace gases, such as carbon monoxide, odd nitrogen oxides (NOx), and a range of volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry by affecting tropospheric concentration of ozone, the penetration of photochemically active solar ultra-violet radiation, the production of hydroxyl radicals, and, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, cloud formation. Within the decade of the 1990's, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program will launch a worldwide research effort, unprecedented in its scope, to address the functioning of the Earth system and to understand how this system is changing. The body of information generated by the IGBP will form the scientific underpinning for predictions relating to future causes and effects of global changes. Through its observational network and process studies, and the effective communication of the resulting data to sc communication of the resulting data to scientists in all nations committed to this endeavor, the IGBP will help provide the world's decision makers with the input necessary to wisely manage the global environment

23

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NOx, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO2. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N2O (16 %), CH4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

24

Critical UN Conference on Greenhouse Gases Begins  

Science.gov (United States)

Yesterday at the Hague, delegates from over 160 nations began meeting to try to hammer out details of the 1997 Kyoto agreement which mandated that nations reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to pre-1990 levels by the year 2012. This sixth session of the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change will have to overcome significant obstacles if delegates are to emerge with an agreement within the conference's scheduled two weeks. To begin with, there is disagreement between the European Union and the United States on the use of "clean development mechanisms" (CDMs), which give states a number of ways of reaching the treaty's targets without actually reducing emissions. Among these is a proposal to allow for the trading of emissions credits -- disparagingly viewed by most environmentalists as licenses to pollute -- and the possibility of states with high emissions investing in reforestation projects in developing countries that would serve as "Carbon sinks" to absorb these emissions. Naturally, the US, responsible for 24 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, favors such measures, while the EU -- believing its recent coastal flood to be greenhouse-related -- opposes them in favor of across-the-board reductions and tough sanctions for noncompliance. The US is also concerned that the current draft allows developing nations, including China and India, to pledge to reach emissions limits in the future, but does not hold them to any legal obligation for failure to do so. The United Kingdom has stated that an effective agreement can be reached with or without US support. However, given that the US is the main producer of greenhouse gases, most analysts feel that an agreement without US cooperation is liable to have little long-term consequence.

Charbonneau, David D.

25

Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters ded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

26

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

27

Thermal Plasma decomposition of fluoriated greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorinated compounds mainly used in the semiconductor industry are potent greenhouse gases. Recently, thermal plasma gas scrubbers have been gradually replacing conventional burn-wet type gas scrubbers which are based on the combustion of fossil fuels because high conversion efficiency and control of byproduct generation are achievable in chemically reactive high temperature thermal plasma. Chemical equilibrium composition at high temperature and numerical analysis on a complex thermal flow in the thermal plasma decomposition system are used to predict the process of thermal decomposition of fluorinated gas. In order to increase economic feasibility of the thermal plasma decomposition process, increase of thermal efficiency of the plasma torch and enhancement of gas mixing between the thermal plasma jet and waste gas are discussed. In addition, noble thermal plasma systems to be applied in the thermal plasma gas treatment are introduced in the present paper.

Choi, Soo Seok; Watanabe, Takayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Park, Dong Wha [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15

28

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

EIA's annual report on human-caused greenhouse gases in the US shows an annual average increase of 1.1 percent over the past ten years. In 1999, the total emission of greenhouse gases in the US is estimated at 1,833 million metric tons of carbon equivalent, 0.8 percent higher than the estimated level in 1998.

29

A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

Keating, C. F.

2007-01-01

30

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01

31

Emission reduction potential and costs for non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the EU-15  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emission reduction of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGGs) as methane, nitrous oxide and the halogenated gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 can make a significant contribution to the realisation of the Kyoto-target for the European Union. This paper describes the reduction potential and costs of mitigation options for these gases and concludes that in the year 2010 about 40% of the required emission reduction for the EU-15 can be realised by these gases at relative low specific costs (2-eq.). The database, which is constructed for the evaluation, is an important tool in identifying the most promising reduction options and strategies, both on a gas by gas, a source by source and a country by country basis. (Author)

32

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

2014-11-01

33

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

34

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a~warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called faint young sun problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4, and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculati...

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-01-01

35

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997  

Science.gov (United States)

The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997 publication was prepared under the guidance of Mary Hutzler, Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. This report "presents the latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases." The paper states that 82% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are caused by coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Gases such as hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, methane, and other carbon dioxide gases comprise the other 18% of U.S. emissions. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Methane Emissions, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Halocarbons and Other Gases, and Land Use Issues, among others.

36

Cosmic-Ray Reaction and Greenhouse Effect of Halogenated Molecules: Culprits for Atmospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the effects of cosmic rays (solar activity) and halogen-containing molecules (mainly chlorofluorocarbons — CFCs) on atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Brief reviews are first given on the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for O3 depletion and the warming theory of halogenated molecules for climate change. Then natural and anthropogenic contributions to these phenomena are examined in detail and separated well through in-depth statistical analyses of comprehensive measured datasets of quantities, including cosmic rays (CRs), total solar irradiance, sunspot number, halogenated gases (CFCs, CCl4 and HCFCs), CO2, total O3, lower stratospheric temperatures and global surface temperatures. For O3 depletion, it is shown that an analytical equation derived from the CRE theory reproduces well 11-year cyclic variations of both polar O3 loss and stratospheric cooling, and new statistical analyses of the CRE equation with observed data of total O3 and stratospheric temperature give high linear correlation coefficients ? 0.92. After the removal of the CR effect, a pronounced recovery by 20 25 % of the Antarctic O3 hole is found, while no recovery of O3 loss in mid-latitudes has been observed. These results show both the correctness and dominance of the CRE mechanism and the success of the Montreal Protocol. For global climate change, in-depth analyses of the observed data clearly show that the solar effect and human-made halogenated gases played the dominant role in Earth's climate change prior to and after 1970, respectively. Remarkably, a statistical analysis gives a nearly zero correlation coefficient (R = -0.05) between corrected global surface temperature data by removing the solar effect and CO2 concentration during 1850-1970. In striking contrast, a nearly perfect linear correlation with coefficients as high as 0.96-0.97 is found between corrected or uncorrected global surface temperature and total amount of stratospheric halogenated gases during 1970-2012. Furthermore, a new theoretical calculation on the greenhouse effect of halogenated gases shows that they (mainly CFCs) could alone result in the global surface temperature rise of 0.6°C in 1970-2002. These results provide solid evidence that recent global warming was indeed caused by the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic halogenated gases. Thus, a slow reversal of global temperature to the 1950 value is predicted for coming 5 7 decades. It is also expected that the global sea level will continue to rise in coming 1 2 decades until the effect of the global temperature recovery dominates over that of the polar O3 hole recovery; after that, both will drop concurrently. All the observed, analytical and theoretical results presented lead to a convincing conclusion that both the CRE mechanism and the CFC-warming mechanism not only provide new fundamental understandings of the O3 hole and global climate change but have superior predictive capabilities, compared with the conventional models.

Lu, Q.-B.

2013-07-01

37

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an assessment of their orbital-scale climatic role. In addition, evidence from several sources has suggested changes in the SPECMAP ? 18O time scale. This new information indicates that the timing of CO 2 changes at the periods of precession and obliquity does not fit the 1992 SPECMAP model of a "train" of responses initiated in the north, propagated to the south, and later returning north to force the ice sheets. In addition, analysis of the effects of rectification on 100,000-year climatic signals reveals that all have a phase on or near that of eccentricity. This close clustering of phases rules out the long time constants for 100,000-year ice sheets required by the 1993 SPECMAP model. A new hypotheses presented here revives elements of an earlier CLIMAP view (Hays et al., Science 194 (1976a) 1121) but adds a new assessment of the role of greenhouse gases. As proposed by Milankovitch, summer (mid-July) insolation forces northern hemisphere ice sheets at the obliquity and precession periods, with an ice time constant derived here of 10,000 years. Changes in ice volume at 41,000 years drive ice-proximal signals (SST, NADW, dust) that produce a strong positive CO 2 feedback and further amplify ice-volume changes. At the precession period, July insolation forces ice sheets but it also drives fast and early responses in CH 4 through changes in tropical monsoons and boreal wetlands, and variations in CO 2 through southern hemisphere processes. These CH 4 and CO 2 responses enhance insolation forcing of ice volume. Climatic responses at 100,000 years result from eccentricity pacing of forced processes embedded in obliquity and precession cycles. Increased modulation of precession by eccentricity every 100,000 years produces 23,000-year CO 2 and CH 4 maxima that enhance ablation caused by summer insolation and drive climate deeper into an interglacial state. When eccentricity modulation decreases at the 100,000-year cycle, ice sheets grow larger in response to obliquity forcing and activate a 41,000-year CO 2 feedback that drives climate deeper into a glacial state. Alternation of these forced processes because of eccentricity pacing produces the 100,000-year cycle. The 100,000-year cycle began 0.9 Myr ago because gradual global cooling allowed ice sheets to survive during weak precession insolation maxima and grow large enough during 41,000-year ice-volume maxima to generate strong positive CO 2 feedback. The natural orbital-scale timing of these processes indicates that ice sheets should have appeared 6000-3500 years ago and that CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations should have fallen steadily from 11,000 years ago until now. But new ice did not appear, and CO 2 and CH 4 began anomalous increases at 8000 and 5000 years ago, respectively. Human generation of CO 2 and CH 4 is implicated in these anomalous trends and in the failure of ice sheets to appear in Canada.

Ruddiman, William F.

2003-07-01

38

RAPID, SENSITIVE METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HALOGENATED GASES IN WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

A GC method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of halogenated gases (chloromethane, bromomethane, chloroethane, vinyl chloride) in water. An aqueous sample is purged directly to a cryogenically cooled, capillary column for 45 seconds followed by separation of the an...

39

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

40

Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

42

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a~warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called faint young sun problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4, and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1, or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m-2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1-1 ppmv for many gases. For the 20 strongest gases, we calculate the reduction in radiative forcing due to overlap. We also tabulate the modern sources, sinks, concentrations, and lifetimes of these gases and summaries the literature on Archean sources and concentrations. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-10-01

43

76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9299-1] Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...titled ``Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems,'' published on...

2011-04-25

44

Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

1997-06-01

45

Seawater-derived noble gases and halogens preserved in exhumed mantle wedge peridotite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here we show how the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body in the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, a sliver of the former mantle wedge of the eastern Eurasian plate margin, has exhumed subduction fluid noble gases and halogens with a marine pore-fluid signature from a depth of ~ 100. km. Previous work has only considered that water subduction into the mantle wedge occurs via decomposition of hydrated minerals in altered oceanic crust and sediment. The striking similarities of the observed noble gas and ...

Sumino, H.; Burgess, R.; Mizukami, T.; Wallis, Sr; Holland, G.; Ballentine, Cj

2010-01-01

46

Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

1981-01-01

47

Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these pchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

48

Comparisons of aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases with GOSAT data  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). Airborne instruments measuring GHGs (Picarro Inc. G2301-m) and ozone (2B Technologies Inc., model 205) are installed in a wing pod and operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA (37.415°N, 120.050°W). The in situ measurement instruments mounted on the aircraft yield precise and accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric GHGs and ozone. The purpose of this work is to validate GOSAT data and estimate from Alpha Jet measurements the contribution of GHGs from urban areas. We show the result of comparison of GOSAT and Alpha Jet measurements over Railroad Valley, NV and urban areas in Northern California. The Alpha Jet aircraft performs a measurement over the Railroad Valley (RRV) desert playa, Nevada (38.497°N, 115.691°W, 1437m above mean sea level) once a month for the comparison with Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) measurements from 2011. The GOSAT was developed to measure concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from space and has been in operation from 2009. The instruments onboard GOSAT are the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) (Kuze et al., 2009). The RRV playa is a flat, high altitude desert site and an area where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal. The playa has virtually no vegetation and an overall size of 15 km× 15 km, which includes GOSAT's field of view. Reference Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Masakatsu Nakajima, and Takashi Hamazaki. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring. App. Opt., 48, 6716-6733, 2009.

Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Lopez, J. P.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.

2013-12-01

49

Methanol`s role in reducing greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methanex New Zealand produces methanol, a globally traded commodity, at its Taranaki petrochemical plants. Methanol is an input into a number of products that have positive environmental impacts in reducing greenhouse gases. The methanol industry and Methanex, being a key player in that industry, continue to focus on initiatives to reduce greenhouse gases. The paper explains how methanol is manufactured from gas in the Maui and Kapuni fields. Although CO{sub 2} is emitted during its production, it is the building block of a number of products that aid the environment and reduce greenhouse gases. These include formaldehyde, acetic acid, terephthalic acid, chlorine dioxide and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Methanex is supporting a project to develop a diesel/methanol mixture which can be used interchangeably with standard diesel fuels in existing vehicles. Trials carried out on buses in Santiago showed large reductions in particulates and nitrous oxide emissions. Commercialisation of a methanol based fuel cell for electric vehicles is progressing. Text accompanies 14 slides shown at the conference.

Aiken, B. [Methanex New Zealand Limited (New Zealand)

1998-12-31

50

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

51

Halogen-Containing Gases as Boundary Lubricants for Corrosion-Resistant Alloys at 1200 F  

Science.gov (United States)

The extreme temperatures anticipated for lubricated parts in advanced flight powerplants dictate the consideration of unconventional methods of lubrication such as solid lubricants and the reactive gases described in the present research. These halogen-containing "reactive" gases such as dichlorodifluoromethane, CF2Cl2, are among the most stable of organic molecules. The high "flash" temperatures generated at the contacting asperities as a result of frictional heat are sufficient to cause local decomposition of the halogen-containing gases. The active atoms thus released (e.g., chlorine) then react with the metal to be lubricated to form halides capable of effective lubrication. The presence of small amounts of a sulfur-containing gas (e.g., 1 percent sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) was found to catalyze the formation of metal halides. Friction and wear studies were made with a hemisphere (3/16-in. rad.) rider sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (2 1/2-in. diam.). The specimens of corrosion-resistant 2 alloys were run in an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, a sliding velocity of 120 feet per minute, and temperature from 75 to 1200 F. An effective lubricant for ferritic materials (M-1 tool steel) was CF2Cl2, but significant corrosion occurred above 600 F. Corrosion evaluation in CF2Cl2 suggested a number of nickel- and cobalt-base alloys for additional lubrication study. Several combinations of gases and these metals were found to lubricate to 1200 F without excessive corrosion. The gases were CF2Cl2 Plus 1 percent SF6, monobromotrifluoromethane CF3Br plus 1 percent SF6, dibromodifluoromethane CF2Br2, iodotrifluoromethane, CF3I, and I2. Careful selection of metals and gas are necessary for successful lubrication over specific temperature ranges. Optimum combinations give friction coefficients as low as 0.05 without

Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

1959-01-01

52

Laser remote sensing of greenhouse gases at NIST  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology is pursuing optical technologies for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in support of mitigation efforts and climate research. We will describe the development of a rapid, integrated-path differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system at our Boulder site as well as the development and testing of an indoor, range-resolved DIAL system on our Gaithersburg site. Our eventual goal is the measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates from distributed sources covering areas of 1 km2 to 10 km2. Such measurements require simultaneous wind and gas density measurements. The presentation will describe our progress toward these measurements as well as development of LIDAR laser sources and implementation of various direct and heterodyne detection schemes.

Maxwell, Stephen; Douglass, Kevin; Plusquellic, David

2014-05-01

53

The greenhouse gases emissions allowances trading in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy policy of the State is very important for a state development. The aim of this policy is power energy development, which is essential for improving the quality of life and standards of people's living in every country. Unfortunately, power energy development also has a negative impact; primarily on the environment. Some possible solutions exist for reduction of the power energy negative impacts. This paper deals with reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the Czech Republic according to the Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention climate change. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The GHG emissions allowances trading as one of the instruments for stabilisation of GHG emissions is described in the paper. (authors)

54

Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture : Role of models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach. The scale increases from field, manure storage or rumen via herd or farm to country or continent. The scope may be restricted to a single GHG or include all gases. Multidisciplinary models may include nutrients, other substances or socio-economic parameters. Mechanistic process-based models have been developed from the knowledge of how GHG are produced in soils, animals and manures. These types of models often operate at the lower end of the scale, but they are also incorporated in farm and regional models. This paper discusses how the different types of models, as well as tools for farmers, are used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies.

Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.

2013-01-01

55

76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best Available...in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting...Reporting_Rule_Oil_And_Natural_Gas@epa.gov. Include Docket...

2011-06-27

56

Use of Less Reactive Materials and More Stable Gases to Reduce Corrosive Wear When Lubricating with Halogenated Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The gases CF2Cl-CF2Cl, CF2Cl2, and CF2Br-CF2Br were used to lubricate metals, cermets, and ceramics in this study. One of the criteria for determining the effectiveness of a reactive-gas-lubricated systems is the stability of the halogen-containing gas molecule. The carbon-to-halogen bond in the ethane molecule has extremely good thermal stability superior to the methane analogs (CF2Cl2 and CF2Br2) used in earlier research. For this reason, the ethane compounds CF2Cl-CF2Cl and CF2Br-CF2Br were considered as high-temperature lubricants. Friction and wear studies were made with a hemisphere (3/16-in. rad.) rider sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (21/2-in. diam. ). The specimens of metal alloys, cermets, and ceramics were run In an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, sliding velocities from 75 to 8000 feet per minute, and temperatures from 75 to 1400 F. The gas CF2Cl-CF2Cl was found to be an effective lubricant for the cermet LT-LB (59.0 Cr, 19.0 Al2O3, 20.0 Mo, 2.0 Ti) and the ceramic Al2O3 sliding on Stellite Star J (cobalt-base alloy) at temperatures to 1400 F. The bromine-containing gas CF2Br-CF2Br was found to give friction and wear values that can be considered to be in a region of effective boundary lubrication for the cermet K175D (nickel-bonded metal carbide) sliding on the metal Hastelloy R-235 (nickel-base alloy) at temperatures to 1200 F.

Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

1960-01-01

57

Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

build up a new system to measure continuously CO2 (or CO), CH4, N2O and SF6 mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO2, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH4, 0.2 ppb for N2O and 0.05 ppt for SF6. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

58

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01

59

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

CERN Document Server

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 Wm-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting ...

Byrne, Brendan

2014-01-01

60

Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

2010-11-15

 
 
 
 
61

Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the direct, radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases by the also substantial indirect—chemical and dynamical—feedbacks that greenhouse gases have via their impact on ozone. This sensitivity of the mode to greenhouse gas-induced ozone changes suggests that a consistent implementation of ozone changes due to long-lived greenhouse gases in climate models benefits the simulation of this important aspect of Southern Hemisphere climate.

Morgenstern, Olaf; Zeng, Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

2014-12-01

62

Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases and Their Sources and Sinks  

Science.gov (United States)

The man-made emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered the main drivers of anthropogenically induced climate change. Major uncertainties persist when it comes to quantifying regional scale surface fluxes of these gases or predicting the evolution of the relevant source/sink processes in a changing climate. Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from space-borne and ground-based platforms offers the opportunity to significantly advance our knowledge on spatial and temporal scales that are suitable for process attribution and mitigation actions. Overall, the most promising remote-sensing strategy exploits the rotational-vibrational absorption of CO2 and CH4 in sunlight penetrating the Earth's atmosphere. Typically, satellite sounders such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), and S5P (Sentinel-5 precursor) as well as the ground-based spectrometers of the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) cover various CO2, CH4, and O2 absorption bands in the near and shortwave infrared spectral range between 0.75 micron (13400cm-1) and 2.5 micron (4000cm-1). Accuracy of the inferred gas concentrations is contingent on the accuracy of the adopted spectroscopic parameters and spectroscopic models available in these spectral regions. Here, I will report on recent achievements and challenges within our greenhouse-gas remote-sensing activities mainly focusing on the GOSAT observational record. Since its launch in early 2009, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard GOSAT delivers solar absorption spectra with good spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise. It has been shown that the CO2 and CH4 retrievals from these observations can achieve an accuracy on the order of fractions of a percent which makes them suitable for tracking regional scale source/sink processes and their response to climate events. In order to achieve the required accuracy, it is crucial to develop highly accurate radiative-transfer algorithms and to validate the satellite soundings by ground-based observations. I will illustrate some cases where the excellent quality of the absorption spectra collected by GOSAT reveals spectroscopic deficiencies and inconsistencies among the various absorption bands covered. As such, lessons learned from GOSAT can be used as a feedback to the spectroscopy community. Beyond GOSAT, future satellite missions such as S5P or the planned S5 (Sentinel-5, launch ˜2020) will cover spectral ranges which have not yet been spectroscopically optimized for remote-sensing purposes. In that case, simulations and studies based on ground-based observations show that spectroscopic uncertainties constitute a dominant contribution to the error budget of the retrieved gas concentrations. Therefore, further improvements of spectroscopic parameters and line-shape models is of paramount interest for remote sensing of greenhouse gases.

Butz, Andre; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Bertleff, Marco; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Hahne, Philipp; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto; Landgraf, Jochen; Galli, Andre; Basu, Sourish

2014-06-01

63

Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share would be significantly higher. The commercial refrigeration sub sector and the air conditioning (stationary and mobile) sector will account for about 75% of F-gas emissions in 2050. In most sectors, emissions from developing countries will exceed emissions from developed countries. Large banks of HFCs will cause F-gas emissions well beyond 2050. In order to limit F-gas emissions, it appears crucial to consider measures to reduce emissions from all sectors in both developed and developing countries. The current post- Kyoto negotiation process might provide an opportunity to address these issues within a wider scope. A switch from substances that cause global warming to climate friendly alternatives is considered inevitable to be undertaken in the near future in developed countries. Developing countries, in contrast, are facing the chance to replace ozonedepleting substances directly by climate friendly alternatives, and could hence benefit from technologies developed in the last decades. The study does not exclude other scenarios on future HFC emissions. Like earlier projections, it underlines the urgent need for mitigation measures of F-gas emissions. (orig.)

Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

2009-11-15

64

Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

65

Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

66

Study of greenhouse gases emission factor for nuclear power chain of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greenhouse Gases Emission Factor (GGEF) for nuclear power chain of China is calculated based on Life Cycle Analysis method and the definition of full energy chain. There is no greenhouse gases released directly from nuclear power plant. The greenhouse gases emission from nuclear power plant is mainly from coal-fired electricity supply to nuclear power plant for its normal operation and the production of construction materials those are used in the nuclear power plant. The total GGEF of nuclear power chain in China is 13.71 g-co2/kWh. It is necessary to regulate un-rational power source mix and to use the energy sources in rational way for reducing the greenhouse gas effect. Nuclear power for electricity generation is one of effective ways to reduce greenhouse gases emission and retard the greenhouse effect

67

The Use of Greenhouse Gases as Climate Proxy Data in Interpreting Climatic Variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greenhouse gas data were utilized as proxy data in interpreting climate variability. These greenhouse gases were related to temperature records using standard deviation (SD as the transfer function based on observed correlations between them and global warming records. The annual SD used as warming index for the concentrations of these greenhouse gases for the period 1996 to 2005 at the various stations considered showed good correlation with 1998 as the warmest for these stations.

Oluseyi Enitan Ogunsola

2013-01-01

68

Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a give...

Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2010-01-01

69

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

70

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

71

Inaccuracies in the prediction of the effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outgoing long wave radiation to space is significantly reduced due to heat absorption by the so-called greenhouse gases, notably water vapour, carbon dioxide, methan, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons. The dominating ones are water vapour and carbon dioxide. Since the industrial revolution the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase of 26% in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is presently increasing by about 0.5% per year. The effect on climate can not satisfactorily be estimated on radiation balance calculation only, but must incorporate the large scale atmospheric circulation and the important feedbacks with water vapour (positive feedback), clouds (both positive and negative feedbacks), surface albedo and the oceans. This requires comprehensive mathematical modelling of the coupled ocean/land atmosphere system. Several such studies have been undertaken during the last years both in Europe and United States and results from such experiments are described. Due to the enormous complexity of the problem, a number of simplified assumptions have been done and the results so far must be cautiously assessed. The overall global warming, assuming an increase of around 1% annually in the carbon dioxide concentration, is about 3 C after 100 years. There are large regional differences and the warming is generally larger over land than over sea. A particular problem is the temperature of the North Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters Atlantic and also of the Antarctic waters where changes in the deep ocean circulation are significant. (orig.)

72

Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

2003-07-01

73

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Science.gov (United States)

This page explains concepts related to the interaction between greenhouse gasses, transportation, and government regulations. A list of links is given for three main categories: greenhouse gasses, regulated emissions, and transportation energy use.

Auto Classics ShipVehicles

74

Design of a low power -- high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect halogen gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The design, construction and optimization of a low power-high temperature heated ceramic sensor to detect leaking of halogen gases in refrigeration systems are presented. The manufacturing process was done with microelectronic assembly and the Low Temperature Cofire Ceramic (LTCC) technique. Four basic sensor materials were fabricated and tested: Li2SiO3, Na2SiO3, K2SiO3, and CaSiO 3. The evaluation of the sensor material, sensor size, operating temperature, bias voltage, electrodes size, firing temperature, gas flow, and sensor life was done. All sensors responded to the gas showing stability and reproducibility. Before exposing the sensor to the gas, the sensor was modeled like a resistor in series and the calculations obtained were in agreement with the experimental values. The sensor response to the gas was divided in surface diffusion and bulk diffusion; both were analyzed showing agreement between the calculations and the experimental values. The sensor with 51.5%CaSiO3 + 48.5%Li 2SiO3 shows the best results, including a stable current and response to the gas.

Ruales Ortega, Mary Cristina

75

Tradeable rights for the emission of greenhouse gases in the Dutch agricultural sector. An exploratory study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outline is given of the options to apply tradeable emission rights in the Dutch agricultural sector in order to determine the contribution of such options to the national targets to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases

76

76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best Available...monitoring methods for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category of the...owners or operators of petroleum and natural gas systems. Regulated...

2011-09-27

77

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth's capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ''greenhouse gases.'' Their warming capacity, called ''the greenhouse effect,'' is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth's absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were availableere available

78

Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

2014-05-01

79

Global Mitigation Of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: 2010-2030  

Science.gov (United States)

This report illustrates the abatement potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by sector and by region, from 2010-2030. This peer-reviewed update provides economists and policymakers with improved data to better understand the costs and opportunities for reducing non-CO2 greenhouse...

80

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

 
 
 
 
81

Evolution of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions in Quebec : reference scenario 1996-2021  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the results from a research project on the evolution of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions. It details the main trends, by consumer sector, of energy demand and the future needs in terms of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. It also offers information on the global results on greenhouse gases emissions. This work was undertaken to support the formulation of governmental energy policies. It serves as a tool in the fight against global climate change. A model was developed jointly by the Quebec Ministere des Ressources Naturelles (Natural Resources Ministry) and the Ministere de l'Environnement (Environment Ministry) to predict greenhouse gases emissions from both the energy and non-energy sectors. The scenario examined is the most probable and does not include new programs or new measures that would permit a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions. The document first describes global results as they relate to total energy demand, and then proceeds to offer details on the main hypothesis adopted for the formulation of the model. The document is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter describes the main trends in energy demand and chapter two elaborates on the hypothesis that were adopted. Chapter three details energy uses. The next three chapters address a different source of energy, namely electricity, natural gas and petroleum. The final chapter discusses greenhouse gases emissions. 43 tabs., 1 fig., 1 annexmissions. 43 tabs., 1 fig., 1 annex

82

Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

Leguet, B.

2005-09-15

83

The macroeconomic consequences of controlling greenhouse gases: a survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the summary of a major report which provides a survey of existing estimates of the macroeconomic consequences of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). There are broadly speaking two main questions. What are the consequences of global warming for economic activity and welfare? What, if any, are the economic consequences of reducing the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? This survey covers only those studies which quantify the overall (macroeconomic) costs of abating greenhouse gas emissions. It is not concerned with whether any particular degree of abatement is sufficient to reduce global warming, nor whether it is worth undertaking in the light of its benefits. These are topics for other researchers and other papers. Here we are concerned only to map the relationship between economic welfare and GHG abatement. (author)

84

The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs

85

Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations.

86

A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal travel in Britain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of 'greenhouse gases' in the atmosphere has a warming effect on the biosphere, making the world habitable for life. Human activities, particularly energy use and deforestation, are increasing the concentration of these gases, and in particular carbon dioxide (CO2). Many climatologists believe that the global temperature is beginning to rise as a result. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recommended that emissions of CO2 be cut by 60 pe...

Hughes, Peter Samuel

1992-01-01

87

Comment on "Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change"  

Science.gov (United States)

Lu (2013) (L13) argued that solar effects and anthropogenic halogenated gases can explain most of the observed warming of global mean surface air temperatures since 1850, with virtually no contribution from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Here we show that this conclusion is based on assumptions about the saturation of the CO2-induced greenhouse effect that have been experimentally falsified. L13 also confuses equilibrium and transient response, and relies on data sources that have been superseeded due to known inaccuracies. Furthermore, the statistical approach of sequential linear regression artificially shifts variance onto the first predictor. L13's artificial choice of regression order and neglect of other relevant data is the fundamental cause of the incorrect main conclusion. Consideration of more modern data and a more parsimonious multiple regression model leads to contradiction with L13's statistical results. Finally, the correlation arguments in L13 are falsified by considering either the more appropriate metric of global heat accumulation, or data on longer timescales.

Nuccitelli, Dana; Cowtan, Kevin; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Way, Robert G.; Blackburn, Anne-Marie; Stolpe, Martin B.; Cook, John

2014-04-01

88

Emission reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gases used as refrigerant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several options exist for the reduction of the title greenhouse gases, used as refrigerant. Only a balanced combination of all the options can assure a maximum short time as well as long time contribution to the required emission reduction goals. Interference between non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reduction and the phase out of ozone depleting substances should be carefully considered. The complex relation between CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission from refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump equipment should be carefully considered as well, using the TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) approach.

Van Gerwen, R.J.M.; Verwoerd, M. [Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

2000-07-01

89

The contribution of direct energy use for livestock breeding to the greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the contribution of direct energy use to the greenhouse gases emissions of cattle, pig and poultry breeding in Cyprus. The energy consumption was estimated using the factors of 2034 MJ/cow, 2182 MJ/sow and 0.002797 MJ/bird. The greenhouse gases emissions for each animal species and energy source were estimated using emission factor of each greenhouse gas according to fuel type as proposed by the IPCC 2006 guidelines and for electricity according to national verified data from the Electricity Authority of Cyprus. Livestock breeding in Cyprus consumes electricity, diesel oil and LPG. The results obtained, show that the emissions from energy use in livestock breeding contribute 16% to the total agricultural energy emissions. Agricultural energy emissions contribute 0.7% to the total energy greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The three species of animal considered contribute 3% to their total livestock breeding emissions when compared with enteric fermentation and manure management, of which 2.6% is CO2. These results agree with the findings in available literature. The contribution of direct energy use in the greenhouse gases emissions of livestock breeding could be further examined with the influence of anaerobic digestion to the emissions. -- Highlights: ? Energy use contribution to greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus livestock breeding. ? Energy consumption estimated using 2.034 GJ/ cow, 2.182 GJ/ sow and 2.797 kJ/ bird. ?Energy use in livestock breeding found to be 16% of agriculture energy emissions. ? Energy use found to be 3% of total livestock breeding emissions. ? 87% of the energy emissions is CO2.

90

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

2014-05-01

91

GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as cri...

Aleksandra Ani? Vu?ini?; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ružinski

2010-01-01

92

Assessing the DICE model: uncertainty associated with the emission and retention of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the DICE model indicates that it contains unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and mis-specifications that cause it to understate the rate at which economic activity emits greenhouse gases and the rate at which the atmosphere retains greenhouse gases. The model assumes a world population that is 2 billion people lower than the 'base case' projected by demographers. The model extrapolates a decline in the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of economic activity that is possible only if there is a structural break in the economic and engineering factors have determined this ratio over the last century. The model uses a single equation to simulate the rate at which greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere. The forecast for the airborne fraction generated by this equation contradicts forecasts generated by models that represent the physical and chemical processes which determine the movement of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean. When these unsupported assumptions, simple extrapolations, and misspecifications are remedied with simple fixes, the economic impact of global climate change increases several fold. Similarly, these remedies increase the impact of uncertainty on estimates for the economic impact of global climate change. Together, these results indicate that considerable scientific and economic research is needed before the threat of climate change can be dismissed with any degree of certainty. 23 refs., 3 figse of certainty. 23 refs., 3 figs

93

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25

94

Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

Cess, R.; Owen, T.

1973-01-01

95

Impact of greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in the polar regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the future long-term changes of the earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the south to north poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from climate change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the earth's ozone layer in the polar regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles oencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the antarctic ozone hole. As for the global total ozone, continuous anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases will lead to significant acceleration of its recovery. In the case of the used scenario of expected long-term changes of the greenhouse gases, the global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2043. If the CO2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the 21st century. (author)

96

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-06-18

97

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

98

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can rangative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

99

Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies did not consider options sp...

Novak, S. M.; Fiorelli, J. L.

2010-01-01

100

ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

Marius Deac

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 {sup o}C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH{sub 4}. (author)

Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern

2001-07-01

102

The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO2 and CH4. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 oC less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH4. (author)

103

Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

1994-01-01

104

Comparison of the Different Land Use on the Emission of Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increase in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from the soil surface to the atmosphere has been of worldwide concern over the last several decades. Carbon dioxide is recognized as a significant contributor to global warming and climatic change, accounting for 60% of total greenhouse effect. The aim of this research was to determinate the emission of greenhouse gases from different land under agricultural uses. Four types of agricultural land farm, including wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land were selected to investigate the fate of CO2 in these fields. Gas chromatography technique and close chamber method were used to analyze soil gas samples. Total carbon losses from soil in form of greenhouse gases was 4.47, 3.72, 3.38 and 1.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for wheat field, canola field, citrus garden and fallow land, respectively. Total additional carbon to soil from biomass for wheat field and canola field was 4.1 and 4.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. ECB (ecosystem carbon budget = ? C input - ? C output. For wheat field and canola field ECB was -0.37 and +0.88, respectively. This indicated that in wheat field carbon was lost and in canola field carbon was sequestrated. Under citrus garden due to changes in soil organic carbon form previous year has showed that carbon was sequestrated.

Mahdipuor

2010-07-01

105

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ? 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied. calculated and applied.

106

A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

Jeremy Dobler

2013-11-01

107

Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

108

Photoacoustic Experimental System To Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily available components and is suitable for small-group experiments. The PA signal from a greenhouse gas (GHG), such as CO2, H2O, and CH4, can be detected down...

Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Kasai, Toshio

2010-01-01

109

Estimation of greenhouse gases emission at different scales in France using high precision observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of my PhD is to use high precision measurements to evaluate greenhouse gas emissions at different scales in France, from local to regional. These measurements are made in the framework of the French greenhouse gases network operated by the RAMCES team. Three stations in France are equipped with gas chromatography measurement systems located at Gif-sur-Yvette, Trainou (Orléans forest) and on the summit of Puy-de-Dôme. They were optimized to measure continuously with high precision th...

Lopez, Morgan

2012-01-01

110

Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

1976-01-01

111

Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

2014-12-01

112

Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions

113

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

2009-07-01

114

Soil management effects on greenhouse gases production at the macroaggregate scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural management practices play an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions due to their impact on the soil microenvironment. In this study, two experiments were performed to investigate the influence of tillage and N fertilization on GHG production at the macroaggregate scale. In the first experiment, soil macroaggregates collected from a field experiment comparing various soil management systems (CT, conventional tillage; NT, no-tillage) and N fertilization types (a control...

Plaza-bonilla, Daniel; Cantero-marti?nez, Carlos; A?lvaro-fuentes, Jorge

2013-01-01

115

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warmi...

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

116

Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction of environmental pollution by nutrients, ammonia emission and odour nui...

Monteny, G. J.; Groenestein, C. M.; Hilhorst, M. A.

2001-01-01

117

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

118

A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe th...

Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

2010-01-01

119

An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

2003-01-01

120

Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

NONE

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Emissions, activity data, and emission factors of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) in Germany 1995-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Protection, the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (F-gases) aroused little public attention. Since then, the standards on surveying and reporting on national emissions have been rising constantly. Amongst others, the annual reporting to the UNFCCC secretariat makes detailed declarations on use and emissions of F-gases necessary, which have to be filled in specified formats for submission (Common Reporting Format = CRF). The scientific basis has been set out by the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting, in accordance with the instructions laid down in IPCC good practice guidance. Additionally, in Germany the Centralised System of Emissions (ZSE) shall provide a suitable tool to satisfy any quality needs of both activity data and emission factors. From 1995 onwards, activity data and emissions of each individual application sector shall be presented in a comprehensible and transparent way. Therefore, the way of data collection as well as the estimation methods applied must be well documented. Moreover, data has to be prepared for appropriate importation into ZSE. It is the objective of this study to provide the transparency demanded within 40 national application sectors of F-gases, for the period between 1995 and 2002. - Firstly, all the activity data as well as the emissions related to them are presented and commented. This applies to manufacturing of products, F-gases banked in operating systems, and decommissioning. - Secondly, the methodologies applied to calculate the emissions are described and all sources of information are revealed, e.g. literature, names of experts from the manufacturing industry, users, trade, and academia. - Thirdly, reliability and safety of data are discussed. - Fourthly, possible deviations from the IPCC default values are stated and given reasons for. Wherever this intensive reviewing of 40 sectors through eight years of reporting uncovers gaps or inconsistencies in previous reports, later corrections can be made by means of recalculations. (orig.)

Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche, Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2005-06-15

122

Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this study were to analyze energy use and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in various wheat production scenarios in north eastern Iran and to identify measures to reduce energy use and GHG emissions. Three high-input, a low-input, a better crop management and a usual production scenarios were included. All activities and production processes were monitored and recorded. Averages of total energy input and output were 15.58 and 94.4 GJ ha?1, respectively. Average across scenarios, GHG emissions of 1137 kg CO2-eq ha?1 and 291 kg CO2-eq t?1 were estimated. The key factors relating to energy use and GHG emissions were seedbed preparation and sowing and applications of nitrogen fertilizer. The better crop management production scenario required 38% lower nitrogen fertilizer (and 33% lower total fertilizer), consumed 11% less input energy and resulted in 33% more grain yield and output energy compared to the usual production scenario. It also resulted in 20% less GHG emissions per unit field area and 40% less GHG emissions per ton of grain. It was concluded that this scenario was the cleaner production scenario in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. Measures of improvement in energy use and GHG emission were identified. - Highlights: ? Wheat production scenarios were evaluated for energy use and greenhouse gases emission. ? A better crop management production scenario was the cleaner production scenario. ? Measures to reduce energy use and greenhouse gases emission were identified

123

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

2010-07-15

124

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01

125

From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al. 2009, http://vpl.astro.washington.edu/sci/AntiModels/models09.html McKay, C.P. et al. 1991, Titan: Greenhouse and Anti-greenhouse Effects on Titan. Science 253 (5024), 1118-21 Shia, R. 2011, Climate Effect of Greenhouse Gas: Warming or Cooling is Determined by Temperature Gradient, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #A51A-0274 Shia, R. 2010, Mechanism of Radiative Forcing of Greenhouse Gas and its Implication to the Global Warming, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #A11J-02

Shia, R.

2012-12-01

126

Long-term reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is presented here to assess the potential long-term contribution of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in mitigation scenarios. The analysis shows the future development of the mitigation potential of non-CO2 gases (as a function of changes in technology and implementation barriers) to represent a crucial parameter for the overall costs of mitigation scenarios. The recently developed marginal abatement cost curves for 2010 in the EMF-21 project are taken as the starting point. First-order estimates were made of the future maximum attainable reduction potentials and costs on the basis of available literature. The set of MAC curves developed was used in a multi-gas analysis for stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at 550 ppm CO2-equivalent. Including future development for the non-CO2 mitigation options not only increases their mitigation potential but also lowers the overall costs compared to situations where no development is assumed (3-21% lower in 2050 and 4-26% lower in 2100 in our analysis). Along with the fluorinated gases, energy-related methane emissions make up the largest share in total non-CO2 abatement potential as they represent a large emission source and have a large potential for reduction (towards 90% compared to baseline in 2100). Most methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landuse-related sources are less simple to abate, with an estimated abatement potential in 2100 of around 60% and ement potential in 2100 of around 60% and 40%, respectively

127

Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher on wet seasons. At Amazon State the wet season profiles had source behavior presenting 10 ppm CO{sub 2} concentration higher under PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) . In both states concentrations were higher than Ascension Island concentration. CH{sub 4} concentration over Para and Amazonia States presented higher values than in Ascension in 80 ppb and 25 ppb, respectively. Dry Season concentrations have been higher than Wet Season concentrations. N{sub 2}O concentrations in Para State was similar to Ascension concentration until 2003, when its concentration has been and enhancement, because of N fertilizer utilization at near area. N{sub 2}O concentration was similar in the two studied States, presenting discreet source at Wet Season. The SF{sub 6} concentration presented the global trend, and it was a little beat higher over Amazon State, suggesting different air origin. The CO concentration was higher under PBL and presented values during Dry Season higher in 130 ppb and 150 ppb than Wet Season, for burning contribution. The highest average concentration was over Amazon State, which agrees with the different air origin hypothesis. H{sub 2} gas presented behavior similar to CO gas in the Dry Season. The Amazon State performed a small sink role during Wet Season and in Para State is higher during dry season performed like a source and during wet season like a sink. (author)

D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

2006-07-01

128

Monitoring Greenhouse Gases and Their Pollutions in Sarakhs Region Influenced by the Sourest Natural Gas Resource in the Middle East  

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Full Text Available Shahid Hashemi-Nezhad Gas Processing Company (S.G.P.C., located in Sarakhs region of Iran, processes wells that consist of the sourest gases in Middle East. The gas entering the company from gas wells includes 3.5 percent H2S and 6.5 percent CO2 that is quite rare among similar wells for sweetening such large quantities as it does. As a result, greenhouse gases and their possible harmful results are sometimes unavoidable in the area. In this study, greenhouse gases in Sarakhs region, the atmosphere of the company and also the output metering of S.G.P.C. were monitored and analyzed in a three-month period, considering elimination of preliminary contaminants in the sweetening process. Later, sources, fluctuations and deviations of greenhouse gases from global standards were observed and analyzed.

Nader Nabhani

2012-08-01

129

A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

130

Quantifying the Summertime Austral Jet Stream and Hadley Cell Response to Stratospheric Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of anthropogenic forcing on the austral jet stream and Hadley Cell in summer is assessed across three comprehensive climate model datasets, the Chemistry Climate Model Validation Activity 2 (CCMVal2) and Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects, Phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3,5). Changes in stratospheric ozone and greenhouse gases impact the troposphere in this season, and a simple framework based on temperature trends in the lower polar stratosphere and upper tropical troposphere is developed to separate their effects. It suggests that Southern Hemisphere circulation trends are driven by changes in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature gradients: the subtropical and extratropical jets respond similarly when the tropics warm or the polar stratosphere cools. The mean circulation response to greenhouse gases and ozone is fairly comparable across the three multimodel datasets; consistent with previous studies, ozone has dominated changes in recent decades, while in the future, ozone and greenhouse gases will largely offset each other. The multimodel mean perspective, however, masks considerable spread between individual models. Uncertainty resulting from differences in temperature trends is separated from differences in the circulation response to a given temperature change. Both sources of uncertainty contribute equally to model spread. Uncertainty in temperature trends is dominated by differences in the polar stratosphere, not the tropics, suggesting that reducing uncertainty in models' climate sensitivity may not narrow the spread in subtropical and extratropical circulation trends in this season. Rather, the ozone forcing must be constrained. Even if the temperature trends could be perfectly constrained, however, models' 'circulation sensitivity,' differences in the response of the circulation to the same thermal forcing, must be addressed in order to narrow spread in climate projections.

Gerber, E. P.; Son, S.

2013-12-01

131

Regional development and greenhouse gases emission: the case of the Amazon Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, considering its economic relations with the rest of the country and the international markets. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to m...

Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose? Martins; David, Leti?cia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

2011-01-01

132

Increasing greenhouse gases lead to dramatic thinning of the upper atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) analyzed changes in the orbits of selected objects to derive the yearly average density encountered by each object in different levels of the atmosphere. After adjusting for other factors, the data from every object indicated a long-term decline in the density of the thermosphere. It was found that the observed decrease in density with increased distance in the troposphere depends on height in the same way as predicted by the theoretical simulations, indicating that greenhouse gases are a likely source of the change.

AGU

133

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS reve interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

134

Evaluation of headspace equilibration methods for quantifying greenhouse gases in groundwater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the different headspace equilibration methods for the quantification of dissolved greenhouse gases in groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected from wells with contrasting hydrogeochemical properties and degassed using the headspace equilibration method. One hundred samples from each well were randomly selected, treatments were applied and headspace gases analysed by gas chromatography. Headspace equilibration treatments varied helium (He):water ratio, shaking time and standing time. Mean groundwater N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4) concentrations were 0.024 mg N L(-1), 13.71 mg C L(-1) and 1.63 ?g C L(-1), respectively. All treatments were found to significantly influence dissolved gas concentrations. Considerable differences in the optimal He:water ratio and standing time were observed between the three gases. For N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4) the optimum operating points for He:water ratio was 4.4:1, 3:1 and 3.4:1; shaking time was 13, 12 and 13 min; and standing time was 63, 17 and 108 min, respectively. The headspace equilibration method needs to be harmonised to ensure comparability between studies. The experiment reveals that He:water ratio 3:1 and shaking time 13 min give better estimation of dissolved gases than any lower or higher ratios and shaking times. The standing time 63, 17 and 108 min should be applied for N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4), respectively. PMID:22922500

Jahangir, M M R; Johnston, P; Khalil, M I; Grant, J; Somers, C; Richards, K G

2012-11-30

135

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

2006-01-01

136

The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHG environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

137

An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

138

Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

2012-04-01

139

Evaluation of the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grass land and in the grass breeding. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. report of the first part of the project December 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the Kyoto protocol on the greenhouse effect gases reduction, many ecosystems as the prairies can play a main role for the carbon sequestration in soils. The conservation of french prairies and their management adaptation could allow the possibility of carbon sequestration in the soils but also could generate emissions of CO2 and CH4 (by the breeding animals on grass) and N2O (by the soils). This project aims to establish a detailed evaluation of the contribution of the french prairies to the the greenhouse effect gases flux and evaluate the possibilities of reduction of the emissions by adaptation of breeding systems. (A.L.B.)

140

Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO2 concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the 14C and 13C content of atmospheric CO2, pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the studies conducted within Phase II of the project, which incorporate the findings of both CRPs

 
 
 
 
141

Atmospheric Removal of Very Long-lived Greenhouse Gases in the Mesosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorofluorocarbons are known to have serious ozone depleting and global warming potentials. Perfluorinated compounds such as SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl which have very long lifetimes (ranging from a few centuries to over 3000 years) are too stable to affect stratospheric ozone but do have among the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, making them extremely potent greenhouse gases. Due to the stability of these gases in the lower atmosphere, mesospheric loss processes could significantly reduce their estimated atmospheric lifetimes and hence, overall climate impact. Potential sinks include reactions with metals and energetic particles such as electrons or short wavelength photons already present in the upper atmosphere. The metals, in this instance iron, sodium or potassium, are produced by meteoric ablation, while background and energetic electrons have the continuous source of photoionization and auroral precipitation, respectively. In this study we investigate the removal potentials of four very long lived gases (SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl). First, by four metals (Fe, Mg, Na and K), where rate coefficients are measured using the Fast Flow Tube and Pulsed Laser Flash Photolysis / Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques. Second, removal by electron attachment was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. measurements. Third, Lyman-alpha (121.56 nm) photolysis was measured in a VUV absorption cell. The resulting removal rate coefficients are currently being input into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to obtain lifetime measurements for these species.

Totterdill, A.; Kovacs, T.; Gomez Martin, J.; FENG, W.; Chipperfield, M.; Plane, J. M.

2013-12-01

142

Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

143

MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report  

Science.gov (United States)

MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for ?13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

2012-12-01

144

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during BARCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2009-12-01

145

Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO2, CH4 and N2O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO2-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y-1. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

146

Differences between the glacial cycles of Antarctic temperature and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ice-core measurements have indicated that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 show glacial-interglacial variations in step with Antarctic temperature. To obtain more insight into the nature of this relationship for cycles of different frequencies, measured time series of temperature, CO2, and CH4 are reanalysed. The results indicate that the temperature signal consists of a linear superposition of a component related to CO2 with a period of ~100 000 yr and a component related to variations in the obliquity of the Earth's orbital plane with a period of ~41 000 yr. This suggests that either there operate very different feedback mechanisms at the different time scales or that CO2 is not merely a~passive follower and amplifier of the glacial-interglacial variations in Antarctic temperature.

A. W. Omta

2012-03-01

147

A theoretical analysis of the capture of greenhouse gases by single water droplet at atmospheric and elevated pressures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The mass transport phenomena of greenhouse gas uptake by a quiescent water droplet are analyzed theoretically. ? Four common greenhouse gases of CO2, N2O, CH4 and O3 are taken into consideration. ? A semi-analytical method is developed to predict the mass diffusion. ? The entire mass transfer is controlled by the liquid phase. ? A unified formula has been successfully established to estimate the solute uptake process. -- Abstract: Gas absorption by droplets is an important route to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, especially for carbon dioxide. To recognize the fundamental absorption processes of greenhouse gases by single droplets, the mass transport phenomena of greenhouse gas uptake by a quiescent water droplet at atmospheric and elevated pressures are analyzed theoretically and four common greenhouse gases of CO2, N2O, CH4 and O3 are taken into consideration. On account of piecewise function encountered at the droplet surface, it is impossible to obtain a fully analytical solution for describing the mass transfer process. Instead, a semi-analytical method is developed to predict the mass diffusion between the gas phase and the liquid phase. The obtained results indicate that, by virtue of the four greenhouse gases characterized by low mass diffusion number, the entire mass transfer is controlled by the liquid phase. A unified formula has been successfully established to aid in estimating the dimensionless solute uptake process and the dimensionless aqueous diffusion time of 0.45 is sufficiently long the implement the absorption process. For the ambient temperature and pressure in the ranges of 280-350 K and 1-20 atm, respectively, it is found that increasing the two parameters will intensify the solute absorption amount significantly and the absorption process can be accelerated by increasing temperature.

148

Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO2 concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO2 due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO2 concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

149

Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO{sub 2}. The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO{sub 2} concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO{sub 2} due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO{sub 2} concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

Angulo-Brown, F.; Sanchez-Salas, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, del IPN Edif. 9, U.P. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barranco-Jimenez, M.A. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Escuela Superior de Computo, del IPN Av., Miguel Bernard s/n., Esq. Juan de Dios Batiz, U.P. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosales, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Exhacienda Sta., Catarina Martir, Cholula 72820, Puebla (Mexico)

2009-11-15

150

Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-10-15

151

On measurements of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases in Siberia and future research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of the world's boreal forest for our understanding of the climate system is indisputable. Due to the large area covered, the forest's biophysical (e.g. surface energy balance, albedo) and biogeochemical (e.g. bidirectional exchange of greenhouse gases or aerosol precursors) processes are known to affect today's climate, and will need to be accounted for in studies of climate feedbacks in response to anthropogenic warming. However, observations that are needed to develop and evaluate terrestrial and climate models are still relatively scarce, especially for the Siberian part of the boreal forest. Here, we present a short overview of aerosol and greenhouse gas measurements over Siberia, aiming to also survey a large fraction of the existing literature in Russian. We aim to highlight areas of least data coverage and argue that, due to the importance of Siberia in the global climate system, a coordinated research program is needed to address some of the open research questions: The Pan Siberian Experiment. (orig.)

Kulmala, M.; Alekseychik, P.; Paramonov, M. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Physics); Laurila, T.; Asmi, E.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kerminen, V.-M. (Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Arneth, A. (Lund Univ. (Sweden), Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis)

2011-07-01

152

Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

NONE

2001-12-01

153

A View of the Prebiotic Earth's Atmosphere: Greenhouse Gases, Oxidized Organic Haze, and the Anti-Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent attempts to resolve the faint young sun paradox have focused on an early Earth atmosphere containing elevated levels of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to provide adequate warming to the Earth's surface. However, the photolysis of CH4 and CO2 in equal ratios in the laboratory has been shown to produce significant aerosol mass, equivalent to or greater than the aerosol mass produced in Titan simulations. The haze layer generated by these aerosols could offset the warming by scattering incoming solar radiation, creating an antigreenhouse effect. The amount of CH4 in the prebiotic Earth's atmosphere could have been significantly less than the amount of CO2. Additionally, high amounts of H2 may have been present in the prebiotic Earth's atmosphere, and could affect the haze chemistry. In this work we examine haze formation in an early Earth atmosphere composed of CO2, H2, N2, and CH4, with a CO2/CH4 ratio of 10. Haze particles were generated using different concentrations of H2, with levels up to 15 percent by volume H2. To initiate aerosol formation a broad-spectrum ultraviolet (UV) energy source with emission at Lyman-? was used to simulate the solar spectrum. Aerosol composition and total aerosol mass produced as a function of reagent gas were measured using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was also used to measure the aerosol mass, as well as the size distribution of the particles. Results show an order of magnitude decrease in haze production with the addition of H2, with no significant change in the chemical composition of the haze. We calculate that such a haze would not have a significant antigreenhouse effect. Further, the highly oxidized particles formed could be more biologically interesting than a Titan-like hydrocarbon haze. The presence of H2 on the early Earth could thus favor warmer surface temperatures while still allowing photochemical haze formation to deliver complex organic species to the early Earth's surface.

Dewitt, L.; Trainer, M. G.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hasenkopf, C. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.; Tolbert, M. A.

2008-12-01

154

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered both the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures and land-ocean contrast in surface temperatures, which in turn slow down the monsoon circulation and decrease rainfall over the continents. On the other hand, heating by black carbon warms the atmosphere at elevated levels from 2 to 6 km, where most tropical glaciers are located, thus strengthening the effect of GHGs on retreat of snow packs and glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers. Globally, the surface cooling effect of ABCs may have masked as much 47% of the global warming by greenhouse gases, with an uncertainty range of 20-80%. This presents a dilemma since efforts to curb air pollution may unmask the ABC cooling effect and enhance the surface warming. Thus efforts to reduce GHGs and air pollution should be done under one common framework. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

155

Emission of greenhouse gases from sewage installations; Emissies van broeikasgassen van rwzi's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are monitored. The emission of CO2 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is related to the use of electricity, natural gas or other fossil fuels. The amount and origin of the emission of CH4 and N2O, however, is unknown. Presently emission factors from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are used to estimate those emissions. The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine the level of N2O and CH4 emission from Dutch WWTPs to understand the accuracy of the existing emission factors. In this way an estimation of the total greenhouse gas emission from a Dutch WWTP can be made. The emission of N2O and CH4 was measured at three WWTPs in the Netherlands: Papendrecht, Kortenoord and Kralingseveer [Dutch] In deze studie zijn de indirecte en directe emissies van broeikasgassen (CO2, CH4 en N2O) van rwzi's in kaart gebracht aan de hand van metingen. De resultaten hebben aanleiding gegeven voor een vervolgonderzoek waarbij onder meer kennis wordt ontwikkeld op het gebied van methaanvorming (CH4) in de riolering en mogelijkheden om de emissie van methaan op een zuivering te reduceren. Met betrekking tot lachgas N2O wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de vormingsprocessen van lachgas en de wijze waarop deze vrijkomt vanuit een rwzi. Verder worden relaties tussen lachgasemissie en procesparameters inzichtelijk gemaakt. Met deze kennis is het hopelijk in de toekomst mogelijk om maatregelen te nemen die de vorming en emissie van lachgas vanuit rwzi's te reduceren.

Van Voorthuizen, E.; Van Leusden, M.; Visser, A.; Kruit, J. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kampschreur, M.; Van Dongen, U.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

2010-03-15

156

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Urban Xi'an, China - Direct Measurements by Eddy Covariance  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the world and especially in Asia, rapid urbanization is resulting in an increasing number of very large cities. In these areas, the rate of development can outpace the perceived need for environmental regulation, and frequently there are inadequate resources available to monitor pollution or enforce compliance with those environmental regulations that do exist. These limitations obviously impact air quality on a local scale, but cities also have significant environmental impacts on regional and even global scales. In order to understand and mitigate these impacts on the surrounding environment, it is first necessary to robustly characterize the pollutant emissions themselves. This can be a significant challenge. Major discrepancies arise when comparing emissions inventories based on bottom-up compilations of source types, number, and activity levels to estimates inferred from satellite observations and other large-scale techniques. Direct measurements of neighborhood-scale emission fluxes via micrometeorological approaches provide a means to resolve these differences. Such measurements can be used to quantify the integrated vertical exchange for a wide variety of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, typically with spatial footprints of tens of square kilometers and with temporal resolutions of ~30 minutes. Here we present the results of an urban flux study conducted in Xi'an, China in August 2011. For the study a 23 m tower was erected atop the ~100 m tall administration building at Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the tower, we employed an eddy covariance approach to measure concentrations and fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we present an analysis of the air-surface exchange of these gases. Results indicate that while our study site in Xi'an was a net source of these species, the greenhouse gas fluxes were significantly smaller than at other sites around the world and exhibited a different diurnal pattern. We attribute these results to two factors: 1) the relatively low traffic density at the Xi'an study site relative to other urban flux sites; and 2) the presence of a large urban park in the northerly sector of the study footprint, where the vegetative sink for CO2 was often greater than anthropogenic sources. Overall the analysis suggests that even in heavily urbanized regions land use and activity profiles can have significant impacts on air pollutant emissions.

VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; VanderSchelden, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Waldo, S.; Erickson, M. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Tie, X.; Cao, J.

2012-12-01

157

Progress and opportunities for monitoring greenhouse gases fluxes in Mexican ecosystems: the MexFlux network  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Para entender los procesos de los ecosistemas desde un punto de vista funcional es fundamental entender las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, los ciclos biogeoquímicos y las interacciones superficie-atmósfera. En las últimas décadas se ha aplicado de manera creciente el método de covarianz [...] a de flujos turbulentos (EC, por sus siglas en inglés) en ecosistemas terrestres, marinos y urbanos para medir los flujos de gases de invernadero (p. ej., CO2, H2O ) y energía (p. ej., calor sensible y latente). En diversas regiones se han establecido redes de sistemas EC que han aportado información científica para el diseño de políticas ambientales y de adaptación. En este contexto, el presente trabajo delimita el marco conceptual y técnico para el establecimiento de una red regional de medición de flujos de gases de efecto invernadero en México, denominada MexFlux, cuyo objetivo principal es mejorar nuestra comprensión de la forma en que la variabilidad climática y la transformación ambiental influye en la dinámica de los ecosistemas mexicanos ante los factores de cambio ambiental global. En este documento se analiza primero la importancia del intercambio de CO2 y vapor de agua entre los ecosistemas terrestres y la atmósfera. Después se describe brevemente la técnica de covarianza de flujos turbulentos para la medición de éstos, y se presentan ejemplos de mediciones en dos ecosistemas terrestres y uno urbano en México. Por último, se describen las bases conceptuales y operativas a corto, mediano y largo plazo para la continuidad de la red MexFlux. Abstract in english Understanding ecosystem processes from a functional point of view is essential to study relationships among climate variability, biogeochemical cycles, and surface-atmosphere interactions. Increasingly during the last decades, the eddy covariance (EC) method has been applied in terrestrial, marine a [...] nd urban ecosystems to quantify fluxes of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, H2O) and energy (e.g., sensible and latent heat). Networks of EC systems have been established in different regions and have provided scientific information that has been used for designing environmental and adaptation policies. In this context, this article outlines the conceptual and technical framework for the establishment of an EC regional network (i.e., MexFlux) to measure the surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and greenhouse gases in Mexico. The goal of the network is to improve our understanding of how climate variability and environmental change influence the dynamics of Mexican ecosystems. First, we discuss the relevance of CO2 and water vapor exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Second, we briefly describe the EC basis and present examples of measurements in terrestrial and urban ecosystems of Mexico. Finally, we describe the conceptual and operational goals at short-, medium-, and long-term scales for continuity of the MexFlux network.

R., VARGAS; E. A., YÉPEZ; J. L., ANDRADE; G., ÁNGELES; T., ARREDONDO; A. E., CASTELLANOS; J., DELGADO-BALBUENA; J., GARATUZA-PAYÁN; E., GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO; W., OECHEL; J. C., RODRÍGUEZ; A., SÁNCHEZ-AZOFEIFA; E., VELASCO; E. R., VIVONI; C., WATTS.

2013-06-01

158

Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the eastern European taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

±A three year long record of regular vertical aircraft profiling for continuous atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements as well as for flask sampling to derive the climatology of other greenhouse gases (CH4, SF6 and N2O), is presented. Measurements were undertaken in the lower troposphere between 100 and 3000 m over the eastern European taiga about 100 km south east of the city of Syktyvkar (61 deg 24 min N, 52 deg 18 min E). From the continuous profiles mean CO2 mixing ratios were calculated for the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and for the 'free troposphere' up to 3000 m. The amplitudes of the respective seasonal cycles are 22.1 ± 3.5 and 14.0 ± 2.1 ppm. ABL mixing ratios are generally larger than free tropospheric values during the winter period, and smaller during the summer due to the change of the continental biosphere from a source to a sink. The phasing of the seasonal cycles is slightly different between the two height intervals (by about 30 days), with the ABL extremes occurring earlier. Very abrupt concentration changes up to 8 ppm are observed in the free troposphere associated with changes in air mass origin. Mean CO2 mixing ratios derived from flask samples at 3000 m compare well with the respective integrated values measured in the continuous profiles above the ABL ((delta) CO2 = 0.3 ± 1.6 ppm). CH4 mixing ratios also show a pronounced seasonality, and winteow a pronounced seasonality, and winter time vertical gradients correlate well with those of CO2. Similarly, SF6 vertical gradients are correlated with CO2 gradients possibly pointing to some anthropogenic origin of the boundary layer CO2 signal during winter. N2O and SF6 also show a slight seasonality with almost the same phasing. The main reasons for the seasonality of both gases are probably transport processes with a possible contribution from stratosphere/troposphere exchange

159

Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2014-08-01

160

Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are effective greenhouse gases, the most important of which are the HFCs. The emission estimates and i

Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

1998-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

162

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01

163

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

164

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

165

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-11-01

166

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

167

Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

2008-09-15

168

Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2012-12-01

169

Overview of existing studies on full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature on investigations into full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases is scanty. Fourteen different studies are reviewed most of which deal with energy use only in parts of the fuel chain or with CO2 only. The scatter in full-energy-chain emissions factors of individual energy sources is not very large, except that in the emission factors of gas-fired power, biomass-fueled power and hydropower generation. The sources of this scatter are discussed. Fossil fuels have emission factors in the range of 500-1200 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Wind, nuclear and geothermal power generation are in the range of low emission factors: 10-70 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. Emission factors of hydropower and sustainable biomass-fueled power generation range 10-400 and 40-180 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h, resp. The solar and ocean power generating sources are in the range of 100-300 g CO2 equiv./kW(e).h. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

170

Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with <1 kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033-cm^-1 point spacing. The fitted path-averaged concentrations and temperature yield dry-air mole fractions. These are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate current absorption models for real atmospheres. In heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of <1 ppm for CO2 and <3 ppb for CH4 is achieved in 5 minutes in this initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

2014-01-01

171

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions

172

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases; Danmarks energifremskrivning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the baseline projection is to get an assessment of how energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases will evolve in the future, if no new policy measures are introduced, often referred to as a 'frozen policy' scenario. The actual development will continuously be influenced by new political initiatives, and the projection is thus not to be regarded as a long-term prognosis, but rather as a progress which from some given objectives, defines the challenges of future energy policy. The baseline projection is based on a number of general economic conditions (the output of industries, private consumption, fuel prices, etc.), a number of technology-specific assumptions (how much different types of facilities cost, what is their efficiency, etc.) and assumptions about what energy market players will do on purely market terms. Projections of this nature will always be subject to many central and uncertain assumptions. A different development than the assumed will therefore be able to move the outcome in both directions. This year's energy projections are associated with a particular uncertainty due to the large uncertainty about the duration of the economic crisis for the global economy. This uncertainty affects directly the energy projection, as economic activity and demand for energy services are closely linked. The big drop in energy consumption due to the downturn in the economy from 2008 to 2009 illustrates this. (ln)

2010-04-15

173

Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y{sup -1}. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

Tahir, S.N.A., E-mail: snatahir@cyber.net.p [Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Department, Govt. of the Punjab, Poonch House, 38-Multan Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Chief Conservator of Forests, Northern Zone, Rawalpindi, Punjab Forest Department (Pakistan); Alaamer, A.S. [Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-15

174

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO2-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

2009-01-01

175

Global what emdash control possibilities of CO2 and other greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal greenhouse gas, CO2, is joined by methane, N2O, and other trace gases in absorbing infrared radiation, which would otherwise escape into space, a process thought to be responsible for gradual increase in temperature that will melt ice caps and raise ocean levels. This paper discusses control possibilities that could be considered once there is agreement that CO2 must be controlled. Many of the responses to the energy crisis of 1974 are applicable for CO2 control. A variety of technologies, energy sources, and ideas are offered that, in combination, could be the basis for a global energy policy. Conversion and replacement of coal, oil, and eventually natural gas fired electric power plants with other energy sources such as nuclear, solar, wind, tidal, and geothermal, could significantly reduce CO2 emissions. There are, however, no good alternatives to fossil fuels used in transportation that significantly reduce CO2 emissions. Of all the fossil fuels, natural gas has the least CO2 production

176

Emission of greenhouse gases and soil organic matter balance in different farming systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimation of the influence of different farming systems on emission of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide was the aim of the research. The research was conducted on the basis of a special field experiment established in 1994 in the Experimental Station in Osiny in which different crop production systems are compared, and in a group of 20 organic farms organic farms located in the central part of Poland. For the first object the analysis of nitrous oxide emission and soil organic matter balance was done for 1996-2007, whereas for the second one CH4 and N2O emission and potential of sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter was done for 2004-2005. Organic farming system was characterized by significantly lower nitrous oxide emission in comparison to other systems. There was no distinct difference in CH4 emission between compared systems. In the organic farms, total CH4 and N2O emission expressed in GWP units amounted to 1623 points and this was 22% less than the average value for the Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship. Balance method showed that organic system has a great potential in sequestration of CO2 in soil organic matter in comparison to integrated and conventional systems. However, measurements of humus content in soil did not confirm that observation.

A. Kawalec

2008-09-01

177

Life cycle assessment of processes for hydrogen production. Environmental feasibility and reduction of greenhouse gases emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decomposition of CH{sub 4} (natural gas) is one of the alternatives under study to achieve the sustainable production of hydrogen. No CO{sub 2} or other greenhouse gases emissions are produced in this route and carbon is obtained as a solid co-product at the end of the reaction (CH{sub 4}<-> C+2 H{sub 2}). This process can be thermally or catalytically conducted and recent studies have demonstrated that the carbon obtained in the reaction can also show catalytic activity. In this work, thermal and autocatalytic decomposition of methane were studied and compared with the steam reforming with and without CO{sub 2} capture and storage from an environmental point of view, using life cycle assessment (LCA) tools. As well, different energetic scenarios were included in the study. The selected functional unit was 1 Nm{sup 3} of hydrogen and the LCA was focused on material and raw materials acquisition and manufacturing stages. The assessment was carried out with SimaPro 7.1 software by using Eco-indicator 95 method. Results showed that autocatalytic decomposition is the most environmental-friendly process for hydrogen production since presented the lowest total environmental impact and CO{sub 2} emissions. Also, steam reforming with CO{sub 2} capture and storage led to lower CO{sub 2} emissions but higher total environmental impact than conventional steam reforming. (author)

Dufour, J.; Moreno, J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Serrano, D.P. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]|[IMDEA Energia, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Galvez, J.L.; Garcia, C. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA), Renewable Energies Area, Crtra. Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

2009-02-15

178

The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

Dedinec Aleksandar

2012-01-01

179

Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate  

Science.gov (United States)

There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

1986-01-01

180

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO2-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO2-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles

 
 
 
 
181

Synthesis of observations of halogen-containing gases, ozone, and gaseous elemental mercury in the tropospheric plume of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanoes are strong natural sources of halogen-containing acid gases and mercury. Most halogens are emitted from volcanoes as relatively non-reactive hydrogen halide gases, but recent field and modeling studies have shown that these species can be rapidly transformed into reactive forms via heterogeneous in-plume reactions. In order to further examine the chemical reactions that occur in volcanic plumes and their atmospheric impacts, we made ground and aircraft-based measurements of the composition of the tropospheric plume emitted from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, which injected over 1 Tg of SO2, plus other gases and aerosols, into the subarctic free troposphere during 2009 and 2010. To our knowledge, our data include the first detailed study of ozone in a volcanic plume as well as the first measurements of HBr, HI, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and BrO in the plume of an Alaskan volcano. The composition of the plume was measured on June 20, 2010 using base-treated filter packs at the crater rim and by an instrumented fixed-wing aircraft on June 21 and August 19, 2010. The aircraft was used to track the chemical evolution of the plume up to ~30 km downwind (2 hours plume travel time) from the volcano. The airborne data from June 21 reveals rapid chemical ozone destruction in the plume as well as the strong influence chemical heterogeneity in background air had on plume composition. Airborne measurements on August 19 revealed several ppbv of ozone depletion near the center of the plume at a location ~5 km (20 minutes plume travel time) downwind and spectroscopic retrievals from traverses made under the plume show that BrO was present at a similar location. Simulations with the PlumeChem model reproduce the main features of the observed ozone deficits and evolution with time. The field measurements and model results suggest that autocatalytic release of reactive bromine and the formation of BrO can explain ozone destruction in the plume. Thus, volcanic eruptions in Alaska are sources of both non-reactive and reactive halogens and mercury. However, the fate of GEM emitted from volcanoes or incorporated into volcanic plumes warrants further study because our results indicate conditions in volcanic plumes would be conducive to the rapid oxidation of GEM.

Kelly, P. J.; Kern, C.; Lopez, T. M.; Werner, C. A.; Roberts, T. J.; Aiuppa, A.; Wang, B.

2011-12-01

182

Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

2010-05-01

183

The effect of land-use change on the net exchange rates of greenhouse gases: a meta-analytical approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the environmental impacts of land-use change (LUC) is a change in the net exchange of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we summarize findings based on a new global database containing data sets of changes in soil organic carbon stocks and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. We combine that with estimates of biomass carbon stock changes and enteric C...

-g Kim, D.; Kirschbaum, M. U. F.

2014-01-01

184

Evaluating Changes in Organic C and Emission of Greenhouse Gases in a California Agricultural Landscape.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in CA agriculture is how much C may be sequestered in soil of irrigated, minimum tillage systems. Our main research goals are to identify and quantify the underlying mechanisms and processes controlling the rate of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions versus soil C stabilization as affected by tillage operations. A landscape research approach is used to increase our mechanistic understanding of the biotic and abiotic processes that govern C dynamics under standard and minimum tillage practices. We have selected an irrigated, laser leveled agricultural site in the CA Central Valley for this study. The 70-acre site, located approximately 10 miles northwest of Davis, has been split into two fields. Beginning in the fall of 2003, one field has been managed under standard tillage (ST) and the other under minimum tillage (MT). Each field is instrumented with 1) an eddy-covariance mast to measure field-scale CO2 fluxes, 2) with a 0.62-m2 automated chamber to assess the temporal pattern of CO2 and N2O fluxes, 3) with 36 506-cm2 portable PVC chambers to evaluate the spatial characteristics of CO2, N2O and NO fluxes, 4) with 4 subsurface soil gas probes to measure CO2 and N2O concentrations with depth and 5) with multiple piezometers and tensiometers to monitor the movement of soil water throughout the growing season. Round-up Ready corn was planted in both fields in April 2004. Results from this growing season indicate that the various methods of CO2 measurement compare well with one another. There was no notable difference in soil CO2 flux between tillage treatments, but the eddy-covariance towers measured differences in net CO2 flux between treatments based on differential crop growth patterns. The MT treatment had slightly higher N2O emissions than ST, but N2O and NO emissions were primarily restricted to areas and time periods of fertilizer application. Preliminary results from the 2005 growing season (sunflower crop) indicate similar results. MT corn yield was 73% of that in the ST treatment. Patterns of soil texture, ground water movement, and treatment effects are being explored to help explain the yield gap and other spatial patterns in the data. Upcoming years of the project include continued monitoring of greenhouse gases and soil C dynamics in the two tillage systems, comparison of field data with DNDC and Daycent models, and economic evaluation of the two systems. These results will help provide a realistic assessment of the role CA agriculture can play in C sequestration when land is converted from standard to minimum tillage.

Rolston, D. E.; Hopmans, J. W.; van Kessel, C.; Six, J.; Paw U, K.; Plant, R. E.; Hsiao, T. C.; Poch, R. M.; Shaver, G.; Ideris, A. J.; Lee, J.; Louie, D. T.; MacIntyre, J. L.; Matista, T. A.; Evatt, K. J.; King, A. P.

2005-12-01

185

Mobility as a territorial key factor in the emission of greenhouse gases; La movilidad como factor territorial dominante en la emision de gases de efecto invernadero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transport and energy generation are the two dominant sectors in the overall balance of energy consumption, and thus of greenhouse gases emissions. Placement of energy generation plants responds to strategic reasons relate to energy supply in the Spanish territory, while transport is an economic activity tightly related to the productive structure and territorial characteristics: density of populations, geographic situation, efficient space organization, etc. The analysis of these factors enables to prioritize different strategies according the their energetic efficiency in order to pursue an economy less dependent of fossil fuels, focused in activities of higher added value and that keeps in mind limits and strengths of Spanish reality. (Author) 9 refs.

Crespo Garcia, L.; Montane Lopez, M. M.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

2011-07-01

186

Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although present in the atmosphere with a combined concentration approximately 100,000 times lower than carbon dioxide (i.e., the principal anthropogenic driver of climate change), halogenated organic compounds are responsible for a warming effect of approximately 10% to 15% of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding the impact of anesthetic gas release on the environment, with particular focus on its contribution to the radiative forcing of climate change.

Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John

2012-01-01

187

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

188

The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow pond and lake systems can contribute to emission of GHGs. Furthermore, the physical and ecological characteristics of these systems have the potential to significantly increase the quantity of gas produced. This understanding will be valuable when constraining both freshwater and agricultural GHG budgets.

Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

2014-05-01

189

Offset system for greenhouse gases : papers for consultation : overview paper and technical background document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's domestic Offset System for greenhouse gases (GHGs) is an important element in meeting Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. The domestic offset system encourages cost-effective domestic reductions or removal of GHG emissions in activities that are not covered by federal GHG regulations. The system allows individuals, businesses and organizations to earn offset credits when they implement projects that result in GHG reductions or removal beyond what they would have done under normal business activities. Once created, verified offset credits can be sold to the Climate Fund, or to sectors that contribute significantly to GHG emissions such as oil and gas, mining and manufacturing and thermal electricity sectors. Potential offset projects exist across the economy and society. These include property developers who include renewable energy elements in their design; farmers who implement low-till practices that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it as carbon in the soil and energy utilities that have demand side management (DSM) programs that reduce energy consumption. Other opportunities may present for forestry companies that invest in reforestation; municipalities that capture methane from landfill sites; companies that encourage public transit or telework and companies covered by the large final emitters (LFE) regulations when they reduce GHG emissions from activities that are not covered by the LFE regulatory requirements. This overview paper invites feedback on the latest proposals for the Offset System. It sets out the overall policy context and the proposed principles and rules to guide the system. The Offset System is built around the principle of environmental benefits, transformational change of all sectors of the Canadian economy, and promotes projects that reduce GHG emissions in all sectors. The system is designed to be simple and cost-effective to administer. tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-08-01

190

Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes gla CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

191

Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002 enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4. In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling.

It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the carbon dioxide annual increases of SCIAMACHY and the assimilation system CarbonTracker (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr?1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr?1 on global average. The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant for a subset of the analysed TCCON sites when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision (mean standard deviation of the differences of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy (standard deviation of the mean differences of 1.1–1.2 ppm for monthly average composites within a radius of 500 km.

For methane, prior to November 2005, the regional relative precision amounts to 12 ppb and the relative accuracy is about 3 ppb for monthly composite averages within the same radius. The loss of some spectral detector pixels results in a degradation of performance thereafter in the spectral range currently used for the methane column retrieval. This leads to larger scatter and lower XCH4 values are retrieved in the tropics for the subsequent time period degrading the relative accuracy. As a result, the overall relative precision is estimated to be 17 ppb and the relative accuracy is in the range of about 10–20 ppb for monthly averages within a radius of 500 km.

The derived estimates show that the SCIAMACHY XCH4 data set before November 2005 is suitable for regional source/sink determination and regional-scale flux uncertainty reduction via inverse modelling worldwide. In addition, the XCO2 monthly data potentially provide valuable information in continental regions, where there is sparse sampling by surface flask measurements.

O. Schneising

2012-02-01

192

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

D. A. Plummer

2010-09-01

193

Subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of greenhouse gases from a seasonally waterlogged peatland in the UK  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern peatlands are globally valuable carbon stocks that can act as either sinks or sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs); carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). We present the results of a year-long field study of subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a seasonally flooded, managed lowland fen in the UK. This study aimed to determine the extent to which water status and temperature varies at the site throughout the year and how this affects both the subsurface production and surface emission of GHGs. Measured GHG fluxes were compared to estimations using measured subsurface concentrations with Fick's Law (gradient method). Fick's Law was parameterised with either a measured or a modelled value for the diffusion coefficient for gas transport through soil. Water-table depth was shown to be a more significant control on surface GHG emissions and subsurface concentrations than ambient temperature. CO2 emissions increased as the water-table lowered from the surface until 35cm, wherein CO2 emissions began to decrease once more. This break in the relationship was attributed to low available water for respiration due to drying and competition with plants, and to reduced substrate availability as a result of prolonged optimal respiration conditions. Subsurface CO2 concentrations showed the opposite relationship with water-table depth, increasing as the water-table moved toward the surface. Both CH4 emissions and subsurface concentrations showed an exponential relationship with water-table depth, increasing dramatically as the soil entered a flooded condition. N2O fluxes were primarily small and negative throughout the course of the year. N2O concentrations below the surface in the field under ungrazed conditions were shown to be low, decreasing even further under flooded conditions, suggesting full denitrification to N2. The gradient method overestimated emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O by up to 500, 200 and 15x respectively. The divergence between subsurface and surface CO2 became unworkable when combined with an artifact of overestimation discovered when using silicone rubber soil atmosphere collectors in saturated or near saturated soils. Further studies into improved methods for accurate subsurface GHG measurement in waterlogged peat soils are needed.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David; Verhoef, Anne

2013-04-01

194

Greenhouse gases mitigation against climate change: United States-Mexico border study case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La radiación solar es una de las fuentes de energía más importantes de nuestro planeta. El interés por su uso como energía renovable y limpia para mitigar los efectos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) se ha incrementado de manera significativa. Este artículo presenta una evaluación de las med [...] iciones de radiación solar y la estimación del potencial energético, así como una comparación de ambas, como ejemplo del esfuerzo para reducir los GEI. Las mediciones fueron realizadas con piranómetros instalados en la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, localizada en el noroeste de México, y en la ciudad de Yuma, Arizona, en el suroeste de EUA, que están separadas por una distancia de 96 km. Ambas ciudades muestran un desarrollo sostenido y características climáticas similares con numerosos días soleados, elevadas temperaturas extremas y escasa precipitación. Los resultados muestran diferencias tanto en su comportamiento como en las mediciones de radiación solar global, especialmente durante las estaciones críticas primavera y verano, con valores 15.73% (0.042 KW/m²) superiores en Mexicali con respecto a Yuma a pesar a pesar de su cercanía. Esto indica que los flujos de mesoescala parecen dominar los sistemas sinópticos prevalentes en la región. Se estima el potencial energético, y se analiza con algunas variables como radiación solar global, precipitación, temperatura del aire, humedad relativa y climatología de los días claros, parcialmente nublados y nublados. Con esto se estima la energía proyectada para Mexicali en caso de que se utilizara el recurso solar, y se calcula que se evitarían 291 ton de GEI. Los valores de energía potencial obtenidos en Mexicali son mayores que los registrados en Yuma, por lo que este estudio comparativo de radiación solar y energía contribuye al desarrollo de estas tecnologías en México. Los resultados de las mediciones en la región demuestran la importancia de la estrategia propuesta para mitigar el cambio climático. Abstract in english Solar radiation is one of the most important energy resources of our planet. The interest in its use as a renewable and clean energy to mitigate the greenhouse gases (GHG) effects has increased significantly. This paper evaluates the measurements of global solar radiation and its energy potential an [...] d presents a comparison between both of them, as an example of the effort to reduce GHG emissions. The measurements were made with pyranometers installed in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, located in northwestern Mexico, and the city of Yuma, Arizona, located in the southwestern United States. Separated by a distance of 96 km, both cities have a sustained development and are climatically similar, since they present numerous sunny days, extreme hot temperatures and little precipitation. The results presented show differences in their behavior and in the solar radiation measurement values, especially for the critical spring and summer seasons, with values 15.73% (0.042 kW/m²) higher in Mexicali with respect to Yuma. Energy power is estimated, and it is discussed with some variables as global solar radiation, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity and climatology of clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy days. With this estimation, the solar energy used and GHG avoided is projected for Mexicali. It is assessed that 291 tons of GHG are prevented. The Mexicali values of potential energy are higher than those of Yuma; therefore, this solar and energy comparative study provides reasons to develop these technologies in Mexico, but solar technologies should be deployed also in Yuma. The measured data at the regional level demonstrate their importance, and the relevance of the proposed mitigation strategy for climate change.

N., SANTILLÁN SOTO; O. R., GARCÍA CUETO; S., OJEDA BENÍTEZ; N., VELÁZQUEZ LIMÓN; M., QUINTERO NÚÑEZ; M., SCHORR.

2013-10-01

195

Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

Crisp, David

2008-01-01

196

Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

Seager, Richard

2014-12-08

197

76 FR 56009 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...electronic greenhouse gas reporting tool EIA Economic Impact Analysis EOR enhanced...factors that could impact emissions from...accounting for gas compressibility...permeability, and unconventional with 2 e threshold...factor. Natural gas distribution...

2011-09-09

198

Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector; Buenas practicas en la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector del transporte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

2010-07-01

199

Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing: Potential Emissions and Abatement Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some fluorinated gases (F-gases) which are used, or considered to be used, in crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar cell and film silicon module manufacturing have a very high global warming effect. CF4, C2F6, SF6 and NF3 have global warming potentials 7390, 12200, 22800 and 17200 times higher than CO2. These gases can be used in texturing, phosphorus silicate glass removal (PSG), edge isolation and reactor cleaning operations from which unreacted species and reaction byproducts will be emit...

Alsema, E. A.; Wild-scholten, M. J.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Agostinelli, G.; Dekkers, Harold F. W.; Roth, K.; Kinzig, V.

2007-01-01

200

Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1996-12-31

202

Determination of Greenhouse Gases Base Year for Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) in Accordance with Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol obliges the Republic of Croatia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5 percent till the year 2010, taking a base year from the period between 1985 and 1990. Thermal power plants of Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) represent significant source of the most important greenhouse gas - CO2 - and consequently HEP is expected to make a significant contribution to the national activities aiming to meet the Kyoto Protocol requirements. This issue is of particular importance, as Croatia has not submitted its base year to the Conference of the Parties in form of The National Communication on Climate Change, which is one of the requirements of UN Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Related to this, it is interesting to include emissions from the thermal power plants located in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (650 MWe) that had supplied electricity to the Croatian power supply system in the base year period and on which HEP claims legal ownership. This article presents HEP greenhouse gas emissions from the period of 1985 to 1990, as well as its contribution in total greenhouse gas emissions of Croatia. Furthermore, future HEP greenhouse gas emissions, according to its business development scenario till the year 2010, will be estimated. (author)

203

Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

2011-12-01

204

A influência dos gases estufa no oceano Atlântico Sul: estudo climatológico / The effect of greenhouse gases on South Atlantic Ocean: a climatological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os impactos climáticos no oceano Atlântico Sul causados pela industrialização e conseqüente aumento da emissão de gases estufa para a atmosfera. Para isso utilizou-se o modelo numérico acoplado National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climat [...] e System Model, sob duas condições climáticas: a primeira para o período pré-industrial e, a segunda, para o pós-industrial. Os resultados mostraram aquecimento da superfície do mar na climatologia do período pós-industrial em relação ao pré-industrial, principalmente durante a primavera quando alcança 2,5°C ao sul do continente sulamericano. O comportamento climatológico do transporte barotrópico e da pressão ao nível do mar também mostraram diferenças significativas de um período para o outro, sugerindo a intensificação da Alta Subtropical, Giro Subtropical e Corrente Circumpolar Antártica. Sazonalmente, as diferenças no transporte barotrópico foram maiores no outono, exibindo valores superiores a 25 Sv, em torno de 0°E, 55°S. A pressão atmosférica ao nível do mar foi levemente fortalecida no verão e outono, com intensificação máxima de 2mbar, e enfraquecida no inverno do período pré-industrial para a simulação do presente. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the increase in greenhouse gases caused by the industrialization in the climate of the South Atlantic Ocean. We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model. Two climate conditions were used to force the mode [...] l, one relative to the pre-industrial levels of greenhouse gases emissions and the other to the levels of the present days. The results have shown a significant sea surface warming in pos-industrial climatology in relation to the pre-industrial one, mainly during the spring season when it reaches 2.5°C south of South America. The climatological behavior of the barotropic streamfunction and the sea level pressure also showed relevant differences from one period to the next. This suggests an intensification of the subtropical high, the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Seasonally, the differences in the barotropic streamfunction were larger in autumn with values as high as 25 Sv around 0°E, 55°S. The sea level pressure for present simulation shows a straightening in summer and autumn with an intensification of 2mbar, and a weakening in winter in relation to the pre-industrial period.

Andréa S., Taschetto; Ilana, Wainer.

205

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use FUND 3.5 to estimate the social cost of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. We show the results of a range of sensitivity analyses, focusing on the impact of carbon dioxide fertilization. Ignored in previous studies of the social cost of greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide fertilization has a positive effect at the margin, but only for carbon dioxide. Because of this, the ratio of the social cost of a greenhouse gas to that of carbon dioxide...

Waldhoff, Stephanie; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven; Tol, Richard S. J.

2011-01-01

206

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases to 2025; Fremskrivning af Danmarks energiforbrug og udledning af drivhusgasser frem til 2025  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy policies are changing in Denmark as well as internationally. Since the latest projection was published January 2008 the Danish political system has agreed on a national energy agreement, furthermore EU has presented a proposal concerning promotion of renewable energy and reduction of greenhouse gases. Thus a need for an update of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases has arisen. Two scenarios are presented: 1) An agreement projection - Danish Energy Authority's new basic projection, 2) An updated basic projection without the energy agreement. It must be stressed that long term projections imply uncertainties which are expected to increase during the projection period. (BA)

2008-07-15

207

PLANIFICACIÓN CONTABLE Y DERECHOS DE EMISIÓN DE GASES DEEFECTO INVERNADERO ACCOUNTING PLANNING AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION RIGHTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A implementação do comércio de direitos de emissão de Gases do Efeito Estufa (GEE, em 2005, na Espanha, tem suscitado múltiplas incertezas tanto contábeis como fiscais. Antes de junho de 2005, as empresas espanholas deviam ter recebido a cota de CO2 fixada pelo Governo através da abertura de uma conta no Registro Nacional de emissões. Qualquer empresa que pretender exceder a sua cota de emissão de gases deve adquirir ou gerar os direitos de emissão correspondentes que não detenha. Porém, toda companhia, que tenha emitido um volume de gases inferior à cota recebida ou que tenha gerado direitos num montante superior ao que necessitava, poderá repassá-los a outros atores econômicos. Este regime de comércio de direitos de emissão recém-lançado gera um novo cenário, pleno de desafios e oportunidades e uma ou outra ameaça derivada da possibilidade de se gerarem excedentes ou a necessidade de se adquirirem novos direitos, com as conseqüentes receitas e aumentos de custos. O problema que estudamos neste trabalho é como contabilizar estes movimentos e que efeito essas operações podem ter na determinação da base de cálculo do Imposto de Sociedades à luz da recente publicação da Resolução do ICAC sobre direitos de emissão. A única referência disponível para as empresas espanholas que devem apresentar contas em conformidade com as NIIF era a Final Interpretation 3 (IFRIC 3, publicada em dezembro de 2004, através do IASB, mas revogada em junho de 2005, devido às numerosas críticas recebidas de outros organismos privados. Palavras-chave: Planejamento Contábil. Direitos de Emissão de Gases do Efeito Estufa. Provisões. Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade. In January 2005, the European Union established a greenhouse gas emission trading plan. In Spain, several doubts about the accountant effects of this plan have arisen. All installations emitting greenhouse gases must be in possession of an appropriate permit issued by competent authorities. A government (or government agency issues rights (allowances to participating entities for them to emit a specified level of emissions. Participants in the scheme are able to buy and sell allowances in the CO2 stock exchange market. At the end of a specified period, participants are required to deliver allowances equal to their actual emissions. The accounting to be adopted by participants and its effect on earnings due to the new Spanish regulation (ICAC Resolution is the study objective of this paper. For firms ruled by IFR’s the only reference was IFRIC 3 which, however, was withdrawn in June 2005 due to the EFRAG recommendation. The Spanish Accounting Plan and the ICAC Resolutions remain the legal frameworks for the rest of the firms. We demonstrate how in the new Spanish legal context it will be possible to differ or anticipate incomes, making for a very useful tool for accounting planning. Keywords: Allowances. Accounting planning. Provisions. IFRs. Earnings. La implantación del comercio de los derechos de emisión de Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI en 2005 en España ha suscitado múltiples incertidumbres tanto contables como fiscales. Antes de junio de 2005 las empresas españolas debían haber recibido la asignación de CO2 fijada por el Gobierno a través de la apertura de una cuenta en el Registro Nacional de emisiones. Cualquier empresa que pretenda emitir más gases de los que se le han asignado, deberá adquirir o generar los correspondientes derechos de emisión de los que carezca. En cambio, toda aquella compañía que haya emitido gases por debajo de la cantidad asignada o que haya generado derechos en cuantía superior a la que necesitaba podrá transmitirlos a otros agentes económicos. Este recién estrenado régimen de comercio de derechos de emisión genera un nuevo entorno repleto de retos y oportunidades y alguna que otra amenaza, derivadas de la posibilidad de generar excedentes o la necesidad de adquirir nuevos derechos con los consiguientes beneficios o incremento de costes. El problema que nos ocupa en

Ana Isabel Mateos Ansótegui

2008-02-01

208

Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

1998-08-01

209

Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO) code to account for polarization effects in space- based observations of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two centuries, anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have increased to an alarming situation. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which is in orbit since 23 January 2009, has considerable promise to improve surface flux inverse modeling. Algorithms for the operational satellite data processing must accurately account for atmospheric light scattering caused by aerosols and thin upper tropospheric clouds. Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) in short wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measures two polarized components spectra for both P- and S- polarization states. The current versions of the operational algorithms for GOSAT data processing utilize scalar radiance that is produced from combination of the polarized signals. To process both polarization states within the full physics algorithms, that utilized the solution of vectorial radiative transfer calculations, is still time consuming when utilizing the radiative transfer codes such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, SCIATRAN. In this paper we report an improved rapid code for spectral radiative transfer calculations that is refereed to as Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO). This program could be utilized in further versions of full physics algorithm for direct processing of both polarized states. Another application of this method for space-based observations of greenhouse gases resides in testing of photon path length probability density function (PPDF) method that effectively accounts of atmospheric light scattering. The CIAO code is based on the solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) with elimination of the anisotropic part of the radiance angular distribution that allows finding the solution of the discretized VRTE in the closed matrix form. There are no any limitations of the media parameters in this code. The comparison of this algorithm with known ones such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, and SCIATRAN showed that similar accuracy could be accessed under significantly lower time consuming. The difference in computation time reaches one order of magnitude and even higher with increasing the degree of scattering anisotropy the total atmospheric optical depth

Budak, V. P.; Klyuykov, D. A.; Oshchepkov, S.

2010-12-01

210

Emissões de gases de efeito estufa pela deposição de palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre o solo / Greenhouse gases emissions due to sugarcane trash on the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Biocombustíveis contribuem para reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). No Brasil, o principal biocombustível é o etanol de cana-de-açúcar. Além dos colmos, as folhas de cana-de-açúcar também podem ser usadas para produzir etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as emissões de GEE [...] (CO2, CH4 e N2O) induzidas pela presença de palha sobre o solo. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em Latossolos, em Piracicaba: imediatamente após a colheita, aos seis e aos 12 meses após a colheita. Foram avaliados os efeitos de três doses de palha (0%, 50% e 100% da quantidade disponível na superfície) sobre as emissões. Imediatamente após a colheita, as emissões de CO2 e CH4 aumentaram com o aumento da quantidade de palha. Aos seis meses após a colheita houve consumo de CH4 à medida que a quantidade de palha aumentou. Doze meses após a colheita, as emissões dos três gases foram similares, independentemente da quantidade de palha. Remover a palha de cana-de-açúcar não aumenta as emissões de GEE do solo em comparação ao manejo sem retirada da palha da superfície. Contudo, estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os efeitos sobre a produtividade de cana-de-açúcar, sobre a erosão e sobre outros atributos do solo. Abstract in english Biofuels are important to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions to atmosphere. In Brazil, the main biofuel is ethanol from sugarcane. Beyond stalk, sugarcane sheets are also stating to be used to produce second generation ethanol. The objective of this work was evaluate soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2 [...] O) emissions induced by sugarcane trash on soil surface. Three experiments were done in an Oxisol, in Piracicaba region, taking in account three periods: immediately after sugarcane harvest, six and twelve months after harvest. In each experiment, we evaluated the effects of three sugarcane trash rates (0%, 50% and 100% of the quantity available at soil surface). Immediately after harvest, CO2 and CH4 emissions increased linearly with trash rate on soil surface. Six months after harvest there were CH4 consumption by soil as trash on surface increased. Twelve months after harvest, emissions of the three gases were similar in all trash rates. Removing sugarcane straw from soil surface do not increase soil GHGs emissions as compared to the current management, in which 100% of trash is maintained on the soil surface. However, other studies are needed to investigate its effects under sugarcane yield, soil erosion and under other soil attributes.

Diana, Signor; Luísa Lorentz Magalhães, Pissioni; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

2014-06-01

211

Emissões de gases de efeito estufa pela deposição de palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre o solo / Greenhouse gases emissions due to sugarcane trash on the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Biocombustíveis contribuem para reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). No Brasil, o principal biocombustível é o etanol de cana-de-açúcar. Além dos colmos, as folhas de cana-de-açúcar também podem ser usadas para produzir etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as emissões de GEE [...] (CO2, CH4 e N2O) induzidas pela presença de palha sobre o solo. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em Latossolos, em Piracicaba: imediatamente após a colheita, aos seis e aos 12 meses após a colheita. Foram avaliados os efeitos de três doses de palha (0%, 50% e 100% da quantidade disponível na superfície) sobre as emissões. Imediatamente após a colheita, as emissões de CO2 e CH4 aumentaram com o aumento da quantidade de palha. Aos seis meses após a colheita houve consumo de CH4 à medida que a quantidade de palha aumentou. Doze meses após a colheita, as emissões dos três gases foram similares, independentemente da quantidade de palha. Remover a palha de cana-de-açúcar não aumenta as emissões de GEE do solo em comparação ao manejo sem retirada da palha da superfície. Contudo, estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os efeitos sobre a produtividade de cana-de-açúcar, sobre a erosão e sobre outros atributos do solo. Abstract in english Biofuels are important to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions to atmosphere. In Brazil, the main biofuel is ethanol from sugarcane. Beyond stalk, sugarcane sheets are also stating to be used to produce second generation ethanol. The objective of this work was evaluate soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2 [...] O) emissions induced by sugarcane trash on soil surface. Three experiments were done in an Oxisol, in Piracicaba region, taking in account three periods: immediately after sugarcane harvest, six and twelve months after harvest. In each experiment, we evaluated the effects of three sugarcane trash rates (0%, 50% and 100% of the quantity available at soil surface). Immediately after harvest, CO2 and CH4 emissions increased linearly with trash rate on soil surface. Six months after harvest there were CH4 consumption by soil as trash on surface increased. Twelve months after harvest, emissions of the three gases were similar in all trash rates. Removing sugarcane straw from soil surface do not increase soil GHGs emissions as compared to the current management, in which 100% of trash is maintained on the soil surface. However, other studies are needed to investigate its effects under sugarcane yield, soil erosion and under other soil attributes.

Diana, Signor; Luísa Lorentz Magalhães, Pissioni; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

212

Greenhouse gases in cold water filaments in the Arabian Sea during the Southwest Monsoon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and the concentrations of nitrous oxide and methane were investigated in a cold water filament near the coastal upwelling region off Oman at the beginning of the southwest monsoon in 1997. The results suggest that such filaments are regions of intense biogeochemical activity which may affect the marine cycling of climatically relevant trace gases

Lendt, Ralf; Hupe, Axel; Ittekott, Venugopalan; Bange, Hermann W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Thomas, Helmuth; Al Habsi, S.; Rapsomanikis, Spyridon

1999-01-01

213

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upst...

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

214

Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) ...

Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

215

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in co...

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

216

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributio...

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

2009-01-01

217

Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. ...

Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

218

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstr...

Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

219

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic...

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

220

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficie...

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Favoino, E.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Changes of Pacific decadal variability in the twentieth century driven by internal variability, greenhouse gases, and aerosols  

Science.gov (United States)

paper explores the contributions of internal variability, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) in driving the magnitude and evolution of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) during the twentieth century by analyzing 129 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model realizations. Evidence shows that PDV phase transition is dominated by internal variability, but it is also significantly affected by external forcing agents such as GHGs and aerosols. The combined effects of GHGs and AAs favor the positive phase of PDV with stronger ocean warming in the tropics than the extratropical Pacific. The GHG forcing induces the increased surface downward longwave radiation, especially over the tropical Pacific, and results in stronger warming in that area. The AA forcing results in a stronger cooling in the North Pacific region, due to the reduced surface downward shortwave radiation via cloud-aerosol interaction: this offsets the substantial warming caused by GHG forcing.

Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaolong

2014-12-01

222

Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

223

Contribution of the renewable energies to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission for 2010; Contribution des EnR a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'horizon 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To illustrate the renewable energies contribution to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission in 2010 (19 Mt of CO{sub 2} per year, of greenhouse gases emission avoided), this document presents the different renewable energies sources and the international context of their implementation. Today data and estimations for 2010 are provided. (A.L.B.)

Anon.

2003-03-01

224

Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different ssess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

225

Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 ?m. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

2011-07-01

226

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

Abbas Asakereh

2010-08-01

227

The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

NONE

2013-08-15

228

Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2012 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the UK Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

Miles, Stephanie; Malcolm, Heath; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet

2014-01-01

229

Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

230

Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry/global climate system – Part 1: Halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM; v3.6.33. Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br? in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx, CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC's to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42? processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: the lifetime of nss-SO42? was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42? in the Southern Hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

M. S. Long

2013-03-01

231

Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-07

232

Emission Verification of Greenhouse Gases on the Sub-continental Scale Using Tall Tower Observations and Inverse Trajectory Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Inert (on the time scale of several days) greenhouse gases like CH4, N2O and SF6 are almost ideal gases to model in trajectory models, as (photo)chemistry and uptake processes can be neglected. The forward and backward (inverse) calculations of atmospheric transport presented here have been performed by using a simple trajectory model, utilizing 3D 96 hour backward trajectory data based on ECMWF analysed windfields. The trajectories were calculated using the FLEXTRA model v3.3 (Stohl et al., 1999). The most important factor determining the atmospheric concentrations besides the greenhouse gas emission strengths obviously is the atmospheric mixing layer height. This mixing height is determined in the model by following a critical Richardson number scheme. We used a long time series of 3 years of continuous high precision vertical concentration gradient measurements of CH4 and N2O at the tall tower of Cabauw in the center of the Netherlands to derive estimates of the West European spatial distribution of emissions of these gases and the corresponding trends. The forward and inverse calculations and the high resolution vertical concentration gradient data provide maps of both the local and more remote distribution of the sources. The inverse calculation uses the SVD matrix inversion technique to determine the best fitting solution to the overdetermined system that follows from the combination of the source receptor matrix derived from the trajectory model and the observed concentration data. The resulting best estimate for the emissions of CH4 are for most parts of Western Europe in agreement with the current inventory data. The inherent uncertainty of the transport model and measurements and how these uncertainties translate into the uncertainty of the inverse calculated emissions is estimated by using a Monte Carlo error analysis technique. Other error estimations are determined from using ensemble trajectories with horizontal and vertical deviations. Several problems related to solving overdetermined problems still remain and options to overcome these will be discussed. References Stohl, A., L. Haimberger, M.P. Scheele, and H. Wernli (1999): An intercomparison of results from three trajectory models. Meteorol. Applications 8, 127-135.

Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Bulk, P. V.; Erisman, J.

2003-12-01

233

Applications of fiber lasers for remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004 ITT Exelis developed the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) for measuring atmospheric CO2. This lidar relies on high efficiency telecom laser components and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA's) to implement a unique Continuous Wave (CW) Intensity Modulated (IM) differential absorption lidar measurement. This same approach has also been used to measure atmospheric O2 by replacing the EDFA's with fiber Raman amplifier technology. The use of all fiber coupled components results in a highly reliable, flexible and robust instrument. The general architecture of the MFLL, its implementation for greenhouse gas measurements, and as a pseudorandom noise encoded altimeter system is reviewed. Results from a 2011 flight campaign on the NASA DC-8 aircraft which included CO2, O2, and PN altimetry using a single receiver for all three measurements are also discussed. In addition, an introduction to a novel variation of this approach that will enable greenhouse gas monitoring from a geostationary orbit is given. This paper provides a general overview of a set of applications for fiber lasers in the area of active remote sensing that have been developed by Exelis over the past several years.

Dobler, Jeremy T.; Braun, Michael; Nagel, James; Temyanko, Valery L.; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.

2013-02-01

234

Investigation into the emission of greenhouse effect gases; Onshitsu koka gas no haishutsu ni kansuru chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper grasped the situation of greenhouse effect gas emissions of advanced countries based on the reports from them. The advanced countries which concluded the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (OECD member countries, the former U.S.S.R., and East European countries) are to be reported to the office concerned with work for the framework the situation of their greenhouse effect gas emissions according to the obligation of the framework. In and after April 1997, they made the second report. The paper summarized changes in emission amount, the future trend, and the policies/measures mainly taken of nine countries which have already presented the second report (the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and New Zealand) and one country (Russia) which has made only the first report. Moreover, the literature was collected and summed up concerning the mechanism and coefficients of the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. The collected literature was classified into all fields/plural number of fields, energy relation, industrial process relation, relation with the use of organic solvent and other products, agricultural relation, relation with changes in land use and forests, and waste relation. 4 figs., 228 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

235

Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column  

Science.gov (United States)

This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

2012-01-01

236

Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill  

Science.gov (United States)

There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

2012-04-01

237

Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a separate airline and can be switched between inlets that are within 1m of grass lawn at ground level or within 5 m of a large oak tree at canopy level. Flow rates vary between the internal pumps of the CRDS instruments, but within the range 260-300 cc/min when inlet valves are fully opened. Controlling flows below 200 cc/min significantly increases stabilisation time for cylinder gases. Likewise setting outlet pressures for NOAA and target gases at 4 psi and allowing the instrument pumps to control flow speeds up stabilization. Currently the instruments are measuring CO2, CH4 and H2O at 5-second intervals. Precisions (1 SD) of NOAA tanks, based on the final 10 minutes of a 30-minute analysis period are better than ±0.03 ppm for CO2 and ±0.3 ppb for CH4. Automated inlets and automated data retrieval will be tested during spring, for deployment on the South Atlantic islands later in 2009. Fisher, R., Lowry, D., Wilkin, O., Sriskantharajah S. & Nisbet. E.G. (2006) High-precision, automated stable isotope analysis of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm. Mass. Spec. 20, 200-208. Le Quéré, C., C. Rödenbeck, E. T. Buitenhuis, T. J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett, and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735-1738, 2007.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

2009-04-01

238

Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO2-equivalents tonne —1 wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (—560 to —120 kg CO2equivalents tonne—1 wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (—1.9 to —1.3 tonnes CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2009-01-01

239

Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column  

Science.gov (United States)

This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

2012-01-01

240

Greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change: case of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in climate caused by human activities will have far-reaching environmental impacts. Of particular concern are the possibilities of major changes in regional water quantity and quality. An increase in average monthly temperature of 4 deg. C decreases spring runoff over 50% while increasing winter runoff nearly 35%; summer Soil moisture decreases over 30%. Changes in precipitation, whether positive or negative may have been greater consequences for the timing and magnitude of runoff and may contribute significantly to the possibility and consequences of flooding and drought. Global Climatic Changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentration of CO/sub 2/ from fuel combustion and other trace gases are likely to appear within the next few decades. One of the most important of such environmental changes will be alternations in regional hydrologic characteristics such as surface runoff and soil moisture. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Greenhouse gases emissions inventory in 2005 by the Mexican energy sector; Inventario de emisiones en 2005 de gases de efecto invernadero por el sector energetico mexicano  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance National de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission source that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory. In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sector had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non-industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries. [Spanish] En este trabajo se calcularon las emisiones de Gases de Efecto de inventario (GEI's) del 2005 por la seccion de consumo y/o transformacion de energia en Mexico. El documento obtenido no es oficial, y como referencia, se utiliza el consumo de combustible que refiere el Balance Nacional de Energia 2005, publicado por la Secretaria de Energia. Con esto, se estandarizan las fuentes de emision que en algun momento usara el Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de GEI's 2005. Para resolver la falta de factores de emision propios de Mexico, se recurre a los factores globales de emision propuestos como valores por omision por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico. Para la estimacion de las emisiones de GEI's se utilizo el Metodo Sectorial tomando en consideracion el consumo de combustible de cada uno de los subsectores en que se encuentra dividido el sector energetico. Se encontro que los sectores transporte y de la industria de la transformacion de energia son los que mas emisiones de GEI's presentan, y que Mexico como pais no industrializado tiene menos emisiones per capita que los paises desarrollados.

Flores Velazquez, R.; Munoz Lerdo Carranza, R.; Villalba Valle, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfv@iie.org.mx; rml@iie.org.mx; danviva17@yahoo.com.mx

2010-01-15

242

Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado Protocolo de Kioto, existe reticencia por parte de algunos paises desarrollados para ratificarlo y asumir sus compromisos, y en la ultima sesion de la Conferencia de las Partes, (COP-6), celebrada en la Haya, Holanda, no se logro consolidar la entrada en operacion de los mecanismos que establece Kioto.

Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2001-07-01

243

Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

244

Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the related effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased weight gains. To a lesser extent, this also applies to nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane emissions are less affected; increased weight gains result in increased emissions. As the greenhouse gas balance is dominated by methane emissions, the overall emission of greenhouse gases (expressed as CO2 equivalents) is likely to increase slightly in 2020 despite the reductions in nitrous oxide emissions.

Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas

2013-01-01

245

Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometry: Measurements with FTIS-MAPS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrared spectrometry is a versatile basis to analyse greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) was developed for retrieval of gas concentrations from radiation emission as well as absorption measurements. Concentrations of CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, HCl, HCHO, and the temperature of warm gases are determined on-line. The analyses of greenhouse gases in gaseous emission sources and in ambient air are performed by a mobile remote sensing system using the double-pendulum interferometer K300 of the Munich company Kayser-Threde. Passive radiation measurements are performed to retrieve CO, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, SO2, and HCl concentrations in smoke stack effluents of thermal power plants and municipal incinerators and CO and H2O as well as CO2 and NO in exhausts of aircraft engines. Open-path radiation measurements are used to determine greenhouse gas concentrations at different ambient air conditions and greenhouse gas emission rates of diffusive sources as garbage deposits, open coal mining, stock farming together with additional compounds (e.g. NH3), and from road traffic together with HCHO. Some results of measurements are shown. A future task is the verification of emission cadastres by these inspection measurements. PMID:24213905

Schäfer, K; Haus, R; Heland, J

1994-05-01

246

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method of atmospheric light scattering correction  

Science.gov (United States)

With the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) that is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009, one of the key issues of a large volume of near-infrared highly resolved spectra processing is the accurate and rapid determination of CO2 level. Algorithms for oper-ational satellite data processing of solar spectral observations of ground surface reflection must properly account for atmospheric light scattering. Aerosol and thin upper tropospheric clouds that affect the optical path through the atmosphere could be significant sources of error in greenhouse gas retrievals We present initial results on actual GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method that corrects atmospheric light scattering through account for optical pathlength modification (PPDF is an abbreviation for "photon pathlength probability density function). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. The constraints are mainly imposed on gas vertical profiles within the maximum a posteriori method using covariance matrices based on NIES atmo-spheric tracer transport model. The state vector includes vertical profiles of gas mixing ratios; correction factors for prior temperature and water vapor profiles; altitudes of the cirrus and aerosol layers parameters. Surface pressure is taken from climatological data set. In addition, we retrieve three polynomial coefficients for each spectral region to account for low-frequency part of the spectra and stretch factor to allow for wave number grid variations. Two spectral regions were utilized (6200 -6270 cm-1 from band 2 and 4800 -4880 cm-1 from band 3) for CO2 estimation depending on the retrieval strategy. The tapping of both regions permits si-multaneous gas and PPDF retrievals. The case of Band 2 only required independent PPDF estimations that were obtained on the base of three-dimensional aerosol transport radiation model SPRINTERS.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Andrey, Bril; Yoshida, Yukio; Isamu, Morino; Yokota, Tatsuya

247

Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable Al3+ and higher available P regarding the condition of the original soil.

Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

2014-05-01

248

New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies.

249

The seasonal variation of emission of greenhouse gases from a full-scale sewage treatment plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonal variety of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and the main emission source in a sewage treatment plant were investigated. The emission coefficient to treated wastewater was 291gCO2m(-3). The main source of GHGs was CO2 from the consumption of electricity, nitrous oxide from the sludge incineration process, and methane from the water treatment process. They accounted for 43.4%, 41.7% and 8.3% of the total amount of GHGs emissions, respectively. The amount of methane was plotted as a function of water temperature ranging between 13.3 and 27.3°C. An aeration tank was the main source of methane emission from all the units. Almost all the methane was emitted from the aeration tank, which accounted for 86.4% of the total gaseous methane emission. However, 18.4% of the methane was produced in sewage lines, 15.4% in the primary sedimentation tank, and 60.0% in the aeration tank. PMID:25439128

Masuda, Shuhei; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Sano, Itsumi; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

2014-10-22

250

Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified. PMID:21866889

Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

2011-10-01

251

Level and Trend Uncertainties of Kyoto Relevant Greenhouse Gases in Poland. Interim Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol is often described as a good first step towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. The Protocol endorses emissions trading, joint implementation including 'bubbling' between Annex 1 Parties, and a clean development mechanism that allows Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 Parties to act together to reduce emissions. However, the anticipated permit market will not function if uncertainties are not rigorously assessed and considered in any compliance process. With no reliable verification tool, it is impossible to effectively assess the different mechanisms and activities mentioned under the Protocol. Thus, it is very important to study the uncertainties underlying the Kyoto relevant GHGs, here with reference to Poland, because without the consideration of uncertainty robust verification can not occur. This paper presents information about the data used in the calculations as well as the methods favored by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The so-called Tier 1 method of the IPCC for the evaluation of uncertainties is described in more detail. This paper also provides a first quantitative overview on the Polish uncertainties of three Kyoto relevant GHGs, namely CO2, CH4, and N2O, for 1988, 1990 and 1999. The main goals of the paper are to present the analytical calculations as well as additional calculations that are carried out to improve the evaluation of uncertainties. Recommendations are presented to reach these gomendations are presented to reach these goals

252

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (—900 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO2-equivalents tonne —1 ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh

2009-01-01

253

Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world's population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today's risks

254

Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a 'seed-to-wheel' approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO2 equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO2eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N2O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation methodGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

255

Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

1993-11-01

256

A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to greenhouse gases and water usage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The general perception that livestock is a major contributor to global warming resulted mainly from the FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, in 2006, which indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This figure has since been proved to be an o [...] verestimation, since it includes deforestation and other indirect contributions. The most recent figure is in the order of 5% - 10%. Although only ruminants can convert the world's high-fibre vegetation into high-quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on questionable assumptions and the perception that all sources of food production require a similar and equal quantity and quality of water. In the case of ruminants, extensive systems are usually found to have a lower per-area carbon footprint than grain-fed systems, but a higher footprint if expressed in terms of kg product. Feedlots maximize efficiency of meat production, resulting in a lower carbon footprint, whereas organic production systems consume more energy and have a bigger carbon footprint than conventional production systems. Cows on pastures produce more methane than cows on high concentrate diets. In South Africa, as in most of the countries in the sub-tropics, livestock production is the only option on about 70% of the agricultural land, since the marginal soils and rainfall do not allow for crop production and the utilization of green water. An effective way to reduce the carbon and water footprint of livestock is to decrease livestock numbers and increase production per animal, thereby improving their efficiency.

M.M., Scholtz; J.B.J., van Ryssen; H.H., Meissner; M.C., Laker.

257

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360—1260 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of recovered aluminium and 400— 1020 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040—19 340 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated aluminium and 560—2360 kg CO2-equivalents tonne—1 of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible.

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

258

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0—70 kg CO2eq. tonne —1 of glasswaste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately —500 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of glass waste for the remelting technology and —1500 to —600 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

2009-01-01

259

Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3—9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347—371 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of waste for incineration and 735—803 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of —480 to —1373 kg CO2eq. tonne—1 of waste for incineration and within —181 to —2607 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of waste for co-combustion. N2O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

Astrup, Thomas; MØller, Jacob

2009-01-01

260

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for the open dump, 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1. On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about —70 to 30 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1, obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1. This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide

2009-01-01

262

Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG accounting for a generic AD facility with either biogas utilization at the facility or upgrading of the gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from —375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N2O-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH 4, unburned CH4, carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWFfor a specific type of AD facility was in the range —95 to —4 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH4 and carbon sequestration highly influenced the result. In comparison with the few published GWFs for AD, the range of our data was much larger demonstrating the need to use a consistent and robust approach to GHG accounting and simultaneously accept that some key parameters are highly uncertain.

MØller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio

2009-01-01

263

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in comparison wih the downstream activities. The GHG contributions from the downstream reprocessing of the paper waste ranged from approximately 490 to 1460 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of paper waste. The system may be expanded to include crediting of avoided virgin paper production which would result in GHG contributions from —1270 to 390 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste. It may also be assumed that the wood not used for virgin paper production instead is used for production of energy that in turn is assumed to substitute for fossil fuel energy. This would result in GHG contributions from —1850 to —4400 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 of paper waste. These system expansions reveal very large GHG savings, suggesting that the indirect upstream and operational GHG contributions are negligible in comparison with the indirect downstream emissions. However, the data for reprocessing of paper waste and the data for virgin paper production are highly variable. These differences are mainly related to different energy sources for the mills, both in regards to energy form (heat or electricity) and fuel (biomass or fossil fuels).

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders

2009-01-01

264

Heterogeneous saline formations : long-term benefits for geo-sequestration of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline formations as a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions was discussed with particular reference to reservoir performance of heterogenous formations with varying permeability and porosity distributions. If CO2 is injected into such formations, the increased baffling and reduced permeability may inhibit the flow of CO2 towards potential leak points in the reservoir. Injectivity into low-quality rock is a concern for heterogeneous formations. Injection programs involving multiple wells and appropriate well- completion strategies may be able to overcome injectivity problems for these candidate formations. The opportunity for geosequestration increases if low-quality heterogeneous saline formations are considered as possible target formations. Dynamic simulation of CO2 injection into a formation was used to model possible outcomes for geosequestration projects. Heterogeneity may include stratigraphic layering in the reservoir, faults, depositional mixing, compartmentalization, and channel systems. It was determined that for underground storage, CO2 should be injected at the bottom of a heterogeneous formation to take the best advantage of vertical baffling in the reservoir to stratigraphically trap CO2 and increase reservoir contact with the formation. The trapping mechanisms for CO2 sequestration were discussed wsub>2 sequestration were discussed with reference to solubility; gas-water relative permeability hysteresis; geological seals; and, mineralization. Pressure rise reservoir simulation studies have shown that permeability has a pronounced influence on reservoir performance in terms of CO2 migration, local pressure changes in the formation and long-term status of the CO2. The increased travel path of CO2 causes increased trapping through greater reservoir contact and potentially improves the storage project. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

265

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60— 1600 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO2 emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde

2009-01-01

266

Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric CO2 and light path modification from space-based spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases: methodology and application to GOSAT measurements over TCCON sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an improved photon path length probability density function method that permits simultaneous retrievals of column-average greenhouse gas mole fractions and light path modifications through the atmosphere when processing high-resolution radiance spectra acquired from space. We primarily describe the methodology and retrieval setup and then apply them to the processing of spectra measured by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We have demonstrated substantial improvements of the data processing with simultaneous carbon dioxide and light path retrievals and reasonable agreement of the satellite-based retrievals against ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). PMID:23435008

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Blumenstock, Thomas; Deutscher, Nicholas M; Dohe, Susanne; Macatangay, Ronald; Morino, Isamu; Notholt, Justus; Rettinger, Markus; Petri, Christof; Schneider, Matthias; Sussman, Ralf; Uchino, Osamu; Velazco, Voltaire; Wunch, Debra; Belikov, Dmitry

2013-02-20

267

An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

2014-03-01

268

An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Chih-Chun Kung

2014-03-01

269

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ? The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ? AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and avoided CO2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO2-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO2), while the net CO2-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO2). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO2-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO2-eq reduction.

270

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO(2), biogenic CO(2), CH(4,) and avoided CO(2) as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO(2)-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO(2)), while the net CO(2)-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO(2)). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO(2)-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO(2)-eq reduction. PMID:22884580

Niu, Dong-jie; Huang, Hui; Dai, Xiao-hu; Zhao, You-cai

2013-01-01

271

Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

2014-09-15

272

Changes of interannual NAO variability in response to greenhouse gases forcing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations show that there was change in interannual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability in the mid-1970s. This change was characterized by an eastward shift of the NAO action centres, a poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies and a downstream extension of climate anomalies associated with the NAO. The NAO interannual variability for the period after the mid-1970s has an annular mode structure that penetrates deeply into the stratosphere, indicating a strengthened relationship between the NAO and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. In this study we have investigated possible causes of these changes in the NAO by carrying out experiments with an atmospheric GCM. The model is forced either by doubling CO{sub 2}, or increasing sea surface temperatures (SST), or both. In the case of SST forcing the SST anomaly is derived from a coupled model simulation forced by increasing CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that SST and CO{sub 2} change both force a poleward and eastward shift in the pattern of interannual NAO variability and the associated poleward shift of zonal wind anomalies, similar to the observations. The effect of SST change can be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. The direct effect of CO{sub 2} change, in contrast, can not be understood in terms of mean changes in the troposphere. However, there is a significant response in the stratosphere, characterized by a strengthened climatological polar vortex with strongly enhanced interannual variability. In this case, the NAO interannual variability has a strong link with the variability over the North Pacific, as in the annular AO pattern, and is also strongly related to the stratospheric vortex, indicating strengthened stratosphere-troposphere coupling. The similarity of changes in many characteristics of NAO interannual variability between the model response to doubling CO{sub 2} and those in observations in the mid-1970s implies that the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, and the resulting changes in the stratosphere, might have played an important role in the multidecadal change of interannual NAO variability and its associated climate anomalies during the late twentieth century. The weak change in mean westerlies in the troposphere in response to CO{sub 2} change implies that enhanced and eastward extended mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere might not be a necessary condition for the poleward and eastward shift of the NAO action centres in the mid-1970s. (orig.)

Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Woollings, Tim [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15

273

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nitrogen (N removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping. There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+, emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

M. M. R. Jahangir

2014-07-01

274

Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG emissions, and simultaneously add organic matter to soil, was to employ reduced tillage techniques and low input farming which is based upon the reduction of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides without their complete elimination and to also add carbon to the soils through the addition and incorporation of organic amendments and cover crops.

Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

2008-12-01

275

Gas chromatography and photoacoustic spectroscopy for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases emissions Cromatografia gasosa e espectroscopia fotoacústica para avaliação das emissões de gases de efeito estufa do solo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are critical for determination of the agricultural practices' potential to mitigate global warming. This study evaluated the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the assessment of soil greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes in comparison to the standard gas chromatography (GC) method. Two long-term experiments with different tillage and cropping systems over a Paleudult were evaluated using static chambers. PAS ...

Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso; Cimélio Bayer; Genuir Luis Denega; Paulo Armando Victória de Oliveira; Martha Mayumi Higarashi; Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Letícia dos Santos Lopes

2013-01-01

276

Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

Kim, D.; Na, U.

2010-12-01

277

Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end ...

Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

2015-01-01

278

Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to assess through the avoided health cost method what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air pollut...

Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabia?n; Perone, Elizabeth; So?rensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

2002-01-01

279

Sensitivity of tropospheric chemical composition to halogen-radical chemistry using a fully coupled size-resolved multiphase chemistry-global climate system: halogen distributions, aerosol composition, and sensitivity of climate-relevant gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations and model calculations indicate that highly non-linear multiphase atmospheric processes involving inorganic Cl and Br significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, and radiative transfer. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was investigated using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry-global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) v3.6.33). Simulated results revealed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. They also point to possible physicochemical mechanisms that may account for several previously unexplained phenomena, including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile inorganic Br mixing ratios in the troposphere were generally higher than observed, due in part to the overly efficient net production of BrCl. In addition, the emission scheme for marine aerosol and associated Br-, which is the only source for Br in the model, overestimates emission fluxes from the high-latitude Southern Ocean. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived precursor organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrates a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to halogen cycling. Globally, halogen chemistry had relatively less impact on SO2 and non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- although significant regional differences were evident. Although variable geographically, much of this sensitivity is attributable to either over-vigorous activation of Br (primarily BrCl) via the chemical mechanism or overproduction of sea-salt aerosol simulated under higher-wind regimes. In regions where simulated mixing ratios of reactive Br and Cl fell within observed ranges, though, halogen chemistry drove large changes in oxidant fields and associated chemical processes relative to simulations with no halogens. However, the overall simulated impacts of Br chemistry globally are overestimated and thus caution is warranted in their interpretation.

Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, R. C.; Sander, R.; Liu, X.; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-01

280

Non-linear response of South-WPWP SST to greenhouse gases forcing changes during the past 360,000 years  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical Pacific temperature plays a pivotal role in heat and moisture budget in the Earth's climate systems; its responds to greenhouse forcing is a key question in global warming research. Here we present a 360,000 years (0-360 kyrs) sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western equatorial Pacific to demonstrate the non-linear responses and threshold behavior to greenhouse gases level over the past four deglaciations. The SSTs rose drastically when equivalent CO2 (pCO2eqv.) exceeded a threshold value at 220 × 10 ppmv and lead to ultimate termination of glacial states. We speculate that the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has responded as an non-linear amplifier to both of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water formation and greenhouse gases concentration and sequentially accelerated a series of positive feedback processes in the climate system to deliver the Earth from glacial to full interglacial condition once the atmospheric CO2 concentration passes the critical thresholds. The non-linearity in the relationship between South-WPWP SST and greenhouse gas concentration is a key feature shown by the past tropical climate changes related to the Southern Hemisphere. Such non-linearity and its mechanism should be bear in mind when we deal with future global warming.

Lo, L.; Chang, S.; Wei, K.; Lee, S.; Chen, Y.; Chuang, C.; Mii, H.; Burr, G. S.; Chen, M.; Tung, Y.; Shen, C.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

A new analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from a global network and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22 for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America and Europe were modest. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2 higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP. Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported timing of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual timing of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the station locations of the current global network measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl

2008-11-01

282

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22 for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America (?9%, 23%, 17%, respectively and Europe (11%, 11%, ?4%, respectively were mostly smaller and less systematic. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2 higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP. Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported time of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual time of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in China. Deficiencies in the geographical distribution of stations measuring halocarbons in relation to estimating regional emissions are also discussed in the paper. Applications of the inversion algorithm to other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are foreseen for the future.

A. Stohl

2009-03-01

283

[Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved. PMID:23914568

Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

2013-05-01

284

Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

2013-10-01

285

GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and mitigation measures for public district heating plants in the Republic of Serbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a non-Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol signatory, the Republic of Serbia has committed to develop GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emission inventory and prepare comprehensive program of mitigation measures at national level. The paper presents results of 2000–2008 GHG emission inventory assembled for PDH (Public District Heating) sub-sector in accordance with revised IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Tier 1 methodology. Evaluation of proposed mitigation measures was performed based on 2012 and 2015 GHG emission projections, obtained for basic and four alternative scenarios, all characterized by the same energy demand but with different fuel mix used. The first alternative scenario addresses GHG emissions in case that solid fuel is substituted by natural gas. The second alternative scenario represents a sub-scenario of the first alternative scenario, with additional substitution of liquid fuel with locally available biomass. Third alternative scenario addresses emissions resulting from complete fuel switch from natural gas to liquid fuel oil, while the final alternative scenario considers the case when natural gas is the only energy resource used. GHG emission trends in the period until 2015, examined in case of previously mentioned basic and four alternative scenarios, point out to the positive impact of fuel switch on GHG emission reduction and pathways for future implementation of proposed mitigation measures. Results obtained clearly quantified assumption that fuel substitution by locally available biomass could solve environmental problems, overcome problems associated with high prices of imported fuels, improve energy supply security and increase local employment

286

Comment on "Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change"  

Science.gov (United States)

Lu's "cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced reaction (CRE) theory" is based on the assumption that the CRE reaction of halogenated molecules (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCl, ClONO2) adsorbed or trapped in polar stratospheric clouds in the winter polar stratosphere is the key step in forming photoactive halogen species that are the cause of the springtime ozone hole. This theory has been extended to a warming theory of halogenated molecules for climate change. In this comment, we discuss the chemical and physical foundations of these theories and the conclusions derived from the theories. First, it is unclear whether the loss rates of halogenated molecules induced by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) observed in the laboratory can also be interpreted as atmospheric loss rates, but even if this were the case, the impact of DEA-induced reactions on polar chlorine activation and ozone loss in the stratosphere is limited. Second, we falsify several conclusions that are reported on the basis of the CRE theory: There is no polar ozone loss in darkness, there is no apparent 11-year periodicity in polar total ozone measurements, the age of air in the polar lower stratosphere is much older than 1-2 years, and the reported detection of a pronounced recovery (by about 20-25%) in Antarctic total ozone measurements by the year 2010 is in error. There are also conclusions about the future development of sea ice and global sea level which are fundamentally flawed because Archimedes' principle is neglected. Many elements of the CRE theory are based solely on correlations between certain datasets which are no substitute for providing physical and chemical mechanisms causing a particular behavior noticeable in observations. In summary, the CRE theory cannot be considered as an independent, alternative mechanism for polar stratospheric ozone loss and the conclusions on recent and future surface temperature and global sea level change do not have a physical basis.

Müller, Rolf; Grooß, Jens-Uwe

2014-04-01

287

Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha-1) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N2O emission factors that are relatively stable for the different grid cells across Europe wit values ranging between 1 and 2% in cut systems and between 3 and 4% under grazing (with organic N application through faeces and urine deposition). Under cutting, the simulations predict a important annual C storage (varying between 0.5 to 6 t C ha-1 y-1). However one must consider that an important part of this storage occurs in the harvested forage. C storage in grazed grasslands (0.3 to 2 t C ha-1 y-1) is lower than in cut grasslands. The simulations indicates therefore that cut grassland could represent an important net GHG sink. In France, the amplitude of this sink could vary between 0.5 and 2 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. The simulations combining cut and grazed grassland, in proportion to the dietary needs, show that,in France, these systems would be a net GHG sink of 2 to 3 t C CO2 equivalent ha-1 y-1. More realistic results would be obtained if the differences between farming systems were taken into account more specifically. (author)

288

Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S

2003-07-01

289

Clear-cutting is causing large emissions of greenhouse gases - are there other harvest options that can avoid these emissions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon sequestration in forests can potentially be enhanced through optimized forest management strategies and thus, mitigate climate change. However, carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas (GHG) that is being exchanged between a forest ecosystem and the atmosphere; also methane and nitrous oxide are involved through different processes. A full assessment of the benefits of any management practice aiming at increasing the capacity of forests to mitigate climate change has to include all greenhouse gases. The effects of clear-cutting on GHG fluxes were studied at Norunda forest in central Sweden. Two different plots were established on a new clear-cut. Both plots were clear-cut (early 2009) and subsequently site prepared. On each of the plots, a 3 m high tower was erected and equipped for flux-gradient measurements of CO2, H2O, CH4 (May 2010 -) and N2O (June 2011 -). The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest in 2009. One of the plots was significantly wetter than the other. All plots were on average sources of CO2, with daily average fluxes ranging between -2.5 and +5.8 µmol m¬-2s-1. The ingrowth of new vegetation was faster on the wetter plot, resulting in lower average CO2 emissions. Preliminary results indicate a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant CH4 source at both plots with higher emission from the wetter plot. Daily average CH4 fluxes ranged between -7.0 - +208.7 µmol m¬-2h-1. There were significant N2O emissions on all plots during the main growing season of 2011, with large emissions following heavy rain events. N2O fluxes ranged between -36.2 and +403.7 µg m¬-2h-1 but without clear differences between wetter and drier plots as in the case with CO2 and CH4. Although clear-cutting is the most common harvest method in Sweden today, other methods such as selective cutting are being increasingly discussed. We therefore studied the effects of thinning on soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in the mature part of Norunda forest, located just beside the clear-cut experiment. The CO2 fluxes from the forest were measured by eddy covariance method while soil CO2 and CH4 effluxes were measured by automatic chambers. The thinning was made in November/December 2008. Immediately after the thinning, we found significantly higher soil effluxes, probably due to increased decomposition of dead roots but the soil was still a sink of CH4. The stand level flux measurements showed no effect on total ecosystem respiration, probably because of reduced autotrophic respiration from canopy layer. Initially the GPP was slightly reduced as compared to the non-thinned sector but already after 6-7 months, no effect of the thinning on GPP could be detected. The results indicate that selective harvest such as thinning has the potential to avoid the emissions that occur after a heavy disturbance such as that caused by clear-cutting. Thus, more efforts should be made to study the long-term effects on the total GHG exchange by selective harvest methods as compared to clear-cut methods.

Lindroth, A.; Vestin, P.; Sundqvist, E.; Mölder, M.; Bâth, A.; Hellström, M.; Klemedtsson, L.; Weslien, P.

2012-04-01

290

Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the Tropics and high latitudes, are consistent with predictions of a number of previous GCM studies. Finally, direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is predicted to induce strong regional cooling over East and South Asia. Wintertime rainfall over southeastern China and the Indian subcontinent is predicted to decrease because of the increased atmospheric stability and decreased surface evaporation, while the geographic distribution of precipitation is also predicted to be altered as a result of aerosol-induced changes in wind flow.

Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

2007-01-01

291

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA / Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 G [...] g año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg. Abstract in english The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVO [...] C). These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael, Novoa S.A.; Sergio, González M.; Rosemary, Novoa J.; Rosa, Rojas.

2000-04-01

292

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

Rafael Novoa S.A.

2000-04-01

293

Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

2010-07-01

294

Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth?s temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia.

Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

2011-01-01

295

Food, land and greenhouse gases The effect of changes in UK food consumption on land requirements and greenhouse gas emissions. Report for the Committee on Climate Change.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •1. Key findingsThis study examines the land use and greenhouse gas implications of UK food consumption change away from carbon intensive products. It shows that the UK agricultural land base can support increased consumption of plant-based products arising from the reduced consumption of livestock products. A 50% reduction in livestock product consumption reduces the area of arable and grassland required to supply UK food, both in the UK and overseas. It...

Audsley, Eric; Angus, Andrew; Chatterton, Julia C.; Graves, Anil R.; Morris, Joe; Murphy-bokern, Donal; Pearn, Kerry R.; Sandars, Daniel L.; Williams, Adrian G.

2010-01-01

296

Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-07-01

297

Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on some peat mining areas in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Silvola, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

1996-12-31

298

Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI

2014-11-07

299

Integrated approach for combining sustainability and safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety) towards greenhouse gases emission targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to present an approach to integrate sustainability and safety concerns on top of a typical RAM Analysis to support new enterprises to find alternatives to align themselves to the greenhouse gases emission targets, measured as CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) equivalent. This approach can be used to measure the impact of the potential CO{sub 2} equivalent emission levels mainly related to new enterprises with high CO{sub 2} content towards environment and production, as per example, the extraction of oil and gas from the Brazilian Pre-salt layers. In this sense, this integrated approach, combining Sustainability and Safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety), can be used to assess the impact of CO{sub 2} 'production' along the entire enterprise life-cycle, including the impact of possible facility shutdown due to emission restrictions limits, as well as due to the occurrence of additional failures modes related to CO{sub 2} corrosion capabilities. Thus, at the end, this integrated approach would allow companies to find out a more cost-effective alternative to adapt their business into the global warming reality, overcoming the inherent threats of greenhouse gases. (author)

Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hovik, Oslo (Norway)

2009-07-01

300

Selection of groundwater sites in Egypt, using geographic information systems, for desalination by solar energy in order to reduce greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Egypt has already reached the water poverty limit, it possesses a high potential of brackish groundwater available from different aquifers. All Arab countries lie in the best sun-belt region in the world and Egypt has the highest number of sun hours all year round. Solar energy for groundwater desalination is an independent infinite energy resource; it has low running costs and reduces the contribution of greenhouse gases (GHG to global warming. Perfect meteorological conditions and land space are available in remote areas, where solar desalination could supply freshwater for drinking, industry, and for greenhouse agriculture. The present study uses Geographic Information System(s (GIS as a spatial decision support tool to select appropriate sites in Egypt for groundwater solar desalination. Solar radiation, aquifer depth, aquifer salinity, distance from the Delta and the Nile Valley, incidence of flash floods, sand dunes, rock faults, and seawater intrusion in the North Delta, are the criteria that have been taken into consideration in the process of analysis. A specific weight is given to each criterion according to its relative influence on the process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology determine the relative suitability of sites for groundwater solar desalination. These sites are ranked in descending order to help decision-makers in Egypt. The results show that groundwater solar desalination is suitable in remote regions on the North Western Coast, on the North Sinai Coast, and at the Southern Oasis, for reducing greenhouse gases and that it is particularly useful for poor communities suffering from polluted water.

Mariam G. Salim

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

2014-05-01

302

Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This HyperPhysics webpage contains information and diagrams on global warming, the greenhouse effect, and greenhouse gases. Numerous graphs and diagrams illustrate the measurements and concepts. Also, this page displays the famous "Keeling curve" showing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration versus time from 1958 to 2004. This page page is part of the HyperPhysics Collection, which contains many short, illustrated pages on various areas of physics and astronomy.

Nave, Carl R.

2013-04-29

303

Rapid chemical evolution of tropospheric volcanic emissions from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, based on observations of ozone and halogen-containing gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We report results from an observational and modeling study of reactive chemistry in the tropospheric plume emitted by Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Our measurements include the first observations of Br and I degassing from an Alaskan volcano, the first study of O3 evolution in a volcanic plume, as well as the first detection of BrO in the plume of a passively degassing Alaskan volcano. This study also represents the first detailed spatially-resolved comparison of measured and modeled O3 depletion in a volcanic plume. The composition of the plume was measured on June 20, 2010 using base-treated filter packs (for F, Cl, Br, I, and S) at the crater rim and by an instrumented fixed-wing aircraft on June 21 and August 19, 2010. The aircraft was used to track the chemical evolution of the plume up to ~ 30 km downwind (2 h plume travel time) from the volcano and was equipped to make in situ observations of O3, water vapor, CO2, SO2, and H2S during both flights plus remote spectroscopic observations of SO2 and BrO on the August 19th flight. The airborne data from June 21 reveal rapid chemical O3 destruction in the plume as well as the strong influence chemical heterogeneity in background air had on plume composition. Spectroscopic retrievals from airborne traverses made under the plume on August 19 show that BrO was present ~ 6 km downwind (20 min plume travel time) and in situ measurements revealed several ppbv of O3 loss near the center of the plume at a similar location downwind. Simulations with the PlumeChem model reproduce the timing and magnitude of the observed O3 deficits and suggest that autocatalytic release of reactive bromine and in-plume formation of BrO were primarily responsible for the observed O3 destruction in the plume. The measurements are therefore in general agreement with recent model studies of reactive halogen formation in volcanic plumes, but also show that field studies must pay close attention to variations in the composition of ambient air entrained into volcanic plumes in order to unambiguously attribute observed O3 anomalies to specific chemical or dynamic processes. Our results suggest that volcanic eruptions in Alaska are sources of reactive halogen species to the subarctic troposphere.

Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph; Roberts, Tjarda J.; Lopez, Taryn; Werner, Cynthia; Aiuppa, Alessandro

2013-06-01

304

The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterised by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapour and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapour and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius–Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernable long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm yr?1, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm yr?1. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

Andrew A. Lacis

2013-11-01

305

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

2010-12-01

306

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

V. Y. Chow

2010-03-01

307

The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation / Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os campos do sul do Brasil são ecossistemas naturais com alta diversidade e têm sido há séculos importantes para a atividade pastoril e para outros importantes serviços ambientais. Este trabalho aponta os principais fatores que controlam os processos ecossistêmicos, revisa e discute os dados disponí [...] veis sobre os estoques de carbono no solo e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa dos solos, e sugere oportunidades de mitigação das mudanças climáticas. A pesquisa sobre as emissões de carbono e gases de efeito estufa nos campos do sul do Brasil é recente e os resultados são ainda fragmentados. Os dados disponíveis indicam que os ecossistemas campestres naturais manejados adequadamente contêm estoques importantes de carbono orgânico no solo e, portanto, sua conservação é relevante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas. Além disso, esses ecossistemas apresentam uma grande e rápida perda de carbono orgânico do solo quando convertidos para lavouras com preparo convencional do solo. No entanto, nas áreas já convertidas, há potencial para mitigar as emissões de gases de efeito estufa por meio de sistemas de cultivo usando plantio direto e rotações de culturas baseadas em plantas de cobertura de solo. O efeito está relacionado principalmente ao potencial desses sistemas de cultivo para acumular matéria orgânica do solo em taxas que superam o aumento das emissões de óxido nitroso. O uso de modelos com esses resultados associados aos sistemas de informação geográfica poderá gerar estimativas regionais de balanço de carbono. Abstract in english The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available d [...] ata on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

VD, Pillar; CG, Tornquist; C, Bayer.

2012-08-01

308

Switching from 20% to 30% of greenhouse gases emissions in case of international agreement: consequences for the ETS sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a commitment to reduce of 8%, and then 20% its greenhouse gas emissions with respect to 1990, the European Union could set this objective to 30% for the ETS (Emission Trading Scheme) sector if an international agreement is signed to succeed the Kyoto protocol. The authors describe this European Commission proposition, and give an overview of the current negotiations. Then, they comment the domestic implications for the UE and the 'Climate and Energy' package, and the international dimension of these negotiations

309

Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fu...

Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

2009-01-01

310

Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends  

Science.gov (United States)

stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we provide evidence that changes in the concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), not WMGHG, have been the primary driver of observed Arctic lower stratospheric trends in both ozone and temperature. We do so by analyzing polar cap ozone and temperature trends in reanalysis data: these clearly suggest that both trends are mainly driven by ODS in the lower stratosphere. This observation-based finding is supported by results from a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model driven with time-varying ODS and WMGHG, specified in isolation and in combination. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that ODS are the main driver of changes in the Arctic lower stratospheric temperatures and ozone, whereas WMGHG are the primary driver of changes in the upper stratosphere.

Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Solomon, Susan

2014-04-01

311

L'effet de serre par le CO2 et les gaz traces Greenhouse Effect from CO2 and Trace Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selon une opinion assez répandue le CO2 et les gaz traces, produits par l'activité humaine depuis le début de la révolution industrielle (1850, principalement du fait de la combustion et de la déforestation, et progressivement accumulés dans l'atmosphère terrestre, pourraient par effet de serre provoquer au XXIe siècle un réchauffement de la Terre de quelques degrés. Les conséquences climatiques (fonte des glaces. . . en seraient désastreuses. Aussi avons-nous étudié les principaux paramètres impliqués par ce phénomène : nature de l'effet de serre, cycle du carbone, transfert de CO2 à l'échelle du globe, gaz traces, conséquences climatiques de l'effet de serre dû au CO2 et aux gaz traces. Nous en sommes arrivés aux conclusions suivantes : - La concentration de l'atmosphère en CO2 et en gaz traces augmente de façon exponentielle en absence de toute réglementation et cela parallèlement à une production humaine également exponentielle de ces mêmes substances. - On n'a encore décelé aucun accroissement de la température moyenne de la Terre dû à l'effet de serre, d'ailleurs depuis 1940 nous traversons une période de refroidissement. - L'activité humaine engendre aussi des effets antagonistes de refroidissement (action des poussières dans l'atmosphère. . . assez mal connus. - L'étude des climats anciens indique une succession régulière de périodes froides et chaudes, cela doit nous rassurer sur le risque d'une brusque modification irréversible du climat. - Cependant il est absolument nécessaire d'améliorer nos connaissances fondamentales sur les principaux facteurs réglant le climat terrestre (chimie de l'atmosphère, transfert océan-atmosphère. . . et éventuellement de restreindre la production de certains gaz traces (fréons en particulier. According to a fairly widespread opinion, CO2 and trace gases, which have been produced by human activity since the start of the industrial revolution (1850, mainly from combustion and deforestation, and have been progressively accumulating in the Earth's atmosphere, could result in a greenhouse effect that could cause the heating up of the Earth by several degrees in the 21st century. The climatic consequences (melting of ice, etc. would be disastrous. Therefore, we examined the leading parameters involved in this phenomenon: nature of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, CO2 transfer on a worldwide scale, trace gases, climatic consequences of the greenhouse effect due to CO2 and trace gases. We reached the following conclusions:(a The CO2 and trace-gas concentration in the atmosphere increases exponentially in the absence of any regulations, and this occurs at the same time as human production of the same substances also at an exponential rate. (b No increase has as yet been detected in the Earth's average temperature due to the greenhouse effect. Moreover, since 1940 we have been going through a period of cooling. (c Human activity also produces antagonistic cooling effects (effect of dust in the atmosphere, etc. that are rather poorly understood. (d The study of ancient climates indicates a regular succession of cool and warm periods, which should reassure us about any sudden and irreversible change in the climate. (e However, it is absolutely necessary to improve our fundamental understanding of the main factors governing the Earth's climate (chemistry of the atmosphere, ocean/ atmosphere transfers, etc. and eventually to limit the production of some trace gases (Freon, in particular.

Bertrand A.

2006-11-01

312

Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development

313

Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements; Estimation des flux de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle regionale a partir de mesures atmospheriques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

build up a new system to measure continuously CO{sub 2} (or CO), CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO{sub 2}, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH{sub 4}, 0.2 ppb for N{sub 2}O and 0.05 ppt for SF{sub 6}. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

Messager, C

2007-07-15

314

Greenhouse earth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents the scientific findings of the past few years. They suggest that the anthropogenic increase in the concentrations of several greenhouse gases will result in dramatic climate changes within the next century and present an existential threat to a large part of mankind. (orig.)

315

Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecanismo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia.Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

Jesús Adolfo Anaya Acevedo

2011-01-01

316

Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT was launched on 23 January 2009 to monitor the global distributions of carbon dioxide and methane from space. It has operated continuously since then. Here we describe a retrieval algorithm for column abundances of these gases from the short-wavelength infrared spectra obtained by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, cloud-free observational scenes are selected by several cloud-detection methods. Then, column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane are retrieved based on the optimal estimation method. Finally, the retrieval quality is examined to exclude low-quality and/or aerosol-contaminated results. Most of the retrieval random errors come from the instrumental noise. The interferences by auxiliary parameters retrieved simultaneously with gas abundances are small. The evaluated precisions of the retrieved column abundances for single observations are less than 1% in most cases. The interhemispherical differences and the temporal variation patterns of the retrieved column abundances agree well with the current state of knowledge.

I. Morino

2010-11-01

317

Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT was launched on 23 January 2009 to monitor the global distributions of carbon dioxide and methane from space. It has operated continuously since then. Here, we describe a retrieval algorithm for column abundances of these gases from the short-wavelength infrared spectra obtained by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, cloud-free observational scenes are selected by several cloud-detection methods. Then, column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane are retrieved based on the optimal estimation method. Finally, the retrieval quality is examined to exclude low-quality and/or aerosol-contaminated results. Most of the retrieval random errors come from instrumental noise. The interferences due to auxiliary parameters retrieved simultaneously with gas abundances are small. The evaluated precisions of the retrieved column abundances for single observations are less than 1% in most cases. The interhemispherical differences and temporal variation patterns of the retrieved column abundances show features similar to those of an atmospheric transport model.

I. Morino

2011-04-01

318

Results of the working group on the division by four of greenhouse gases emissions in France, at the horizon of 2050, called ''factor 4''. DGEMP- Observatory of the energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This group, created by the french Government in march 2005, aims to evaluate the different possibilities to reach the objective of division by four the greenhouse gases emissions. This document presents some recalls on the climatic change and the situation today, the positions of the France and the foreign and the conclusions and the recommendations of the group. (A.L.B.)

319

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from space-based spectroscopic measurements with the photon pathlength probability density function method: application to GOSAT observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite “IBUKI” (GOSAT) is the world’s first satellite to observe concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through the atmosphere. The spacecraft is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009. A large number of high-resolution spectroscopic observational data of reflected sunlight measured with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) are available from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The major source of error in retrieving gas amounts from space-based measurements of reflected sunlight is atmospheric light scattering. Several algorithms have been developed in different groups throughout the world to process the GOSAT data for retrieving global and temporal distributions of the gas amounts. These algorithms mainly differ in how they account for atmospheric light scattering. This presentation describes application of the photon Path length Probability Density Function (PPDF) method to process GOSAT observations from three TANSO-FTS Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) bands (centered at 0.76 µm, 1.6 µm, and 2.0 µm). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. We retrieve the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the greenhouse gases (XCO2 and XCH4) simultaneously with PPDF parameters from each GOSAT single sounding. PPDF parameters characterize light path shortening and light path lengthening that could take place depending on the amount and location of thin clouds and aerosols as well as depending on surface properties. As a part of validation study, we compared PPDF-based gas retrievals with those derived from FTS ground-based measurements over twelve sites included in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The sites are located in both the Southern (3 sites) and the Northern (9 sites) Hemispheres. TCCON is a reliable reference source of greenhouse gas measurements due to the direct solar-viewing geometry, which virtually eliminates the impact of atmospheric light scattering on the measurements. Both seasonal trends and pairwise GOSAT-TCCON statistical comparisons have been considered. We also evaluated XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals globally using atmospheric transport model.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Morino, Isamu; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya; Bril, Andrey

320

Determinación de las tasas de ventilación natural en un invernadero mediante modelos teóricos y gases trazadores / Determination of rates of natural ventilation in a greenhouse using theoretical models and tracer gases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mayoría de los invernaderos en México utilizan ventilación natural como mecanismo principal de controlar el clima. La cuantificación de las tasas de ventilación es difícil porque éstas dependen del efecto de la fluctuación de viento, resistencia de las ventanas al paso del aire y geometría del in [...] vernadero en el campo de presiones del viento sobre la estructura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar las tasas de ventilación natural de un invernadero, bajo tres configuraciones de ventilación: ventanas laterales, cenitales y laterales-cenitales, mediante el método dinámico de gases trazadores. Se compararon mediciones contra predicciones de modelos teóricos de ventilación natural y se analizó el efecto de velocidad del viento sobre las tasas de ventilación. El invernadero está ubicado en el campo experimental San Ignacio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Chapingo, México. El experimento se realizó en 2010 y el invernadero estuvo libre de cultivo. El gas trazador utilizado fue dióxido de carbono. Para la estimación de parámetros se usó el algoritmo de mínimos cuadrados no lineales. Los resultados mostraron que las tasas de ventilación son dependientes de la velocidad del viento y de la configuración de ventanas existente. Las tasas de ventilación más altas se observaron cuando ambas ventanas laterales y cenitales estuvieron abiertas. Los modelos teóricos predijeron de manera aceptable las tasas de ventilación tomando en cuenta los valores de los estadísticos coeficientes de determinación y cuadrado medio de error, así como el comportamiento de la línea 1:1 entre predicciones y mediciones. Abstract in english In Mexico, most greenhouses use natural ventilation as the main mechanism to control the weather. Quantification of ventilation rates is difficult because these depend on the effect of fluctuating wind, resistance to airflow windows and geometry ofthe greenhouse in the field ofwind pressure on the s [...] tructure. The objective of the present study was to determine the rates of natural ventilation in a greenhouse under three ventilation configurations: side windows, zenith and side-zenith, by the dynamic method of tracer gases. Measurements were compared against predictions of theoretical models of natural ventilation and analyzed the effect of wind speed on ventilation rates. The greenhouse is located at the experimental field of San Ignacio in the University of Chapingo, Chapingo, Mexico. The experiment was conducted in 2010 and the greenhouse was free of crops. The tracer gas used was carbon dioxide. To estimate the parameters the non-linear least squares algorithm was used. The results showed that ventilation rates are dependent on the wind speed and configuration ofthe existing windows. The higher ventilation rates were observed when both side and zenith windows were open. Theoretical models acceptably predicted ventilation rates, taking into account the values of the statistical coefficients of determination and mean square error, as the behavior ofthe 1:1 line between predictions and measurements.

Daniel, Espejel Trujano; Irineo Lorenzo, López Cruz.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para ...

Rafael Novoa S. A.; Sergio González M.; Rosemary Novoa J.; Rosa Rojas

2000-01-01

322

Method and system for reducing or eliminating the greenhouse-gas content of a gas or mixture of gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El método comprende el uso de un microscopio atómico de la fuerza (AFM) para la aplicación de un campo eléctrico alto (~10 V/nm) por medio de la aplicación de una tensión moderada correspondiente (10-100 V) (v) a través de un punto (p) del microscopio y de un semiconductor o el sustrato el conducir (s) entre el cual hay un volumen de gas del invernadero o de contener del (G) de la mezcla de gases mismo, por ejemplo el dióxido de carbono o el metano, las moléculas de los cuales son qu...

Garci?a Garci?a, Ricardo; Zerbetto, Francesco

2009-01-01

323

EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

2000-08-01

324

Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases 2012; Danmarks energifremskrivning 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish energy Agency's baseline projection of Denmark's energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is not a forecast, but describes the development which may occur in the coming years, based on a number of assumptions about technological development, prices, economic development, etc., hypothetically assuming that no new initiatives or measures beyond those already taken are implemented. The consumption of coal and natural gas are expected to fall by 50 % and 27 %, respectively, the next 8 years, and overall Denmark's fossil fuel consumption is reduced by approx. 120 PJ by 2020. Instead, renewable energy consumption will increase by more than 40 % from 2011 to 2020. The largest contribution to new renewable energy comes from the future offshore wind farms at Anholt, Krieger's Flak and Horns Rev, and from the increased use of biomass. With this conversion, the share of renewable energy in electricity supply is expected to increase from approx. 40 % in 2011 to around 69 % in 2020 and to 75 % in 2025. Final energy consumption drops from 640 PJ in 2011 to 632 PJ in 2020 as a consequence of a decline in industrial and household energy consumption, while the transport sector's energy consumption is expected to increase. With the projection's assumptions, a renewable energy share in the transport sector of 11 % may be achieved. Denmark's total greenhouse gas emissions are expected to decrease to 45.1 million tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent in 2020. This corresponds directly to the total emissions being reduced by 35 % compared to emissions in the 1990 base year. The figure is, however, highly uncertain. (LN)

NONE

2012-09-15

325

Greenhouses Reduce the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface albedo, the ratio of upward solar radiation reflected by the surface over the downward solar radiation, is an important parameter to determine the surface radiation budget and thus the global mean surface temperature. Apparently, increase in surface albedo can be found in the area where the white plastic greenhouses are widely used by farmers during the rent decade. Such increase will reduce the radiation absorbed by the surface and then the surface temperature. Hence, greenhouses covered with white plastic can reflect more solar radiation and reduce the warming effect of greenhouse gases. In this paper are presented some field measurements of surface albedo and reflectance spectrum over different surfaces, particularly over the greenhouses.

Chen, H.; Xia, X.; Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, P.

2005-12-01

326

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth  

Science.gov (United States)

The last interglacial (LIG, ~130-116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago) is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1) the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2) whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3) the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model-data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the same time are Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The austral summer insolation has a late maximum at ~115 ka. In contrast the austral summer temperatures in Antarctica show maxima at both ~130 ka and ~115 ka, and the Southern Ocean temperatures peak only at ~130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing heat from other seasons and resulting in relatively warm austral summer temperatures. Reducing the GHG concentrations in the early LIG (125 and 130 ka) results in a similar timing of peak warmth, except over Antarctica. There, the lower austral summer temperatures at 130 ka shift the maximum warmth to a single peak at 115 ka.

Langebroek, P. M.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

2014-07-01

327

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last interglacial (LIG, ~130–116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1 the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2 whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3 the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model–data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the same time are Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The austral summer insolation has a late maximum at ~115 ka. In contrast the austral summer temperatures in Antarctica show maxima at both ~130 ka and ~115 ka, and the Southern Ocean temperatures peak only at ~130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing heat from other seasons and resulting in relatively warm austral summer temperatures. Reducing the GHG concentrations in the early LIG (125 and 130 ka results in a similar timing of peak warmth, except over Antarctica. There, the lower austral summer temperatures at 130 ka shift the maximum warmth to a single peak at 115 ka.

P.M. Langebroek

2014-07-01

328

Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa / A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecani [...] smo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia. Abstract in english Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orie [...] ntales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

Jesús Adolfo, Anaya Acevedo; Emilio, Chuvieco Salinero; Alicia, Palacios-Orueta.

2011-01-01

329

Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 ?mol m-2 h-1, 11.9 to 5168.6 ?mol m-2 h-1 and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m-2 h-1 for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N2O and CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH4+-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH4+-N concentration had significant effects on CH4 fluxes.

330

Greenhouse gases mitigation potential and costs for Brazil's energy system from 2010 to 2030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses the potential for energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and their abatement costs in the energy system of Brazil. The analysis of mitigation options and their costs focuses on the following sectors: industry, transportation and energy supply (electricity generation and oil refining), given their large contribution to the Brazil's GHGs emissions. For the industrial and oil refining sectors, the paper estimated abatement costs based on the investments along with the energy and operational costs of the measures considered. Two discount rates were used: 15% a year (private discount rate) and 8% a year (social discount rate). Compared to a business-as-usual reference scenario, results show a potential to reduce future energy-related GHG emissions by 27% in 2030. This study shows, however, that in relation to a reference year (2007), the examined abatement measures, along with the socioeconomic dynamics of an emerging country such as Brazil, would not be enough to attain absolute reductions in GHG emissions by 2030. This result is valid both each sector individually and for the sum of the emissions from all the sectors analyzed. (author)

Borba, Bruno S.M.C.; Lucena, Andre F.P. de; Rathmann, Regis; Costa, Isabella V.L. da; Nogueira, Larissa P.P.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; H. Junior, Mauricio F.; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

2012-07-01

331

Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007—1.13 kg CO2-eq. kWh—1). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004—3 kg CO2-eq. kWh —1). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01—0.69 kg CO2-eq. kWh —1). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO 2emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.

Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas

2009-01-01

332

Radiative Forcing by Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases: Estimates from Climate Models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)  

Science.gov (United States)

The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute the radiative forcing by these gases as accurately as possible. We present the results of a radiative transfer model intercomparison between the forcings computed by the radiative parameterizations of AOGCMs and by benchmark line-by-line (LBL) codes. The comparison is focused on forcing by CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, and the increased H2O expected in warmer climates. The models included in the intercomparison include several LBL codes and most of the global models submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In general, the LBL models are in excellent agreement with each other. However, in many cases, there are substantial discrepancies among the AOGCMs and between the AOGCMs and LBL codes. In some cases this is because the AOGCMs neglect particular absorbers, in particular the near-infrared effects of CH4 and N2O, while in others it is due to the methods for modeling the radiative processes. The biases in the AOGCM forcings are generally largest at the surface level. We quantify these differences and discuss the implications for interpreting variations in forcing and response across the multimodel ensemble of AOGCM simulations assembled for the IPCC AR4.

Collins, W. D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Portmann, R. W.; Fu, Q.; Casanova, S. E. B.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fillmore, D. W.; Forster, P. M. D.; Galin, V. Y.; Gohar, L. K.; Ingram, W. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Li, J.; Marquet, P.; Oinas, V.; Tsushima, Y.; Uchiyama, T.; Zhong, W. Y.

2006-01-01

333

Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

2015-01-01

334

Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

Alexander Malaver

2015-02-01

335

Métodos para avaliação das emissões de gases do efeito estufa no sistema solo-atmosfera / Methods for the assessment of greenhouse gases emissions in the soil-atmosphere system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A escolha do método para avaliar as emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE) é uma etapa importante para o conhecimento e/ou desenvolvimento de práticas agrícolas com potencial de mitigação do aquecimento global. A presente revisão tem por objetivo apresentar vantagens e limitações de métodos utiliz [...] ados para quantificação dos fluxos de dióxido de carbono (CO2), metano (CH4) e óxido nitroso (N2O) no sistema solo-atmosfera. O balanço dos estoques de C orgânico no solo em sistemas conservacionistas de manejo permite avaliar o influxo líquido anual de C-CO2 atmosférico no solo em comparação a sistemas de manejo convencional. Maior sensibilidade na determinação direta das emissões de CO2 in situ pode ser obtida pelo uso de câmaras sobre o solo. Nesse caso, podem ser determinadas taxas diárias com o método da captura do CO2 em solução alcalina e quantificação por titulação, e taxas horárias com o uso de analisadores automáticos de infravermelho ou cromatógrafos a gás. Pelo uso de cromatografia, é possível também a avaliação das emissões de N2O e CH4 os quais apresentam, respectivamente, potencial de aquecimento global 296 e 23 vezes superior ao do CO2. A análise dos três GEE é necessária quando se objetiva avaliar o potencial de um dado sistema de manejo na mitigação do aquecimento global, o qual pode ser expresso em C equivalente. Abstract in english The sellection of the method for evaluating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is an important step in studies aiming at the development of agricultural practices with potential to mitigate the global warming. The objective of this review was to present advantages and disvantages of available methods [...] to quantify fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the soil-atmosphere system. Carbon sequestration or annual net influx rates of C-CO2 in conservation tillage systems can be evaluated through the soil carbon budget. In situ evaluations can be carried out with closed chambers, where alkaline traps are used to determination of daily influxes of CO2 while gas chromatography and automatic infrared gas analyzers permit to estimate horary fluxes. In addition to CO2, gas chromatography is able to measure N2O and CH4 emissions, gases that have a global warming potential 296 and 23 times higher than CO2, respectively. Measurement of the three GHG emissions permit to estimate the net effect of soil management systems on atmosphere rodiative forcing in equivalent C.

Falberni de Souza, Costa; Juliana, Gomes; Cimélio, Bayer; João, Mielniczuk.

2006-04-01

336

Métodos para avaliação das emissões de gases do efeito estufa no sistema solo-atmosfera Methods for the assessment of greenhouse gases emissions in the soil-atmosphere system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escolha do método para avaliar as emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE é uma etapa importante para o conhecimento e/ou desenvolvimento de práticas agrícolas com potencial de mitigação do aquecimento global. A presente revisão tem por objetivo apresentar vantagens e limitações de métodos utilizados para quantificação dos fluxos de dióxido de carbono (CO2, metano (CH4 e óxido nitroso (N2O no sistema solo-atmosfera. O balanço dos estoques de C orgânico no solo em sistemas conservacionistas de manejo permite avaliar o influxo líquido anual de C-CO2 atmosférico no solo em comparação a sistemas de manejo convencional. Maior sensibilidade na determinação direta das emissões de CO2 in situ pode ser obtida pelo uso de câmaras sobre o solo. Nesse caso, podem ser determinadas taxas diárias com o método da captura do CO2 em solução alcalina e quantificação por titulação, e taxas horárias com o uso de analisadores automáticos de infravermelho ou cromatógrafos a gás. Pelo uso de cromatografia, é possível também a avaliação das emissões de N2O e CH4 os quais apresentam, respectivamente, potencial de aquecimento global 296 e 23 vezes superior ao do CO2. A análise dos três GEE é necessária quando se objetiva avaliar o potencial de um dado sistema de manejo na mitigação do aquecimento global, o qual pode ser expresso em C equivalente.The sellection of the method for evaluating greenhouse gases (GHG emissions is an important step in studies aiming at the development of agricultural practices with potential to mitigate the global warming. The objective of this review was to present advantages and disvantages of available methods to quantify fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O in the soil-atmosphere system. Carbon sequestration or annual net influx rates of C-CO2 in conservation tillage systems can be evaluated through the soil carbon budget. In situ evaluations can be carried out with closed chambers, where alkaline traps are used to determination of daily influxes of CO2 while gas chromatography and automatic infrared gas analyzers permit to estimate horary fluxes. In addition to CO2, gas chromatography is able to measure N2O and CH4 emissions, gases that have a global warming potential 296 and 23 times higher than CO2, respectively. Measurement of the three GHG emissions permit to estimate the net effect of soil management systems on atmosphere rodiative forcing in equivalent C.

Falberni de Souza Costa

2006-04-01

337

Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates. PMID:12549662

Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

2002-12-01

338

Landscape position affects the emission of greenhouse gases from a prairie pot-hole soil in western Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reliably estimate the contribution of agricultural soils to nitrous oxide and methane emissions, it is necessary to understand the role of landscape position in greenhouse (GHG) emissions from the prairie pot-hole region. A study was conducted at the Manitoba Zero-Tillage Research Association (MTRZA) farm located near Brandon, Manitoba. The site represents an undulating landscape with a Newdale clay loam soil. Static vented chambers were used to monitor GHG emissions from Upper, Middle, and Lower slope positions and Riparian positions from the spring to fall of 2005 to determine the impact of annual variation in weather conditions. Soil atmosphere was also sampled from August to November using silicone gas probes installed at depths of 5, 15, 35 and 65 cm. Laboratory incubations during July and September provided information on net nitrous oxide (N2O) production and denitrification rates from the 4 slopes. Soil was sampled in October and treated in the laboratory to determine freeze-thaw emissions of soil from the landscape positions. Emissions of N2O were found to be highest during spring-thaw and also after the application of fertilizer in the spring. Emissions were typically higher for Middle and Lower slope positions and lowest in the Riparian position. Only the Riparian position had considerable methane emission rates, while the other positions consumed methane. Surface soil consumed N2O in the Riparian position, whileb>2O in the Riparian position, while it consumed methane in the Lower slope position. Denitrification rates were high in July with little net N2O production. Poor soil aeration at this time probably caused a reduction in N2O to N2. However, during drier in September, denitrification was very low, and nearly the same as net N2O production. Freeze-thaw N2O emissions were unexpectedly highest for Riparian soil. The pattern of emission was linked to denitrifying enzyme activity at the landscape positions

339

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

R. J. Martin

2011-10-01

340

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring greenhouse gas emissive fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar® bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three flux chambers, multiplexed to a single GC.

The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

R. J. Martin

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Greenhouse gas emissions in Bulgaria for 1990-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study includes the following greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide but not all controlled by the Montreal protocol as chlorofluorocarbons and halogens. The estimation methods follow the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (IPCC, 1995) including 'bottom-up' approach and emission factors values. The aggregated GHG emissions as well as the anthropogenic emissions for 1990 are given in tables. Carbon dioxide had the biggest share with 65-68%, followed by methane (24-26%) and nitrous oxide (7.5%). The stationary combustion was the most important GHG emission source (64.2% of the total emissions), relatively small (in comparison to Western countries) was mobile combustion share (7.7%) followed by the emissions from industrial activities (6.6%). The analysis of the total GHG emissions and of those per capita showed a general tendency for reduction

342

Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise in the Southern Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs like nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR, an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north–south (N–S transect (46–51° S, 72° E meridian and the west–east (W–E transect (66–75° E, 48.3° S latitude, both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W–E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105% to light supersaturation (120% with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120–970% in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF. There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N–S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations, where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air–sea fluxes for N2O (from ?10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m?2d?1, and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m?2d?1 reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

L. Farías

2014-08-01

343

Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3  

Science.gov (United States)

A laser flash photolysis–resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T) = 9.0 × 10-11 exp(+98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 independent of temperature. We find that k2(T) = 2.0 × 10-11 exp(+52/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with reaction proceeding almost entirely (?99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O(1D) by NF3 is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF3. Deactivation of O(1D) by SF5CF3 is slow enough (k3 branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 ± 0.12 and 0.94 ± 0.06 for the SO2 and CS2 reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2?) and rate coefficients ki(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of ± 15% (2?). PMID:20133693

Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.

2010-01-01

344

Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in Romania, by rehabilitation of the aged power plants based on a new circulating fluidized bed combustion technology - CFBC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low quality of coal available for Romania power generation, mainly lignite with a low calorific value (6.5-7 MJ/kg) and high in sulfur content (1.5-2%) has caused severe damage to the stations and environmental problems. The local capability existing in clean and efficient Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology, well suited to least costs refurbishment, is discussed. The retrofit operation using this clean technology would also address the problem of serious air pollution caused by local coal use with little or no control of dust or greenhouse gases like NOx and SOx. The paper presents the results obtained on an experimental facility, 1 MWth CFBC pilot plant. A comparison among several rehabilitation possibilities with the view to diminishing polluting emissions is included. The CFBC technology advantages and environmental benefits for Romania and its neighbouring countries, by choosing this clean coal technology, are reviewed. In addition, the paper presents the main aspects of technical investments for a few power plants equipped with supplementary devices for controlling the SOx and NOx in comparison with retrofit by using CFBC boilers. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

345

An improved photon path length probability density function-based radiative transfer model for space-based observation of greenhouse gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an improved model to describe the photon path length probability density function (PPDF) that effectively accounts for both aerosol and thin cloud effects for rapid retrieval of greenhouse gas data from space-based high spectral resolution measurements. The reasonably simple PPDF and effective transmittance parameterization permit vertical inhomogeneity of gas absorption and three plane-parallel arbitrarily located layers to account for light-scattering effects due to aerosol and clouds. The basic assumption to construct the PPDF model refers mainly to the presentation of PPDF in terms of weakly correlated aerosol and cloud path length components. The model was validated using Monte Carlo simulations of photon trajectories and tested for a representative set of atmospheric conditions in which both aerosol and clouds modified the path length significantly. This study also focused on the connection of PPDF parameters to atmospheric optical characteristics commonly utilized in the solution of radiative transfer equations. These characteristics were converted into PPDF parameters by PPDF retrieval from a very limited spectral range of simulated radiance including at least one gas absorption line. The results demonstrate that this method can be used effectively for rapid radiative transfer spectral calculations over a rather wide spectral range of radiance at given atmospheric optical characteristics. Another important application of such conversion is to account for a priori knowledge of atmospheric optical characteristics when retrieving amounts of gases within PPDF-based or other methods, such as full physics algorithms that utilize the solutions of radiative transfer equations.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya

2009-10-01

346

Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management

347

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

2013-12-01

348

For a better control of the greenhouse gases emissions of the international maritime and aerial baggage holds: evaluation and possible actions; Pour une maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre des soutes internationales aeriennes et maritimes: constat et actions possibles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse gases emissions resulting from the aerial and marine baggage holds, are not taken into account in the national objectives of greenhouse gases reduction, defined by the Kyoto protocol. Thus they have to be controlled separately by each country concerned by the Kyoto protocol and urgent actions to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions are necessary. This study brings in first parts information on the context (legislation, traffic), the emission inventories and the options of allocation. It proposes then control methods and analyzes the possible measures. (A.L.B.)

Sassi, O. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

2003-07-01

349

Landscape position affects the emission of greenhouse gases from a prairie pot-hole soil in western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to reliably estimate the contribution of agricultural soils to nitrous oxide and methane emissions, it is necessary to understand the role of landscape position in greenhouse (GHG) emissions from the prairie pot-hole region. A study was conducted at the Manitoba Zero-Tillage Research Association (MTRZA) farm located near Brandon, Manitoba. The site represents an undulating landscape with a Newdale clay loam soil. Static vented chambers were used to monitor GHG emissions from Upper, Middle, and Lower slope positions and Riparian positions from the spring to fall of 2005 to determine the impact of annual variation in weather conditions. Soil atmosphere was also sampled from August to November using silicone gas probes installed at depths of 5, 15, 35 and 65 cm. Laboratory incubations during July and September provided information on net nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) production and denitrification rates from the 4 slopes. Soil was sampled in October and treated in the laboratory to determine freeze-thaw emissions of soil from the landscape positions. Emissions of N{sub 2}O were found to be highest during spring-thaw and also after the application of fertilizer in the spring. Emissions were typically higher for Middle and Lower slope positions and lowest in the Riparian position. Only the Riparian position had considerable methane emission rates, while the other positions consumed methane. Surface soil consumed N{sub 2}O in the Riparian position, while it consumed methane in the Lower slope position. Denitrification rates were high in July with little net N{sub 2}O production. Poor soil aeration at this time probably caused a reduction in N{sub 2}O to N{sub 2}. However, during drier in September, denitrification was very low, and nearly the same as net N{sub 2}O production. Freeze-thaw N{sub 2}O emissions were unexpectedly highest for Riparian soil. The pattern of emission was linked to denitrifying enzyme activity at the landscape positions.

Dunmola, D.; Tenuta, M.; Rajendran, N.; Priyantha, Y.; Lobb, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Moulin, A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, MB (Canada). Brandon Research Centre; Burton, D. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pennock, D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

2006-07-01

350

Photochemistry of biogenic gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases. 37 refs

351

Photochemistry of biogenic gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

Levine, Joel S.

1989-01-01

352

Grappling with greenhouse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and luding our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

353

Impact of dietary manipulation on nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions in cattle Impacto da manipulação dietética sobre os fluxos de nutrientes e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa na pecuária  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing global demand for meat and particularly in countries such as Brazil is expected to increase intensive animal production. Consequently the main pollutants of interest are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and greenhouse gases (GHG). Nitrogen can be a problem through nitrate leaching to water bodies, ammonia, and nitrous oxide emissions to air. Phosphorus loading in soil from manure application can be the main issue due to the tendency of P to accumulate in soil and leach to groundwater ...

Ermias Kebreab; Anders Strathe; James Fadel; Luis Moraes; James France

2010-01-01

354

Fixação de carbono e a emissão dos gases de efeito estufa na exploração da cana-de-açúcar / Fixing of carbon and emission of greenhouse gases in the exploitation of sugar cane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção de uma tonelada (t) de fitomassa em matéria seca (MS) de cana-de-açúcar fixa, no mínimo, 0,42 t em carbono (C), o que corresponde a mitigar 1,54 t de dióxido de carbono (CO2) da atmosfera. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se efetuar um levantamento da quantidade de fitomassa da cana-de-açúcar pr [...] oduzida em 1 ha anualmente. Além de analisar o total de C fixado e a emissão de diversos gases de efeito estufa (GEE), em CO2 equivalente (eqCO2), em consequência da adubação nitrogenada; da queima da fitomassa na colheita e da oxidação de combustíveis fósseis usados na produção, colheita e no transporte da cana até a indústria. Com base na análise dos dados, concluiu-se que ao adotar como procedimento a colheita da cana-de-açúcar crua, o produtor canavieiro estará deixando de emitir 0,286 t ha-1 ano-1 de material particulado, 13,53 t ha-1 ano-1 em eqCO2 de outros gases, além de fixar o C na fitomassa, gerando um ativo ambiental de 52,50 t ha-1 ano-1 de eqCO2. Ao somar-se o total da fixação, mais a redução que deixará de ser emitida, a mitigação total será de 66,03 t ha-1 ano-1 de eqCO2. Abstract in english The production of one tonne (t) of phytomass in dry matter (DM) of sugar cane assimilates at least 0.42 t in carbon (C) which corresponds to 1.54 t of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This work aimed to make a survey of the quantity of phytomass from sugar cane produced in 1 ha annually, an [...] d also to examine the total C fixed and the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), in CO2 equivalent as a consequence of nitrogen fertilization, burning of phytomass at harvest and the oxidation of fossil fuels during production, harvest, and transport of the sugar cane to the industrial plant. Based on the analysis of data, it was concluded that by harvesting the sugar cane without burning, the farmer will not emit 0.286 t ha-1 year-1 of particulate matter, 13,53 t ha-1 year-1 in eqCO2 of other gases. This will also assimilate carbon in the phytomass, generating an environmental active of 52,50 t ha-1 year-1 of eqCO2. By adding up the total fixation and the reduction of emissions, the mitigation will total 66,03 t ha-1 year-1 of eqCO2.

Mauro de, Paula; Francisco Assis Rolim, Pereira; Edison Rubens Arrabal, Arias; Bruno Ricardo, Scheeren; Celso Correia de, Souza; Danúbia Sales da, Mata.

2010-06-01

355

Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains the contributions by the Institute of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO) to a Danish Government appraisal of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures. The policy goal is a 40 per cent reduction in total Danish GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. The GHGs analysed in the present study include emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide and methane plus soil carbon sequestration. The purpose of the study is to identify GHG mitigation measures related to agriculture which can deliver cost-effective contributions to the targeted reduction in GHG emissions in Denmark. A total of 21 GHG mitigation measures are included in the assessment. The stipulated implementation period is 2013 to 2020. The cost calculations have a time horizon equal to 30 years, i.e. from 2013 to 2042. The GHG reduction potential, expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}-eq), is calculated as the sum of the effect on the emission of CO{sub 2} (with and without changes in soil carbon), methane and nitrous oxide. The 21 mitigation measures are listed below (figures in brackets show the assumed implementation potential): 1. Biogas from livestock manure/slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 2. Biogas from slurry and maize (10 % of total slurry production) 3. Biogas from organic clover 4. Additional fat in diet for dairy cows (80% of conventional dairy cow stock and 20 % of organic dairy cow stock) 5. Additional concentrated feed in diet for other cattle (25 % of cattle stock under 2 years of age) 6. Prolonged lactation period for dairy cows (10 % of dairy cow stock) 7. Acidification of slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 8. Covers on slurry containers (40 % of total slurry production) 9. Cooling of pig slurry (10 % of pig slurry) 10. Nitrification inhibitors in nitrate fertilisers (100 % of chemical fertilisers with nitrogen) 11. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for degassed slurry in nitrogen quota system (50 % of total slurry production) 12. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for certain types of slurry in nitrogen quota system (5 % mink, 10 % poultry, and 20 % liquid manure) 13. Reduction of nitrogen quota (10 % of total nitrogen quota) 14. Energy willow (100,000 ha) 15. Straw for combustion (100,000 ha) 16. Catch crops ( 240,000ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 17. Short term catch crops (240,000 ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 18. Conversion of arable land (not naturally wet) to permanent grass (100,000 ha) 19. Afforestation of arable land (50,000 ha, whereof 31,000 ha on clay soil and 19,000 ha on sandy soil ha) 20. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with continued drainage (35,000 ha) 21. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with termination of drainage (35,000 ha). The mitigation measures and their assumed implementation potentials have been chosen in cooperation with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. Marginal abatement cost functions have been constructed. The levels of the implementation potential for the individual measures have been stipulated at a scale assumed to allow implementation at approximately constant marginal costs when using existing technologies. For some measures the specified implementation potential is limited by the assumptions of the overall Government appraisal of GHG reduction measures for the non-ETS area. The focus of the Government appraisal is on the identification of cost-effective GHG reduction potentials which are not already covered by existing policy programs - such as the Danish Government's Green Growth program. For example, when the present study was initiated the Green Growth program stipulated that up to 50 per cent of the animal manure produced in Denmark should be used in biogas production by 2020. The 10 per cent specified here is in addition to this target. (LN)

Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

2013-08-15

356

Balanço de emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Balance of emissions and removals of Greenhouse Gases at campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este estudo realizar o balanço das emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa (GEE) do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), comparando a emissão de GEE do ano-base adotado (outubro de 2010 a outubro de 2011) e o incremento médio anual de carbono pelos [...] sumidouros da universidade (arborização urbana, florestas nativas e plantadas). Utilizou-se dados coletados na universidade e metodologias da ABNT NBR ISO 14064 e do IPCC. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que o campus-sede da UFV possui uma grande cobertura vegetal que representam 39,84% de sua área total. No entanto, estas áreas não foram suficientes para compensar as 6.034,18 tCO2eq. emitidas pela universidade. Portanto, o balanço geral das emissões e remoções de GEE do campus-sede da UFV foi negativo (déficit de 727,02 tCO2eq.). Embora tenha apresentado este resultado, os sumidouros de carbono foram importantes para a compensação de parte dos GEE gerados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to generate the balance of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and removals at main campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), contrasting GHG emissions in base-year (October 2010 to October 2011) and the annual average carbon increment of university si [...] nks (urban trees, native and planted forests). We used data collected at university, and ABNT NBR ISO 14064 and IPCC database. The final results indicated that main campus of UFV own huge forest field that represents 39.84% overall. However, these areas were not enough to compensate 6,034.18 tCO2eq. released of the university. Therefore, the global GHG emissions and removals at main campus of UFV was negative (727.02 tCO2eq. of shortfall). Although this result, carbon sinks were important to offset part of GHG generated.

Daniel, Brianezi; Laércio Antônio Gonçalves, Jacovine; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Wantuelfer, Gonçalves; Samuel José Silva Soares da, Rocha.

357

Balanço de emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Balance of emissions and removals of Greenhouse Gases at campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este estudo realizar o balanço das emissões e remoções de Gases de Efeito Estufa (GEE) do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), comparando a emissão de GEE do ano-base adotado (outubro de 2010 a outubro de 2011) e o incremento médio anual de carbono pelos [...] sumidouros da universidade (arborização urbana, florestas nativas e plantadas). Utilizou-se dados coletados na universidade e metodologias da ABNT NBR ISO 14064 e do IPCC. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que o campus-sede da UFV possui uma grande cobertura vegetal que representam 39,84% de sua área total. No entanto, estas áreas não foram suficientes para compensar as 6.034,18 tCO2eq. emitidas pela universidade. Portanto, o balanço geral das emissões e remoções de GEE do campus-sede da UFV foi negativo (déficit de 727,02 tCO2eq.). Embora tenha apresentado este resultado, os sumidouros de carbono foram importantes para a compensação de parte dos GEE gerados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to generate the balance of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and removals at main campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV (Viçosa, MG), contrasting GHG emissions in base-year (October 2010 to October 2011) and the annual average carbon increment of university si [...] nks (urban trees, native and planted forests). We used data collected at university, and ABNT NBR ISO 14064 and IPCC database. The final results indicated that main campus of UFV own huge forest field that represents 39.84% overall. However, these areas were not enough to compensate 6,034.18 tCO2eq. released of the university. Therefore, the global GHG emissions and removals at main campus of UFV was negative (727.02 tCO2eq. of shortfall). Although this result, carbon sinks were important to offset part of GHG generated.

Daniel, Brianezi; Laércio Antônio Gonçalves, Jacovine; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Wantuelfer, Gonçalves; Samuel José Silva Soares da, Rocha.

2014-06-01

358

The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA) from road traffic has been incorporated. The time series for CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, NH3 and particle emissions from road traffic have thus been recalculated. There have been some changes made to the activity data, e.g. a new data source on annual driving lengths has been utilised and more detailed information on traffic activity has been taken into account. Emissions of CH4 from gas distribution have for the first time been included in the inventory, The calculation method for NOx emissions from production of silicon metal has been revised. For national navigation, revised emission factors for NOX emissions from gas engines and emissions of particulate matter from oil based fuels and LNG have been introduced. A new uncertainty analysis for greenhouse gases has been perform