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Haiti Earthquake  

Haiti Earthquake Response ...Haiti earthquake response: Mapping and analysis of gaps and duplications in evaluations ...Haiti earthquake response: Mapping and analysis of gaps and duplications in evaluations 2

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Understanding Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides teachers, librarians, and general readers with resources to educate themselves and others about the complex reality of today's Haiti. It offers an introduction to Haiti's history, politics, society, and culture and cites works available within the following categories: children's/young adults' books, literature, film and video, and music.…

Caines, Heather; And Others

1995-01-01

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A hypothesis of earth quake  

CERN Document Server

Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: (i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most major quakes in continental plates Eurasian Plate, North America Plate, South America Plate, Africa Plate and Australia Plate are triggered breaking. (iii) These triggered quakes are triggered by the movements of high pressure centers and low pressure centers of the atmosphere on continental plates. (iv) How can the movements of the high pressure centers trigger a quake? It depends on the extent of the high pressure center and the speed of the movement. Here, we stress high pressure center instead of low pressure center because it is dominated by high pressure center mostly. Of course, the boundary of the plates must have stored enough energy to have quakes, that is, near t...

Tsai, Yeong-Shyeong

2008-01-01

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The QuakeAware Business Plan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This business plan details the operating, marketing, financial, competitive, and technological landscapes of QuakeAware. QuakeAware is a website and iPhone / Android mobile phone application that helps citizens prepare for and react to a local earthquake. Presently, QuakeAware faces the challenges of becoming a sustainable enterprise and selecting the optimal strategic direction and operating mode for its future growth. This business plan identifies and assesses the options available to Quake...

Cole, Ryan Thomas; Paor, Donal Richard

2011-01-01

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The naming of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

David Geggus

1997-01-01

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Citizen initiatives in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2010 earthquake in Haiti ushered in a new era for the role and power of technology and communication systems in disaster response – especially for how local responders used them.

Imogen Wall

2011-10-01

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Haiti - norad.no  

... Norway has also been working closely with the National Democratic Institute (NDI), which supports active participation of the local communities in the country’s rebuilding and development outside the capital city. After a review of the project revealed a lack of results and very high administration costs, the Norwegian assistance to the project will be phased out during 2013. In the reconstruction after the earthquake Norway actively ...CIA World Factbook) Publications on Haiti Review of three Programmes for Natural Resource Management and Disaster Risk Reduction in Haiti Review of Norwegian Support to Strengthening Citizens’ Political Influence in Haiti through the National Democratic Institute (NDI) Guidance Note: Reconstruction and Long-term Capacity Development in Haiti Global Evaluation of Norwegian Church Aids Global Strategic Plan 2005- 200910 Thematic Priority Religions for Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding Norwegian humanitarian response to natural ...

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Haiti Crisis Map  

Science.gov (United States)

This map from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation Telascience is a mashup of satellite, topographic, and political maps, which can be toggled as overlays. All maps are of Port au Prince area, Haiti.

Schmidt, Chris; Foundation, Open S.

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Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar  

CERN Document Server

In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument shows that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-induced energy conversion from seismic vibrations to magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetar.

Bastrukov, S; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I

2011-01-01

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Fundraising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! 58 750 CHF collected for Haiti! Following the appeal launched on 15 February, the CERN Management and Staff Association would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and thank the whole of the CERN community for its generosity towards the victims of the Haiti earthquake. This is a record, an unprecedented show of solidarity at CERN, equal to the immense needs following this catastrophe. Thank you on behalf of the Haitians, they will most certainly need it in the coming months.   The donations will be shared out among various institutions and associations in both Host States, in accordance with the established practice in the event of a catastrophe hitting a non-Member State. The size and activities of each of them have been taken into account. After studying the various requests for aid, the beneficiaries are now known and will receive:     - IFRC - International Federation of Red Cross   and Red&...

2010-01-01

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Thanks from Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

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Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six ch...

Golden Nancy; Kempker Russell; Khator Parul; Summerlee Robert; Fournier Arthur

2002-01-01

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Real lives 1: Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Only 2% of Haiti is forest land, a country formerly densely covered by trees. With 66% of farmland sloping more than 20 degrees and population density at more than 270 individuals per square kilometer, erosion is severe. Since 1950, the amount of arable land has decreased by 40% and per capita grain production has been halved. Moreover, repression and the gross maldistribution of land such that 4% of the farmers own more than 50% of the land have not helped make survival a viable option for most Haitians. Accordingly, more than 1.3 million Haitians, or 20% of the population, have left their homelands, many for other Caribbean destinations, and some 180,000 for the US and Canada. Others have moved to the country's urban slums. The author presents the stories of some of these migrants. PMID:12319113

Maternowska, C

1994-01-01

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Fund Raising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

Association du personnel

2010-01-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Populus_tremuloides_L.png Populus_tremuloides_NL.png Populus_t ... remuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

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Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water in Haiti needs a rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be resumed in this manner: The country receives by means 40 milliards cubic meters of water. However, 70% of this water was lost by evapotranspiration and the other part which shows the renewable water is distributed like that: 20% of amount drain along of the surface through the river and go to the sea and 10% filters through the aquifer. In Haiti water is not always on the use place it varies in an area to the other depending of some factors like: precipitation, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, some difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of this resource. Whereas, different needs of utilization sectors, water resources management become a need so as to be able to settle water in quality and in quantity sufficiently for natural preservation, ecosystem and else. In Haiti, we have many plains which contain aquifer. We can name them: Plaine de l'arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives et Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is the most exploited because of geographical position. In fact, since 1980 many studies on isotope hydrology have been realized on these. About Plaine du Cul-de-Sac all studies realized show almost the same result: The exploitation limit of this aquifer. Some recommendations have been done in spite of, they still continue with the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer. Many years have been passed but nothing changed. In 2001, with the cooperation of IAEA, the project aquifer integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac has been started. We have some difficulties but I think it's the one of the best ways in order to solve this problem. (author)

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Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated by the great Tohoku quake (11/03/2011). For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. From theoretical relations between air density, and vertical and horizontal velocities inside the gravity wave, we demonstrate that the measured perturbations are consistent with a gravity wave generated by the tsunami, and provide a way to estimate the propagation azimuth of the gravity wave. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It will allow to scan the GOCE data set to search for gravity wave crossings. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

Garcia, Raphael F.; Doornbos, Eelco; Bruinsma, Sean; Hebert, Hélène

2014-05-01

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76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice...intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen)....

2011-11-08

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The many faces of quaking aspen: Biogeography meets resilience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Managers and scientists alike commonly practice quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) management with a 'one-size-fits-all approach' based a simple successional model: aspen as the "pioneer" species is overtaken by locally dominant confers as time increases post-disturbance. We now know that aspen reacts to disturbance, at various scales, along multiple pathways. How might this realization affect a more informed management/restoration approach? We examine a variety of aspen types as ecol...

Roger, Paul

2013-01-01

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Haiti’s first national pavilion at the Venice Biennale: anachronism or illuminating opportunity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A barrage of criticism has been levelled against the Venice Biennale’s national pavilion structure in recent decades, chiefly accusing it of anachronism on account of its western biases. Yet the tide has begun to turn, making much of this criticism sound a little worn-out. As this event increasingly attracts debuting ‘non-western’ national exhibitors each year, its pavilion structure event is beginning to be reassessed. Haiti was one such debutant at the 54th edition of La Biennale di Venezia held in 2011. This article will explore in detail the debates raised by Haiti’s national pavilion, particularly as they related to the central exhibition theme of ILLUMInations selected by the International Art Exhibition Director for 2011, Bice Curiger. In doing so this piece will consider both: how the national pavilion structure at the Venice Biennale was challenged, and our wider understanding of it deepened, by Haiti’s participation; and what Venice’s national pavilion structure might be able to offer a post-colonial, ‘third-world’ nation like Haiti.

Wendy Asquith

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system. PMID:25276595

Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

2014-08-01

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Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system.

Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

2014-01-01

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Pseudo-slice knots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For n >1, if the Seifert form of a knotted 2n-1 sphere K in S^{2n+1} has a metabolizer, then the knot is slice. Casson and Gordon proved that this is false in dimension three (n = 1). However, in the three dimensional case it is true that if the metabolizer has a basis represented by a strongly slice link then K is slice. The question has been asked as to whether it is sufficient that each basis element is represented by a slice knot to assure that K is slice. For genus one ...

Livingston, Charles

2000-01-01

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ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2006-01-01

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The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Conclusion Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

Fitzgerald Daniel W

2008-02-01

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Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries.

Harinder Singh Chahal

2013-12-01

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An outlook on event rates of induced earth quakes in the Netherlands: a preliminary analysis  

CERN Document Server

The increasing rate in earth quakes in the Netherlands is attributed to the enhanced depletion of Groningen natural gas, currently at a rate of 50 billion m3 per year. Here, we report on an exponential growth in the earth quake event rate, based on a surprisingly accurate fit to publicly available KNMI data. The data show a doubling in the rate every 6.2 years, leading to a rate of one event per day in 2025. A trend in the magnitude of the quakes is indiscernible.

van Putten, Maurice H P M

2013-01-01

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The Unstable Slice Filtration  

CERN Document Server

The main goal of this paper is to construct an analogue of Voevodsky's slice filtration in the motivic unstable homotopy category. The construction is done via birational invariants, this is motivated by the existence of an equivalence of categories between the orthogonal components for Voevodsky's slice filtration and the birational motivic stable homotopy categories constructed in \\cite{Pelaez:2011fk}. Another advantage of this approach is that the slices appear naturally as homotopy fibres (and not as in the stable setting, where they are defined as homotopy cofibres) which behave much better in the unstable setting.

Pelaez, Pablo

2012-01-01

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Slices and Ellipse Geometry  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the new problems emerging in charged beam transport for SASE FEL dynamics. The optimization of the magnetic transport system for future devices requires new concepts associated with the slice emittance and the slice phase space distribution. We study the problem of electron beam slice matching and guiding in transport devices for SASE FEL emission discussing matching criteria and how the associated design of the electron transport line may affect the FEL output performances. We analyze different matching strategies by studying the relevant effect on the FEL output characteristics.

Dattoli, G; Del Franco, M; Petralia, A

2011-01-01

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Improved Perfect Slice Sampling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. The originally proposed method is rather slow and thus several improvements have been suggested. However, two of them are erroneous. In this article we give a short introduction to perfect slice sampling, point out incorrect methods, and give a new improved version of the original algorithm. (author's abstract)

Ho?rmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

2003-01-01

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Slice regular composition operators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article the class of slice regular functions is shown to be closed under a new regular composition. The new regular composition turns out to be globally defined in contrast to the locally defined version by Vlacci. Its advantage over Vlacci's is demonstrated by its associated theory of composition operators and dynamical systems for slice regular functions. Especially, the corresponding Littlewood subordination principle and the Denjoy-Wolff type theorem can be establ...

Ren, G. B.; Wang, X. P.

2014-01-01

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Haiti's adaptation practices to natural forces between 1850-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominic an Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominic an Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th and 20th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, migration and urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 have systematically exposed more people to natural forces, such as tropical storms an floods.

Klose, C. D.

2011-12-01

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Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six ch...

Nancy Golden; Russell Kempker; Parul Khator; Robert Summerlee; Arthur Fournier

2002-01-01

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QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

Joachim Saul

2011-04-01

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77 FR 59943 - Extension of the Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...damaged as high as 5,000. The 2010 earthquake exacerbated Haiti's position...has improved, the effects of the earthquake continue to reverberate in Haiti...IL 60603- 5517. The State of New York..............

2012-10-01

36

Non-Seismology Seismology: Using QuakeCatchers to Analyze the Frequency of Bridge Vibrations  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an experiment to test the feasibility of measuring seismic waves generated by traffic near James Madison University. We used QuakeCatcher seismometers (originally designed for passive seismic measurement) to measure vibrations associated with traffic on a wooden bridge as well as a nearby concrete bridge. This experiment was a signal processing exercise for a student research project and did not draw any conclusions regarding bridge safety or security. The experiment consisted of two temporary measurement stations comprised of a laptop computer and a QuakeCatcher - a small seismometer that plugs directly into the laptop via a USB cable. The QuakeCatcher was taped to the ground at the edge of the bridge to achieve good coupling, and vibrational events were triggered repeatedly with a control vehicle to accumulate a consistent dataset of the bridge response. For the wooden bridge, the resulting 'seismograms' were converted to Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format and analyzed in MATLAB. The concrete bridge did not generate vibrations significant enough to trigger the recording mechanism on the QuakeCatchers. We will present an overview of the experimental design and frequency content of the traffic patterns, as well as a discussion of the instructional benefits of using the QuakeCatcher sensors in this non-traditional setting.

Courtier, A. M.; Constantin, C.; Wilson, C. F.

2013-12-01

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IMPROVED COOK STOVES FOR HAITI USING THERMOELECTRICS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is plagued with continual problems due to severe deforestation throughout the country. Haiti was once nearly completely covered by lush forest, but now less than three percent of Haiti is forested. This environmental cala...

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Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. PMID:24601932

Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

2014-04-01

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OpenQuake, a platform for collaborative seismic hazard and risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, tools and models for global seismic hazard and risk assessment, within the context of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and international organisations, all contributions are being integrated into OpenQuake: a web-based platform that - together with other resources - will become accessible in 2014. With OpenQuake, stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualize and investigate earthquake hazard and risk, capture new data and share findings for joint learning. The platform is envisaged as a collaborative hub for earthquake risk assessment, used at global and local scales, around which an active network of users has formed. OpenQuake will comprise both online and offline tools, many of which can also be used independently. One of the first steps in OpenQuake development was the creation of open-source software for advanced seismic hazard and risk calculations at any scale, the OpenQuake Engine. Although in continuous development, a command-line version of the software is already being test-driven and used by hundreds worldwide; from non-profits in Central Asia, seismologists in sub-Saharan Africa and companies in South Asia to the European seismic hazard harmonization programme (SHARE). In addition, several technical trainings were organized with scientists from different regions of the world (sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Asia-Pacific) to introduce the engine and other OpenQuake tools to the community, something that will continue to happen over the coming years. Other tools that are being developed of direct interest to the hazard community are: • OpenQuake Modeller; fundamental instruments for the creation of seismogenic input models for seismic hazard assessment, a critical input to the OpenQuake Engine. OpenQuake Modeller will consist of a suite of tools (Hazard Modellers Toolkit) for characterizing the seismogenic sources of earthquakes and their models of earthquakes recurrence. An earthquake catalogue homogenization tool, for integration, statistical comparison and user-defined harmonization of multiple catalogues of earthquakes is also included in the OpenQuake modeling tools. • A data capture tool for active faults; a tool that allows geologists to draw (new) fault discoveries on a map in an intuitive GIS-environment and add details on the fault through the tool. This data, once quality checked, can then be integrated with the global active faults database, which will increase in value with every new fault insertion. Building on many ongoing efforts and the knowledge of scientists worldwide, GEM will for the first time integrate state-of-the-art data, models, results and open-source tools into a single platform. The platform will continue to increase in value, in particular for use in local contexts, through contributions from and collaborations with scientists and organisations worldwide. This presentation will showcase the OpenQuake Platform, focusing on the IT solutions that have been adopted as well as the added value that the platform will bring to scientists worldwide.

Henshaw, Paul; Burton, Christopher; Butler, Lars; Crowley, Helen; Danciu, Laurentiu; Nastasi, Matteo; Monelli, Damiano; Pagani, Marco; Panzeri, Luigi; Simionato, Michele; Silva, Vitor; Vallarelli, Giuseppe; Weatherill, Graeme; Wyss, Ben

2013-04-01

40

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sit [...] es, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

María del, Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint, Jean; Carlos A, Fuster Callaba; Lorenzo, Somarriba López.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Slicing of Constraint Logic Programs  

CERN Document Server

Slicing is a program analysis technique originally developed for imperative languages. It facilitates understanding of data flow and debugging. This paper discusses slicing of Constraint Logic Programs. Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is an emerging software technology with a growing number of applications. Data flow in constraint programs is not explicit, and for this reason the concepts of slice and the slicing techniques of imperative languages are not directly applicable. This paper formulates declarative notions of slice suitable for CLP. They provide a basis for defining slicing techniques (both dynamic and static) based on variable sharing. The techniques are further extended by using groundness information. A prototype dynamic slicer of CLP programs implementing the presented ideas is briefly described together with the results of some slicing experiments.

Szilágyi, G; Maluszynski, J; Szilagyi, Gyongyi; Gyimothy, Tibor; Maluszynski, Jan

2000-01-01

42

Constitution without constitutionalism : Haiti and the vagaries of democratization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the role that constitution and constitutionalism play in the making of polyarchical rule. Author also examines their relationship to class power, political institutions, culture, and leadership. He argues that constitution does not make for an effective form of constitutionalism. Concludes that meaningful democratization in Haiti is difficult if class relations do not change drastically and are equalized.

Robert Fatton Jr.

2000-01-01

43

Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison with single-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Presentation and evaluation of slice sensitivity profile and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison to single-slice CT. Methods: Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of a multi-slice CT equiped with a 2D matrix detector array and of a single-slice CT were evaluated in phantom studies. Results: For the single-slice CT the width of the slice sensitivity profiles increased with increasing pitch. In spite of a much higher table speed the slice sensitivity profiles of multi-slice CT were narrower and did not increase with higher pitch. Noise in single-slice CT was independent of pitch. For multi-slice CT noise increased with higher pitch and for the higher pitch decreased slightly with higher detector row collimation. Conclusions: Multi-slice CT provides superior z-resolution and higher volume coverage speed. These qualities fulfill one of the prerequisites for improvement of 3D postprocessing. (orig.)

44

The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been installed by other regional seismic networks - all communicating via the common NetQuakes servers.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2012-12-01

45

HAITI: MUCH ATTENTION, NO RESULTS. WHY DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DOESN’T WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is an excerpt, with little adaptation, from the master thesis: “Project management’s contribution to international cooperation. How to make things work: ODA in Haiti” wrote under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Horst Brezinski from Technical University Freiberg Bergakademie and Prof. Dr. Eng.. Sabina Irimie from University of Petrosani, while benefiting from an Erasmus study scholarship at the first mentioned institution. It presents the case of Haiti, a small country facing big challenges and enjoying plenty of international attention especially due to the recent earthquake that struck the country at the beginning of 2010. The SWOT analysis inside the paper offers a detailed view of Haiti’s actual situation, identifying in the same time its problems and the variables that should be taken into consideration when designing programmes and projects targeting Haiti’s development.

ANDREEA MARI?

2011-01-01

46

RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS  

CERN Document Server

The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

Rudolph, J

2011-01-01

47

Intermittent quakes and record dynamics in the thermoremanent magnetization of a spin-glass  

CERN Document Server

A novel method for analyzing the intermittent behavior of aging data is presented and applied to spin-glass thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) (Rodriguez et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037203, 2003). For a broad temperature range, we study the dependence of the TRM decay rate on $t$, the time since the initial quench and on $t_w$, the time at which the magnetic field is cut. The probability density function (PDF) of magnetic fluctuations has an asymmetric exponential tail, which demonstrates that the demagnetization process is carried by intermittent, significant, spin rearrangements or \\emph{quakes}. These quakes are most pronounced shortly after the field removal, $t/t_w \\approx 1$ and in the non-equilibrium aging regime $t/t_w >>1$. The $t/t_w$ scaling of the rate of demagnetization is described analytically under the assumption that the linear response is subordinated to the intermittent process which spasmodically release the initial imbalance in the system.

Sibani, P; Kenning, G G; Sibani, Paolo

2006-01-01

48

New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored.

Ma, J.; Song, W. G.; Lo, S. M.; Fang, Z. M.

2013-02-01

49

Understanding Earthquake Fault Systems Using QuakeSim Analysis and Data Assimilation Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

We are using the QuakeSim environment to model interacting fault systems. One goal of QuakeSim is to prepare for the large volumes of data that spaceborne missions such as DESDynI will produce. QuakeSim has the ability to ingest distributed heterogenous data in the form of InSAR, GPS, seismicity, and fault data into various earthquake modeling applications, automating the analysis when possible. Virtual California simulates interacting faults in California. We can compare output from long time history Virtual California runs with the current state of strain and the strain history in California. In addition to spaceborne data we will begin assimilating data from UAVSAR airborne flights over the San Francisco Bay Area, the Transverse Ranges, and the Salton Trough. Results of the models are important for understanding future earthquake risk and for providing decision support following earthquakes. Improved models require this sensor web of different data sources, and a modeling environment for understanding the combined data.

Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Granat, Robert; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Al-Ghanmi, Rami; Grant, Lisa

2008-01-01

50

Aging in Haiti: toward an international nursing response.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this column Orem's self-care deficit model and Holzkamp's critical learning theory are used to discuss the story of an older adult Haitian woman with an interview with a Haitian nurse leader, Mme. Suze N'Lemba. Older adults in Haiti today are seen as a group at very high risk due in part to the conditions in the country, and they are in need of considerable guidance in nursing. However the current number of nurses and nurse educators in Haiti, and the extremely limited resources there, make it unlikely that the vast majority of these individuals will receive what they need. Therefore what is needed at this time are international nursing partnerships and assistance. PMID:21471041

Baumann, Steven L; Bellefleur, Carmelle M

2011-04-01

51

Pre-earthquake non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction To our knowledge, there was no record of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti until the 2010 post earthquake outbreak. Methodology This study describes the analysis of 301 stool samples from 117 infants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, who participated in a pediatric nutrition study between July 2008 and October 2009. Results Nine samples were identified positive with both SYBR Green and Taqman-MGB probe based molecular assays targeting V. cholerae hlyA and toxR, respectively (Ct = 33 – 40), but none were O1 or O139. Conclusions Our results from multiple molecular assays demonstrate the presence of non-O1/O139 V. cholerae DNA in stools collected from nine asymptomatic Haitian infants two years prior to the 2010 earthquake. PMID:24423722

Liu, Jie; Winstead-Derlega, Christopher; Houpt, Eric; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Pape, Jean; Dillingham, Rebecca

2014-01-01

52

Hypertension in Haiti: the challenge of best possible practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the fourth anniversary, it is impossible to discuss hypertension in Haiti without acknowledging the almost incalculable negative impact of the January 12, 2010 earthquake. It was catastrophic not only in terms of death and physical injury, but also the widespread destruction of a tenuous infrastructure and public health system. Yet, paradoxically, this virtual blank slate could be an opportunity to develop an innovative pragmatic approach to the equally devastating problem of hypertension as the most common contributing cause of death in Haiti. Rising Phoenix-like literally from the ashes and rubble, there are lessons to be learned from the Haiti experience, as a potential model for the management of hypertension in the community in low resource venues in the Caribbean and beyond. Haiti has very poor comparative outcomes, and specific challenges related to high prevalence stroke, renal failure, and heart failure as negative prognostic consequences of undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension. There are severe public health challenges related to salt education, as well as societal challenges related to negative social determinants of health and disease, and the structural violence of overwhelming poverty. Pragmatism is necessary as we attempt to combine the tenets of evidence based medicine with reality based medicine restrictions imposed by low resource. It is through the generation of Best Possible Practice (BPP) models of care that colleagues can develop systems of mutual knowledge sharing, service, and support. This approach extends to screening and diagnosis, where there is no electricity for semi- or automatic manometric devices and requisite need to train in manual/ auscultatory technique, to education and curricula built specifically around a flexible hypertension community management guideline as the accepted standard to aspire to. A successful approach requires solid guiding principles, including a commitment to best attainable quality and value(s). It also requires standing together as a community of dedicated medical professionals. PMID:24400884

Kenerson, John G

2014-02-01

53

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niños discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país.

Nancy Golden

2002-10-01

54

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti / Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niño [...] s discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país. Abstract in english Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti [...] that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Nancy, Golden; Russell, Kempker; Parul, Khator; Robert, Summerlee; Arthur, Fournier.

55

The tragedy of Haiti: A reason for major cultural change.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the recent earthquake in Haiti, it is most befitting to discuss my travel to this poor country more than a decade ago. The travel was a mission that examined the health status and the education of residents in the capital city of Port- au-Prince. After close observation, it seems that the health and educational status then, today and since the tragedy, is basically the same with less, if any, possible improvement. This article examines the present state of health and education of the Haitian people, in the wake of its recent tragedy. Although, the people were very poor in economics, they were rich in culture and exhibited polite mannerisms that made me feel overly welcomed in their homes and to the few resources they had to offer It appears that in past years, this country was and still is noted as the poorest country in the Americas, however, it is not the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. On many occasions, it has been publicly and widely reported that Haiti experienced political violence throughout its history. The government of Haiti is known for corruption. It also appears that an earthquake the magnitude of 7.0 would not have easily destroyed so many of its infrastructure and people, if in the past, the surrounding countries, including the United States, would have assisted in providing this country with safer and stronger foundations for buildings and especially shelter for the residents and the many visitors who were the true victims. Despite the repressive regime, Haiti's location, history and culture were very attractive to tourists in the 1960s and 1970s. Visitors returned home with memorable artifacts that included cave paintings, wood statues (figurines) and hand made jewelry. PMID:21117444

Brown, Geraldine

2010-01-01

56

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica.Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated with incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Dale Tomich

2009-04-01

57

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti / Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niño [...] s discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país. Abstract in english Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti [...] that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Nancy, Golden; Russell, Kempker; Parul, Khator; Robert, Summerlee; Arthur, Fournier.

2002-10-01

58

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste thro...

Jason Jawidzik; Meegoda, Jay N.; Paul Rodriguez; Hsin-Neng Hsieh

2012-01-01

59

On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

2014-05-01

60

Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

The time slice system  

Science.gov (United States)

We have designed a fast readout system for silicon microstrip detectors which could be used at HERA, LHC and SSC. The system consists of an analog amplifier-comparator chip (AACC) and a digital time slice chip (DTSC). The analog chip is designed in dielectric isolated bipolar technology for low noise and potential radiation hardness. The DTSC is built in CMOS for low power use and high circuit density. The main implementation aims are low power consumption and compactness. The architectural goal is automatic data reduction, and ease of external interface. The pipelining of event information is done digitally in the DTSC. It has a 64 word deep level 1 buffer acting as a FIFO and a 16 word deep level 2 buffer acting as a dequeue. The DTSC also includes an asynchronous bus interface. We are first building a scaled up (100 ?m instead of 25 ?m pitch) and slower (10 MHz instead of 60 MHz) version in 2 ?m CMOS and plan to test the principle of operation of this system in the Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) of the ZEUS detector at HERA. Another very important development will be tested there: the radiation hardening of the chips. We have started a collaboration with a rad-hard foundry and with Los Alamos National Laboratories to test and evaluate rad-hard processes and the final rad-hard product. Initial data are very promising because radiation resistance of up to many Mrad have been achieved.

DeWitt, Joel

1990-03-01

62

Imaging microglia in brain slices and slice cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe a method for imaging fluorescently labeled parenchymal microglia (MG) in excised neonatal or adult rodent brain tissue slices. Using multichannel confocal or two-photon time-lapse imaging, the approach affords real-time analyses of MG behaviors, including motility, migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and phagocytosis in live brain tissues. The method is applicable to acutely prepared tissue slices from developing and adult rodents and to slice cultures derived from neonatal rodents, including transgenic and green fluorescent protein reporter mice. A variety of fluorescent tags can be used to study the structure and physiology of MG in these preparations. Moreover, bath application of reagents (such as ATP) can establish spatial and temporal gradients that induce chemokinesis- and chemotaxis-like MG migration in tissue slices. Thus, the approach is useful for dissecting the molecular basis of MG behaviors and testing whether candidate reagents alter MG behavior and function in semi-intact central nervous system tissue preparations. PMID:24298036

Dailey, Michael E; Eyo, Ukpong; Fuller, Leah; Hass, John; Kurpius, Dana

2013-12-01

63

Teachers' Attitudes toward Integration of Students with Disabilities in Haiti and the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation compared the attitudes of teachers toward integration of students with disabilities in Haiti and the United States. A sample of 152 high school teachers in Haiti and 216 high school teachers in the United States was asked to complete a background questionnaire and the Opinions Relative to the Integration of Students with…

Dupoux, Errol; Wolman, Clara; Estrada, Elisa

2005-01-01

64

Convergence of Voevodsky's slice tower  

CERN Document Server

We consider Voevodsky's slice tower for a finite spectrum E in the motivic stable homotopy category over a perfect field k. In case k has finite cohomological dimension (in characteristic two, we also require that k is infinite), we show that the slice tower converges, in that the induced filtration on the bi-graded homotopy sheaves for each term in the tower for E is finite, exhaustive and separated at each stalk. This partially verifies a conjecture of Voevodsky.

Levine, Marc

2012-01-01

65

Avaliação da pressão positiva expiratória final utilizando o aparelho fisioterápico Quake Evaluation of positive end expiratory pressure using a physiotherapy device called Quake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em voluntários saudáveis, o valor médio da pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP na utilização do recurso fisioterápico Quake, relativamente novo no mercado. Participaram 62 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, entre 18 e 30 anos, que foram submetidos a: prova de função pulmonar; avaliação do pico de fluxo expiratório, da sensação subjetiva de esforço (escala de Borg e da saturação de oxigênio; e à utilização do aparelho, acoplado a um manovacuômetro, para efetuar duas seqüências respiratórias, de 10 e 20 incursões por minuto, monitoradas por retroalimentação visual. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os valores das pressões geradas apenas na seqüência de 10 incursões por minuto (p=0,03. Na comparação das pressões entre as seqüências, os valores foram significativamente menores na de 10 incursões (29,42±8,04 cmH2O; p=0,03. Não foram encontradas correlações entre as pressões e as variáveis da espirometria, idade e pico de fluxo expiratório. Foi observada uma fraca correlação significativa antes (r=0,36; p=0,003 e depois (r=0,31; p=0,014 da seqüência de 20 incursões entre as pressões nessa seqüência e os escores de fadiga na escala de Borg, tendo o mesmo ocorido com a saturação de oxigênio. A PEEP gerada pelo Quake em indivíduos saudáveis varia de acordo com a frequência em incursões por minuto, sendo maior durante a seqüência mais rápida, que também gera maior cansaço.The aim of this study was to assess the mean positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP during use of the Quake, a relatively new device, in healthy volunteers. Participants were 62 subjects of both sexes aged 18 to 30 years old, who were submitted to: pulmonary function tests; expiratory peak flow evaluation; the Borg scale; assessment of oxygen saturation; and use of the device, coupled to a manometer, in two sequences, of 10 and 20 breaths per minute, with monitoring by visual feedback. Data were statistically analysed. Significant differences between pressures were found only at the 10-breath per minute sequences (p=0.03. When comparing pressures between the sequences, values were significantly lower in the 10-breath per minute sequence (29.42±8.04 cmH2O; p=0.03. No correlations were found between pressures and pulmonary function test measures, age, or expiratory peak flow. A weak, significant correlation was found between Borg scale scores and pressures before (r=0.36; p=0.003 and after (r=0.31; p=0.014 the 20-breath per minute sequence, the same occurring with oxygen saturation. In healthy volunteers, then, Quake PEEP values are higher during the quickest (20-breath per minute sequence, which also requires more exeertion.

Cristiane Cenachi Coelho

2009-12-01

66

Avaliação da pressão positiva expiratória final utilizando o aparelho fisioterápico Quake / Evaluation of positive end expiratory pressure using a physiotherapy device called Quake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em voluntários saudáveis, o valor médio da pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP) na utilização do recurso fisioterápico Quake, relativamente novo no mercado. Participaram 62 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, entre 18 e 30 anos, que foram submetidos a: prova de fu [...] nção pulmonar; avaliação do pico de fluxo expiratório, da sensação subjetiva de esforço (escala de Borg) e da saturação de oxigênio; e à utilização do aparelho, acoplado a um manovacuômetro, para efetuar duas seqüências respiratórias, de 10 e 20 incursões por minuto, monitoradas por retroalimentação visual. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os valores das pressões geradas apenas na seqüência de 10 incursões por minuto (p=0,03). Na comparação das pressões entre as seqüências, os valores foram significativamente menores na de 10 incursões (29,42±8,04 cmH2O; p=0,03). Não foram encontradas correlações entre as pressões e as variáveis da espirometria, idade e pico de fluxo expiratório. Foi observada uma fraca correlação significativa antes (r=0,36; p=0,003) e depois (r=0,31; p=0,014) da seqüência de 20 incursões entre as pressões nessa seqüência e os escores de fadiga na escala de Borg, tendo o mesmo ocorido com a saturação de oxigênio. A PEEP gerada pelo Quake em indivíduos saudáveis varia de acordo com a frequência em incursões por minuto, sendo maior durante a seqüência mais rápida, que também gera maior cansaço. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the mean positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) during use of the Quake, a relatively new device, in healthy volunteers. Participants were 62 subjects of both sexes aged 18 to 30 years old, who were submitted to: pulmonary function tests; expiratory peak flow eva [...] luation; the Borg scale; assessment of oxygen saturation; and use of the device, coupled to a manometer, in two sequences, of 10 and 20 breaths per minute, with monitoring by visual feedback. Data were statistically analysed. Significant differences between pressures were found only at the 10-breath per minute sequences (p=0.03). When comparing pressures between the sequences, values were significantly lower in the 10-breath per minute sequence (29.42±8.04 cmH2O; p=0.03). No correlations were found between pressures and pulmonary function test measures, age, or expiratory peak flow. A weak, significant correlation was found between Borg scale scores and pressures before (r=0.36; p=0.003) and after (r=0.31; p=0.014) the 20-breath per minute sequence, the same occurring with oxygen saturation. In healthy volunteers, then, Quake PEEP values are higher during the quickest (20-breath per minute) sequence, which also requires more exeertion.

Cristiane Cenachi, Coelho; Alyne Pinheiro, Diniz; Luciana Martins de Morais, Carvalho; Rosângela Mendonça, Reis; Flávio Afonso Gonçalves, Mourão; Evanirso da Silva, Aquino.

2009-12-01

67

A new ENU-induced allele of mouse quaking causes severe CNS dysmyelination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mutant allelic series of the mouse quaking gene consists of the spontaneous quaking(viable) (qk(v)) allele, which is homozygous viable with a dysmyelination phenotype, and four ENU-induced alleles (qk(kt 1), qk(k2), qk(kt3/4), and qk(l-1)), which are homozygous embryonic lethal. Here we report the isolation of qk(e5), the first ENU-induced viable allele of quaking. Unlike qk(v)/qk(v), qk(e5)/qk(e5) animals have early-onset seizures, severe ataxia, and a dramatically reduced lifespan. Ultrastructural analysis of qk(e5)/qk(e5) brains reveals severe dysmyelination when compared with both wild-type and qk(v)/qk(v) brains. In addition, Calbindin detection in young adult qk(e5)/qk(e5) mice reveals Purkinje cell axonal swellings indicative of neurodegeneration , which is not seen in young adult qk(v)/qk(v) mice. Although the molecular defect in the qk(e5) allele is not evident by sequencing, protein expression studies show that qk(e5)/qk(e5) postnatal oligodendrocytes lack the QKI-6 and QKI-7 isoforms and have reduced QKI-5 levels. The oligodendrocyte developmental markers PDGF alpha R, NG 2, O4, CNP, and MBP are also present in the qk(e5)/qk(e5) postnatal brain although CNP and MBP levels are considerably reduced. Because the qk(v) allele is a large deletion that affects the expression of three genes, the new neurologic qk(e5) allele is an important addition to this allelic series. PMID:16245024

Noveroske, Janice K; Hardy, Rebecca; Dapper, Jason D; Vogel, Hannes; Justice, Monica J

2005-09-01

68

The Quake-Catcher Network: Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the Quake-Catcher Network is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. With greater understanding, teachers, students, and interested individuals can share their new knowledge, resulting in continued participation in the project, and better preparation for earthquakes in their homes, businesses, and communities. The primary educational outreach goals are 1) to present earthquake science and earthquake hazards in a modern and exciting way, and 2) to provide teachers and educators with seismic sensors, interactive software, and educational modules to assist in earthquake education. QCNLive (our interactive educational computer software) displays recent and historic earthquake locations and 3-axis real-time acceleration measurements. This tool is useful for demonstrations and active engagement for all ages, from K-college. QCN provides subsidized sensors at 49 for the general public and 5 for K-12 teachers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes to a broader audience. Academics are taking QCN to classrooms across the United States and around the world. The next time you visit a K-12 classroom or teach a college class on interpreting seismograms, bring a QCN sensor and QCNLive software with you! To learn how, visit http://qcn.stanford.edu.

Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Saltzman, J.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

2011-12-01

69

QuakeSim: a Web Service Environment for Productive Investigations with Earth Surface Sensor Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The QuakeSim science gateway environment includes a visually rich portal interface, web service access to data and data processing operations, and the QuakeTables ontology-based database of fault models and sensor data. The integrated tools and services are designed to assist investigators by covering the entire earthquake cycle of strain accumulation and release. The Web interface now includes Drupal-based access to diverse and changing content, with new ability to access data and data processing directly from the public page, as well as the traditional project management areas that require password access. The system is designed to make initial browsing of fault models and deformation data particularly engaging for new users. Popular data and data processing include GPS time series with data mining techniques to find anomalies in time and space, experimental forecasting methods based on catalogue seismicity, faulted deformation models (both half-space and finite element), and model-based inversion of sensor data. The fault models include the CGS and UCERF 2.0 faults of California and are easily augmented with self-consistent fault models from other regions. The QuakeTables deformation data include the comprehensive set of UAVSAR interferograms as well as a growing collection of satellite InSAR data.. Fault interaction simulations are also being incorporated in the web environment based on Virtual California. A sample usage scenario is presented which follows an investigation of UAVSAR data from viewing as an overlay in Google Maps, to selection of an area of interest via a polygon tool, to fast extraction of the relevant correlation and phase information from large data files, to a model inversion of fault slip followed by calculation and display of a synthetic model interferogram.

Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Granat, R. A.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; McLeod, D.; Al-Ghanmi, R.; Pierce, M.; Fox, G.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Rundle, J. B.

2011-12-01

70

Ground-water conditions in the Plaine de Moustiques, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The Plaine des Moustiques lies on the north coast of Haiti about 12 kilometers west-southwest of Port-de-Paix. During January 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study to determine the availability of ground water in the plain for irrigation. At present irrigation is practiced by diversions from the Rivière des Moustiques. However, the dry-season flow of this stream is generally inadequate for irrigation or is sufficient to cover only a small part of the Irrigable area of the plain. According to Lieurance1 there is a total of about 1,120 hectares of irrigable land in the plain.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

1949-01-01

71

Use of Damage Data for Calibration of GMPE's in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 12 January 2010 earthquake that occurred in the south of Haiti, the Earthquake Engineering Researching Group (GIIS) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM, Spain) set up a cooperative line with the National Observatory of the Environment and Vulnerability of Haiti (ONEV), under the Ministry of the Environment. Within the frame of that working line, the project SISMO-HAITI was launched to estimate the seismic hazard in the country and the seismic risk in Port-au-Prince, the capital city. It was financed by the UPM. In the frame of the seismic risk study, an approach aimed at calibrating the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE`s) using damage data, was proposed and applied. This approach is presented here and may be useful in absence of strong motion data. The seismic risk estimation was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires two main inputs: classification of the building stock into predominant building typologies and a ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) to estimate the seismic demand. We found six building typologies in the city, and were assigned capacity and fragility curves (damage functions) taken from HAZUS and RISK-UE, which account for their vulnerability. Regarding the GMPE, as there are not relationships developed specifically for Haiti, we decided to use the next four: Boore & Atkinson (2008-2011), Abrahamson & Silva, (2008), Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008), Chiou & Youngs (2008). All of them belong to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models and allow including several parameters to define the seismic scenario, the source and the soil geotechnical characteristics. In this paper we present the results of the GMPE's calibration, a step aimed at figure out which is the most suitable relationship for the study area. We could not use acceleration records, since there were no accelerometers at the moment of the earthquake occurrence. Instead, we used data on the damage caused by the earthquake provided by the Haitian Ministry of Public Works. To achieve that, we simulated the earthquake in SELENA and compared our results with the observed damage. Through an iterative process based on minimizing the residuals, we calibrated both, the GMPE and the damage functions associated with the building typologies. We found that Boore & Atkinson and Campbell & Bozorgnia are the models that yield the lowest root mean square (RMS) error; hence, these GMPS's could be considered as the models that better predict the damage, together with the calibrated set of damage functions. Accordingly, we propose them to be used in future seismic risk assessments in the city.

Torres, Y.; Molina, S.; Navarro, M.; Benito, B.

2013-05-01

72

Distributed Slicing in Dynamic Systems  

CERN Document Server

Peer to peer (P2P) systems are moving from application specific architectures to a generic service oriented design philosophy. This raises interesting problems in connection with providing useful P2P middleware services capable of dealing with resource assignment and management in a large-scale, heterogeneous and unreliable environment. The slicing service, has been proposed to allow for an automatic partitioning of P2P networks into groups (slices) that represent a controllable amount of some resource and that are also relatively homogeneous with respect to that resource. In this paper we propose two gossip-based algorithms to solve the distributed slicing problem. The first algorithm speeds up an existing algorithm sorting a set of uniform random numbers. The second algorithm statistically approximates the rank of nodes in the ordering. The scalability, efficiency and resilience to dynamics of both algorithms rely on their gossip-based models. These algorithms are proved viable theoretically and experimenta...

Fernandez, Antonio; Jimenez, Ernesto; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Raynal, Michel

2007-01-01

73

Trumpet Slices in Kerr Spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a formalism that allows for a characterization of trumpet geometries in the absence of spherical symmetry. Applying these notions to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological constant. We present results for metric functions in this slicing and analyze the geometry of the rotating trumpet surface.

Dennison, Kenneth A; Montero, Pedro J

2014-01-01

74

Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010 / Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sinto [...] mas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the developm [...] ent of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Melissa Simon, Guimaro; Milton, Steinman; Ana Merzel, Kernkraut; Oscar Fernando Pavão dos, Santos; Shirley Silva, Lacerda.

75

Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010 / Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sinto [...] mas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the developm [...] ent of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Melissa Simon, Guimaro; Milton, Steinman; Ana Merzel, Kernkraut; Oscar Fernando Pavão dos, Santos; Shirley Silva, Lacerda.

2013-03-01

76

The (Im)possibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99)Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95)Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University ...

Landon Yarrington

2012-01-01

77

AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518

Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y

1993-01-01

78

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

79

The NetQuakes Project - Research-quality Seismic Data Transmitted via the Internet from Citizen-hosted Instruments (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS seeks accelerograph spacing of 5-10 km in selected urban areas of the US to obtain spatially un-aliased recordings of strong ground motions during large earthquakes. These dense measurements will improve our ability to make rapid post-earthquake assessments of expected damage and contribute to the continuing development of engineering standards for construction. To achieve this goal the USGS and its university partners are deploying “NetQuakes” seismographs, designed to record moderate to large earthquakes from the near field to about 100 km. The instruments have tri-axial Colibrys 2005SF MEMS sensors, clip at 3g, and have 18-bit resolution. These instruments are uniquely designed for deployment in private homes, businesses, public buildings and schools where there is an existing Broadband connection to the Internet. The NetQuakes instruments connect to a local network using WiFi and then via the Internet to USGS servers to a) upload triggered accelerograms in miniSEED format, P arrival times, and computed peak ground motion parameters immediately after an earthquake; b) download software updates; c) respond to requests for log files, execute UNIX scripts, and upload waveforms from long-term memory for quakes with peak motions below the trigger threshold; d) send state-of-health (SOH) information in XML format every 10 minutes; and e) synchronize instrument clocks to 1ms accuracy using the Network Time Protocol. NetQuakes instruments cost little to operate and save about $600/yr/site compared to instruments that transmit data via leased telemetry. After learning about the project through press releases, thousands of citizens have registered to host an instrument at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/netquakes using a Google Map interface that depicts where we seek instrument sites. The website also provides NetQuakes hosts access to waveform images recorded by instruments installed in their building. Since 3/2009, the NetQuakes project has installed over 100 instruments in the San Francisco Bay area, over 30 in the Seattle region, and 20 elsewhere in the US. Five instruments are also deployed in the San Francisco Bay region on San Pablo Dam, operated by the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). These instruments provide cost-effective monitoring for EBMUD through free Internet telemetry, and because the USGS monitors instrument SOH, performs all data processing and archiving, and transmits recorded shaking levels to the dam operators via ShakeCast. EBMUD allows the strong motion data from their instruments to be freely available for use by the seismological and engineering communities. The NetQuakes project expects to install 350 instruments by the end of 2011.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Hamilton, J.

2010-12-01

80

The Quake-Catcher Network: A Seismic Network for the World  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the QCN is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. The QCN now has over 2000 volunteers worldwide, with concentrations in various earthquake-prone metropolitan areas. The sensors have recorded earthquakes with magnitudes between Ml2.5 (Christchurch, New Zealand - 2010) and Mw8.8 (Maule, Chile - 2010). The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) exhibit the same distribution of scatter as traditional seismic sensors (e.g. the Kinemetrics Epicensor) but with poor resolution at the bottom end. Real-time distributed computing allows for rapid earthquake location and characterization, including magnitude estimation and AlertMap generation. The network is installed and maintained by volunteer seismologists around the world. Because the volunteer provides a free computational platform (a personal computer), internet access, and shelter, the costs of the Quake-Catcher Network are minimal. QCN provides free sensors for individuals and organizations in key regions of interest. QCN provides subsidized sensors (5) for K-12 teachers in the US. QCN provides subsidized sensor at 49 for the general public and $5 for K-12 teachers in the United States. International collaborators are expanding the regions of coverage around the world. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes for scientists and the general public. To learn more, visit http://qcn.stanford.edu.arthquake detected near Los Angeles, California on the day of abstract submission (08/08/2012). QCN detected, located, estimated the magnitude of and generated an AlertMap for the earthquake within 13 seconds of the earthquake origin. The QCN's estimated magnitude was Ml4.2. The USGS reported an official magnitude of Ml4.4.

Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Reducing Health Disparities Through Culturally Sensitive Treatment for HIV+ Adults in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a critical need to deliver empirically validated interventions to underserved populations. Haiti, the country most heavily affected by the AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, accounts for approximately 50% of all cases in the region. Poverty, disparities in access to healthcare, and socio-political instability are among, the reasons why the country has been ravaged by the disease. Ongoing projects in Haiti have shown that integrated prevention and care in resource poor settings are feasi...

De?vieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert M.; Jean-gilles, Miche?le M.; Samuels, Deanne M.; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Ascencio, Maxi; Jean-baptiste, Larissa; Pape, Jean William

2004-01-01

82

The Cholera Outbreak in Haiti: Where and How did it begin?  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2010, cholera appeared in Haiti for the first time in nearly a century. The Secretary-General of the United Nations formed an Independent Panel to "investigate and seek to determine the source of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti". To fulfill this mandate, the Panel conducted concurrent epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analysis investigations. Our May 2011 findings indicated that the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak was caused by bacteria introduced into Haiti as a result of human activity; more specifically by the contamination of the Meye Tributary System of the Artibonite River with a pathogenic strain of the current South Asian type Vibrio cholerae. Recommendations were presented to assist in preventing the future introduction and spread of cholera in Haiti and worldwide. In this chapter, we discuss both the results of the Independent Panel's investigation and the context the report sat within; including background information, responses to the report's release, additional research subsequent to our report, and the public health implications of the Haiti cholera epidemic. PMID:23695726

Lantagne, Daniele; Balakrish Nair, G; Lanata, Claudio F; Cravioto, Alejandro

2014-01-01

83

On the persistency of crater assignment criteria for Stromboli explosion-quakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of the results of previous works by our group, this paper aims to investigate the correlation between features of a kind of seismic events recorded at Stromboli (the so called explosion-quakes and the source of such explosions, i.e. the different craters. The purpose is that of finding parameters in order to try an automatic assignment of new events to their crater of origin. These parameters must be searched for both in time and in frequency domain. Afterwards the stability in time of the discrimination is discussed. An important « side effect» of this analysis is the discovery that the percentage of summital explosions not producing seismic signals recordable by a 2 s seismometer is not negligible.

F. Iacop

1996-06-01

84

Torsional seismic vibrations of solid crust in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

CERN Document Server

We investigate an asteroseismic model of non-rotating paramagnetic neutron star with core-crust stratification of interior pervaded by homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field. Focus is on post-quake vibrational relaxation by torsional shear oscillations of electron-nuclear solid-state plasma in the metal-like crust about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. In accord with basic physics underlying the very notion of a neutron star and indirect observational evidence of the dipole configuration of magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars, the model under consideration presumes that micro-composition of core material is dominated by degenerate neutron matter in the state of Pauli's paramagnetic permanent magnetization caused by polarizations of spin magnetic moments of neutrons along magnetic axis of the star. Particular attention is given to the regime of node-free differentially rotational vibrations of crust against immobile core driven by Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic f...

Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Takata, J

2009-01-01

85

Quaking regulates Hnrnpa1 expression through its 3' UTR in oligodendrocyte precursor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mice, Quaking (Qk) is required for myelin formation; in humans, it has been associated with psychiatric disease. QK regulates the stability, subcellular localization, and alternative splicing of several myelin-related transcripts, yet little is known about how QK governs these activities. Here, we show that QK enhances Hnrnpa1 mRNA stability by binding a conserved 3' UTR sequence with high affinity and specificity. A single nucleotide mutation in the binding site eliminates QK-dependent regulation, as does reduction of QK by RNAi. Analysis of exon expression across the transcriptome reveals that QK and hnRNP A1 regulate an overlapping subset of transcripts. Thus, a simple interpretation is that QK regulates a large set of oligodendrocyte precursor genes indirectly by increasing the intracellular concentration of hnRNP A1. Together, the data show that hnRNP A1 is an important QK target that contributes to its control of myelin gene expression. PMID:21253564

Zearfoss, N Ruth; Clingman, Carina C; Farley, Brian M; McCoig, Lisa M; Ryder, Sean P

2011-01-01

86

X-Ray Flares of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Quakes of Solid Quark Stars?  

CERN Document Server

We propose a star-quake model to understand X-ray flares of both long and short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, i.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 10^3 to 10^6 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transition is a few MeV, and then a new source of free energy (i.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

Xu, Renxin

2008-01-01

87

The Psychological Capital Accumulation of Middle School Students in Quake-Stricken Wenchuan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Wenchuan earthquake has brought huge trauma to people there. Up to now, the post-traumatic stressdisorder (PTSD of the middle school students in Wenchuan is still quite apparent. Psychological capital theoryis a new theory based on Positive Psychology and Positive Organizational Behavior. Psychological capital, apositive psychological state, is a potential to overcome obstacles. The present study aimed at examining theimpact of psychological capital accumulation on alleviating PTSD. A total of 737 middle school students fromsix schools in quake –stricken region were interviewed with the Psychological capital scale for Post disastermiddle school student (PCS and Post traumatic stress disorder self-rating scale?PTSD-SS?. The results showedthat the accumulation of psychological capital have positive correlation with alleviate stress disorder. The resultsimplied that people with rich psychological capital can better deal with trauma, the cultivation of resilienceshould be emphasized in education.

Jian Li

2014-10-01

88

Trumpet Slices in Kerr Spacetimes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a new family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a formalism that allows for a characterization of trumpet geometries in the absence of spherical symmetry. Applying these notions to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological const...

Dennison, Kenneth A.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Montero, Pedro J.

2014-01-01

89

How the U.S. Could Help Haiti - Climate &  

... agencies actually gave names and addresses to coup leaders of some of those who had attempted to flee, guaranteeing arrest, torture and execution for thousands. Since 2001, official policy and practice have actually become even harsher. In 2003, a new comprehensive plan called ... Navy and Coast Guard vessels are circling Haiti, not to rescue survivors, but to capture and return anyone trying to escape. Hilary Clinton was quick to declare: “Our ordinary and regular immigration laws will apply going forward, which means that we are not ... Against all odds, he made it to Miami to appeal for asylum, but this 81 year-old cancer survivor was thrown into detention at Krome, and died shortly after. The stories of those Haitians who face deportation due to a past criminal record are often just as ...

90

Distributed Slicing in Dynamic Systems  

CERN Document Server

Peer to peer (P2P) systems are moving from application specific architectures to a generic service oriented design philosophy. This raises interesting problems in connection with providing useful P2P middleware services that are capable of dealing with resource assignment and management in a large-scale, heterogeneous and unreliable environment. One such service, the slicing service, has been proposed to allow for an automatic partitioning of P2P networks into groups (slices) that represent a controllable amount of some resource and that are also relatively homogeneous with respect to that resource, in the face of churn and other failures. In this report we propose two algorithms to solve the distributed slicing problem. The first algorithm improves upon an existing algorithm that is based on gossip-based sorting of a set of uniform random numbers. We speed up convergence via a heuristic for gossip peer selection. The second algorithm is based on a different approach: statistical approximation of the rank of ...

Fernández, A; Jimenez, E; Kermarrec, A M; Raynal, M; Fernandez, Antonio; Gramoli, Vincent; Jimenez, Ernesto; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Raynal, Michel

2006-01-01

91

Viscous fingering of miscible slices  

CERN Document Server

Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

2005-01-01

92

Seroprevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human Taenia solium cysticercosis is common in developing countries due to poor sanitary conditions and economics based on breeding livestock, especially pigs, with low hygiene standards. Neurocysticercosis, caused by migration of the larvae of the tapeworm in the nervous system, is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy in adults in Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and East and South Asia. This makes neurocysticercosis a large public health problem in developing countries. Two clinical cases of neurocysticercosis have been observed recently in Haiti. In order to evaluate the prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis in this country, in 2007 we conducted a cross-sectional serological retrospective survey using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) in Port-au-Prince, where sewage systems are rare and swine usually roam freely throughout the area. A total of 216 serum samples, obtained from healthy adults seen in the work setting of periodical medical visits, were tested after storage at - 20 degrees C. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 2.8% (6/216). The immunodominant bands recognized in Western blots were 23-26 kDa (100%), 39 kDa (67%), 45 kDa and 6-8 kDa (50%), 50-55 kDa (33%). These results confirm for the first time an endemic situation of cysticercosis in humans in Haiti, with similar prevalence as that reported in other Latin American and African countries. It reinforces the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by local public health services. PMID:19245737

Raccurt, C P; Agnamey, P; Boncy, J; Henrys, J-H; Totet, A

2009-06-01

93

Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development. PMID:22262276

Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia

2011-11-01

94

Robust reflective pupil slicing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly applicable to multi-fiber spectrometers to achieve similar enhancement. HTVS also provides the ability to anamorphically "stretch" the slit image in long-slit spectrometers, allowing the instrument designer to optimize the plate scale in the dispersion axis and cross-dispersion axes independently without sacrificing spatial information. This allows users to widen the input slit, with the associated gain of throughput and loss of spatial selectivity, while maintaining the spectral resolution of the spectrometer system. This "stretching" places increased requirements on detector focal plane height, as with image slicing techniques, but provides additional degrees of freedom to instrument designers to build the best possible spectrometer systems. We discuss the details of this technology for an astronomical context, covering the applicability from small telescope mounted spectrometers through long-slit imagers and radial-velocity engines. This powerful tool provides additional degrees of freedom when designing a spectrometer, enabling instrument designers to further optimize systems for the required scientific goals.

Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

2014-07-01

95

An Approach to Scientific Workflow Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific workflow technology has been a useful tool in scientific computations. Since, scientific workflows are normally data-intensive and have complex structures, how to find the relevant knowledge that scientists concern about in a large scientific workflow is a key issue. This study presents a concept of scientific workflow slice which is a sub-workflow relative to a specific slice criterion and proposes a slice generation algorithm. In addition, we also give the concepts of forward workflow slice and backward workflow slice and propose the slicing methods. Our approach can be seemed as a kind of workflow data filter which is expected to apply in scientific workflow provenance, fault-tolerance and reuse.

Mengmeng Yang

2013-01-01

96

Quaking neutron star deriving radiative power of oscillating magneto-dipole emission from energy of Alfv\\'en seismic vibrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is shown that depletion of the magnetic field pressure in a quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Highlighted is the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfv\\'en vibrations into th...

Bastrukov, S. I.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Yu, J. W.; Xu, R. X.

2010-01-01

97

NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed more than 60 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System.

Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2009-12-01

98

Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively including in them contingency planning for international relief operations. Healthcare professionals of these institutions who travel to disaster zones should rigorously prepare themselves and make provisions for collecting and reporting data, which will enrich the knowledge of this growing activity. PMID:21598258

Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L

2011-01-01

99

Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo

Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

2013-12-01

100

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do sécu [...] lo XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais. Abstract in english THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo). James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a con [...] sequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Jacob, Gorender.

 
 
 
 
101

Quality and shelf-life of fresh cut carrot slices as affected by slicing method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of slicing method on the quality and storage-life of modified atmo¬sphere packaged carrot slices were determined using microscopy, sensory evalu¬ation, microbial counts and a range of physical and chemical tests. Slicing caused physical damage, physiological stress and enhanced microbial growth. The se¬verity of these effects were in the order of blunt machine blade > sharp machine blade > razor blade. These findings provide insights into the magnitude and ba¬sis of slicing ef...

Barry-ryan, Catherine; O Beirne, David

1998-01-01

102

Updates and Improvements to the Quake-Catcher Network's Rapid Earthquake Detections  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network is an innovative seismic network that uses low-cost USB MEMS accelerometers and volunteers' computers to rapidly record and characterize earthquakes. QCN currently has stations all around the world, with dense networks in Chile, New Zealand, and both Northern and Southern California. One of the primary focuses for QCN is Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). Using a dense network of QCN stations installed in Christchurch, New Zealand after the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake, we detected and rapidly characterized hundreds of events in the Christchurch area. When the M6.3 Christchurch event occurred on 21 February 2011, QCN sensors recorded the event and calculated its magnitude, location and created a map of estimated shaking intensity within 7 seconds of the earthquake origin time. Successive iterations improved the calculations and within 24 seconds of the earthquake, magnitude and location values comparable to those provided from GNS were calculated. Here we present updated methods and results of our rapid earthquake detection algorithm. In addition, we compare the output of our updated QCN algorithm to earthquake locations and magnitudes obtained using data from traditional seismic networks.

Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Kaiser, A. E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2012-12-01

103

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

Jason Jawidzik

2012-12-01

104

Use of oral cholera vaccine in Haiti: a rural demonstration project.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cholera epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 8,000 Haitians and sickened 650,000 since the outbreak began in October 2010. Early intervention in the epidemic focused on case-finding, treatment, and water and sanitation interventions for prevention of transmission. Use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as part of a complementary set of control activities was considered but initially rejected by policymakers. In December 2011, the Minister of Health of Haiti called for a demonstration of the acceptability and feasibility of the use of OCV in urban and rural Haiti. This paper describes the collaborative activity that offered OCV to one region of the Artibonite Department of rural Haiti in addition to other ongoing treatment and control measures. Despite logistics and cold chain challenges, 45,417 persons were successfully vaccinated with OCV in the region, and 90.8% of these persons completed their second dose. PMID:24106187

Ivers, Louise C; Teng, Jessica E; Lascher, Jonathan; Raymond, Max; Weigel, Jonathan; Victor, Nadia; Jerome, J Gregory; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Almazor, Charles P; Ternier, Ralph; Cadet, Jean; Francois, Jeannot; Guillaume, Florence D; Farmer, Paul E

2013-10-01

105

The "First" Case of Cholera in Haiti: Lessons for Global Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera is an acute watery diarrheal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. The disease has a high fatality rate when untreated and outbreaks of cholera have been increasing globally in the past decade, most recently in Haiti. We present the case of a 28-year-old Haitian male with a history of severe untreated mental health disorder that developed acute fatal watery diarrhea in mid-October 2010 in central Haiti after drinking from the local river. We believe he is the first or among the first cases of cholera in Haiti during the current epidemic. By reviewing his case, we extracted lessons for global health on the importance of mental health for overall health, the globalization of diseases in small communities, and the importance of a comprehensive approach to the health of communities when planning services in resource-poor settings. PMID:22232448

Ivers, Louise C.; Walton, David A.

2012-01-01

106

Detection of sickle cell hemoglobin in Haiti by genotyping and hemoglobin solubility tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sickle cell disease is a growing global health concern because infants born with the disorder in developing countries are now surviving longer with little access to diagnostic and management options. In Haiti, the current state of sickle cell disease/trait in the population is unclear. To inform future screening efforts in Haiti, we assayed sickle hemoglobin mutations using traditional hemoglobin solubility tests (HST) and add-on techniques, which incorporated spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation. We also generated genotype data as a metric for HST performance. We found 19 of 202 individuals screened with HST were positive for sickle hemoglobin, five of whom did not carry the HbS allele. We show that spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation add-on techniques could resolve false positives associated with the traditional HST approach, with some limitations. We also discuss the incorporation of insoluble hemoglobin separation observation with HST in suboptimal screening settings like Haiti. PMID:24957539

Carter, Tamar E; von Fricken, Michael; Romain, Jean R; Memnon, Gladys; St Victor, Yves; Schick, Laura; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

2014-08-01

107

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

Jeffrey McNeely

2011-03-01

108

Testicular swelling due to lymphatic filariasis after brief travel to Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

After 6 months of a trip to Haiti, a 25-year-old healthy man presented with a 6-week history of a very slow progressive intermittent bilateral testicular pain and swelling. The biopsies in both testicles revealed the presence of a dead filarial parasite. Polymerase chain reaction products of the DNA from the biopsy were shown to have a 100% identity to Wuchereria bancrofti. Despite being uncommon in travelers, this presentation of W. bancrofti highlights the possibility of acquiring W. bancrofti during short-term trips to highly endemic regions of the world (i.e., Haiti). PMID:24865674

Marcos, Luis A; Shapley, Nathan P; Eberhard, Mark; Epstein, Jonathan I; Fox, LeAnne M; Magill, Alan; Nutman, Thomas B

2014-07-01

109

Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

Beck, Jon

1993-01-01

110

Measurement of slice sensitivity profile for a 64-slice spiral CT system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To measure and evaluate slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and the full width at half-maximum(FWHM) for a 64-slice spiral CT system. Methods: Using the same CT technique and body mode as those used for clinical CT, delta phantom was scanned with Somatom Sensation 64-slice spiral CT. SSPs and FWHM were measured both with reconstruction slice width of 0.6 mm at pitch=0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and with reconstruction slice width of 0.6, 1.0, 1.5 mm at pitch=1 respectively. Results: For normal slice width of 0. 6 mm, the measured FWHM, i.e. effective slice width, is 0.67, 0.67, 0.66, 0.69, 0.69 mm at different pitch. All the measured FWHM deviate less than 0.1 mm from the nominal slice width. The measured SSPs are symmetrical, bell-shaped curves without far-reaching tails, and show only slight variations as a function of the spiral pitch. When reconstruction slice width increase, relative SSP become wider. Conclusions: The variation of pitch hardly has effect all on SSP, effective slice width, and z-direction spatial resolution for Sensation 64-slice spiral CT system, which is helpful to optimize CT scanning protocol. (authors)

111

05451 Executive Summary -- Beyond Program Slicing Dagstuhl Seminar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the "beyond program slicing" seminar was to explore emergent applications of program slicing and ways in which slicing techniques and ideas could be combined with those from other areas of program analysis and manipulation.

Harman, Mark; Binkley, Dave; Krinke, Jens

2006-01-01

112

Feasibility of Detecting Earthquake Occurrences before Quakes at the Site in terms of the Piezomagnetic Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations of the Electromagnetic (EM) field may be useful for detecting occurrences of earthquake. It has been known that several mechanisms convert mechanical phenomena in the crust (i.e. changes in stress and their propagation) to variations in the EM field. In principle, variations in EM field are possibly detected before the arrival of seismic waves because EM waves propagate the speed of light. This means that observations of the EM field possibly improve the efficiency of earthquake early warning systems. However, in practice, EM variations accompanying the occurrence of earthquake are quite small; therefore, whether their detection is useful for earthquake early warning or not is still not sure. The piezomagnetic effect is an important mechanism in terms of an application to the earthquake early warning. The piezomagnetic effect describes changes in the magnetization of ferromagnetic minerals. Mathematical treatments to calculate changes in the magnetic field generated by the piezomagnetic effect have been developed [e.g. Sasai, 1991, Utsugi et al., 2000]. Although focuses of many previous studies on the piezomagnetic effect are on the static problem, temporal variations in the magnetic field are also considered to be arisen by the piezomagnetic effect. In the present study, I considered a rather simple configuration of media, consisting of an upper half-space representing the air and a lower half-space representing a solid Earth with a uniform conductivity. Some of rigorous solutions of the EM field generated by time-varying sources have already given in the frequency-domain [Yamazaki, 2011]. In the present study, the solutions are further converted to those in the time-domain. The most important character suggested by the obtained formula involves a certain delay of sizable variations in EM field at the site. For example, when the conductivity of the Earth's crust is 100 ohm/meter, the peak variations in the magnetic field is approximately 1 second followed by the variation in magnetization. This delay in variations in the magnetic field in tern makes the generated EM variations more gentle compared with results of calculation that ignores the finite conductivity. By using the obtained formula, a supportive result to the hypothesis that some of the observed pre-quake EM variations are generated by the piezomagnetic effect is obtained. An example of variations in the magnetic field occurred after the seismic rupture, but before the arrival of seismic waves at the observation site, was reported at the time of the M.7.2 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake [Okubo et al., 2011]. Together with the report of the observation, they performed numerical calculations of variations in the EM field by ignoring conductivity of the Earth's crust. Variations in their calculations do qualitatively agree with the observation qualitatively, but do not quantitatively. We reconsider their reports by considering the finite conductivity by means of the obtained formula of this study, and obtain a result that shows rather good agreement with the observed magnetic field even in quantitatively. This result indicates that the reported EM variation by Okubo et al. was actually generated by the piezomagnetic effect; thus, the detection of the magnetic field variation by means of the piezomagnetic effect before the quake is feasible.

Yamazaki, K.

2013-12-01

113

Model for a national radiation protection infrastructure in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation controls took an increasing trend in Haiti. The corresponding trend is in the making of a national authority that will oversee all private and public establishments where ionizing radiation sources are being used on a diagnostic basis or for therapeutic purposes. The primary purpose of this authority is to improve regulatory framework for radiation protection but also to layout mechanisms for controlling sources. With IAEA helps and expertise a national programme is being implemented that will reflect priorities of the international Basic Safety Standard. Our goal in this paper was to provide a model authority based on the legal culture of the country and mindset of healthcare worker. The unique feature of this proposed model is that it places greater emphasis on responding to a health priority, and greater government willingness to have and independent body to regulate every single user of ionizing radiations and this flexible model can be implemented with minimal expenditures for our national budget. The following key services have been identified to provide the needed control mechanism for the Authority: Administrative Affairs Services; Personal Dosimetry Services; Nuclear and Radiological Safety Services; Legal Affairs Services. The possibility to achieve reduction of the exposed x ray workers and to establish a greater discipline in the use nuclear and radiological technology and availability of state of the art technology can be reached only if such a national body is effectively implemented by mean of a national decree therefore abiding all citizens. A basic inventory model is annexed for the purposes of assessing current needs in radiation protection. (author)

114

Testing the Rapid Detection Capabilities of the Quake-Catcher Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a versatile network of MEMS accelerometers that are used in combination with distributed volunteer computing to detect earthquakes around the world. Using a dense network of QCN stations installed in Christchurch, New Zealand after the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake, hundreds of events in the Christchurch area were detected and rapidly characterized. When the M6.3 Christchurch event occurred on 21 February 2011, QCN sensors recorded the event and calculated its magnitude, location, and created a map of estimated shaking intensity within 7 seconds of the earthquake origin time. Successive iterations improved the calculations and, within 24 seconds of the earthquake, magnitude and location values were calculated that were comparable to those provided by GeoNet. We have rigorously tested numerous methods to create a working magnitude scaling relationship. In this presentation, we show a drastic improvement in the magnitude estimates using the maximum acceleration at the time of the first trigger and updated ground accelerations from one to three seconds after the initial trigger. 75% of the events rapidly detected and characterized by QCN are within 0.5 magnitude units of the official GeoNet reported magnitude values, with 95% of the events within 1 magnitude unit. We also test the QCN detection algorithms using higher quality data from the SCSN network in Southern California. We examine a dataset of M5 and larger earthquakes that occurred since 1995. We present the performance of the QCN algorithms for this dataset, including time to detection as well as location and magnitude accuracy.

Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.; Yildirim, B.; Christensen, C. M.; Kaiser, A. E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

115

Quaking I controls a unique cytoplasmic pathway that regulates alternative splicing of myelin-associated glycoprotein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise control of alternative splicing governs oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system (CNS). A well-known example is the developmentally regulated expression of splice variants encoding myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which generates two protein isoforms that associate with distinct cellular components crucial for axon-glial recognition during myelinogenesis and axon-myelin stability. In the quakingviable (qk(v)) hypomyelination mutant mouse, diminished expression of isoforms of the selective RNA-binding protein quaking I (QKI) leads to severe dysregulation of MAG splicing. The nuclear isoform QKI-5 was previously shown to bind an intronic element of MAG and modulate alternative exon inclusion from a MAG minigene reporter. Thus, QKI-5 deficiency was thought to underlie the defects of MAG splicing in the qk(v) mutant. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic expression of the cytoplasmic isoform QKI-6 in the qk(v) OLs completely rescues the dysregulation of MAG splicing without increasing expression or nuclear abundance of QKI-5. In addition, cytoplasmic QKI-6 selectively associates with the mRNA that encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), a well-characterized splicing factor. Furthermore, QKI deficiency in the qk(v) mutant results in abnormally enhanced hnRNPA1 translation and overproduction of the hnRNPA1 protein but not hnRNPA1 mRNA, which can be successfully rescued by the QKI-6 transgene. Finally, we show that hnRNPA1 binds MAG pre-mRNA and modulates alternative inclusion of MAG exons. Together, these results reveal a unique cytoplasmic pathway in which QKI-6 controls translation of the splicing factor hnRNPA1 to govern alternative splicing in CNS myelination. PMID:20956316

Zhao, Lixia; Mandler, Mariana D; Yi, Hong; Feng, Yue

2010-11-01

116

Proposed Method for Computing Interprocedure Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Program slicing was originally introduced by Mark Weiser, is useful in program debugging, automatic parallelization, software aintenance, program integration etc. It is a method for automatically decomposing programs by analyzing their data flow and control flow reduces the program to a minimal form called “slice” which still produces that behavior. Interprocedure slicing is the slicing of multiprocedure program .In this paper a new method or algorithm (IP algorithm is introduced for the interprocedure static slicing of structured programs. The most time consuming part of the interprocedure slicing methods is the computation of transitive dependences (i.e. summary edgesdue to the procedure calls. Horowitz et al. [8] introduced an algorithm based on attribute grammar for computing summary edges. Reps et al. [7] and Istavan [9] defined an improved algorithm for computing summary edges representing interprocedural dependences at procedure calls. Here in this paper we discuss the improved interprocedure slicing algorithm (IP algorithm, which is faster than previous algorithm and takes less memory space

Dr. K.S. Patnaik

2013-01-01

117

Slicing mixed Bing-Whitehead doubles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that if K is any knot whose Ozsvath-Szabo concordance invariant tau(K) is positive, the all-positive Whitehead double of any iterated Bing double of K is topologically but not smoothly slice. We also show that the all-positive Whitehead double of any iterated Bing double of the Hopf link (e.g., the all-positive Whitehead double of the Borromean rings) is not smoothly slice; it is not known whether these links are topologically slice.

Levine, Adam Simon

2009-01-01

118

Advantages to Geoscience and Disaster Response from QuakeSim Implementation of Interferometric Radar Maps in a GIS Database System  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution maps of earth surface deformation are available in public archives for scientific interpretation, but are primarily available as bulky downloads on the internet. The NASA uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) archive of airborne radar interferograms delivers very high resolution images (approximately seven meter pixels) making remote handling of the files that much more pressing. Data exploration requiring data selection and exploratory analysis has been tedious. QuakeSim has implemented an archive of UAVSAR data in a web service and browser system based on GeoServer (http://geoserver.org). This supports a variety of services that supply consistent maps, raster image data and geographic information systems (GIS) objects including standard earthquake faults. Browsing the database is supported by initially displaying GIS-referenced thumbnail images of the radar displacement maps. Access is also provided to image metadata and links for full file downloads. One of the most widely used features is the QuakeSim line-of-sight profile tool, which calculates the radar-observed displacement (from an unwrapped interferogram product) along a line specified through a web browser. Displacement values along a profile are updated to a plot on the screen as the user interactively redefines the endpoints of the line and the sampling density. The profile and also a plot of the ground height are available as CSV (text) files for further examination, without any need to download the full radar file. Additional tools allow the user to select a polygon overlapping the radar displacement image, specify a downsampling rate and extract a modest sized grid of observations for display or for inversion, for example, the QuakeSim simplex inversion tool which estimates a consistent fault geometry and slip model.

Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Glasscoe, Margaret; Fox, Geoffrey; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Ma, Yu

2014-07-01

119

Household-level spatiotemporal patterns of incidence of cholera, Haiti, 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions. PMID:25148590

Blackburn, Jason K; Diamond, Ulrica; Kracalik, Ian T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Brown, Will; Morrissey, B David; Alexander, Kathleen A; Curtis, Andrew J; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

2014-09-01

120

Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

 
 
 
 
121

Chikungunya: acute Fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following case report details a case of chikungunya fever in a returning traveler from Haiti. The report highlights the clinical presentation and natural history of the disease, and emphasizes that chikungunya has become established in the western hemisphere, with a resultant need for heightened provider awareness. PMID:25345984

Anderson, Kathryn B; Pureza, Vincent; Walker, Patricia F

2014-11-01

122

76 FR 29000 - Extension and Redesignation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...following the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Under the redesignation...will not need to file a new Application for Temporary...60603-5520. The state of New York....... USCIS, P...complete Form I-9 for new hires, an employee...

2011-05-19

123

US Foreign Policy towards Haiti 1994: A Data-Driven Learning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this exercise is to explore US foreign policy and the way US citizens view these policies and their implementation. In this exercise, we will explore foreign policy towards Haiti in 1994. Frequency tables and crosstabs will be used.

Icpsr

124

Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

125

The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

2012-11-01

126

On the powerful use of simulations in the quake-catcher network to efficiently position low-cost earthquake sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) uses low-cost sensors connected to volunteer computers across the world to monitor seismic events. The location and density of these sensors' placement can impact the accuracy of the event detection. Because testing different special arrangements of new sensors could disrupt the currently active project, this would best be accomplished in a simulated environment. This paper presents an accurate and efficient framework for simulating the low cost QCN sensors and identifying their most effective locations and densities. Results presented show how our simulations are reliable tools to study diverse scenarios under different geographical and infrastructural constraints. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Benson, K.; Estrada, T.; Taufer, M.; Lawrence, J.; Cochran, E.

2011-01-01

127

Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there has been increased international attention to mental health needs throughout the country. The present study represents one of the first epidemiologic studies of depression symptomatology, suicidal ideation, and associated factors in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, zone-stratified household survey of 408 adults in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Depression symptomatology was assessed with a culturally-adapted Kreyòl version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were built using backward elimination, with the outcomes being continuous BDI scores and endorsing suicidal ideation, respectively. Results The mean BDI score was 20.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.3-21.5, and 6.13% (N?=?25 of participants endorsed current suicidal ideation. Factors associated with BDI scores were: continuous age (adjusted beta [a?]: 0.14, CI: 0.06-0.22, female gender (a?: 2.1, CI: 0.18-4.0, suicidal ideation (a?: 11.1, CI: 7.3-14.9, death in family (a?: 2.7, CI: 0.57-4.9, and prior life-threatening illness (a?: 2.6, CI: 0.77-4.5. Education was a risk factor for depression among women but not among men, and employment was a risk factor for both genders. Factors associated with endorsing suicidal ideation were: BDI score (ten point change (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, CI: 1.7-3.6, lack of care if sick (aOR: 5.5, CI: 1.1-28.6, alcohol use (aOR: 3.3, CI: 1.3-8.2, and ever having been to a Vodou priest (aOR: 3.2, CI: 1.1-9.5. Conclusions A large proportion of Haiti’s Central Plateau may be experiencing high levels of depression symptomatology and/or current suicidal ideation. Screening could be conducted in biomedical, religious, and Vodou healing contexts. For prevention, poverty reduction and improved healthcare access are key elements. For treatment, general psychiatric services, psychosocial services for the medically ill and their families, and substance abuse interventions should be explored. Paradoxical associations related to education and employment require further exploration.

Wagenaar Bradley H

2012-09-01

128

Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling, we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion.

Barr Graham

2006-08-01

129

Coordinate singularities in harmonically sliced cosmologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmonic slicing has in recent years become a standard way of prescribing the lapse function in numerical simulations of general relativity. However, as was first noticed by Alcubierre [Phys. Rev. D 55, 5981 (1997)], numerical solutions generated using this slicing condition can show pathological behavior. In this paper, analytic and numerical methods are used to examine harmonic slicings of Kasner and Gowdy cosmological spacetimes. It is shown that in general the slicings are prevented from covering the whole of the spacetimes by the appearance of coordinate singularities. As well as limiting the maximum running times of numerical simulations, the coordinate singularities can lead to features being produced in numerically evolved solutions which must be distinguished from genuine physical effects.

Hern, Simon D.

2000-08-01

130

Coordinate Singularities in Harmonically-sliced Cosmologies  

CERN Document Server

Harmonic slicing has in recent years become a standard way of prescribing the lapse function in numerical simulations of general relativity. However, as was first noticed by Alcubierre (1997), numerical solutions generated using this slicing condition can show pathological behaviour. In this paper, analytic and numerical methods are used to examine harmonic slicings of Kasner and Gowdy cosmological spacetimes. It is shown that in general the slicings are prevented from covering the whole of the spacetimes by the appearance of coordinate singularities. As well as limiting the maximum running times of numerical simulations, the coordinate singularities can lead to features being produced in numerically evolved solutions which must be distinguished from genuine physical effects.

Hern, S D

2000-01-01

131

Projection-slice theorem: a compact notation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The notation normally associated with the projection-slice theorem often presents difficulties for students of Fourier optics and digital image processing. Simple single-line forms of the theorem that are relatively easily interpreted can be obtained for n-dimensional functions by exploiting the convolution theorem and the rotation theorem of Fourier transform theory. The projection-slice theorem is presented in this form for two- and three-dimensional functions; generalization to higher dimensionality is briefly discussed. PMID:21532686

Garces, Daissy H; Rhodes, William T; Peña, Nestor M

2011-05-01

132

Applying Slicing Technique to Software Architectures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software architecture is receiving increasingly attention as a critical design level for software systems. As software architecture design resources (in the form of architectural specifications) are going to be accumulated, the development of techniques and tools to support architectural understanding, testing, reengineering, maintenance, and reuse will become an important issue. This paper introduces a new form of slicing, named architectural slicing, to aid architectural u...

Zhao, Jianjun

2001-01-01

133

The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

2010-12-01

134

The norwegian approach to peace:an analysis of the norwegian conflict preventive involvement between Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall aim of this thesis has been to examine how the Norwegian Ministry of foreign affairs (MFA) in cooperation with Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) has contributed to preventive conflict resolution through dialogues and negotiations between parties in a possible future conflict situation. The Norwegian involvement in the current peace process between Haiti and the Dominican Republic has constituted the basic case study of this project. The conflict between Haiti and the Dominican Republic ...

Hetland, Hans-petter

2005-01-01

135

Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

136

Multi-slice 3D-CTA - an improvement over single slice helical CTA for cerebral aneurysms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

slice 3D-CTA is relatively non-invasive and provides better and adequate detail for surgical planning. The basis of multi-slice CT angiography is described. Multi slice CTA is changing the way cerebral aneurysms are being managed nowadays. New advances in the technology of multi-slice CTA resulting in increased image resolution are outlined. (author)

137

Slice profile effects in 2D slice-selective MRI of hyperpolarized nuclei  

Science.gov (United States)

This work explores slice profile effects in 2D slice-selective gradient-echo MRI of hyperpolarized nuclei. Two different sequences were investigated: a Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence with variable flip angle (SPGR-VFA) and a balanced Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) sequence. It is shown that in SPGR-VFA the distribution of flip angles across the slice present in any realistically shaped radiofrequency (RF) pulse leads to large excess signal from the slice edges in later RF views, which results in an undesired non-constant total transverse magnetization, potentially exceeding the initial value by almost 300% for the last RF pulse. A method to reduce this unwanted effect is demonstrated, based on dynamic scaling of the slice selection gradient. SSFP sequences with small to moderate flip angles (<40°) are also shown to preserve the slice profile better than the most commonly used SPGR sequence with constant flip angle (SPGR-CFA). For higher flip angles, the slice profile in SSFP evolves in a manner similar to SPGR-CFA, with depletion of polarization in the center of the slice.

Deppe, Martin H.; Teh, Kevin; Parra-Robles, Juan; Lee, Kuan J.; Wild, Jim M.

2010-02-01

138

The effects of slice thickness and reconstructive parameters on VR image quality in multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the effects of slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval on VR image quality in multi-slice CT, in order to select the best slice thickness and reconstructive parameters for the imaging. Methods: Multi-slice CT scan was applied on a rubber dinosaur model with different slice thickness. VR images were reconstructed with different reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval. Five radiologists were invited to evaluate the quality of the images without knowing anything about the parameters. Results: The slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval did have effects on VR image quality and the effective degree was different. The effective coefficients were V1=1413.033, V2=563.733, V3=390.533, respectively. The parameters interacted with the others (P<0.05). The smaller of those parameters, the better of the image quality. With a small slice thickness and a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness, the image quality had no obvious difference when the reconstructive interval was 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 of the slice thickness. Conclusion: A relative small scan slice thickness, a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness and a reconstructive interval 1/2 of the slice thickness should be selected for the best VR image quality. The image quality depends mostly on the slice thickness. (authors)

139

A variational formulation of vertical slice models  

CERN Document Server

A variational framework is defined for vertical slice models with three dimensional velocity depending only on x and z. The models that result from this framework are Hamiltonian, and have a Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem that results in a conserved potential vorticity in the slice geometry. These results are demonstrated for the incompressible Euler--Boussinesq equations with a constant temperature gradient in the $y$-direction (the Eady--Boussinesq model), which is an idealised problem used to study the formation and subsequent evolution of weather fronts. We then introduce a new compressible extension of this model. Unlike the incompressible model, the compressible model does not produce solutions that are also solutions of the three-dimensional equations, but it does reduce to the Eady--Boussinesq model in the low Mach number limit. This means that this new model can be used in asymptotic limit error testing for compressible weather models running in a vertical slice configuration.

Cotter, C J

2012-01-01

140

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeiros dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia.The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that followed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Omar Ribeiro Thomaz

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Rain Check Application: Mobile tool to monitor rainfall in remote parts of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall observations performed uniformly and continuously over a period of time are valuable inputs in developing climate models and predicting events such as floods and droughts. Rain-Check is a mobile application developed in Google App Inventor Platform, for android based smart phones, to allow field researchers to monitor various rain gauges distributed though out remote regions of Haiti and send daily readings via SMS messages for further analysis and long term trending. Rainfall rate and quantity interact with many other factors to influence erosion, vegetative cover, groundwater recharge, stream water chemistry and runoff into streams impacting agriculture and livestock. Rainfall observation from various sites is especially significant in Haiti with over 80% of the country is mountainous terrain. Data sets from global models and limited number of ground stations do not capture the fine-scale rainfall patterns necessary to describe local climate. Placement and reading of rain gauges are critical to accurate measurement of rainfall.

Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Gourley, J. R.

2011-12-01

142

A New Closure to Slice Model for Slope Stability Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new closure to slice models for evaluating slopes. The discussion is based on the minimal inter-slice action (MIA hypothesis, which results in a new slice model without including artificially adjustable parameters. It has been realized that the new slice model predicts the minimum value of the safety factor, while all other slice models available always overestimate the value of the safety factor. Moreover, the gravity moment of each slice is found to be opposite to the overturning moment, which is different from the existing knowledge. In particular, the new slice model overcomes the situation where different assumptions of the inter-slice force function will give different safety factors to the same slope. The related numerical examples indicate that the new slice model can serve as a reliable tool for investigating geotechnical slope stability.

Chongbin Zhao

2012-07-01

143

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6–59 Months Old in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6–59 months old (n = 557) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associat...

Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Ngnie-teta, Ismael; Se?raphin, Marie Nancy; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Boldon, Ellen; Saint-fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Bernard, Samuel

2013-01-01

144

Idioms of distress, ethnopsychology, and the clinical encounter in Haiti's Central Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti's 2010 earthquake mobilized mental health and psychosocial interventions from across the globe. However, failure to understand how psychological distress is communicated between lay persons and health workers in rural clinics, where most Haitians access care, has been a major limitation in providing mental health services. The goal of this study was to map idioms of distress onto Haitian ethnopsychologies in a way that promotes improved communication between lay persons and clinicians in rural Haiti. In Haiti's Central Plateau, an ethnographic study was conducted in May and June 2010, utilizing participant observation in rural clinics, 31 key informant interviews, 11 focus groups, and four case studies. Key informants included biomedical practitioners, traditional healers, community leaders, and municipal and religious figures. Deductive and inductive themes were coded using content analysis (inter-rater reliability > 0.70). Forty-four terms for psychological distress were identified. Head (tèt) or heart (kè) terms comprise 55% of all qualitative text segments coded for idioms of distress. Twenty-eight of 142 observed patient-clinician contacts involved persons presenting with tèt terms, while 29 of the 142 contacts were presentations with kè terms. Thus, 40% of chief complaints were conveyed in either head or heart terms. Interpretations of these terms differed between lay and clinical groups. Lay respondents had broad and heterogeneous interpretations, whereas clinicians focused on biomedical concepts and excluded discussion of mental health concerns. This paper outlines preliminary evidence regarding the psychosocial dimensions of tèt and kè-based idioms of distress and calls for further exploration. Holistic approaches to mental healthcare in Haiti's Central Plateau should incorporate local ethnopsychological frameworks alongside biomedical models of healthcare. PMID:22595073

Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

2012-08-01

145

New concepts in post-disaster development: Learning from social entrepreneurs in Northern Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research Objective This research studies social entrepreneurship as a development tool. The motivation stems from the low ability of the hundreds of international organizations to provide tangible solutions for a better life for the local population in the post-disaster situation. The question raised is how social entrepreneurs can support the development of post-disaster Haiti. Social entrepreneurship seems a promising way to acknowledge social opportunities, while applying business pract...

Farny, Steffen

2012-01-01

146

ID slicing and the automated factory  

Science.gov (United States)

The automation of the slicing system utilizing internal-diameter saws for the production of the silicon wafers used in solar arrays is discussed. It is argued that saw productivity can be increased by reducing silicon waste, decreasing usage of consumables, keeping the saw slicing, and increasing the cutting speed. Several machine enhancements utilizing automatic control are discussed. The need for record keeping to anticipate maintenance operations is noted, and a digital serial communication interface with the microprocessor-based saws is recommended. Distributed control of the manufacturing process is discussed in detail, and is recommended as a method for increasing productivity.

Lewandowski, T.

1982-01-01

147

Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

148

Letter to the Editor : Rapidly-deployed small tent hospitals: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The damage to medical facilities resulting form the January 2010 earthquake in haiti necessitated the establishment of field tent hospitals. Much of the local medical infrastructure was destroyed or limited operationally when the Fast Israel Rescue and Search Team (FIRST) arrived in Haiti shortly after the January 2010 earthquake. The FIRST deployed small tent hospitals in Port-au-Prince and in 11 remote areas outside of the city. Each tent was set up in less than a half hour. The tents were staffed with an orthopedic surgeon, gynecologists, primary care and emergency care physicians, a physician with previous experience in tropical medicine, nurses, paramedics, medics, and psychologists. The rapidly deployable and temporary nature of the effort allowed the team to treat and educate, as well as provide supplies for, thousands of refugees throughout Haiti. In addition, a local Haitian physician and his team created a small tent hospital to serve the Petion Refugee Camp and its environs. FIRST personnel also took shifts at this hospital.

Rosen, Y.; Gurman , P.; Verna, E.; Elman , N.; Labor, E. (Materials Science Division); (Superior NanoBioSystems LLC); (Fast Israeli Rescue & Search Team); (Clinique Adonai); (Mass. Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Haifa)

2012-06-01

149

High-Frequency Rugose Exopolysaccharide Production by Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S–R) phenotype, 80 (46.5%) of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010) were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R) differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R) by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental) strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype. PMID:25390633

Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Azarian, Taj; Salemi, Marco; Sakharuk, Ilya A.; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Johnson, Judith A.; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar

2014-01-01

150

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti. PMID:24891465

Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

2014-08-01

151

Skopje and Sofia 2005 Earthquake and Geomagnetic data and the Geomagnetic Quake as Imminent Reliable Earthquakes Precursor  

CERN Document Server

The imminent WHEN earthquake predictions are based on the correlation between geomagnetic quakes and the incoming minimum (or maximum) of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the incoming earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately one day and for the maximum- two days. The statistic evidence for reliability is based on of distributions of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2005 for Sofia region and 2004- 2005 for Skopje. The project for complex Balkan- Black Sea region NETWORK for earthquake prediction by using the reliable precursors will be proposed in near future. The Project is based on the temporary data acquisition system for preliminary archiving, testing, visualizing and analyzing of the data with aim to prepare regional daily risk estimation.

Mavrodiev, S C

2006-01-01

152

Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly  

Science.gov (United States)

Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

153

MOVEMENT OF MERCURY IN RAT SUBMAXILLARY SLICES  

Science.gov (United States)

The movement of HgCl2 was studied in slices of rat submaxillary gland. A steady-state distribution was reached within 60 min. N2 or metabolic inhibitors failed to decrease tissue uptake. Increasing the concentration of Hg2+ produced a corresponding increase in tissue metal. Decre...

154

Elastic theory of a confocal slice  

CERN Document Server

Recent confocal experiments on colloidal solids, as well as jammed and disordered materials, motivate a fuller study of the projection of three-dimensional fluctuations onto a two-dimensional confocal slice. We show that the effective theory of a projected crystal displays several exceptional features, and we give analytic expressions relating three-dimensional elastic constants to observed two-dimensional properties.

Lemarchand, Claire A; Schindler, Michael

2011-01-01

155

Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficient training at the pre-service level to carry out this important work. Methods To address this issue, the Ministry of Health and Population collaborated with the International Training and Education Center on HIV over a period of 12 months to create a competency-based HIV/AIDS curriculum to be integrated into the 4-year baccalaureate programme of the four national schools of nursing. Results Using a review of the international health and education literature on HIV/AIDS competencies and various models of curriculum development, a Haiti-based curriculum committee developed expected HIV/AIDS competencies for graduating nurses and then drafted related learning objectives. The committee then mapped these learning objectives to current courses in the nursing curriculum and created an 'HIV/AIDS Teaching Guide' for faculty on how to integrate and achieve these objectives within their current courses. The curriculum committee also created an 'HIV/AIDS Reference Manual' that detailed the relevant HIV/AIDS content that should be taught for each course. Conclusion All nursing students will now need to demonstrate competency in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, skills and attitudes during periodic assessment with direct observation of the student performing authentic tasks. Faculty will have the responsibility of developing exercises to address the required objectives and creating assessment tools to demonstrate that their graduates have met the objectives. This activity brought different administrators, nurse leaders and faculty from four geographically dispersed nursing schools to collaborate on a shared goal using a process that could be easily replicated to integrate any new topic in a resource-constrained pre-service institution. It is hoped that this experience provided stakeholders with the experience, skills and motivation to strengthen other domains of the pre-service nursing curriculum, improve the synchronization of didactic and practical training and develop standardized, competency-based examinations for nursing licensure in Haiti.

Knebel Elisa

2008-08-01

156

Comparative study of the MSCT imaging quality. Direct thin-slice scan and retrospective thin-slice reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the imaging quality of thin-slice scan and retrospective thin-slice reconstruction by latest MSCT. Method: The images were obtained by direct thin-slice scan and retrospective thin-slice reconstruction, including the images of QA model as well as 50 cases of head, chest and abdomen. The imaging quality was evaluated. Results: With the same parameter and reconstruction algorithms, these two modalities provided the same imaging quality. Conclusion: Retrospective thin-slice reconstruction is considered an alternative for direct thin-slice scan

157

An Optimization Method For Slice Interpolation Of Medical Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slice interpolation is a fast growing field in medical image processing. Intensity-based interpolation and object-based interpolation are two major groups of methods in the literature. In this paper, we describe an object-oriented, optimization method based on a modified version of curvature-based image registration, in which a displacement field is computed for the missing slice between two known slices and used to interpolate the intensities of the missing slice. The propo...

Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Yu, Zeyun

2014-01-01

158

THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5?C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The...

Pangaribuan, Darwin H.

2009-01-01

159

A Simple Method for Measuring Organotypic Tissue Slice Culture Thickness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when ...

Guy, Yifat; Rupert, Amy; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

160

Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent the world lines of freely falling fiducial observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function, although the time coordinate lines still follow Killing trajectories to retain the explicitly stationary nature of the coordinate grid. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the Gödel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

2012-03-01

162

Schmidt's theorem, Hausdorff measures and Slicing  

CERN Document Server

A Hausdorff measure version of W.M. Schmidt's inhomogeneous, linear forms theorem in metric number theory is established. The key ingredient is a `slicing' technique motivated by a standard result in geometric measure theory. In short, `slicing' together with the Mass Transference Principle [3] allows us to transfer Lebesgue measure theoretic statements for limsup sets associated with linear forms to Hausdorff measure theoretic statements. This extends the approach developed in [3] for simultaneous approximation. Furthermore, we establish a new Mass Transference Principle which incorporates both forms of approximation. As an application we obtain a complete metric theory for a `fully' non-linear Diophantine problem within the linear forms setup. [3] V. Beresnevich and S. Velani : A Mass Transference Principle and the Duffin--Schaeffer conjecture for Hausdorff measures, Pre-print (22pp): arkiv:math.NT/0401118. To appear: Annals of Math.

Beresnevich, V; Beresnevich, Victor; Velani, Sanju

2005-01-01

163

Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes  

CERN Multimedia

A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners.

1995-01-01

164

05451 Abstracts Collection -- Beyond Program Slicing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 06.11.05 to 11.11.05, the Dagstuhl Seminar 05451 ``Beyond Program Slicing'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics ...

Binkley, Dave; Harman, Mark; Krinke, Jens

2006-01-01

165

Angle function of slice collimator SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introducing the angle function to slice collimator SPECT, It is found that the counts of the detectors achieve the maximum value in different angles, which change with the position of the point source and contain a wealth of information. In the paper, point source/uniform water cylinder model is used to derive the equation of the maximum value, with a further analyzing and discussion using the numerical calculation and Monte Carlo simulation. (authors)

166

Cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning to Spain from Haiti or Dominican Republic, April-June 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten cases of chikungunya were diagnosed in Spanish travellers returning from Haiti (n=2), the Dominican Republic (n=7) or from both countries (n=1) between April and June 2014. These cases remind clinicians to consider chikungunya in European travellers presenting with febrile illness and arthralgia, who are returning from the Caribbean region and Central America, particularly from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The presence of Aedes albopictus together with viraemic patients could potentially lead to autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in southern Europe. PMID:25060571

Requena-Méndez, A; Garcia, C; Aldasoro, E; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M J; Pérez-Molina, J A; Calvo-Cano, A; Franco, L; Parrón, I; Molina, A; Ruiz, M; Álvarez, J; Sánchez-Seco, M P; Gascón, J

2014-01-01

167

Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

168

Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors among an urban population in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The seroprevalence of hepatitis C varies substantially between countries and geographic regions. A better understanding of the seroprevalence of this disease, and the risk factors associated with seropositive status, supply data for the development of screening programs and provide insight into the transmission of the disease. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in an urban population in Haiti. Methods A prospective survey for hepatitis C antibodies was conducted among an urban outpatient population in Cap-Haïtien, Haiti, with a sample size of 500 subjects. An anonymous 12 question survey, with inquiries related to demographic characteristics and risk factors for HCV acquisition, was concomitantly administered with testing. These demographic and behavioral risk factors were correlated with HCV antibody status using univariate and multivariate tests. Results The prevalence of positive HCV antibody was 22/500 (4.4%. Subjects that were anti-HCV positive had an average of 7 ± 8.6 lifetime sexual partners, compared to average of 2.5 ± 3.5 lifetime sexual partners among HCV-negative subjects (p = 0.02. In a multiple logistic regression model, intravenous drug use (OR 3.7, 1.52–9.03 95% CI and number of sexual partners (OR 1.1, 1.04–1.20 95% CI were independently associated with a positive HCV antibody result. Conclusions A substantial number of subjects with HCV antibodies were detected in this population in Haiti. Further investigation into the correlation between the number of sexual partners and testing positive for hepatitis C antibodies is indicated.

Hepburn Matthew J

2004-12-01

169

Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

2014-08-01

170

Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues. PMID:24267876

Eisenberg, Marisa C; Kujbida, Gregory; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N; Tien, Joseph H

2013-12-01

171

Impact of performance-based financing on primary health care services in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

To strengthen Haiti's primary health care (PHC) system, the country first piloted performance-based financing (PBF) in 1999 and subsequently expanded the approach to most internationally funded non-government organizations. PBF complements support (training and technical assistance). This study evaluates (a) the separate impact of PBF and international support on PHC's service delivery; (b) the combined impact of PBF and technical assistance on PHC's service delivery; and (c) the costs of PBF implementation in Haiti. To minimize the risk of facilities neglecting potential non-incentivized services, the incentivized indicators were randomly chosen at the end of each year. We obtained quantities of key services from four departments for 217 health centres (15 with PBF and 202 without) from 2008 through 2010, computed quarterly growth rates and analysed the results using a difference-in-differences approach by comparing the growth of incentivized and non-incentivized services between PBF and non-PBF facilities. To interpret the statistical analyses, we also interviewed staff in four facilities. Whereas international support added 39% to base costs of PHC, incentive payments added only 6%. Support alone increased the quantities of PHC services over 3 years by 35% (2.7%/quarter). However, support plus incentives increased these amounts by 87% over 3 years (5.7%/quarter) compared with facilities with neither input. Incentives alone was associated with a net 39% increase over this period, and more than doubled the growth of services (P indicated beneficial impacts on quality. Incentives proved to be a relatively inexpensive, well accepted and very effective complement to support, suggesting that a small amount of money, strategically used, can substantially improve PHC. Haiti's experience, after more than a decade of use, indicates that incentives are an effective tool to strengthen PHC. PMID:23107831

Zeng, Wu; Cros, Marion; Wright, Katherine D; Shepard, Donald S

2013-09-01

172

An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program  

CERN Document Server

Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a method to dynamically slice object-oriented (00) programs based on dependence analysis. It uses the Control Dependency Graph for object program and other static information to reduce the information to be traced during program execution. In this paper we present a method to find the dynamic Slice of object oriented programs where we are finding the slices for object and in case of function overloading.

Pani, Santosh Kumar

2010-01-01

173

Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions.

Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur

1993-01-01

174

Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

2014-08-01

175

Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

2012-01-01

176

Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones - the case of post-earthquake Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. PMID:25058930

Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

2014-10-15

177

Global Tectonics Ties Quakes, Rocks, and Volatiles in the Mantle Transition Zone (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mantle transition zone (MTZ), diversity of seismic anomalies indicates that variations in temperature (T) alone cannot account for discordant anomalies in P- and S-wave speeds (VP & VS), the difference between seismogenic and aseismic behaviors, and anisotropic versus isotropic properties. Combining in situ seismic measurements, laboratory experiments, and geodynamic simulations, evidence is mounting that there are intricate interplays between T and mantle petrology, including effects of kinetics and volatiles. To this end, emerging is a set of tectonic pathways which tie seemingly disparate anomalies in the MTZ as they evolve. Along the Tonga subduction zone, where 2/3 of all deep earthquakes occur, a collection of complementary evidence indicates that a petrologic anomaly must be present to counteract the effect of very low T associated with extremely fast subduction of cold lithosphere: High VP & VS are conspicuously absent in the source zone of outboard earthquakes that extends about 1000 km farther to the west of the Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ). Meanwhile, preferred alignment of highly anisotropic material such as metastable olivine must be present in the source zone to account for over 1% of polarization anisotropy in the MTZ. Moreover, the occurrence of large earthquakes in sub-horizontal slabs where a regional pattern of strain is generally absent calls for a localized source of stress, such as stress concentration associated with transformation-induced faulting, in the nucleation of deep earthquakes. The predecessor of this “ghost” slab, is the prominent leading edge of the subducting lithosphere. This sub-horizontal “toe” extends westward over a distance of about 350 km after the steep dipping WBZ reaches a remarkable maximum depth of about 680 km and has the same properties as the “ghost” slab. Once attaining sufficient length, positive buoyancy of metastable olivine, self-limited to depths below the 410-km discontinuity, may cause the “toe” to break off from the WBZ and become the next slice of the “ghost” slab. Over time, a petrologic anomaly due to metastable olivine would gradually dissipate with rising T and only an aseismic, pure thermal anomaly of modest amplitude is expected to remain. This is precisely the case beneath Tonga-Fiji; an “aureole” of isotropic anomaly, characterized by modestly-raised high VP & VS, is observed adjacent to the region of outboard earthquakes. Similar cases occur in the western Pacific, including the western extension of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. Along the Himalayan-Tibetan continental collision zone, high VS is noticeably absent where a large-scale anomaly of high VP lies on the bottom of the MTZ beneath central Tibet. A likely cause of discordant anomalies in VP and VS is a minor amount of water in nominally anhydrous ringwoodite. Prior to thickening by continent collision, the Tibetan lithospheric mantle was part of a mantle wedge which had been hydrated during past episodes of subduction. The aseismic nature of the Tibetan anomaly is consistent with laboratory experiments in that a small amount of water is likely to eliminate any metastable olivine. It follows that convective removal of thickened sub-continental mantle lithosphere is an overlooked pathway for water to enter the MTZ. (Many colleagues contributed to this work. NSF provided funding and NSC of Taiwan funded a distinguished visiting professorship at the Academia Sinica.)

Chen, W.

2010-12-01

178

Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

Clover, A James P

2011-06-01

179

Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Introduction to Volume 1: Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, & U.S. Virgin Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this project, now in its first volume, is to identify and list all available information on the art-music tradition of the Caribbean region - starting with the countries of Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica and the US Virgin Islands. It will, ultimately, form a comprehensive document of value to musicians, ethnomusicologists, historians, researchers, educators and students.

Gangelhoff, Christine

2011-10-01

180

Reflechi twòp--thinking too much: description of a cultural syndrome in Haiti's Central Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rich Haitian ethnopsychology has been described, detailing concepts of personhood, explanatory models of illness, and links between mind and body. However, little research has engaged explicitly with mental illness, and that which does focuses on the Kreyòl term fou (madness), a term that psychiatrists associate with schizophrenia and other psychoses. More work is needed to characterize potential forms of mild-to-moderate mental illness. Idioms of distress provide a promising avenue for exploring common mental disorders. Working in Haiti's Central Plateau, we aimed to identify idioms of distress that represent cultural syndromes. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to explore the idiom of distress reflechi twòp (thinking too much). This syndrome is characterized by troubled rumination at the intersection of sadness, severe mental disorder, suicide, and social and structural hardship. Persons with "thinking too much" have greater scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. "Thinking too much" is associated with 8 times greater odds of suicidal ideation. Untreated "thinking too much" is sometimes perceived to lead to psychosis. Recognizing and understanding "thinking too much" may allow early clinical recognition and interventions to reduce long-term psychosocial suffering in Haiti's Central Plateau. PMID:25038935

Kaiser, Bonnie N; McLean, Kristen E; Kohrt, Brandon A; Hagaman, Ashley K; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Khoury, Nayla M; Keys, Hunter M

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fundamentals of multi-slice spiral CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multi-slice spiral CT currently is the cutting-edge technology both in terms of technical maturity and clinical performance, and brings an essential advancement in the capabilities of diagnostic CT. It offers a multitude of new possibilities to enhance and optimise the image quality according to diagnostic purposes. However, the next step for a further improvement is already in sight with the development work for surface detectors of the future, and in the area of detector technology in general, as well as with respect to algorithms for image reconstruction. (orig./CB)

182

Optimal quantization applied to Sliced Inverse Regression  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we consider a semiparametric regression model involving a $d$-dimensional quantitative explanatory variable $X$ and including a dimension reduction of $X$ via an index $\\beta'X$. In this model, the main goal is to estimate the euclidean parameter $\\beta$ and to predict the real response variable $Y$ conditionally to $X$. Our approach is based on sliced inverse regression (SIR) method and optimal quantization in $\\mathbf{L}^p$-norm. We obtain the convergence of the proposed estimators of $\\beta$ and of the conditional distribution. Simulation studies show the good numerical behavior of the proposed estimators for finite sample size.

Romain, Aza\\"\\is; Jérôme, Saracco

2011-01-01

183

Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR and sulphadoxine (SDX treatment combination (SP, have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61 of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540 examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59. Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

Carter Tamar E

2012-08-01

184

Slicing: A New Approach to Privacy Preserving Data Publishing  

CERN Document Server

Several anonymization techniques, such as generalization and bucketization, have been designed for privacy preserving microdata publishing. Recent work has shown that generalization loses considerable amount of information, especially for high-dimensional data. Bucketization, on the other hand, does not prevent membership disclosure and does not apply for data that do not have a clear separation between quasi-identifying attributes and sensitive attributes. In this paper, we present a novel technique called slicing, which partitions the data both horizontally and vertically. We show that slicing preserves better data utility than generalization and can be used for membership disclosure protection. Another important advantage of slicing is that it can handle high-dimensional data. We show how slicing can be used for attribute disclosure protection and develop an efficient algorithm for computing the sliced data that obey the l-diversity requirement. Our workload experiments confirm that slicing preserves bette...

Li, Tiancheng; Zhang, Jian; Molloy, Ian

2009-01-01

185

Morphogenesis of sliced N-soliton solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consider an instantaneous severing interaction which at t=tsub(s) transforms a given N-soliton solution q0 into two new solutions, qsup(L) and qsup(R), with discontinuous initial conditions at t=tsub(s) such that qsup(L)(qsup(R)) is equal to q0 to the left (right) of the severing point xsub(s) and vanishes to the right (left) of xsub(s). The soliton content of qsup(L) and qsup(R) is studied in the context of the cubic Schroedinger equation and the sine-Gordon equation by solving the direct scattering problem. It is shown that the motion constants Csub(n), n=1,2..., are related by Csub(n)0=Csub(n)sup(L)-Csub(n)sup(R*) Furthermore, if q0 contains N solitons and no contribution from the continuous spectrum, then qsup(L)(qsup(R)) contains Nsup(L)(Nsup(R)) solitons with 0<=Nsup(L), Nsup(R)<=N and Nsup(L)+Nsup(R)=N. The slicing puts a soliton into qsup(L) or qsup(R), respectively as the slicing point xsub(s) is taken to the right or left of the soliton's 'center' at t=tsub(s). (Auth.)

186

Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

2013-09-01

187

Slices of matrices - a scenario for spectral theory  

CERN Document Server

Given a real, symmetric matrix S, we define the slice through S as being the connected component containing S of two orbits under conjugation: the first by the orthogonal group, and the second by the upper triangular group. We describe some classical constructions in eigenvalue computations and integrable systems which keep slices invariant -- their properties are clarified by the concept. We also parametrize the closure of a slice in terms of a convex polytope.

Leite, R S; Leite, Ricardo S.; Tomei, Carlos

2002-01-01

188

Volume Cauchy formulas for slice functions on real associative *-algebras  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a family of Cauchy integral formulas for slice and slice regular functions on a real associative *-algebra. For each suitable choice of a real vector subspace of the algebra, a different formula is given, in which the domains of integration are subsets of the subspace. In particular, in the quaternionic case, we get a volume Cauchy formula. In the Clifford algebra case, the choice of the paravector subspace R^(n+1) gives a volume Cauchy formula for slice monogenic functions.

Ghiloni, Riccardo

2012-01-01

189

Specimen slice radiography of cancer in breast conserving excisions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM--To investigate histologically the power of specimen slice radiography to record invasive and in situ carcinoma in breast conserving cancer excisions. METHODS--Twenty six cancer excisions were converted into 171 complete tissue slices, which were examined radiographically. From these slices, 373 histological blocks were processed and histological and radiographic assessments were compared. RESULTS--Radiography and histology mapped excision margins and lesions in detail. Radiographic predi...

Oakley, K. L.; Going, J. J.

1995-01-01

190

An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that act...

Pani, Santosh Kumar; Arundhati, Priya

2010-01-01

191

Principles and applications of multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review the technical principles and applications of multi-slice CT are discussed. Multi-slice CT systems allow simultaneous acquisition of up to 4 slices by using multirow detector systems. Intuitive geometrical arguments are used to establish the limitation to a maximum of 4 slices which is kept by all currently existing multi-slice CT systems. Two different construction principles of the detector are discussed, the 'Fixed Array' detector and the 'Adaptive Array' detector. The extension of conventional 360 LI and 180 LI spiral interpolation techniques to multi-slice spiral CT is explained as well as a new generalized multi-slice spiral weighting concept, the so-called 'Adaptive Axial Interpolation'. Several techniques to improve multi-slice spiral image quality are discussed. Finally, some examples for clinical applications are given, and the principle of ECG triggered and ECG gated cardiac examinations with optimized temporal resolution is presented. Multi-slice CT systems are a milestone with respect to increased volume coverage, shorter scan times, improved axial (longitudinal) resolution and better use of the X-ray tube output. Additionaly, new clinical applications are possible such as Cardiac CT. (orig.)

192

THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5?C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil?; 5?C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 ?L L–1 respectively (5?C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

Darwin H. Pangaribuan

2009-06-01

193

Performance evaluation of a multi-slice CT system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose in this study was to characterize the performance of a recently introduced multi-slice CT scanner (LightSpeed QX/i, Version 1.0, General Electric Medical Systems) in comparison to a single-slice scanner from the same manufacturer (HiSpeed CT/i, Version 4.0). To facilitate this comparison, a refined definition of pitch is introduced which accommodates multi-slice CT systems, yet maintains the existing relationships between pitch, patient dose, and image quality. The following performance parameters were assessed: radiation and slice sensitivity profiles, low-contrast and limiting spatial resolution, image uniformity and noise, CT number and geometric accuracy, and dose. The multi-slice system was tested in axial (1, 2, or 4 images per gantry rotation) and HQ (Pitch = 0.75) and HS (Pitch = 1.5) helical modes. Axial and helical acquisition speed and limiting spatial resolution (0.8-s exposure) were improved on the multi-slice system. Slice sensitivity profiles, image noise, CT number accuracy and uniformity, and low-contrast resolution were similar. In some HS-helical modes, helical artifacts and geometric distortion were more pronounced with a different appearance. Radiation slice profiles and doses were larger on the multi-slice system at all scan widths. For a typical abdomen and pelvis exam, the central and surface body doses for 5-mm helical scans were higher on the multi-slice system by approximately 50%. The increase in surface CTDI values (with respect to the single-slice system) was greatest for the 4 x 1.25-mm detector configuration (190% for head, 240% for body) and least for the 4 x 5-mm configuration (53% for head, 76% for body). Preliminary testing of version 1.1 software demonstrated reduced doses on the multi-slice scanner, where the increase in body surface CTDI values (with respect to the single-slice system) was 105% for the 4 x 1.25-mm detector configuration and 10% for the 4 x 5-mm configuration. In summary, the axial and HQ-helical modes of the multi-slice system provided excellent image quality and a substantial reduction in exam time and tube loading, although at varying degrees of increased dose relative to the single-slice scanner. PMID:10587202

McCollough, C H; Zink, F E

1999-11-01

194

Reality, No Matter How You Slice It  

CERN Document Server

In order to reject the notion that information is always about something, the "It from Bit" idea relies on the nonexistence of a realistic framework that might underly quantum theory. This essay develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical statistical mechanics). The "It from Bit" argument against a spacetime-based reality must then somehow defend the importance of dynamical laws, even as it denies a reality on which such fundamental laws could operate.

Wharton, Ken

2013-01-01

195

Development of a plantain slicing device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantains are usually processed after harvesting in order to increase its shelf life. However, the human cost of such processing is enormous and impacts negatively on the economic benefits derivable from plantain production. Therefore, the development of appropriate, low-cost, easy to operate and maintain plantain slicer is long overdue. This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a highly efficient device that simulates the traditional method of cutting plantain pulp transversely. The machine achieves, respectively, 90.7% and 92.6% efficiency, when used to make a 5 mm cut in moderately ripe and unripe matured plantain pulps. Furthermore, efficiency based on the rate of slices production per time was measured to be 90% and 91%, respectively, for moderately ripe and unripe matured plantain pulps. This design apart from increasing the shelf life of plantains will increase the economic benefits for local plantain processors. PMID:24966424

Obayopo, S O; Taiwo, K A; Owolarafe, O K; Adio, S A

2014-07-01

196

Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen

2012-11-01

197

Shelter recovery in urban Haiti after the earthquake: the dual role of social capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the culture-specific understanding of social capital among Haitians and examines its benefits and downsides in post-disaster shelter recovery following the 12 January 2010 earthquake. The case study of shelter recovery processes in three socioeconomically diverse communities (Pétion-Ville, Delmas and Canapé Vert) in Port-au-Prince suggests that social capital plays dual roles in post-disaster shelter recovery of the displaced population in Haiti. On the one hand, it provides enhanced access to shelter-related resources for those with connections. On the other hand, it accentuates pre-existing inequalities or creates new inequalities among displaced Haitians. In some cases, such inequalities lead to tensions between the haves and have-nots and instigate violence among the displaced. PMID:24601933

Rahill, Guitele J; Ganapati, N Emel; Clérismé, J Calixte; Mukherji, Anuradha

2014-04-01

198

Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

199

A ground-water reconnaissance in the Pine Forest region, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pine Forest region is located in southeastern Haiti. The SHADA Forest Division headquarters near the eastern end of the region is about 98 kilometers by road from Port-au-Prince. In early February 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study of the region to determine the feasibility of drilling wells to obtain water for domestic, stock and small-scale industrial use. Existing water supplies are very scanty and undependable. There are no wells in the region, and springs are notably scarce and widely separated. Water supplies are now obtained principally from rain-water catchments or from roof-tops. These supplies frequently fail during prolonged dry periods and water must be hauled from great distances.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

1949-01-01

200

HUMAN RIGHTS ASSESSMENT IN PARC JEAN MARIE VINCENT, PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI  

Science.gov (United States)

Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. PMID:21178190

Cullen, Kimberly A.; Ivers, Louise C.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser

2014-05-01

202

Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

2013-04-01

203

A survey of program slicing for software engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

Beck, Jon

1993-01-01

204

Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer with a Windows operating system (Mac users can use a Windows emulator); and (3) our free QCN game software (available from http://quakeinfo.ucsd.edu/ dkilb/WEB/QCN/Downloads.html).

Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.

2011-12-01

205

Uptake to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in Haiti: opportunities to align sexual violence, HIV PEP and mental health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual violence is a public health problem in Haiti, potentially augmenting HIV transmission. Reports from L'Hôpital de l'Université d'État d'Haiti (HUEH) suggest severe underutilization of antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (ARV-PEP) among rape survivors. Cross-sectional design using mixed methods. Informational interviews were conducted with HUEH personnel to learn about post-rape service offerings. HUEH surveillance data were used to estimate the sexual assault reporting rate/100,000 and to examine the proportion of survivors receiving ARV-PEP within 72 hr, stratified by age (HIV, and mental health is crucial to support the timely uptake to ARV-PEP. PMID:23278979

Marc, Linda; Honoré, Jean-Guy; Néjuste, Patrick; Setaruddin, Monica; Lamothe, Nika-Nola; Thimothé, Gabriel; Cornely, Jean-Ronald

2013-02-01

206

Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the s...

Andrea Pardini; Furio Massolino

2011-01-01

207

[Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

2006-10-01

208

Haiti - OECD  

...OECD Development Centre, the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN ECLAC) and CAF - Development Bank of Latin ...generated a sizeable evaluative effort, not unlike that following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. 2-February-2011 English, , 149kb Réponse ...generated a sizeable evaluative effort, not unlike that following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. French translation. 19-October-2010 French Principes pour ...People's Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia European ...

209

Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Post-Earthquake Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report outcomes and 12-month survival for the first cohort of patients to undergo multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment after the earthquake in Haiti. From March 3, 2010 to March 28, 2013, 110 patients initiated treatment of laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB at the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Twenty-seven patients (25%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. As of October 31, 2013, 95 (86%) patients were either cured or alive on treatment, 4 (4%) patients defaulted, and 11 (10%) patients died. Culture conversion occurred by 30 days in 14 (13%) patients, 60 days in 49 (45%) patients, and 90 days in 81 (74%) patients. The probabilities of survival to 12 months were 96% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 89-99) and 85% (95% CI = 64-94) for HIV-negative and -positive patients, respectively. Despite adverse conditions, outcomes for patients with MDR-TB are highly encouraging. Major efforts are underway to scale up community directly observed therapy and expand care to other regions of Haiti. PMID:25071001

Charles, Macarthur; Vilbrun, Stalz Charles; Koenig, Serena P; Hashiguchi, Lauren M; Mabou, Marie Marcelle; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean W

2014-10-01

210

Spacetime Slices and Surfaces of Revolution  

CERN Document Server

Under certain conditions, a $(1+1)$-dimensional slice $\\hat{g}$ of a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime can be equivariantly embedded in $(2+1)$-dimensional Minkowski space. The embedding depends on a real parameter that corresponds physically to the surface gravity $\\kappa$ of the black hole horizon. Under conditions that turn out to be closely related, a real surface that possesses rotational symmetry can be equivariantly embedded in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The embedding does not obviously depend on a parameter. However, the Gaussian curvature is given by a simple formula: If the metric is written $g = \\phi(r)^{-1} dr^2 + \\phi(r) d\\theta^2$, then $\\K_g=-{1/2}\\phi''(r)$. This note shows that metrics $g$ and $\\hat{g}$ occur in dual pairs, and that the embeddings described above are orthogonal facets of a single phenomenon. In particular, the metrics and their respective embeddings differ by a Wick rotation that preserves the ambient symmetry. Consequently, the embedding of $g$ depends on a real...

Giblin, J T; Jr, John T. Giblin; Hwang, Andrew D.

2004-01-01

211

Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain slices from 8-day old (P8) mouse pups. Fluorescence microscopic monitoring of GFP was utilized as an indicator of tissue viability. The final format of the developed system, featuring ”plug-and-play” technolgy with a reusable fluidic connection board and easily changeable microfluidic chips, facilitated brain slice culturing for 16 days.

Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Sabourin, David

2011-01-01

212

Quaking Neutron Stars  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

1999-01-01

213

Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change might result in worsening tropical storms that impede access due to the poor condition of footpaths and thus adversely affect maternal mortality. Additional factors such as deforestation and associated accelerated rainwater runoff may further worsen conditions. The linkage between maternal mortality and climate change will not be detected unless more robust methods are used. We propose using a mixed methods approach that combines use of secondary climate and health data (e.g. Landsat, stream flow, precipitation) with a stratified spatial sampling strategy across this complex land mass coupled with direct observation and qualitative methods using key informant interviews to probe for root causes of changes in health outcomes such as weather, deforestation, food and economic security. This mixed methods approach can be used for cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies linking the impact of climatological factors and important determinants of health such as economic activity. We propose that the impact of climate change on health will be best studied by mixed method approaches and that reliance on secondary data alone risks missing important associations between changes in climate and health.

Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

2013-12-01

214

Architectural Slicing : Towards Automatic Harvesting of Architectural Prototypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

2013-01-01

215

Hyperbolic slicings of spacetime singularity avoidance and gauge shocks  

CERN Document Server

I study the Bona-Masso family of hyperbolic slicing conditions, considering in particular its properties when approaching two different types of singularities: focusing singularities and gauge shocks. For focusing singularities, I extend the original analysis of Bona et. al and show that both marginal and strong singularity avoidance can be obtained for certain types of behavior of the slicing condition as the lapse approaches zero. For the case of gauge shocks, I re-derive a condition found previously that eliminates them. Unfortunately, such a condition limits considerably the type of slicings allowed. However, useful slicing conditions can still be found if one asks for this condition to be satisfied only approximately. Such less restrictive conditions include a particular member of the 1+log family, which in the past has been found empirically to be extremely robust for both Brill wave and black hole simulations.

Alcubierre, M

2003-01-01

216

Continuous slice functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this work is to define a continuous functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces, starting from basic issues regarding the notion of spherical spectrum of a normal operator. As properties of the spherical spectrum suggest, the class of continuous functions to consider in this setting is the one of slice quaternionic functions. Slice functions generalize the concept of slice regular function, which comprises power series with quaternionic coefficients on one side and that can be seen as an effective generalization to quaternions of holomorphic functions of one complex variable. The notion of slice function allows to introduce suitable classes of real, complex and quaternionic $C^*$--algebras and to define, on each of these $C^*$--algebras, a functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators. In particular, we establish several versions of the spectral map theorem. Some of the results are proved also for unbounded operators. However, the mentioned continuous functional calculi are defined o...

Ghiloni, Riccardo; Perotti, Alessandro

2013-01-01

217

Recovering Missing Slices of the Discrete Fourier Transform using Ghosts  

CERN Document Server

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) underpins the solution to many inverse problems commonly possessing missing or un-measured frequency information. This incomplete coverage of Fourier space always produces systematic artefacts called Ghosts. In this paper, a fast and exact method for de-convolving cyclic artefacts caused by missing slices of the DFT is presented. The slices discussed here originate from the exact partitioning of DFT space, under the projective Discrete Radon Transform, called the Discrete Fourier Slice Theorem. The method has a computational complexity of O(n log2 n) (where n = N^2) and is constructed from a new Finite Ghost theory. This theory is also shown to unify several aspects of work done on Ghosts over the past three decades. The paper concludes with a significant application to fast, exact, non-iterative image reconstruction from sets of discrete slices obtained for a limited range of projection angles.

Chandra, Shekhar; Guedon, Jeanpierre; Kingston, Andrew; Normand, Nicolas

2011-01-01

218

Hyperbolic slicings of spacetime: singularity avoidance and gauge shocks  

Science.gov (United States)

I study the Bona-Masso family of hyperbolic slicing conditions, considering in particular its properties when approaching two different types of singularities: focusing singularities and gauge shocks. For focusing singularities, I extend the original analysis of Bona et al and show that both marginal and strong singularity avoidance can be obtained for certain types of behaviour of the slicing condition as the lapse approaches zero. For the case of gauge shocks, I rederive a condition found previously that eliminates them. Unfortunately, such a condition limits considerably the type of slicings allowed. However, useful slicing conditions can still be found if one asks for this condition to be satisfied only approximately. Such less restrictive conditions include a particular member of the 1+log family, which in the past has been found empirically to be extremely robust for both Brill wave and black-hole simulations.

Alcubierre, Miguel

2003-02-01

219

External rays and the real slice of the Mandelbrot set  

CERN Document Server

This paper investigates the set of angles of the parameter rays which land on the real slice $[-2,1/4]$ of the Mandelbrot set. We prove that this set has zero length but Hausdorff dimension 1. We obtain the corresponding results for the tuned images of the real slice. Applications of these estimates in the study of critically non-recurrent real quadratics as well as biaccessible points of quadratic Julia sets are given.

Zakeri, S

2002-01-01

220

The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first two pairs of horizontal vibrational frequencies, which are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. The approach has been applied to a CSN-instrumented 12-story reinforced concrete building near downtown Los Angeles. The frequencies were identified directly from spectra of the 8 August 2012 M4.5 Yorba Linda, California earthquake acceleration time series. When the basic dimensions and the first two frequencies are input into a prismatic Timoshenko beam model of the building, the model yields mode shapes that have been shown to match well with densely recorded data. For the instrumented 12-story building, comparisons of the predictions of responses on other floors using only the record from the 9th floor with actual data from the other floors shows this method to approximate the true response remarkably well.

Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Infectious diseases seen in a primary care clinic in Leogane, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

All diseases diagnosed in a primary healthcare clinic situated in Leogane, Haiti, were recorded prospectively during a 7-month period. Among the patients in this cohort, 2,821 of 6,631 (42.6%) presented with an infectious disease. The three most common syndromes among the patients presenting with infections were respiratory tract infections (33.5%), suspected sexually transmitted diseases--mostly among females with recurrent disease (18.1%)--and skin and soft tissue infections, including multiple cases of tinea capitis (12.8%). Of the 255 patients presenting with undifferentiated fever, 76 (29.8%) were diagnosed with falciparum malaria. Other vector-borne diseases included 13 cases of filariasis and 6 cases of dengue fever. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed in 19 patients. Four cases of mumps were detected among unimmunized children. A large proportion of these infections are preventable. Concerted efforts should be made to create large-scale preventive medicine programs for various infectious diseases. PMID:22232443

Neuberger, Ami; Tenenboim, Shiri; Golos, Miri; Pex, Racheli; Krakowsky, Yonah; Urman, Marnina; Vernet, Spencer; Schwartz, Eli

2012-01-01

222

Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

Adelheid Pichler

2013-09-01

223

Disclosure and Impact of Maternal HIV+ Serostatus on Mothers and Children in Rural Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mothers living with HIV (MLWHs) in the United States have reported that one of their main challenges is the decision to disclose their HIV serostatus to their children and the potential consequences of their disclosure. Little is known about the experiences of MLWHs regarding disclosing their HIV serostatus to their children and the impact of maternal HIV serostatus disclosure in the island nations of the Caribbean. Study objectives were to identify the factors influencing maternal HIV serostatus disclosure, examine the breadth of maternal HIV serostatus, and understand the impact of disclosure on mothers and the children. Baseline interviews were conducted between 2006 and 2007 with 25 HIV-positive mothers and 26 children ages 10-17 participating in a pilot psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in Haiti. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded for topical themes by two investigators. Analysis of the interviews yielded several themes relevant to reasons for disclosure, including children's experience of HIV stigma in the community, social support and encouragement from psychosocial intervention workers. The main themes related to breadth of disclosure were brief disclosure and explicit disclosure with some mothers sharing information about how they learned about their illness diagnosis and their medication. Themes related to impacts of disclosure included emotional reactions of children and mothers, and children's desire to assist mothers with illness and become involved. These findings suggest the need to provide more psychosocial support to HIV-affected families in the Caribbean region. PMID:24158504

Conserve, Donaldson F; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine M; Louis, Ermaze; King, Gary; Scanlan, Fiona; Mukherjee, Joia S; Surkan, Pamela J

2014-12-01

224

Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

225

Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Natural Color  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

2010-01-01

226

Characterization of aquatic mosquito habitat, natural enemies, and immature mosquitoes in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper characterizes water body types harboring immature mosquitoes in a low-lying area of Haiti and investigates the relationship between immature Anopheles albimanus abundance and aquatic predator presence. Larval An. albimanus were found in permanent and semi-permanent groundwater habitats including (in order of greatest abundance) hoof/footprints, ditches, rice fields, and ground pools. High levels of species co-occurrence were observed in habitats. Among water bodies positive for immature Anopheles, 42.9% also contained immature Culex species. Significant association between An. albimanus abundance and the absence of fish predators was detected. Results from the multivariate negative binomial regression suggest that the interactive effect of increasing distance from the Artibonite River and elevation are positively associated with the abundance of immature An. albimanus. The presence of fish predators was not associated with the abundance of An. albimanus larvae in habitats while controlling for habitat distance and elevation. The results of this study provide baseline entomological information to inform vector control programs in the country. PMID:18697323

Caillouët, Kevin A; Keating, Joseph; Eisele, Thomas P

2008-06-01

227

Situación actual de las Vacunas e Inmunización en Haití / Vaccines and Immunisation - current situation in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La inmunización ha sido uno de los grandes éxitos de la salud pública. Ha permitido salvar la vida de millones de niños en Haití y le ha dado a miles más la oportunidad de vivir una vida más larga y saludable, al igual que mayores oportunidades de instruirse, de leer y escribir, de jugar y de movers [...] e libremente sin sufrimiento. No obstante, existen deficiencias en la cobertura, en la prestación de servicios de salud, en la seguridad de las vacunas y en el acceso a nuevas vacunas del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI), entre otras. La cobertura vacunal no supera el 40% como promedio nacional, alcanzando sólo al 18% en algunos departamentos. Abstract in english Immunisation is one of the great public health successes. It has saved millions of children's lives in Haiti and has given thousands more the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, to become educated, to learn to read and write, to play and move about freely without suffering. However, there a [...] re deficiencies in coverage levels, in healthcare provision, in vaccine safety and in access to the new vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI), amongst others. Vaccine coverage did not exceed 40% as a national average, reaching only 18% in some areas.

Marc-Henry, Syldor.

2009-06-01

228

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6-59 Months Old in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6-59 months old (n = 557) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associated with anemia. The prevalence of childhood anemia was 38.8% (23.9% mild, 14.7% moderate, and 0.2% severe). Mean hemoglobin was 11.2 ± 1.2?g/dL. Variables associated with child anemia were age less than 24 months (OR = 2.6; P = 0.000), stunting (OR = 2.2; P = 0.005), and mother's low hemoglobin level (OR = 1.8; P = 0.011). Anemia among young children in Fond des Blancs and Villa is a public health problem. Predictors of child anemia in this region include child's age, stunting, and mother's anemia. Interventions and strategies aimed at addressing effectively anemia in this population must therefore target mothers and children under two years of age. PMID:23555053

Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Boldon, Ellen; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Bernard, Samuel

2013-01-01

229

Sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engagement in sexual activity among Haitian youth is increasing. The present cross-sectional study examined the independent correlates of sexual risk behaviors among 200 (108 male/92 female) 13-18 year-old adolescents in Port-au-Prince, Haiti using face-to-face interviews. The majority (60.0 %) had engaged in sexual intercourse. Multivariate modeling found males to be 3.52 times more likely to have had sex, 5.42 times more likely to report sexual debut before age 14, 9.75 times more likely to have >1 sexual partner, and 3.33 times more likely to not have used a condom during last sex. Adolescents living with parents, grandparents, aunts or uncles were less likely to report having unprotected sex compared with those without adult family members in the home (AOR range 0.26-0.51). The high prevalence of risky sex among males and the protective influence of stable family cohesiveness have important implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:24402691

Carver, Jasmine W; Dévieux, Jessy G; Gaston, Stéphanie C; Altice, Frederick L; Niccolai, Linda M

2014-08-01

230

Prediction of the spatial evolution and effects of control measures for the unfolding Haiti cholera outbreak  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we propose spatially explicit predictions of the residual progression of the current Haiti cholera outbreak accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities, and for the redistribution among them of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease. Spreading mechanisms include the diffusion of pathogens in the aquatic environment and their dissemination due to the movement of human carriers. The model reproduces the spatiotemporal features of the outbreak to date, thus suggesting the robustness of predicted future developments of the epidemic. We estimate that, under unchanged conditions, the number of new cases in the whole country should start to decrease in January. During this month the epidemic should mainly involve the Ouest department (Port-au-Prince) while fading out in northern regions. Our spatially explicit model allows also the analysis of the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. To that end our results show that mass vaccinations would have a negligible impact at this stage of the epidemic. We also show that targeted sanitation strategies, providing clean drinking water supply and/or staging educational campaigns aimed at reducing exposure, may weaken the strength of the residual evolution of the infection.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Blokesch, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-03-01

231

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01

232

Subsistence Songs: Haitian téat Performances, Gendered Capital, and Livelihood Strategies in Jean Makout, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines how sexual and gender values in rural Haiti are expressed through 'téat', theatrical, songs and performances among girls from 10 to 20 years. Author describes how these sexual values relate to a concept of gendered capital, or what he calls a "sexual-moral economy", whereby men who want sex with women need to provide material rewards for this sexual access. He explains how this combines with certain gender socializations and views of men, unlike women, really needing sex, and socialized toward this, also by women, and thus from an early age to aggressively pursue women, and women on the other hand toward restraint, and to require material rewards. Author illustrates, through examples, how téat songs reflect and refer to these values, often through sexual metaphors. In addition, he shows how they relate to the wider social and gender context of matrifocality and subsistence strategies, notably the household, wherein women tend to be dominant over men, who supplied the house as expected price for her sex, manages production and reproduction of her daughters in it, instilling them also with the said sexual values, and with children seen as necessary for household work, as the women also engage in market activities outside of the house.

Timothy T. Schwartz

2008-12-01

233

Analysis of the international and US response to the Haiti earthquake: recommendations for change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 earthquake in Haiti was unprecedented in its impact. The dual loss of the Haitian government and United Nations (UN) leadership led to an atypical disaster response driven by the US government and military. Although the response was massive, the leadership and logistical support were initially insufficient, and the UN cluster system struggled with the overwhelming influx of nontraditional agencies and individuals, which complicated the health care response. Moreover, the provision of care was beyond the country's health care standards. The management of the US government resembled a whole-of-government domestic response, combined with a massive military presence that went beyond logistical support. Among the most important lessons learned were the management of the response and how it could be strengthened by adapting a structure such as the domestic National Response Framework. Also, mechanisms were needed to increase the limited personnel to surge in a major response. One obvious pool has been the military, but the military needs to increase integration with the humanitarian community and improve its own humanitarian response expertise. In addition, information management needs standardized tools and analysis to improve its use of independent agencies. PMID:23077262

Kirsch, Thomas; Sauer, Lauren; Guha Sapir, Debarati

2012-10-01

234

Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

2013-01-01

235

Task-Shifting in HIV Care: A Case Study of Nurse-Centered Community-Based Care in Rural Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction At least 36 countries are suffering from severe shortages of healthcare workers and this crisis of human resources in developing countries is a major obstacle to scale-up of HIV care. We performed a case study to evaluate a health service delivery model where a task-shifting approach to HIV care had been undertaken with tasks shifted from doctors to nurses and community health workers in rural Haiti. Methods Data were collected using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods at three clinics in rural Haiti. Distribution of tasks for HIV services delivery; types of tasks performed by different cadres of healthcare workers; HIV program outcomes; access to HIV care and acceptability of the model to staff were measured. Results A shift of tasks occurred from doctors to nurses and to community health workers compared to a traditional doctor-based model of care. Nurses performed most HIV-related tasks except initiation of TB therapy for smear-negative suspects with HIV. Community health workers were involved in over half of HIV-related tasks. HIV services were rapidly scaled-up in the areas served; loss to follow-up of patients living with HIV was less than 5% at 24 months and staff were satisfied with the model of care. Conclusion Task-shifting using a community-based, nurse-centered model of HIV care in rural Haiti is an effective model for scale-up of HIV services with good clinical and program outcomes. Community health workers can provide essential health services that are otherwise unavailable particularly in rural, poor areas. PMID:21573152

Ivers, Louise C.; Jerome, Jean-Gregory; Cullen, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Wesler; Celletti, Francesca; Samb, Badara

2011-01-01

236

Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti. PMID:24681219

von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

2014-07-01

237

Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

2014-12-01

238

Slice emittance measurements at the SLAC gun test facility  

Science.gov (United States)

A goal of the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC is to investigate the production of high-brightness electron beams for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray FEL. High brightness in the RF photocathode gun occurs when the time-sliced emittance is nearly the same as the cathode thermal emittance and when the slices are all lined up, i.e., their Twiss parameters are nearly identical. In collaboration with the BNL Source Development Lab (SDL), we have begun a systematic study of the slice emittance at GTF. The technique involves giving the bunch a near linear energy chirp using the booster linac and dispersing it with a magnetic spectrometer. Combined with knowledge of the longitudinal phase space, this establishes the energy-time correlation on the spectrometer screen. The slice emittances are determined by varying the strengths of the quadrupoles in front of the spectrometer. Spectrometer images for a range of quadrupole settings are then binned into small energy/time windows and analysed for the slice emittance and Twiss parameters. Results for various gun parameters are presented.

Dowell, D. H.; Bolton, P. R.; Clendenin, J. E.; Emma, P.; Gierman, S. M.; Graves, W. S.; Limborg, C. G.; Murphy, B. F.; Schmerge, J. F.

2003-07-01

239

Axisymmetric constant mean curvature slices in the Kerr spacetime  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there have been efforts to solve Einstein’s equation in the context of a conformal compactification of spacetime. Of particular importance in this regard are the so-called constant mean curvature (CMC) foliations, characterized by spatial hyperboloidal hypersurfaces with a constant extrinsic mean curvature K. However, although of interest for general spacetimes, CMC slices are known explicitly only for the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild metric. This work is devoted to numerically determining axisymmetric CMC slices within the Kerr solution. We construct such slices outside the black hole horizon through an appropriate coordinate transformation in which an unknown auxiliary function A is involved. The condition K = const throughout the slice leads to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the function A, which is solved with a pseudo-spectral method. The results exhibit exponential convergence, as is to be expected in a pseudo-spectral scheme for analytic solutions. As a by-product, we identify CMC slices of the Schwarzschild solution which are not spherically symmetric.

Schinkel, David; Panosso Macedo, Rodrigo; Ansorg, Marcus

2014-04-01

240

An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Key questions about the thalamus are still unanswered in part because of the inability to stimulate its inputs while monitoring cortical output. To address this, we employed flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging to expedite the process of developing a brain slice in mouse with connectivity among the auditory midbrain, thalamus, thalamic reticular nucleus, and cortex. Optical, electrophysiological, anatomic, and pharmacological tools revealed ascending connectivity from midbrain to thalamus and thalamus to cortex as well as descending connectivity from cortex to thalamus and midbrain and from thalamus to midbrain. The slices were relatively thick (600-700 ?m), but, based on typical measures of cell health (resting membrane potential, spike height, and input resistance) and use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, the slices were as viable as thinner slices. As expected, after electrical stimulation of the midbrain, the latency of synaptic responses gradually increased from thalamus to cortex, and spiking responses were seen in thalamic neurons. Therefore, for the first time, it will be possible to manipulate and record simultaneously the activity of most of the key brain structures that are synaptically connected to the thalamus. The details for the construction of such slices are described herein. PMID:24108796

Llano, Daniel A; Slater, Bernard J; Lesicko, Alexandria M H; Stebbings, Kevin A

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

2011-03-28

242

Projection-slice synthetic discriminant functions for optical pattern recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The projection-slice synthetic discriminant function (PSDF) filter is introduced and proposed for distortion-invariant pattern-recognition applications. The projection-slice theorem, often used in tomographic applications for medical imaging, is utilized to implement a distortion-invariant filter. Taking M projections from one training image and combining them with ( N 1) M projections taken from another N 1 training image accomplishes this. With the projection-slice theorem, each set of these M projections can be represented as M one-dimensional slices of the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the particular training image. Therefore, the PSDF filter has the advantage of matching each of the training images with at least M slices of their respective Fourier transforms. This filter is theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally implemented and tested to verify the simulation results. These tests show that the PSDF filter significantly outperforms the matched-filter and the basic synthetic discriminant function technique for the particular images used.

Riasati, Vahid R.; Abushagur, Mustafa A. G.

1997-05-01

243

Automatic detection of neurons in large cortical slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuron distribution inside the cerebral cortex is getting more and more attention. It allows assessing, for instance, age-related and pathological decay and preferential connections; moreover, it complements well studies on functional morphology aimed to discovering information coding in neuron assemblies. A large obstacle to these studies is the huge amount of time required by an operator to manually mark the single neurons. We present here an innovative solution for automaticize the entire process: starting from a set of tile images of a given cortical slice, the system stitches all the tiles together, identifies the grey areas and cover them with a mesh. Neurons are automatically identified and their local distribution determined. Key element of the method is a reliable neuron identification algorithm based on a novel multilayer shape analysis of the blobs identified in the tiles images. This allows identifying on average 87+/-6% of the total neurons in the slice, with a false positive ratio of 14+/-9%, in a relatively short processing time. The algorithm was tested on Nissl-stained cortical slices of the BA4 Human area, 10 microm thick, acquired as a meander of tiles ( approximately 3000 images for a slice of medium size) at 40 x magnification, which gives a resolution of 0.264 microm/pixel. Preliminary results on cortical lamination of Human BA4 area are reported. This method is the first automated algorithm for the analysis of a large high-resolution cortical slice. PMID:19505503

Sciarabba, M; Serrao, G; Bauer, D; Arnaboldi, F; Borghese, N A

2009-08-30

244

The Response of Academic Medical Centers to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided se...

Ripp, Jonathan A.; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

2012-01-01

245

Multi-temporal interferometric monitoring of ground deformations in Haiti with COSMO/SkyMed HIMAGE data  

Science.gov (United States)

The catastrophic Mw=7.0 shallow earthquake of 12 January 2010 that struck Haiti have led to numerous studies focused on the geodynamics of the region. In particular, the co-seismic fault mechanism of the 2010 Haiti earthquake as well as post-seismic deformations have been investigated through SAR interferometry (InSAR) techniques, thanks to the availability of satellite SAR sensors operating in different radar bands (ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO/SkyMed). Moreover, advanced multitemporal SAR interferometry (MTI) based on COSMO/SkyMED (CSK) data is well suited for the detection and monitoring of post-seismic ground or structural instabilities. Indeed, with its short revisit time (up to 4 days) CSK allows building interferometric stacks much faster than previous satellite missions, like ERS/ENVISAT. Here we report the first outcomes of the MTI investigation based on high resolution (3 m) CSK data, conducted in the framework of a scientific collaboration between the Centre National de l'Information Géo-Spatiale (CNIGS) of Haiti and the Department of Physics (DIF) of the University of Bari, Italy. We rely on a stack of 89 CSK data (image mode: HIMAGE; polarization: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-0A) acquired by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the Port-au-Prince (PaP) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the 2010 earthquake. CSK acquisitions span the period June 2011 ÷ February 2013, which is sufficient for detecting and monitoring significant ground instabilities. The MTI results were obtained through the application of the SPINUA processing chain, a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI)-like technique. In particular, we detected significant subsidence phenomena affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the PaP and Carrefour region. The maximum rate of subsidence movements exceed few cm/yr and this implies increasing flooding (or tsunami) hazard. Furthermore, maximum subsidence rates were encountered in areas with high population density and this translates into high potential risk. The MTI results also revealed the presence of very slow slope movements and local ground / structure instabilities. Some of these may have been initially triggered by the 2010 event. Elsewhere the MTI-detected displacements can be related to the presence of poorly constructed buildings. This case study demonstrates that MTI represents a very good option for the assessments of ground / structure instability in regions that lack in situ monitoring data. In view of this the results of this study will be transferred to the Civil Protection of Haiti.

Nutricato, R.; Wasowski, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Piard, B. E.; Généa, S.

2013-12-01

246

On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

Slabý, Ji?í; Trtík, Marek

2012-01-01

247

40-slice coronary CTA: initial experience and establishing a practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of 4-slice scanners with subsecond gantry rotation times paved way for such demanding applications as cardiac imaging. However, challenges remained. For example, the breath hold times of 40 seconds caused many patient groups to be excluded. Some of these issues were addressed by the introduction of 16-slice CT scanners with submillimeter spatial resolution and faster gantry rotation times, resulting in a significant decrease in the coverage time (less than 20 s). Further developments in scanner technology were brought about by the introduction of 40- and 64-slice scanners, such as the Philips' Brilliance, with a z-axis coverage of 40 mm, making it possible to cover the entire cardiac anatomy in less than 15 seconds [1]. Additionally, the COBRA trademark adaptive multi-cycle reconstruction approach can result in further improvement in temporal resolution by using projection data from two or more cardiac cycles [2-5]. (orig.)

248

Parallel microfluidic chemosensitivity testing on individual slice cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a critical unmet need to tailor chemotherapies to individual patients. Personalized approaches could lower treatment toxicity, improve the patient's quality of life, and ultimately reduce mortality. However, existing models of drug activity (based on tumor cells in culture or animal models) cannot accurately predict how drugs act in patients in time to inform the best possible treatment. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic device that integrates live slice cultures with an intuitive multiwell platform that allows for exposing the slices to multiple compounds at once or in sequence. We demonstrate the response of live mouse brain slices to a range of drug doses in parallel. Drug response is measured by imaging of markers for cell apoptosis and for cell death. The platform has the potential to allow for identifying the subset of therapies of greatest potential value to individual patients, on a timescale rapid enough to guide therapeutic decision-making. PMID:25275698

Chang, Tim C; Mikheev, Andrei M; Huynh, Wilson; Monnat, Raymond J; Rostomily, Robert C; Folch, Albert

2014-12-01

249

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti / Tuberculosis multirresistente en Puerto Príncipe, Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de tuberculosis (TB) multirresistente en pacientes con TB pulmonar nueva con baciloscopia positiva en Puerto Príncipe, Haití. MÉTODOS: Se cultivaron muestras de esputo de 1 006 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de tuberculosis efectuado durante el 2008. Se secuen [...] ció la región nuclear del gen rpoB, que se asocia con la resistencia a la rifampicina. Todos los aislados con mutaciones de rpoB se enviaron al laboratorio de referencia del estado de Nueva York para llevar a cabo un antibiograma convencional. Todos los aislados se estudiaron también con el ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTADOS: Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis de 906 pacientes. Veintiséis (2,9%) de los aislados presentaban mutaciones de sentido erróneo o deleciones en rpoB y fueron resistentes a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. Los 26 aislados fueron resistentes también a la isoniacida y se clasificaron como TB multirresistente. Cuarenta y seis aislados de control sin mutaciones de rpoB resultaron sensibles a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. El ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus identificó correctamente a las 26 cepas de TB multirresistente y clasificó de manera errónea un aislado sensible a múltiples fármacos como resistente a la rifampicina. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio revela una prevalencia de TB multirresistente de 2,9% en los pacientes con TB recién diagnosticada en Haití e indica que los ensayos de secuenciación e hibridación de rpoB son estudios de detección sistemática adecuados para la detección temprana de la TB multirresistente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associ [...] ated with resistance to rifampin was sequenced. All isolates with rpoB mutations were sent to the New York State reference laboratory for conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). All isolates were also tested with the GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay. RESULTS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 906 patients. Twenty-six (2.9%) of the isolates had missense mutations or deletions in rpoB and were resistant to rifampin by DST. All 26 were also resistant to isoniazid and classified as MDR-TB. Forty-six control isolates without rpoB mutations were found to be rifampin sensitive by DST. The GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay correctly identified 26 MDR-TB strains. It misclassified one pansusceptible isolate as rifampin resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an MDR-TB prevalence of 2.9% in newly diagnosed TB patients in Haiti and suggests that rpoB sequencing and hybridization assays are good screening tools for early detection of MDR-TB.

Oksana, Ocheretina; Willy, Morose; Marie, Gauthier; Patrice, Joseph; Richard, D' Meza; Vincent E., Escuyer; Nalin, Rastogi; Guy, Vernet; Jean W., Pape; Daniel W., Fitzgerald.

250

Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (haiti). a Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital. The earthquake occurred in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North American plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward with respect to the North American plate (DeMets et al., 2000). Initially the location and focal mechanism of the earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system (EPGFZ), however Hayes et al., (2010) combined seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process involved slip on multiple faults. Besides, the authors showed that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGFZ. On December 2010, a Spanish cooperation project financed by the Politechnical University of Madrid started with a clear objective: Evaluation of seismic hazard and risk in Haiti and its application to the seismic design, urban planning, emergency and resource management. One of the tasks of the project was devoted to vulnerability assessment of the current building stock and the estimation of seismic risk scenarios. The study was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires a detailed classification of the building stock in predominant building typologies (according to the materials in the structure and walls, number of stories and age of construction) and the use of the building (residential, commercial, etc.). Later, the knowledge of the soil characteristics of the city and the simulation of a scenario earthquake will provide the seismic risk scenarios (damaged buildings). The initial results of the study show that one of the highest sources of uncertainties comes from the difficulty of achieving a precise building typologies classification due to the craft construction without any regulations. Also it is observed that although the occurrence of big earthquakes usually helps to decrease the vulnerability of the cities due to the collapse of low quality buildings and the reconstruction of seismically designed buildings, in the case of Port-au-Prince the seismic risk in most of the districts remains high, showing very vulnerable areas. Therefore the local authorities have to drive their efforts towards the quality control of the new buildings, the reinforcement of the existing building stock, the establishment of seismic normatives and the development of emergency planning also through the education of the population.

Molina-Palacios, S.; Torres-Fernandez, Y.; Moise, J.; Benito-Oterino, B.; Haiti Working Group

2011-12-01

251

Toxicity of halothane in guinea pig liver slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guinea pigs have proven to be a reliable model of halothane associated hepatotoxicity. An in vitro system with Hartley male guinea pig liver tissue was designed to assess the toxicity of halothane and other volatile anesthetics in the target organ. Precision-cut guinea pig liver slices (250-300 microns) were incubated in sealed roller vials containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer (plus vitamins, amino acids, glutamine, gentamycin) at 37 degrees C, under 95%, 21% and 5% O2/CO2 atmospheres. Halothane (10-15 microliters) was injected through a Teflon septa cap on a filter paper wick and vaporized. Viability of the slices was monitored by measuring intracellular K+ content which was maintained under 95% O2 up to 24 h. A dose- and time-related decrease in intracellular slice K+ by 1.9, 2.1, 2.7 mM halothane in the media was observed. At 2.7 mM halothane a direct physio-chemical effect may be occurring since incubating liver slices from allylisopropyl-acetamide-treated animals did not protect against the drop in intracellular K+. Concentration/time responses of halothane, d-halothane, enflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane were compared. Sevoflurane had no effect on the liver slice K+ content up to 24 h while the other anesthetics caused the following rank-order decrease in intracellular K+ content: halothane greater than isoflurane and enflurane greater than d-halothane. Precision-cut cultured guinea pig liver slices offer a system where the target tissue for intoxication by anesthetics can be examined for its susceptibility and mechanism of intoxication. PMID:2343457

Ghantous, H N; Fernando, J; Gandolfi, A J; Brendel, K

1990-05-14

252

Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Southwestern Haiti: The Grand'Anse Women's Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old). PMID:25200263

Jobe, Kathleen A; Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A

2014-11-01

253

HAITÍ: ¿LA MISIÓN DE LA ÚLTIMA OPORTUNIDAD? / Haiti: The Mission of Last Opportunity?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En términos de los procesos sociales y políticos, 2013 terminó de la misma manera que lo hizo 2012: sin elecciones, protestas populares cotidianas y un enfrentamiento, a ratos incluso sangriento, entre partidarios y detractores de oposición y oficialista. El Diálogo Político entre haitianos, iniciad [...] o a mediados de enero de 2014 y auspiciado por los obispos católicos, intenta encontrar una solución al atasco político y hartazgo social. Este artículo hace un recuento de los principales acontecimientos sociales, económicos y políticos de 2013. Muestra que el voluntarismo desde la sociedad civil ha sido el camino elegido para desenmarañar los hilos del atascado proceso político. Subraya la novedad y muestra a la misma vez las limitaciones del llamado proceso de Diálogo Político Nacional. Abstract in english In terms of its political and social processes 2013 ended the same way 2012 did. Elections were not held; there were massive and quotidian political protests, and street fighting took place between opponents and partisans of the president. The National Political Dialogue, held in the presence of the [...] Episcopal Commision, tried to quell the violence and look for a solution to the social and political problems of the country. This article looks back at the political, social and economic events that took place during 2013. It shows that actors from the civil society have been very active in the search for a solution to the turmoil faced by Haiti during the year. They have sought, by means of voluntarism, to solve the problems of a stuck political process. The article shows both the merits and limits of the solutions they offered.

ROODY, RESERVE.

254

A spatially explicit model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to July 2011, climb to 385,000 cases and 5,800 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of textit{Vibrio cholera}, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan texttrademark project). The model directly account for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

255

An epidemic model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to December 2011, climb to 522,000 cases and 7,000 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan project). The model directly accounts for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. To this end, we generate realistic scenario of future precipitation in order to forecast possible epidemic paths up to the end of the 2013. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2012-04-01

256

Modeling the Influence of Environment and Intervention onCholera in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a simple model with two infective classes in order to model the cholera epidemic in Haiti. We include the impact of environmental events (rainfall, temperature and tidal range on the epidemic in the Artibonite and Ouest regions by introducing terms in the transmission rate that vary with environmental conditions. We fit the model on weekly data from the beginning of the epidemic until December 2013, including the vaccination programs that were recently undertaken in the Ouest and Artibonite regions. We then modified these projections excluding vaccination to assess the programs’ effectiveness. Using real-time daily rainfall, we found lag times between precipitation events and new cases that range from 3:4 to 8:4 weeks in Artibonite and 5:1 to 7:4 in Ouest. In addition, it appears that, in the Ouest region, tidal influences play a significant role in the dynamics of the disease. Intervention efforts of all types have reduced case numbers in both regions; however, persistent outbreaks continue. In Ouest, where the population at risk seems particularly besieged and the overall population is larger, vaccination efforts seem to be taking hold more slowly than in Artibonite, where a smaller core population was vaccinated. The models including the vaccination programs predicted that a year and six months later, the mean number of cases in Artibonite would be reduced by about two thousand cases, and in Ouest by twenty four hundred cases below that predicted by the models without vaccination. We also found that vaccination is best when done in the early spring, and as early as possible in the epidemic. Comparing vaccination between the first spring and the second, there is a drop of about 40% in the case reduction due to the vaccine and about 10% per year after that.

Stephen Tennenbaum

2014-09-01

257

Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 34 patients with signs and symptoms of diarrhea and stored in BBLTM Cary-Blair transport medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD until transit to the USA. Swab material was inoculated on to different enrichment and selective agars for incubation. Fermenting and nonfermenting bacteria that grew on the enteric selection media were identified by the BBLTM CrystalTM Enteric/Nonferementing Identification system (Becton, Dickinson and Company. Organisms identified as Escherichia coli were further screened for the presence of virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 34 patients, no Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Vibrio spp. were isolated from swabs transported to the USA for culture. Of 73 E. coli isolates cultured from the swabs, one enteropathogenic strain of E. coli was identified by multiplex PCR. Escherichia fergusonii and Cronobacter sakazakii, both potential gastrointestinal pathogens, were also isolated from patient stools. Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine if bacterial enteropathogens could be detected in the stools of patients suffering from diarrhea or dysentery and, in the absence of sufficient facilities, rectal swabs could be transported to the USA for culture. Although several genera of overt enteropathogens were not detected, one enteropathogenic E. coli and other pathogenic enterobacteriaceae were successfully cultured and identified. Keywords: Escherichia, Cronobacter, diarrheagenic, stool

Jackson JC

2011-09-01

258

Vertical Deformation of Late Quaternary Features Across Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a project that investigated the underwater impacts of the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti, we surveyed offshore structures that may have been activated during that earthquake or that might become activated in future earthquakes. Part of that survey focused on the shallow shelf area that extends north of the segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault that just ruptured. This area is occupied by an elongated depression, 25 km long, 10 km wide, and 140 m deep. The NW-SE axis of that shallow basin is sub-parallel to that of the NW-SE anticlines that bounds Port-au-Prince Bay. The shallow basin is also rimmed by a carbonate platform that is 5-10 km-wide and ~30m deep. New multibeam bathymetric and sidescan sonar data collected across that platform highlight a series of circular dissolution structures 1-2 km across and ~80 m deep. We interpret that morphology to indicate antecedent karst topography that developed during previous glacial maxima. According to that scenario, the shallow basin off Port-au-Prince would have been isolated from the Caribbean Sea by the continuous platform, and would probably have been occupied by a lagoon. Indeed, a few high-resolution chirp profiles image what may be a paleoshoreline at about 80m depth, buried beneath a 5-8 m thick, acoustically transparent, presumably Holocene layer. Preliminary analysis indicates that the basin floor and the base of the presumably Holocene layer are perfectly horizontal in the center of the basin, but tilted down to the south at its northern edge. The presumed paleoshoreline is also shallower to the north of the basin. We propose that this tilt is driven by contraction across the NW-SE fold-and-thrust belt that runs across Hispaniola. This hypothesis remains to be tested with a more thorough geophysical and coring survey in Port-au-Prince Bay.

Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.; Gulick, S. P.; Braudy, N.; Davis, M. B.; Diebold, J. B.; Dieudonne, N.; Douilly, R.; Hornbach, M. J.; Johnson, H. E.; Mishkin, K.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Symithe, S. J.; Templeton, J.

2010-12-01

259

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti / Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping) das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as [...] contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira. Abstract in english The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its fo [...] reign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan, Bracey.

260

Notes on a slice distance for singular Lp-bundles  

CERN Document Server

A slice distance for the class of weak abelian Lp-bundles in 3 dimensions was introduced in a previous article in collaboration with Tristan Rivi\\`ere, where it was used to prove the closure of such class of bundles for the weak Lp-convergence. We further investigate this distance here, and we prove more properties of it, for example we show that it is H\\"older-continuous on the slices. Using the same distance, we give here a notion of a boundary trace, giving a suitable setting for minimization problems on weak bundles. We then state some conjectures and some open questions.

Petrache, Mircea

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A methodology for allocating overburden to slices for dragline stripping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optimization model has been developed to allocate overburden in slices in two-bench dragline operations. The objective was to divide the overburden into slices considering primarily physical dimensions of a single or tandem dragline system. The model, provided with constraints to produce rational outcomes, was tested with the hypothetical data of a strip mine where a tandem dragline system is employed in pullback mode. The tandem system favoured by the model was re-evaluated to analyse the effect of swing angle and pit width on the efficiency of the system. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Erdem, B.; Celebi, N.; Pasamehmetoglu, A.G. [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

262

Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison with single-slice CT; Schichtempfindlichkeitsprofile und Bildpunktrauschen einer Mehrschicht Spiral-CT im Vergleich zu einer Einzelschicht Spiral-CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Presentation and evaluation of slice sensitivity profile and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison to single-slice CT. Methods: Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of a multi-slice CT equiped with a 2D matrix detector array and of a single-slice CT were evaluated in phantom studies. Results: For the single-slice CT the width of the slice sensitivity profiles increased with increasing pitch. In spite of a much higher table speed the slice sensitivity profiles of multi-slice CT were narrower and did not increase with higher pitch. Noise in single-slice CT was independent of pitch. For multi-slice CT noise increased with higher pitch and for the higher pitch decreased slightly with higher detector row collimation. Conclusions: Multi-slice CT provides superior z-resolution and higher volume coverage speed. These qualities fulfill one of the prerequisites for improvement of 3D postprocessing. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Ziel der Arbeit ist die Vorstellung der Schichtempfindlichkeitsprofile und des Bildpunktrauschens einer Mehrschicht-CT im Vergleich zu einer Einzelschicht-CT. Material und Methoden: An einem Mehrschicht-CT-Geraet mit einem 2-D-Matrix-Detektor und einem Einzelschicht-CT wurden die Schichtempfindlichkeitsprofile und das Bildpunktrauschen in Phantomuntersuchungen bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Bei dem Einzelschicht-CT nahm die Breite der Schichtprofile mit dem Pitch zu. Im Vergleich zur Einzelschicht-CT waren bei der Mehrschicht-CT die Schichtaufspreizungen geringer und nahmen bei dem hoeheren Pitch-Wert nicht zu. Das Rauschen war beim Einzelschicht-CT in der Spiraltechnik unabhaengig vom Pitch. Fuer die Mehrschicht-CT konnte bei hoeherem Pitch ein hoeheres Rauschen und bei groesserer funktioneller Detektorbreite ein geringfuegig niedrigeres Rauschen ermittelt werden. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Mehrschicht-CT weist im Vergleich zur Einzelschicht-CT bei erheblich hoeheren Tischvorschueben eine bessere Ortsaufloesung in z-Richtung auf. Im Zusammenhang mit der schnelleren Volumenerfassung schafft dies eine der Voraussetzungen fuer Verbesserungen der multiplanaren Rekonstruktionen. (orig.)

Schorn, C.; Obenauer, S.; Funke, M.; Hermann, K.P.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

1999-09-01

263

Submarine Paleoseismology Along Populated Transform Boundaries: The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault, Canal du Sud, Haiti, and the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions and are associated with destructive earthquakes worldwide. The devastating 1999 Turkey earthquakes and the offshore 2010 Haiti earthquake emphasized the urgent need to study the submerged segments of continental transforms. In response, the rapidly evolving field of submarine paleoseismology is focusing its attention on understanding the relationships between sedimentation, seafloor ruptures, and earthquake recurrence intervals along submarine faults. In Canal du Sud, Haiti, the 2010 earthquake-triggered sedimentation events were documented from nearshore to the deep basin by measuring the excess 234Th in sediment cores. This radioisotope, with a half-life of 24 days, tracked mass wasting, turbidites, turbidite-homogenite units, and a sediment plume that remained in the water column for at least two months after the earthquake. However, the turbidite units in Canal du Sud, Haiti, provide an incomplete record of the region's earthquake history, likely because sedimentation rates are too low for sedimentation events to be triggered by all earthquakes. In contrast, in the Marmara Sea basins, there is very good correlation between turbidites and the historical record of earthquakes dating back 2,000 years. The difference between these correlations is likely related to both sedimentation rates and particulars of the ruptures. Future research along the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden fault in Haiti and along similar low sedimentation plate boundaries should focus on multiple fault segments in order to obtain complete earthquake recurrence histories.

Cecilia McHugh

2014-06-01

264

Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens  

Science.gov (United States)

Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports…

Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

2014-01-01

265

LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Enhanced I.D. Slicing Technology for Silicon Ingots  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of inside diameter slicing technology to significantly increase the number of useable slices per inch of crystal over industry practice is discussed. The required reduction of both blade and slice thickness is to be accomplished by a combination of three key elements of slicing technology: (1) ingot rotation with minimum exposed blade area; (2) dynamic cutting edge control; and (3) the use of prefabricated insert blades. Design modifications on a slicing saw with microprocessor controls and hardware fabrication to complete this conversion were initiated. Several runs were conducted on the engineering saw incorporating the method of ingot rotation. Ingots with diameters up to six inches were sliced successfully on a production saw.

Walters, D.

1979-01-01

266

Beyond command and control: USSOUTHCOM's use of social networking to 'connect and collaborate' during Haiti relief operations  

Science.gov (United States)

On 12 January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti killing over 230,000 unsuspecting victims, injuring tens of thousands more and displacing over 1.1 million people. The physical damage was so severe that over 50 percent of buildings in and near the affected areas were completely destroyed or damaged. After struggling for decades with adversity, and besieged by a myriad of social, economic and political challenges, Haiti, its government, and its people were by most accounts already in a state of crisis. The earthquake's devastation and its aftermath shocked the world and prompted a global response. Over 800 institutions and organizations representing the whole of society - governments and their militaries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, public institutions, academia, corporations, and private citizens - mobilized to provide aid and relief. However, coordinating and managing their activities seemed a daunting, if not impossible, task. How could a global response achieve "unity of effort" when "unity of command" was not feasible? To provide a solution, US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) looked beyond traditional Command and Control systems for collaboration with non-traditional partners and implemented the All Partners Access Network (APAN) in order to "Connect and Collaborate."

Arias, Ricardo

2011-06-01

267

Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

Furio Massolino

2011-11-01

268

Multi-slice detector spiral computed tomography in clinical cardiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years mechanical multidetedor-row CT (MDCT) systems with simultaneous acquisition of four slices and half-second scanner rotation have become widely available. Data acquisition with these scanners allows for considerably faster coverage of the heart volume, compared to single-slice scanning. This increased scan speed can be used for retrospective gating together with 1 mm collimated slice widths and allows coverage of the entire cardiac volume in one breath hold. First results from studies in correlation with intracoronary ultrasound suggest that multidetedor-row CT- technology not only offers the possibility to visualize intracoronary stenoses non-invasively, but also to differentiate plaque morphology. This is especially the case with the next generation row multidetector CT; an increased number of simultaneously acquired slices and sub-millimeter collimation for cardiac applications allows true isotropic scanning with high resolution. Contrast enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography is a promising non-invasive technique for the detection, visualization and characterization of stenotic artery disease. It could ad as a gatekeeper prior to cardiac catheterization and finally replaces conventional diagnostic modalities

269

Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [3H]norepinephrine or [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

270

The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance in practice.

Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

2008-01-01

271

Recovering missing slices of the discrete Fourier transform using Ghosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) underpins the solution to many inverse problems commonly possessing missing or unmeasured frequency information. This incomplete coverage of the Fourier space always produces systematic artifacts called Ghosts. In this paper, a fast and exact method for deconvolving cyclic artifacts caused by missing slices of the DFT using redundant image regions is presented. The slices discussed here originate from the exact partitioning of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) space, under the projective Discrete Radon Transform, called the discrete Fourier slice theorem. The method has a computational complexity of O(n log(2) n) (for an n=N×N image) and is constructed from a new cyclic theory of Ghosts. This theory is also shown to unify several aspects of work done on Ghosts over the past three decades. This paper concludes with an application to fast, exact, non-iterative image reconstruction from a highly asymmetric set of rational angle projections that give rise to sets of sparse slices within the DFT. PMID:22752128

Chandra, Shekhar S; Svalbe, Imants D; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Kingston, Andrew M; Normand, Nicolas

2012-10-01

272

Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

273

Experimental Analysis of Potato Slices Drying Characteristics using Solar Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the drying characteristic curves and the drying duration when potato slices dried using natural convection solar dryer. For that sake an experimental setup was developed. Measurements of total solar radiation on the plane of the collector, ambient air temperature and humidity, drying air temperature and relative humidity inside the dryer as well as solid’s moisture loss-in-weight were collected. A data logger was used for data acquisition of all the drying parameters. These data were employed to study the potato slices drying characteristics and its nature. A number of experiments were conducted using potato slices. It was observed that the drying time for 6.3 kg m-2 potato was reduced by about 30% compared to direct sun drying. Furthermore, the potato slices drying rate decreases to zero and hence potato is a hygroscopic material. The dryer inlet temperature was 14-29°C higher than the ambient temperature. The study showed, other than the reduction in the drying time, application of the natural convection solar dryer generates improved quality dried materials than direct sunshine drying. The results could be used as an input for process and product optimization.

Aklilu Tesfamichael

2013-01-01

274

Simultaneous Multi-Slice fMRI using spiral trajectories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parallel imaging methods using multi-coil receiver arrays have been shown to be effective for increasing MRI acquisition speed. However parallel imaging methods for fMRI with 2D sequences show only limited improvements in temporal resolution because of the long echo times needed for BOLD contrast. Recently, Simultaneous Multi-Slice (SMS) imaging techniques have been shown to increase fMRI temporal resolution by factors of four and higher. In SMS fMRI multiple slices can be acquired simultaneously using Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) and the overlapping slices are un-aliased using a parallel imaging reconstruction with multiple receivers. The slice separation can be further improved using the "blipped-CAIPI" EPI sequence that provides a more efficient sampling of the SMS 3D k-space. In this paper a blipped-spiral SMS sequence for ultra-fast fMRI is presented. The blipped-spiral sequence combines the sampling efficiency of spiral trajectories with the SMS encoding concept used in blipped-CAIPI EPI. We show that blipped spiral acquisition can achieve almost whole brain coverage at 3mm isotropic resolution in 168 ms. It is also demonstrated that the high temporal resolution allows for dynamic BOLD lag time measurement using visual/motor and retinotopic mapping paradigms. The local BOLD lag time within the visual cortex following the retinotopic mapping stimulation of expanding flickering rings is directly measured and easily translated into an eccentricity map of the cortex. PMID:24518259

Zahneisen, Benjamin; Poser, Benedikt A; Ernst, Thomas; Stenger, Andrew V

2014-05-15

275

Unperturbed islet ?-cell function examined in mouse pancreas tissue slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical investigation into ?-cell biology in health and diabetes has been sparse and at times inconsistent because of the technical difficulties with employing conventional strategies of isolated islets and dispersed single cells. An acute pancreas slice preparation was developed to overcome the enzymatic and mechanical perturbations inherent in conventional islet cell isolation procedures. This preparation preserves intra-islet cellular communication and islet architecture in their in situ native state. ?-Cells within tissue slices were directly assessed by patch pipette and electrophysiologically characterized. The identity of the patched cells was confirmed by biocytin dye labelling and immunocytochemistry. ?-Cells in mouse pancreas slices exhibited well-described features of I(Na) (excitable at physiological membrane potential), I(KATP), small cell size, low resting membrane conductance, and inducible low and high voltage-activated I(Ca), the latter correlating with exocytosis determined by capacitance measurements. In contrast to previous reports, our large unbiased sampling of ?-cells revealed a wide range distribution of all of these parameters, including the amount of K(ATP) conductance, Na+ and Ca2+ current amplitudes, and capacitance changes induced by a train of depolarization pulses. The proposed pancreas slice preparation in combination with standard patch-clamping technique allowed large sampling and rapid assessment of ?-cells, which revealed a wide distribution in ?-cell ion channel properties. This specific feature explains the apparent inconsistency of previous reports on these ?-cell ion channel properties. Our innovative approach will enable future studies into elucidating islet ?-cell dysregulation occurring during diabetes. PMID:21078586

Huang, Ya-Chi; Rupnik, Marjan; Gaisano, Herbert Y

2011-01-15

276

Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.7 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled water for 0 min (control), 40 min and 90 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50degreesC for 30 and 70 min; 70degreesC for 8 and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips. Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching reduced on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50degreesC for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mum/kg) even when they were fried at 190degreesC. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150degreesC. For the three pre-treatments studied, acrylamide formation increased dramatically as the frying temperature increased from 150degreesC to 190degreesC. (C) 2004 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit

2004-01-01

277

Effects of different pretreatments on drying characteristics of banana slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different pretreatments and temperature on the drying characteristics of ripe Gros Michel banana slices were investigated. 5 and 7 mm thick slices of bananas were pretreated with four different pretreatments such as ascorbic acid, lemon juice, salt solution, honey dip and a control for 10 minutes, each replicated three times. Pretreated banana slices were dried in a cabinet oven dryer using a completely randomized design at 60 and 70°C and their drying characteristics such as rate of drying, moisture diffusivity, re-hydration ratio, and coefficient of re-hydration were studied. The moisture content of the fresh ripe bananas for both the untreated and treated samples was found to be in the range of 75-77% (w b which reduced to 16.8 to 27% after oven drying for various thicknesses and temperatures of air drying for 16 hours. The moisture diffusivity during oven drying varied from 7.89E-5 to 14.94E-5 m/s2, and increased with drying air temperature. The 5 mm thick slices at a drying air temperature of 70 dried better than the others and resulted in about 13% savings in time. The minimum re-hydration ratio of 1.215 was obtained for 7 mm thick slices treated with ascorbic acid and the maximum re-hydration ratio of 1.716 was obtained for lemon juice samples. This means that the lemon juice treated dried bananas will reconstitute more moisture when exposed to air.

Abano E. E.

2011-03-01

278

Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized fourier slice theorem.  

Science.gov (United States)

For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension. PMID:25080112

Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

2014-01-01

279

Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti / Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verifi [...] cada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6%) resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas). Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's pub [...] lic health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6%) were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P

Chaylah J., Lomotey; Judy, Lewis; Bette, Gebrian; Royneld, Bourdeau; Kevin, Dieckhaus; Juan C., Salazar.

280

Status of post-quake reconstruction project and scheduled introduction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at the multi tandem accelerator facility, the University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. We have mapped out a strategy for the post-quake reconstruction project. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator at the 2nd experimental room instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. A new accelerator system will consist of a horizontal type 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources and the polarized ion source which will be moved from the 9th floor to a new experimental booth on the ground, an accelerator mass spectrometry system and an ion beam analysis system. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the 2nd experimental room to the present experimental facilities at the 1st experimental room. The new AMS system will be capable of measuring environmental levels for long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I. The new IBA system will be equipped with a high-precision five-axis goniometer. The 6 MV tandem accelerator will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The beam delivery will start on September 2014. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Detection of chronic wasting disease in the lymph nodes of free-ranging cervids by real-time quaking-induced conversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer, elk, and moose, is the only prion disease affecting free-ranging animals. Since the disease was first identified in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming in 1967, new epidemic foci of the disease have been identified in 20 additional states, as well as two Canadian provinces and the Republic of South Korea. Identification of CWD-affected animals currently requires postmortem analysis of brain or lymphoid tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with no practical way to evaluate potential strain types or to investigate the epidemiology of existing or novel foci of disease. Using a standardized real-time (RT)-quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assay, a seeded amplification assay employing recombinant prion protein as a conversion substrate and thioflavin T (ThT) as an amyloid-binding fluorophore, we analyzed, in a blinded manner, 1,243 retropharyngeal lymph node samples from white-tailed deer, mule deer, and moose, collected in the field from areas with current or historic CWD endemicity. RT-QuIC results were then compared with those obtained by conventional IHC and ELISA, and amplification metrics using ThT and thioflavin S were examined in relation to the clinical history of the sampled deer. The results indicate that RT-QuIC is useful for both identifying CWD-infected animals and facilitating epidemiological studies in areas in which CWD is endemic or not endemic. PMID:24958799

Haley, Nicholas J; Carver, Scott; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Henderson, Davin M; Davenport, Kristen A; Bunting, Elizabeth; Gray, Shawn; Trindle, Bruce; Galeota, Judith; LeVan, Ivy; Dubovos, Tracy; Shelton, Paul; Hoover, Edward A

2014-09-01

282

Current economic and sensitivity analysis for ID slicing of 4 inch and 6 inch diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The economics and sensitivities of slicing large diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications were examined. Current economics and slicing add on cost sensitivities are calculated using variable parameters for blade life, slicing yield, and slice cutting speed. It is indicated that cutting speed has the biggest impact on slicing add on cost, followed by slicing yield, and by blade life as the blade life increases.

Roberts, E. G.; Johnson, C. M.

1982-02-01

283

Current economic and sensitivity analysis for ID slicing of 4 inch and 6 inch diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The economics and sensitivities of slicing large diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications were examined. Current economics and slicing add on cost sensitivities are calculated using variable parameters for blade life, slicing yield, and slice cutting speed. It is indicated that cutting speed has the biggest impact on slicing add on cost, followed by slicing yield, and by blade life as the blade life increases.

Roberts, E. G.; Johnson, C. M.

1982-01-01

284

Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices  

Keywords: apple slices; osmo-dehydration; freeze drying; carboxyl methyl cellulose coating; drying kinetics ...and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied.In total, nine ...the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices.It was observed that increase in

285

Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the response and recovery phases. Our team consists of experts in natural hazards, public health, shelter and infrastructure, education, and security. We are performing a network analysis based on the content of news and situation reports in media and from UN and aid agencies, field reports by academics and organizations like EERI, and discussions with agencies in Haiti. During three trips to Haiti, we have documented what information was being collected by key stakeholders including government, United Nations, non-governmental organizations, and both domestic and international educational institutions. Insights gained from this analysis of disaster response and recovery operations are invaluable in informing the next state of risk reduction, the transition to a sustainable recovery in a damaged region.

McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

2010-12-01

286

Implementation of an Alert and Response System in Haiti during the Early Stage of the Response to the Cholera Epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and 22, and the information did not become available until EWs 23 and 24, when the peak of cases had already been reached. Although many of the partners reporting alerts during the peak of the cholera epidemic have since left Haiti, the A&R System has continued to function as an Early Warning (EWARN) System, and it continues to be developed with recent activities, such as the distribution of cell phones to enhance alert communication. PMID:24106196

Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

2013-01-01

287

CONTESTED STATEHOOD AND STATE-BUILDING IN HAITI / Estatalidad en disputa y construcción del Estado en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiende un puente entre los debates globales y específicos de Haití sobre estatalidad, la economía política de la (de)formación del Estado y la conceptualización y medición de dichosfenómenos. Basándose en datos y literatura secundaria sobre Haití, pero sin circunscribirse a este [...] caso, el presente artículo sostiene que a pesar de los rasgos característicos del Estado extremadamente débil de Haití, dicho caso puede ser comparado productivamente con una serie de otros estados, que van desde estados débiles a relativamente fuertes, en América Latina y el Caribe. En el proceso, el artículo sugiere considerar a los niveles de soberanía como una dimensión integral de la estatalidad en la región, pero también en otras partes del mundo. El artículo demuestra la relevancia de conceptos utilizados en otros artículos de este volumen, como el de "debilidad por diseno", para el caso de Haití. El artículo concluye sugiriendo que sería útil ir más allá de las teorías neoweberianas, por ejemplo incorporando análisis críticos feministas, para entender las diferentes caras de la debilidad estatal y su construcción social en la región. Abstract in english This article bridges global and Haiti-specific debates on statehood, the political economy of state and state (de)formation, as well as the conceptualization and measurement of those phenomena. Drawing on data sets and secondary literatures from Haiti and beyond, it argues that despite the unique fe [...] atures of the extremely weak state in Haiti, that case can usefully be compared to the range of weak to fairly strong states in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the process, the article makes a case for considering degrees of sovereignty as an integral dimension of statehood in the region and elsewhere. It demonstrates the relevance of concepts used in other articles in this volume, such as 'weakness by design', in the Haitian case. The article ends by suggesting that it would be useful to look beyond neo-Weberian theories, for example by incorporating critical feminist analysis, to understand the different faces of state weakness and their social construction in the region.

STEPHEN, BARANYI.

288

Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10?days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

Wampler Peter J

2013-01-01

289

The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center database. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti. Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed. This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broad based view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level te

290

The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center data base. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti.Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed.This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broadbased view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level teach

291

Psychological work in humanitarian emergencies in Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo: some considerations based on two work experiences Intervenção psicológica em emergências humanitárias no Haiti e na República Democrática do Congo: considerações baseadas em duas experiências de trabalho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the description of two examples of psychological interventions in humanitarian emergencies, this article aims to problematize the work of the psychologist in those situations. The concepts of "humanitarianism" and "emergency" are discussed based on two interventions made in Haiti and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In both countries the mental health interventions happened inside a humanitarian organization and the objective of those interventions was to offer psychosocial support to the population of concern through a national mental health team. Cultural specificities, as well as theoretical and methodological challenges to the work of the psychologist in those situations are presented, especially those related to moral issues, to gender-based conflicts and to the insertion of the psychological work in a context where there is very little institutional support. Considerations related to theories and techniques of the area are presented, emphasizing the importance of interpreting the contents of the discourses taking into account the culture from where each person comes.Por meio da descrição de dois exemplos de intervenções de saúde mental em emergências humanitárias, esta reflexão visa problematizar o trabalho do psicólogo nestas situações. Os conceitos de "humanitário" e de "emergência" são discutidos à luz dos trabalhos realizados na República Democrática do Congo e no Haiti. Em ambos os países, as intervenções de saúde mental se deram por meio de uma organização humanitária internacional e nos dois casos, o objetivo era oferecer apoio psicológico à população em conjunto com uma equipe nacional formada por profissionais de diferentes áreas. Em ambos os casos, as especificidades culturais, assim como os desafios teóricos e metodológicos da ação do psicólogo são apresentados, notadamente as questões morais, de gênero e de inscrição do trabalho psicológico em contextos de grande carência de redes e de seguridade social. Por fim, são apresentadas considerações a respeito de algumas teorias e técnicas já descritas para este tipo de atuação psicológica, enfatizando-se a importância da escuta e da ressignificação dentro do contexto cultural de cada sujeito.

Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub

2011-09-01

292

Verification-Driven Slicing of UML/OCL Models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Model defects are a significant concern in the Model-Driven Development (MDD) paradigm, as model transformations and code generation may propagate errors to other notations where they are harder to detect and trace. Formal verification techniques can check the correctness of a model, but their high computational complexity can limit their scalability. In this paper, we consider a specific static model (UML class diagrams annotated with unrestricted OCL constraints) and a specific property to verify (satisfiability, i.e., “is it possible to create objects without violating any constraint?”). Current approaches to this problem have an exponential worst-case runtime. We propose a technique to improve their scalability by partitioning the original model into submodels (slices) which can be verified independently and where irrelevant information has been abstracted. The definition of the slicing procedure ensures that the property under verification is preserved after partitioning.

Shaikh, Asadullah; Clarisó Viladrosa, Robert

2010-01-01

293

16-slices helical CT features of torsion of ovarian tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the CT 16-slices helical features of torsion of ovarian tumor. Methods: CT manifestations of torsion of ovarian tumor in 12 cases proven by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of 12 cases, the tube thickening was found on the twisted side in 9. Ten of the ovarian tumors were cystic or cystic-solid, which proved eccentric wall thickening in 7 cases. Five cystic or cystic-solid tumors were lack of enhancement after contrast administration. No enhancement was seen after injecting contrast agent in 2 solid masses. Ascites was present in 5 patients. Deviation of uterus to the side of the twisted ovarian was noted in 7 patients. Conclusion: Three findings (tube thickening, smooth wall thickening and lack of contrast enhancement of the internal solid component or the thickened wall) seem to be diagnostic for the twisted ovarian tumor. 16-slices helical CT imaging may be more helpful in detecting a thickened tube. (authors)

294

Generalized projection-slice theorem for fan beam diffraction tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A generalized projection-slice theorem is derived for transmission fan beam diffraction tomography within the Born or Rytov approximations. The development is based on the use of the so-called paraxial approximation which requires that the object being probed subtend a small angle relative to the source point and to the measurement plane. Within this approximation it is shown that the transmitted field measured over a plane surface located on the opposite side of the object from the insonifying point source determines the three-dimensional spatial Fourier transform of the object profile over the surface of an ellipsoid of revolution in Fourier space. In the special case where the point source is in the far field of the object the semiaxes of the ellipsoid become equal and the surface degenerates to a sphere and the result reduces to the usual projection-slice theorem of plane beam diffraction tomography. PMID:4095825

Devaney, A J

1985-07-01

295

CONDITIONED SLICING FOR EFFICIENT MULTIWAY DECISION GRAPHS MODEL-CHECKER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating formal verification techniques into the hardware design process provides the means to rigorously prove critical properties. However, most automatic verification techniques, such as model checking, are only effectively applicable to designs of limited sizes due to the state explosion problem. The Multiway Decision Graphs (MDG method is an efficient method to define hardware designs into more abstract environments; however, the MDG model checker (MDG-MC still suffers from the state explosion problem. Furthermore, all the backward reduction algorithms cannot be used in MDG, due to the presence of abstract state variables. In this study, an efficient extractor for MDG Hardware Descrpiton Languge (MDG-HDL is introduced based on static (SS-MDG and conditioned (CS-MDG program slicing techniques. The techniques can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. The main advantages of these techniques are: It has no MDG-HDL coding style limitation, it is accurate and it is competent in dealing with various MDG-HDL constructions. The main motivation for introducing this approach is to tackle the state explosion problem of MDG-MC that big MDG-HDL may cause. We apply our proposed techniques on different MDG-HDL designs and our analyses have shown that the proposed reduction techniques resulted in significantly improved performance of the MDG-MC. In this study, we present a general idea of program slicing, a discussion of how to slice MDG-HDL programs, implementation of the tool and a brief overview of some applications and experimental results. The underlying method and the tool based on it need to be empirically evaluated when applying to various applications.

Saad Elmansori

2013-01-01

296

Biosensor measurement of purine release from cerebellar cultures and slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have previously described an action-potential and Ca2+-dependent form of adenosine release in the molecular layer of cerebellar slices. The most likely source of the adenosine is the parallel fibres, the axons of granule cells. Using microelectrode biosensors, we have therefore investigated whether cultured granule cells (from postnatal day 7–8 rats) can release adenosine. Although no purine release could be detected in response to focal electrical stimulation, purine (adenosine, inosine...

Wall, Mark; Eason, Robert; Dale, Nicholas

2010-01-01

297

Consistent Evolution with Different Time-Slicings in Quantum Gravity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rovelli's `` quantum mechanics without time'' motivates an intrinsically time-slicing independent picture of reduced phase space quantum gravity, which may be described as ``quantization after evolution''. Sufficient criteria for carrying out quantization after evolution are developed in terms of a general concept of the classical limit of quantum mechanics. If these criteria are satisfied then it is possible to have consistent unitary evolution of operators, with respect to...

Cosgrove, R.

1995-01-01

298

Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin barium titanate films, 0.5-8 ?m thick, are obtained from a single-crystal bulk sample using ion slicing. The process, based on ion implantation and anodic bonding, separates thin films having areas of ?1x1 cm2, from bulk crystals. The quality of the film is characterized by measurement of surface roughness and dielectric properties. The film permittivity retains its single-crystal value

299

Strategies for spectroscopy on Extremely Large Telescopes - I. Image slicing  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the problems of producing spectrographs for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) is that the beam size is required to scale with telescope aperture if all other parameters are held constant, leading to enormous size and implied cost. This is a particular problem for image sizes much larger than the diffraction limit, as is likely to be the case if Adaptive Optics systems are not initially able to deliver highly corrected images over the full field of the instrument or if signal/noise considerations require large spatial samples. In this case, there is a potential advantage in image slicing to reduce the effective slitwidth and hence the beam size. However, this implies larger detectors and oversizing of the optics which may cancel out the advantage. By the means of a toy model of a spectrograph whose dimensions are calibrated using existing instruments, the size and relative cost of spectrographs for ELTs have been estimated. Using a range of scaling laws derived from the reference instruments, it is possible to estimate the uncertainties in the predictions and to explore the consequences of different design strategies. The model predicts major cost savings (2-100×) by slicing with factors of 5-20 depending on the type of spectrograph. The predictions suggest that it is better to accommodate the multiplicity of slices within a single spectrograph rather than distribute them among smaller, cheaper replicas in a parallel architecture, but the replication option provides an attractive upgrade path to integral field spectroscopy (IFS) as the input image quality is improved. Another major issue is whether the camera speed should be adapted to minimize the cost of the detector, or conversely, the camera simplified by means of redundant oversampling which requires larger detector formats. This tradeoff is the main reason for the minimum in the size and cost predictions for moderate slicing.

Allington-Smith, J. R.

2007-04-01

300

Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10-10 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Building damage assessment after the earthquake in Haiti using two post-event satellite stereo imagery and DSMs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a novel disaster building damage monitoring method is presented. This method combines the multispectral imagery and DSMs from stereo matching to obtain three kinds of changes. The proposed method contains three basic steps. The first step is to segment the panchromatic images to get the smallest possible homogeneous regions. In the second step, based on a rule based classification using change information from Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) and height, the changes are classified to ruined buildings, new buildings, and changes without height change (mainly temporary residential area, etc. tents). In the last step, a region based grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measurement is used to refine the third change class. The method is applied to building change detection after the Haiti earthquake.

Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

2013-01-01

302

Infrared microspectrometric characterizations and thermoluminescent properties for natural quartz slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blue thermoluminescence (BTL) phenomena from natural quartz have been attributed to the recombination of Al-hole centers with electrons released from trapped sites. The Al-impurity contents, however, inversely correlate with the BTL-intensity. To approach this interesting correlation, two kinds of quartz slice samples have been studied by the two-dimensional distribution of OH impurity: color center (CC) patterns and thermoluminescence color images (TLCI). Microscopically scanning infrared-spectroscopy showed the presence of Al-OH and Li dependent Al-OH species in natural quartz slice. Brazilian quartz gave a relatively homogeneous distribution of Al-OH as well as CC and BTL patterns. On the other hand, a Madagascan quartz slice offered heterogeneous growth patterns of Al-OH and Li-dependent Al-OH impurity contents, reflecting on unexpectedly inverse correlation of the CC and BTL distributions. These results suggest that mobile hydrogen atoms or hydrogen radicals, produced from the radiolysis of the Al-OH, could operate as a quencher of Al-hole centers for radiation-induced phenomena in quartz. The effects of the Al-hole center influenced by active hydrogen radicals were also confirmed from the difference of the Al-OH concentrations between room-temperature and liquid-nitrogen-temperature irradiations. (author)

303

Fast and precise thermoregulation system in physiological brain slice experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a fast and precise thermoregulation system incorporated within a physiological experiment on a brain slice. The thermoregulation system is used to control the temperature of a recording chamber in which the brain slice is placed. It consists of a single-chip microcomputer, a set command module, a display module, and an FLC module. A fuzzy control algorithm was developed and a fuzzy logic controller then designed for achieving fast, smooth thermostatic performance and providing precise temperature control with accuracy to 0.1 °C, from room temperature through 42 °C (experimental temperature range). The fuzzy logic controller is implemented by microcomputer software and related peripheral hardware circuits. Six operating modes of thermoregulation are offered with the system and this can be further extended according to experimental needs. The test results of this study demonstrate that the fuzzy control method is easily implemented by a microcomputer and also verifies that this method provides a simple way to achieve fast and precise high-performance control of a nonlinear thermoregulation system in a physiological brain slice experiment.

Sheu, Y. H.; Young, M. S.

1995-12-01

304

Single-breath-hold multiple-slice DENSE MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to acquire multiple displacement encoded slices within a single breath hold is presented. Efficiency is improved over conventional DENSE without compromising image quality by readout of multiple slices in the same cardiac cycle, thus utilizing the position-encoded stimulated echo available in the whole heart. The method was evaluated by comparing strain values obtained using the proposed method to strain values obtained by conventional separate breath-hold single-slice DENSE acquisitions. Good agreement (Lagrangian E(2) strain bias = 0.000, 95% limits of agreement +/- 0.04, root-mean-square-difference 0.02 [9.4% of mean end-systolic E(2)]) was found between the methods, indicating that the proposed method can replace a multiple breath-hold acquisition. Eliminating the need for multiple breath holds reduces the risk of changes in breath-hold positions or heart rate, results in higher patient comfort, and facilitates inclusion of DENSE in a clinical routine protocol. PMID:20432313

Sigfridsson, Andreas; Haraldsson, Henrik; Ebbers, Tino; Knutsson, Hans; Sakuma, Hajime

2010-05-01

305

The multisectoral approach to HIV/AIDS program in Haiti: a critical review of the actors involved in its governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SummaryAim: The multisectoral approach is often adopted in national policies of fight against AIDS. This article analyzes the characteristics of the actors’ network and their influence on the governance of the HIV program in Haiti.Methods: The qualitative data comes from interviews, observations and documentation. For their analysis, two techniques are used: namely thematic and structural analysis. The interpretation of results is based on the theory of the strategic actor (Crozier M, et al. L’acteur et le système : les contraintes de l’action collective. Paris : Ed. du Seuil ; 1977 [1] and the theory of network governance. These concepts allow to study and have an insight on the participants’ potential power, their strategies and interactions within the network. Results: These actors, with their diversity, the resources they control, and the nature of their interactions, determine the challenges regarding governance. There is a gap between the leadership role attributed to the national coordinating body and the true and actual nature of its influence within the network. This discrepancy is mainly attributable to the fact that its potential power, defined by available resources, places it in a weak position, which as a result translates into its incapacity to effectively impact the situations at hand. The study reveals the links between the actors’ characteristics and their ability to influence the process of governance through the web of relationships and the structure of power game. Conclusion: In Haiti, many actors are involved in the fight against HIV. The analysis of the complex network they operate within has shown that their potential to influence the program were uneven. This constitutes an important challenge for the national coordinating body. Prat Organ Soins. 2012;43(2:131-141

Foro A

2012-04-01

306

Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient screening of genome supercontig assemblies. These loci are suitable for genetic and population studies using multiplex-PCR.

Streit Thomas G

2009-12-01

307

Surgery under extreme conditions in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the importance of regional anesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 earthquake that struck Port-au-Prince, Haiti caused >200,000 deaths, thousands of injuries requiring immediate surgical interventions, and 1.5 million internally displaced survivors. The earthquake destroyed or disabled most medical facilities in the city, seriously hampering the ability to deliver immediate life- and limb-saving surgical care. A Project Medishare/University of Miami Miller School of Medicine trauma team deployed to Haiti from Miami within 24 hours of the earthquake. The team began work at a pre-existing tent facility in the United Nations (UN) compound based at the airport, where they encountered 225 critically injured patients. However, non-sterile conditions, no means to administer oxygen, the lack of surgical equipment and supplies, and no anesthetics precluded the immediate delivery of general anesthesia. Despite these limitations, resuscitative care was administered, and during the first 72 hours following the event, some amputations were performed with local anesthesia. Because of these austere conditions, an anesthesiologist, experienced and equipped to administer regional block anesthesia, was dispatched three days later to perform anesthesia for limb amputations, debridements, and wound care using single shot block anesthesia until a better equipped tent facility was established. After four weeks, the relief effort evolved into a 250-bed, multi-specialty trauma/intensive care center staffed with >200 medical, nursing, and administrative staff. Within that timeframe, the facility and its staff completed 1,000 surgeries, including spine and pediatric neurological procedures, without major complications. This experience suggests that when local emergency medical resources are completely destroyed or seriously disabled, a surgical team staffed and equipped to provide regional nerve block anesthesia and acute pain management can be dispatched rapidly to serve as a bridge to more advanced field surgical and intensive care, which takes longer to deploy and set up. PMID:21181680

Missair, Andres; Gebhard, Ralf; Pierre, Edgar; Cooper, Lebron; Lubarsky, David; Frohock, Jeffery; Pretto, Ernesto A

2010-01-01

308

[HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Haiti: the failure of epidemic governance and achievement of the MDGs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since their adoption in 2000 by the United Nations, the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015 appear to have become a part of the policy agenda of all of the member states. Three of these eight objectives deal with health issues. "Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases": this is the formulation of the sixth MDG. Observing that in many countries strongly affected by poverty and inequalities, the epidemic continues to spread, without really reversing at all, and that access to antiretrovirals is possible for only a small proportion of the patient who need them, we consider the problems of global governance in the field of health. Our intention is to explain that the failure to deal with the HIV/AIDS epidemic may constitute an obstacle to the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. Proposing a comprehensive sociology of HIV/AIDS, this article pays special attention to the dimension of the meaning of the disease, simultaneously as a policy issue, a social construction, and an object of study in the social sciences. Looking at the two countries most affected by the epidemic in Africa and in the Caribbean, we examine the different aspects that have determined the failure of governance and the effects of this failure on the populations concerned. The excessive conflictuality in South Africa and the biopolitics of "let them die" and the fragmentation of the networks involved in the combat in Haiti are considered to have contributed to a crisis in the epidemic's governance. In both cases, the consequences have been expressed by a reduced life expectancy, insufficient access to antiretroviral drugs, reinforcement of the socioeconomic inequalities of health, the production of new pockets of poverty, more fragile household and national economies, an increase in maternal and child mortality ... The failure of the governance of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries such as Haiti and South Africa appears to foretell the impossibility of achieving the MDGs by 2015. PMID:20185388

Thelot, Fils-Lien Ely

2009-01-01

309

Geochemical Uniformity over 30 Million Years of Volcanic Activity in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province: Evidence from Curacao and Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) lavas, dikes, and sills from Curacao and Haiti record almost 30 million years of volcanism, beginning at ~93 Ma and continuing until ~63 Ma, with peak activity at 93-90, 86-85, 80-76 and 66-63 Ma. A variety of rock types are apparent. Despite the significant age range evident in our sample set, which includes picritic to tholeitic pillow lavas, thick hyaloclastite sequences, and poikolitic sills, compositions show only subtle compositional differences between groups of different age. Most whole rock samples appear to derive from a similar mantle source peridotite and to have undergone a common set differentiation processes (primarily partial melting followed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase). The recognition of this range of ages and compositional similarities poses important questions for the extent and cause of CLIP magmatism. We present new 40Ar-39Ar ages and major and trace elements for whole rock, minerals and glass samples from throughout the exposed volcanic sections at the two locations. Hyaloclastite glasses have also been analyzed by FTIR for volatile abundances. Unlike major element compositions of whole rock samples, major element and volatile analyses of hyaloclastite glasses reveal the presence of at least three distinct magma series. In addition, variations in Cl and Cl/K suggest that differences exist in the degree to which magmatic systems interact with seawater-derived components. One He-isotopic analysis from a Haiti picrite (3He/4He = 12.3 Ra) is consistent with other isotopic evidence for a significant mantle plume contribution to CLIP construction. Future work will focus on trace element modeling to further constrain magma sources and extents of melting, and on expanding the number of samples for which we have age control.

Loewen, M. W.; Kent, A. J.; Duncan, R. A.; Krawl, K.; Michael, P. J.; Graham, D. W.

2012-12-01

310

Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Background On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Design The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1) individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2) aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03), and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01) and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001). The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis. PMID:25103146

Puttkammer, Nancy H.; Zeliadt, Steven B.; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet G.; Destine, Rodney; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Duvilaire, Jean Marie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

2014-01-01

311

Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives: This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART program. Design: The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1 individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2 aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods: The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results: Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03, and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01 and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001. The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion: These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis.

Nancy H. Puttkammer

2014-08-01

312

The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

1992-01-01

313

Conformational properties of prion strains can be transmitted to recombinant prion protein fibrils in real-time quaking-induced conversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of prion strains with distinct biological characteristics has been hypothesized to be involved in the structural diversity of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)). However, the molecular basis of the transmission of strain properties remains poorly understood. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) is a cell-free system that uses Escherichia coli-derived recombinant PrP (rPrP) for the sensitive detection of PrP(Sc). To investigate whether the properties of various prion strains can be transmitted to amyloid fibrils consisting of rPrP (rPrP fibrils) using RT-QUIC, we examined the secondary structure, conformational stability, and infectivity of rPrP fibrils seeded with PrP(Sc) derived from either the Chandler or the 22L strain. In the first round of the reaction, there were differences in the secondary structures, especially in bands attributed to ?-sheets, as determined by infrared spectroscopy, and conformational stability between Chandler-seeded (1st-rPrP-fib(Ch)) and 22L-seeded (1st-rPrP-fib(22L)) rPrP fibrils. Of note, specific identifying characteristics of the two rPrP fibril types seen in the ?-sheets resembled those of the original PrP(Sc). Furthermore, the conformational stability of 1st-rPrP-fib(Ch) was significantly higher than that of 1st-rPrP-fib(22L), as with Chandler and 22L PrP(Sc). The survival periods of mice inoculated with 1st-rPrP-fib(Ch) or 1st-rPrP-fib(22L) were significantly shorter than those of mice inoculated with mixtures from the mock 1st-round RT-QUIC procedure. In contrast, these biochemical characteristics were no longer evident in subsequent rounds, suggesting that nonspecific uninfected rPrP fibrils became predominant probably because of their high growth rate. Together, these findings show that at least some strain-specific conformational properties can be transmitted to rPrP fibrils and unknown cofactors or environmental conditions may be required for further conservation. Importance: The phenomenon of prion strains with distinct biological characteristics is assumed to result from the conformational variations in the abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)). However, important questions remain about the mechanistic relationship between the conformational differences and the strain diversity, including how strain-specific conformations are transmitted. In this study, we investigated whether the properties of diverse prion strains can be transmitted to amyloid fibrils consisting of E. coli-derived recombinant PrP (rPrP) generated by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC), a recently developed in vitro PrP(Sc) formation method. We demonstrate that at least some of the strain-specific conformational properties can be transmitted to rPrP fibrils in the first round of RT-QUIC by examining the secondary structure, conformational stability, and infectivity of rPrP fibrils seeded with PrP(Sc) derived from either the Chandler or the 22L prion strain. We believe that these findings will advance our understanding of the conformational basis underlying prion strain diversity. PMID:25078700

Sano, Kazunori; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Satoh, Katsuya; Nishida, Noriyuki

2014-10-01

314

Comparison of the low-cost MEMS accelerometers used by the Quake-Catcher Network and traditional strong motion seismic sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerometers based on low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have improved swiftly, making the rapid deployment of dense seismic arrays possible. For example, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) makes use of MEMS-based tri-axial sensors installed in homes and businesses to record earthquakes, with almost 2000 participants worldwide. QCN utilizes an open-source distributed-computing system, called the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), to retrieve waveforms from continuous or triggered recordings back to the QCN server. Furthermore, the QCN approach can also be used to augment existing seismic networks for rapid-earthquake detection purposes, as well as studies on seismic source- and site-related phenomena. Following the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array to record the on-going aftershock sequence in and around the city of Christchurch. We examine the peak ground motions recorded during a M5.1 aftershock and find that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is spatially variable, but with a clear decay in amplitude with distance. In general, closely located GeoNet and QCN stations report similar PGA. Several QCN stations were located within 1 km of existing GeoNet stations, providing an opportunity to compare time series and amplitude spectra. For these closely spaced pairs of stations, the amplitude spectra observed from the horizontal components are highly correlated with average cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 or higher. In addition, we find the correlation coefficient decreases with increasing distance between station pairs. In future work we will compare the instrumental sensitivity between traditional and MEMS-based sensors by conducting shake table tests of five different types of MEMS sensors at the Albuquerque Seismic Lab.

Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Chung, A. I.; Evans, J. R.

2011-12-01

315

Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women’s health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability place...

Fawzi, M. C. Smith; Lambert, W.; Singler, J. M.; Tanagho, Y.; Le?andre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M. S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Mukherjee, J. S.; Goldie, S.; Salazar, J. J.; Farmer, P. E.

2005-01-01

316

Evolution of carbohydrates of pre-cut mango slices subjected to osmotic dehydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haden mango slices (non-osmotic dehydrated, NOD) were immersed in calcium chloride (2 g/l), citric acid (5 g/l), hydrogen peroxide (25 ml/l) and sodium benzoate (20 g/l) solutions. Slices to be treated with osmotic dehydration (OD) were first immersed in calcium, then placed in the osmotic solution (sucrose 65 degrees Bx, 30 degrees C) and 211 mbar vacuum was applied for 30 min. After the osmotic treatment, the slices were immersed in the same solutions as for NOD slices. All the slices were stored in sterile chambers at 24, 13 or 5 degrees C. Both OD and NOD slices displayed sucrose synthesis (SS) during storage, which was highest in NOD slices that were kept at 13 degrees C. Sucrose synthesis was the most significant change during ripening of whole mangoes (WM). Starch breakdown could not supply the necessary substrates for sucrose synthesis in either whole mangoes or slices. Injured tissues from mango slices sustained sucrose synthesis, which was highest at 13 degrees C in NOD slices, but the osmotic treatment decreased sucrose formation. Storage at 5 degrees C for 12 days affected sucrose content of Haden mangoes. Glucose and fructose concentrations remained low in all treatments. PMID:16395629

Tovar, Beatríz; García, Hugo S; Mata, Miguel

2005-12-01

317

A multiscale slice model for continuous casting of steel  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple Lagrange-an traveling slice model has been applied for the prediction of the relations between process parameters, macrosegregation and solidification grain structure formation (equiaxed to columnar and columnar to equiaxed transition) during the continuous casting process of steel billets. The main advantage of the slice model is its very fast calculation time in comparison with the complete 3D heat and fluid flow model which might need calculation time, measured in days. The slice models thus allows for fast optimisation and even for on-line simulation. The heat and species transfer models are based on the mixture continuum assumptions with Lever solidification rule and enhanced thermal and solutal diffusivities for heuristic accounting of fluid flow effects. The grain structure evolution model is based on the Gaussian nucleation rule, and KGT growth model, coupled to the macroscopic heat and species transfer models. The heat and species transfer models are solved by the meshless technique by using local collocation with radial basis functions. The grain structure evolution model is solved by the point automata technique, a novel meshless variant of the cellular automata method. A comparison of the results with the experimental data for steel grade 51CrV4 is shown in terms of macrosegregation and grain structure across the billet. Simulations and comparisons have been carried out for nominal casting conditions, reduced casting temperature, and reduced casting speed. The model predicts surprisingly well the qualitative features of the macrosegregation and grain structure patterns. Possible refinements of the model with respect to other physical mechanisms are discussed.

Šarler, B.; Vertnik, R.; Lorbiecka, A. Z.; Vušanovi?, I.; Sen?i?, B.

2012-07-01

318

A multiscale slice model for continuous casting of steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple Lagrange-an traveling slice model has been applied for the prediction of the relations between process parameters, macrosegregation and solidification grain structure formation (equiaxed to columnar and columnar to equiaxed transition) during the continuous casting process of steel billets. The main advantage of the slice model is its very fast calculation time in comparison with the complete 3D heat and fluid flow model which might need calculation time, measured in days. The slice models thus allows for fast optimisation and even for on-line simulation. The heat and species transfer models are based on the mixture continuum assumptions with Lever solidification rule and enhanced thermal and solutal diffusivities for heuristic accounting of fluid flow effects. The grain structure evolution model is based on the Gaussian nucleation rule, and KGT growth model, coupled to the macroscopic heat and species transfer models. The heat and species transfer models are solved by the meshless technique by using local collocation with radial basis functions. The grain structure evolution model is solved by the point automata technique, a novel meshless variant of the cellular automata method. A comparison of the results with the experimental data for steel grade 51CrV4 is shown in terms of macrosegregation and grain structure across the billet. Simulations and comparisons have been carried out for nominal casting conditions, reduced casting temperature, and reduced casticed casting temperature, and reduced casting speed. The model predicts surprisingly well the qualitative features of the macrosegregation and grain structure patterns. Possible refinements of the model with respect to other physical mechanisms are discussed.

319

Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of ?5 ns out of a cloud stretched to ?50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H2S, and the CH2OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from 3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution ?1%–2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, usion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

320

Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of ˜5 ns out of a cloud stretched to ?50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H2S, and the CH2OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from 3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution ?1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Characterization of motion artifacts in multi-slice spiral CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Motion artifacts in multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) resulting from object motion in and against the table feed direction (z-direction) are examined using a spherical phantom. For image interpretation of complex anatomic structures, qualitative reference points are, also applicable to selected, which are ECG-gated cardiac imaging. In this case the motion of the coronary vessels in phase with the cardiac contraction must be considered. Methods: Measurements are obtained with a multi-slice spiral CT with a rotation time of 500 ms for 4 x 1.0 mm and 2 x 0.5 mm collimation. The phantom consists of an acrylic glass body with imbedded glass beads of 1, 2, and 3 mm diameter. The object motion is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 5 mm and frequencies of 60/min and 90/min. Compensation of the table feed by object motion is examined as a special case. Results: Small parameter changes can induce a strikingly different image quality, and the moving objects emerge in different slices. Depending on the phase of the movement with respect to the CT scan, objects up to a size of 3 mm can vanish completely or appear hyperintense in the image. The model investigated is also applicable to ECG-gated cardiac imaging for the detection of stenosis. It can explain variations in the reproducibility and absolute score values of the calcium scoring. Conclusion: The presented considerations and results must be taken into account in image interpretation with possible object motion in the z-direction. Variations in the determination of the degree of stenosis or in calcium score measurements can be explained by different vessel motion during the diastolic heart phase. (orig.)

322

Slice-selective excitation with B??-insensitive composite pulses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially selective excitation pulses have been designed to produce uniform flip angles in the presence of the RF and static field inhomogeneities typically encountered in MRI studies of the human brain at 7 T. Pulse designs are based upon non-selective, composite pulses numerically optimized for the desired performance over prescribed ranges of field inhomogeneities. The non-selective pulses are subsequently transformed into spatially selective pulses with the same field-insensitive properties through modification of the spectral composition of the individual sub-pulses which are then executed in conjunction with an oscillating gradient waveform. An in-depth analysis of the performance of these RF pulses is presented in terms of total pulse durations, slice profiles, linearity of in-slice magnetization phase, sensitivity to RF and static field variations, and signal loss due to T(2) effects. Both simulations and measurements in phantoms and in the human brain are used to evaluate pulses with nominal flip angles of 45° and 90°. Target slice thickness in all cases is 2mm. Results indicate that the described class of field-insensitive RF pulses is capable of improving flip-angle uniformity in 7 T human brain imaging. There appears to be a subset of pulses with durations ?10 ms for which non-linearities in the magnetization phase are minimal and signal loss due to T(2) decay is not prohibitive. Such pulses represent practical solutions for achieving uniform flip angles in the presence of the large field inhomogeneities common to high-field human imaging and help to better establish the performance limits of high-field imaging systems with single-channel transmission. PMID:22177383

Moore, Jay; Jankiewicz, Marcin; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

2012-01-01

323

Tracks in a small slice of the NA49 TPC  

CERN Multimedia

An event display of the data recorder by the six readout chambers of the Vertex TPC. After amplification the drifting ionization is detected in small pads of 3x20 mm (small rectangles in the six readout chambers) at 10 nanosecond intervals. Only a two centimeter slice of the data is projected here while the full depth of the TPC is about 80 cm. A complicated analysis on those data aims into ``reconstructing'' the real trajectories of the charged particles that crossed the TPC.

1996-01-01

324

Measurement of Slice-Emmittance using Transverse Deflecting Structure  

CERN Document Server

Among the very critical parameters for the operation of the VUV-FEL at DESY are the slice-emmittance and beam optics matching of the current peak in the electron bunch. Conventional tools for measuring the beam size are sensitive to the projected properties of the bunch only and hence suffer from mixing of different parts of the bunch. A combination of streaking with a transverse deflecting rf structure (LOLA) and a quadrupole scan allowed to measure the spike separate from the rest of the bunch. Indeed significant differences in terms of emmittance and optical functions have been found.

Roehrs, M; Hüning, M; Schlarb, H

2005-01-01

325

Transverse-Longitudinal Coupling Effect in Laser Bunch Slicing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report turn-by-turn observation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by the laser bunch slicing technique at an electron storage ring operated with a small momentum compaction factor. CSR emission was intermittent, and its interval depended strongly on the betatron tune. This peculiar behavior of the CSR could be interpreted as a result of coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of the electrons. This is the first observation of such an effect, which would be important not only for controlling the CSR emission but also for generating and transporting ultrashort electron bunches or electron bunches with microdensity structures in advanced accelerators.

326

Transverse-Longitudinal Coupling Effect in Laser Bunch Slicing  

Science.gov (United States)

We report turn-by-turn observation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by the laser bunch slicing technique at an electron storage ring operated with a small momentum compaction factor. CSR emission was intermittent, and its interval depended strongly on the betatron tune. This peculiar behavior of the CSR could be interpreted as a result of coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of the electrons. This is the first observation of such an effect, which would be important not only for controlling the CSR emission but also for generating and transporting ultrashort electron bunches or electron bunches with microdensity structures in advanced accelerators.

Shimada, M.; Katoh, M.; Adachi, M.; Tanikawa, T.; Kimura, S.; Hosaka, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Takahashi, T.

2009-10-01

327

Virtual colonoscopy with multi-slice computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subject: Using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) large body areas can scanned with high spatial resolution. In this study, MSCT was employed for virtual colonoscopy in various pathologies of the colon. Results: Nine polyps and four of five colon carcinomas were detected using MSCT virtual colonoscopy. In three patients with ulcerative colitis virtual coloscopy revealed morphological alterations compatible with this disease. In two of four patients with multiple diverticula of the colon the true extent of the disorder could be assessed in virtual colonoscopy. (orig.)

328

Velocity dominated singularities in the cheese slice universe  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the properties of spacetimes resulting from matching together exact solutions using the Darmois matching conditions. In particular we focus on the asymptotically velocity term dominated property (AVTD). We propose a criterion that can be used to test if a spacetime constructed from a matching can be considered AVTD. Using the Cheese Slice universe as an example, we show that a spacetime constructed from a such a matching can inherit the AVTD property from the original spacetimes. Furthermore the singularity resulting from this particular matching is an AVTD singularity.

Giang, Dan

2008-01-01

329

Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To examine the demethylation reaction of methylmercury (MeHg) in rat liver, slices prepared from MeHg-treated rats were incubated in L-15 medium under 95% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} atmosphere. During the incubation, the amount of inorganic Hg in the slices markedly increased in a time-dependent manner, although the concentration of total Hg remained unchanged. Since the C-Hg bond in MeHg was demonstrated to be cleaved by the action of some reactive oxygen species, the effects on MeHg demethylation of several reagents that could modify reactive oxygen production were examined in the present system. Methylviologen was found to be an effective enhancer of the demethylation reaction with only a minor effect on lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, ferrous ion added to the medium showed no effect on demethylation in the presence or absence of methylviologen, although lipid peroxide levels were increased significantly by ferrous ion. Similarly, deferoxamine mesylate, which effectively suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide levels, also had no effect on demethylation. Furthermore, hydroxy radical scavengers, such as mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide, had no effect on inorganic Hg production. Rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system, increased levels of both inorganic Hg and lipid peroxide. However, other inhibitors, such as antimycin A, myxothiazole and NaCN, significantly suppressed the demethylation reaction. Cell fractionation of the MeHg-treated rat liver revealed that the ratio of inorganic Hg to total Hg was highest in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, superoxide anion could degrade MeHg in an organic solvent but not in water. These results suggested that the demethylation of MeHg by the liver slice would proceed with the aid of superoxide anion produced in the electron transfer system at the hydrophobic mitochondrial inner membrane. Furthermore, the involvement of hydroxy radicals, which have been demonstrated to be effective in cleaving the C-Hg bond in the aqueous media, might be minimal. Here, we also demonstrated that liver slices are a useful experimental model for mimicking the MeHg biotransformation reaction. (orig.)

Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

2001-09-01

330

Simple Method For Stationary Organotypic Slice Culture of Hypothalamic Suprachiasmatic Nucleus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early postnatal brain tissue can be cultured in viable and healthy condition for several weeks with development and preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization as so-called organotypic brain slice cultures. The present study describes a simple method for stationary long-term organotypic culture for the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Hypothalamic brain slices from 1-12 day old mice were maintained in culture at the interface between air and culture medium. These slices were supported by Millicell filters without need for any strategies to promote adherence and incubated in Petri dishes. This model of organotypic slice culture was characterized by the simplicity of handling, high yields of viable and thin slices which remain 1-3 cell layers thick. It can be used to make organotypic slices from a range of ages, other parts of the brain and other rodent species.

Ehab TOUSSON

2009-12-01

331

Quantification and elimination of windmill artifacts in multi slice CT  

Science.gov (United States)

In multi-slice cone beam CT imaging, there are artifacts known as windmill artifacts. These artifacts are due to not satisfying the Nyquist criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. This paper quantifies and compares these artifacts as a function of the number of rows, pitch, collimation, and image thickness of the CT scanner. Scanners with rows of 16, 64 and 128 are measured and compared with simulated data, using both Helical and Axial scanning modes. In addition three focal spot switching modes are compared: the traditional within image plane mode; diagonal mode; and quad mode. All images are compared via four criteria: artifacts, MTF, SSP and noise. Results show that the frequency of the artifact, or number of blades on the windmill and magnitude of each blade, is dependent on the rate at which the rows are crossed for an image. For example, for a given pitch, doubling the rows doubles the frequency of the artifact, with each artifact approximately the magnitude. A similar result can be obtained by keeping the number of rows constant and varying the pitch. The artifact disappears as the Nyquist criteria is satisfied by either increasing the slice thickness or incorporating one of the focal spot switching modes that switch in the patient longitudinal direction. For a given MTF and SSP, the diagonal focal spot switching mode has slightly more noise while the other two are approximately equal. The artifact varies with the quad mode being the best and traditional mode being the worse.

Utrup, Steven J.; Brown, Kevin M.

2008-03-01

332

Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 ?M for hippocampus, 16.6 ?M< for cortex and 25 ?M for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

333

Cholinergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rabbit kidney slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of inositol phosphates (IP) from phosphoinositides (PI) by carbachol was studied in the tissue slices from cortex (C), outer medulla (OM) and inner medulla (IM) of rabbit kidneys. The method involved the incubation of the slices with [3H]inositol for its incorporation into the PI and measurement of the release of IP in presence of lithium which prevents dephosphorylation of IP. The results of [3H]IP formation are expressed as % of total [3H]inositol incorporation in the tissue. No significant effect of carbachol was found on the release of IP in the C. The drug produced a 48% increase in IP release in the OM. In the IM, carbachol produced a concentration dependent increase in IP release with a maximum of 772% at 1 mM. The release of IP in the IM by 1 mM carbachol was completely blocked by 1 ?M atropine. Our results indicate that IP release by carbachol is due to activation of muscarinic receptors in the IM of the rabbit kidney

334

Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration  

Science.gov (United States)

In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.

van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.

2007-03-01

335

Quality of tomato slices disinfected with ozonated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh-cut industry needs novel disinfectant to replace the use of chlorine. Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents and is applied in gaseous or aqueous form for sanitation purposes. However, the strong oxidative effect could affect the nutritional and sensorial quality, in particular, when time of washing is extended. For that reason, the overall impact of ozonated water (0.4?mg/L) dipping applied during 1, 3 and 5?min compared to control washed in water during 5?min was studied in tomato slices stored during 14 days at 5?. According to the results, ozonated water treatment of 3?min achieved the best firmness retention, microbial quality (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and yeas load) and reduced the consumption of fructose and glucose. The use of ozonated water did not affect the total acidity, pH, total solid soluble, organic acid as ascorbic, fumaric or succinic acid and the sensorial parameters, which were only affected by storage time. However, the poor appearance, aroma and overall quality obtained in all treatments prevented shelf life of 14 days and the quality at acceptable levels was established in 10 days at 5?. It is recommended to wash tomato slices with 0.4?mg/L ozonated water for 3?min only. Extending treatment duration did not improve the microbiological quality, possibly due to the extra time permitting the ozone to react with other components of the fruit tissue, undermining the antimicrobial benefits. PMID:23774605

Aguayo, Encarna; Escalona, Víctor; Silveira, Ana Cecilia; Artés, Francisco

2014-04-01

336

Warping, extra dimensions, and a slice of AdSd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum framework we consider a number of phenomenologically relevant model-building questions on a slice of compactified AdSd for d>5. Such spaces are interesting as they enable one to realize the weak scale via warping. We perform the Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction for gravitons and bulk vectors in these spaces, and for the case of AdS6 consider the KK spectrum of gauge scalars. We further obtain the KK towers for bulk fermions on a slice of AdS7 and AdS9 and show that the Randall-Sundrum approach to flavor generalizes to these spaces with the localization of chiral zero-mode fermions controlled by their bulk Dirac mass parameters. However, for the phenomenologically interesting case where the transverse radius is R-1?TeV, we show that bulk standard model fields are not viable due to a resulting volume suppression of the gauge-coupling constants. A similar suppression occurs for the case of UV localization. Thus it seems that the standard model fields should be confined to the infrared brane in such spaces. Sterile fields and extended gauge sectors may propagate in the bulk, with the gauge-coupling volume suppression experienced by the latter motivating a weak coupling to standard model fields. We also discuss some issues regarding the effective 4D theory description in these spaces.

337

Stenoser i koronararterierne påvist med 64-slice-computertomografi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of 64-slice computed tomography of the coronary arteries (CTCA) with invasive coronary angiography (CA) as reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 194 patients (mean age: 62.7 ± 9.5 years, males: 97) with symptoms suggesting angina who had been referred for CA according to usual criteria. We excluded patients with known ischaemic heart disease and patients with an unstable heart rhythm. CTCA was analysed without knowledge of CA and vice versa. Stenoses > 50% were considered significant. The effective radiation (mSv) was measured with both methods. RESULTS: In 17 patients (8.8%), the CT-angiogram was not assessable. In 177 patients (91.2%) with assessable CT-angiogram, the sensitivity of CTCA was 97%, the specificity 63%, the predictive value of a positive test 58%, and the predictive value of a negative test 97%. In the 174 patients in whom CTCA was performed using retrospective technique, the effective radiation was 14.0 ± 2.3, versus 4.9 ± 2.6 at CA (p < 0.0005). In the 20 patients in whom CTCA was performed using prospective technique, the effective radiation was 5.4 ± 1.2 versus 5.9 ± 3.6 at CA (non-significant) CONCLUSION: CTCA with 64-slice scanner has a high sensitivity for demonstration coronary artery stenoses. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Oct-11

Rasmussen, Klaus; Tilsted, Hans Henrik

2010-01-01

338

[On the way to isotopic spatial resolution: technical principles and applications of 16-slice CT].  

Science.gov (United States)

The broad introduction of multi-slice CT by all major vendors in 1998 was a milestone with regard to extended volume coverage, improved axial resolution and better utilization of the tube output. New clinical applications such as CT-examinations of the heart and the coronary arteries became possible. Despite all promising advances, some limitations remain for 4-slice CT systems. They come close to isotropic resolution, but do not fully reach it in routine clinical applications. Cardiac CT-examinations require careful patient selection. The new generation of multi-slice CT-systems offer simultaneous acquisition of up to 16 sub-millimeter slices and improved temporal resolution for cardiac examinations by means of reduced gantry rotation time (0.4 s). In this overview article we present the basic technical principles and potential applications of 16-slice technology for the example of a 16-slice CT-system (SOMATOM Sensation 16, Siemens AG, Forchheim). We discuss detector design and dose efficiency as well as spiral scan- and reconstruction techniques. At comparable slice thickness, 16-slice CT-systems have a better dose efficiency than 4-slice CT-systems. The cone-beam geometry of the measurement rays requires new reconstruction approaches, an example is the adaptive multiple plane reconstruction, AMPR. First clinical experience indicates that sub-millimeter slice width in combination with reduced gantry rotation-time improves the clinical stability of cardiac examinations and expands the spectrum of patients accessible to cardiac CT. 16-slice CT-systems have the potential to cover even large scan ranges with sub-millimeter slices at considerably reduced examination times, thus approaching the goal of routine isotropic imaging. PMID:16059657

Flohr, T; Ohnesorge, B; Stierstorfer, K; Bruder, H; Simon, J; Süss, C; Wildberger, J; Baum, U; Lell, M; Küttner, A; Heuschmid, M; Wintersperger, B; Becker, C; Schaller, S

2005-07-01

339

On the way to isotopic spatial resolution: technical principles and applications of 16-slice CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The broad introduction of multi-slice CT by all major vendors in 1998 was a milestone with regard to extended volume coverage, improved axial resolution and better utilization of the tube output. New clinical applications such as CT-examinations of the heart and the coronary arteries became possible. Despite all promising advances, some limitations remain for 4-slice CT systems. They come close to isotropic resolution, but do not fully reach it in routine clinical applications. Cardiac CT-examinations require careful patient selection. The new generation of multi-slice CT-systems offer simultaneous acquisition of up to 16 sub-millimeter slices and improved temporal resolution for cardiac examinations by means of reduced gantry rotation time (0.4 s). In this overview article we present the basic technical principles and potential applications of 16-slice technology for the example of a 16-slice CT-system (SOMATOM Sensation 16, Siemens AG, Forchheim). We discuss detector design and dose efficiency as well as spiral scan- and reconstruction techniques. At comparable slice thickness, 16-slice CT-systems have a better dose efficiency than 4-slice CT-systems. The cone-beam geometry of the measurement rays requires new reconstruction approaches, an example is the adaptive multiple plane reconstruction, AMPR. First clinical experience indicates that sub-millimeter slice width in combination with reduced gantry rotation-time improves the clinical stability of cardiac examinations and expands the spectrum of patients accessible to cardiac CT. 16-slice CT-systems have the potential to cover even large scan ranges with sub-millimeter slices at considerably reduced examination times, thus approaching the goal of routine isotropic imaging. (orig.) [German] (orig.)

Flohr, T.; Ohnesorge, B.; Stierstorfer, K. [Computed Tomography, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (DE)] [and others

2005-07-01

340

Geochemistry of basalts from the Dumisseau formation, southern Haiti: Implications for the origin of the Caribbean Sea crust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basalt and diabase from the Cretaceous Dumisseau Formation, southern Haiti have Mg-numbers of 43-63, TiO/sub 2/ contents of 1.6-3.9% and La abundances of 3.6-15.3 ppm. LaTa ratios average 10, and indicate that the basalts are oceanic in character, distinct from the arc associations forming the northern part of Haiti. Oldest lavas have low TiO/sub 2/, (1.6%) and are LREE-depleted, similar to N-MORBs, whereas overlying lavas have higher TiO/sub 2/ (2-3.9%) and are LREE-enriched, similar to E-MORBs or hotspot basalts. /sup 87/Sr/sup 86/Sr ratios vary from 0.70280 to 0.70316, /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd from 0.512929 to 0.513121, and /sup 206/Pb/sup 204/Pb from 19.00 to 19.27 LREE-depleted lavas have high /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd (0.51309-0.51310) typical of MORBs, whereas /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd in the LREE-enriched lavas varies widely (0.512929-0.513121). Chemical features of the Dumisseau basalts are equivalent to those of Caribbean seafloor basalts recovered on DSDP Leg 15, and support the contention that the Dumisseau is an uplifted section of Caribbean Sea crust. Oldest lavas are analogous to MORB-like basalts cored at Leg 15 Sites 146, 150, 152 and 153, and the overlying lavas are analogous to incompatible-element-enriched basalts cored at Site 151 on the Beata Ridge. Isotopic compositions of the Dumisseau basalts overlap with those of the eastern Pacific Galapagos and Easter Island hotspots. However, the presence of N-MORB basalts in the lower part of the Dumisseau and at the majority of Leg 15 Sites indicates that the anomalously thick Caribbean crust probably did not originate as a hotspot-related basaltic-plateau, but may have been generated by on-ridge or near-ridge hotspot magmatism.

Sen, G.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Maurrasse, F.; Waggoner, D.G.

1988-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Precision-cut luteal slices: a promising approach for studying luteal function in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was aimed to validate the precision-cut luteal slices to investigate porcine luteal function. Corpora lutea (CLs) were cut into 180-?m thick slices using Krumdick Tissue Slicer. The viability, tissue structure and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression in the luteal slices did not differ between the beginning and the end of the 24-h incubation period. The luteal progesterone secretion showed a time- and dose-dependent response to porcine luteinizing hormone. The effects of prostaglandin F2? and 17?-estradiol on progesterone secretion by porcine luteal slices were comparable to the previously reported in vivo results of the CL microdialysis system in the pig. PMID:25152524

Przygrodzka, Emilia; Lopinska, Marcelina; Ziecik, Adam J

2014-09-01

342

Propagating neuronal discharges in neocortical slices: computational and experimental study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the propagation of paroxysmal discharges in disinhibited neocortical slices by developing and analyzing a model of excitatory regular-spiking neocortical cells with spatially decaying synaptic efficacies and by field potential recording in rat slices. Evoked discharges may propagate both in the model and in the experiment. The model discharge propagates as a traveling pulse with constant velocity and shape. The discharge shape is determined by an interplay between the synaptic driving force and the neuron's intrinsic currents, in particular the slow potassium current. In the model, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) conductance contributes much less to the discharge velocity than amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) conductance. Blocking NMDA receptors experimentally with 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) has no significant effect on the discharge velocity. In both model and experiments, propagation occurs for AMPA synaptic coupling gAMPA above a certain threshold, at which the velocity is finite (non-zero). The discharge velocity grows linearly with the gAMPA for gAMPA much above the threshold. In the experiments, blocking AMPA receptors gradually by increasing concentrations of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) in the perfusing solution results in a gradual reduction of the discharge velocity until propagation stops altogether, thus confirming the model prediction. When discharges are terminated in the model by the slow potassium current, a network with the same parameter set may display discharges with several forms, which have different velocities and numbers of spikes; initial conditions select the exhibited pattern. When the discharge is also terminated by strong synaptic depression, there is only one discharge form for a particular parameter set; the velocity grows continuously with increased synaptic conductances. No indication for more than one discharge velocity was observed experimentally. If the AMPA decay rate increases while the maximal excitatory postsynaptic conductance (EPSC) a cell receives is kept fixed, the velocity increases by approximately 20% until it reaches a saturated value. Therefore the discharge velocity is determined mainly by the cells' integration time of input EPSCs. We conclude, on the basis of both the experiments and the model, that the total amount of excitatory conductance a typical cell receives in a control slice exhibiting paroxysmal discharges is only approximately 5 times larger than the excitatory conductance needed for raising the potential of a resting cell above its action potential threshold. PMID:9310412

Golomb, D; Amitai, Y

1997-09-01

343

Dengue Virus Infections among Haitian and Expatriate Non-governmental Organization Workers — Léogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Léogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Léogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves. PMID:25356592

Salyer, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Esther M.; Salomon, Corvil; Bron, Christophe; Juin, Stanley; Hemme, Ryan R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Jentes, Emily S.; Magloire, Roc; Tomashek, Kay M.; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Etienne, Lesly; Beltran, Manuela; Sharp, Tyler M.; Moffett, Daphne; Tappero, Jordan; Margolis, Harold S.; Katz, Mark A.

2014-01-01

344

Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake, as based on medium-distance subionospheric VLF propagation data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010 (with a magnitude of 7.0 and depth of 10 km are investigated on the basis of subionospheric propagation data from the NAA transmitter on the east coast of the USA to a VLF receiving station in Peru. The local nighttime VLF amplitude data are extensively investigated during the period from the beginning of October 2009 to the end of March 2010, in which the trend (nighttime average amplitude, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation are analysed. It is found that a clear precursory ionosphere perturbation is detected just around New Years day of 2010, about 12 days before the main shock, which is characterised by the simultaneous decrease in the trend and the increases in dispersion and nighttime fluctuation. An additional finding might be the presence of the effect of the Earth's tide one and two months before the main shock, which can only be seen for a huge EQ.

M. Hayakawa

2011-02-01

345

Performance of the CareStart glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) rapid diagnostic test in Gressier, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administering primaquine (PQ) to treat malaria patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can pose a serious risk of drug-induced hemolysis (DIH). New easy to use point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests are being developed as an alternative to labor-intensive spectrophotometric methods, but they require field testing before they can be used at scale. This study screened 456 participants in Gressier, Haiti using the Access Bio CareStart qualitative G6PD rapid detection test compared with the laboratory-based Trinity Biotech quantitative spectrophotometric assay. Findings suggest that the CareStart test was 90% sensitive for detecting individuals with severe deficiency and 84.8% sensitive for detecting individuals with moderate and severe deficiency compared with the Trinity Biotech assay. A high negative predictive value of 98.2% indicates excellent performance in determining those patients able to take PQ safely. The CareStart G6PD test holds much value for screening malaria patients to determine eligibility for PQ therapy. PMID:24778197

von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Masse, Roseline; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Okech, Bernard A

2014-07-01

346

Comparative dosimetry and image quality for a GE CT/i single-slice helical and a GE lightspeed QX/i multi-slice helical CT scanner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nd volume dosimetry were measured using a PTW DIADOS electrometer with 10cm CT pencil chamber. Dosimetry measurements were performed free in air and with a Nuclear Associates 16cm and 32cm diameter perspex CT phantoms. Assessment of image quality revealed it to be excellent for both CT platforms. A slight improvement in both low and high contrast spatial resolution was evident for the multi-slice system. However, some helical artifacts were more apparent on this CT platform. Radiation doses and slice profiles were greater on the multi-slice system for all measured scan widths. The multi-slice platform resulted in a significant reduction in overall exam time and tube loading. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

347

Maximally slicing a black hole with minimal distortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Equations are derived which determine the maximal hypersurfaces of the analytically extended Kerr-Newman spacetime. An analytic solution is obtained in the charged, nonrotating case for the asymptotically flat maximal hypersurfaces of the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime using spatial coordinates which minimize the coordinate distortion. The slices tend asymptotically in time to a limiting hypersurface lying between the inner and outer horizons, while covering the domain of outer communication of the black hole. The coordinate lines are drawn down the black hole if coordinate symmetry is maintained across the throat. The equation for the limiting hypersurface in the Kerr geometry is solved numerically. An apparently unique solution exists for all rotating black holes with specific angular momentum Vertical BaraVertical Bar< M, where M is the black-hole mass. An excellent analytic approximation is derived for the value of the Boyer-Lindquist coordinate r on the hypersurface. Implications for gravitational-collapse calculations are discussed

348

Maximally slicing a black hole with minimal distortion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equations are derived which determine the maximal hypersurfaces of the analytically extended Kerr-Newman spacetime. An analytic solution is obtained in the charged, nonrotating case for the asymptotically flat maximal hypersurfaces of the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime using spatial coordinates which minimize the coordinate distortion. The slices tend asymptotically in time to a limiting hypersurface lying between the inner and outer horizons, while covering the domain of outer communication of the black hole. The coordinate lines are drawn down the black hole if coordinate symmetry is maintained across the throat. The equation for the limiting hypersurface in the Kerr geometry is solved numerically. An apparently unique solution exists for all rotating black holes with specific angular momentum Vertical BaraVertical Bar

Duncan, M.J.

1985-03-15

349

Diagnosis of horseshoe lung with multi-slice helical CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the multi-slice helical CT (MSCT) features of horseshoe lung and to improve its diagnostic ability. Methods: The clinical and imaging data were retrospectively reviewed in 5 patients. All of them underwent plain MSCT scan, and 4 patients also had enhanced MSCT scan and three- dimensional reconstruction. Results: In horseshoe lung, the basal segments of the right and left lungs were fused together by a isthmus of pulmonary parenchyma, across the midline behind the pericardium and before the esophagus, descending aorta and spine. All patients were companied with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, anomalous origin of the central bronchi, anomalous arterial supply. Anomalous pulmonary venous return to inferior vena cava and congenital cardiovascular malformations were also found in 4 cases. Conclusion: MSCT and three-dimensional reconstruction are valuable for identification of horseshoe lung. (authors)

350

Astrocyte calcium signalling orchestrates neuronal synchronization in organotypic hippocampal slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrocytes are thought to detect neuronal activity in the form of intracellular calcium elevations; thereby, astrocytes can regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Little is known, however, about how the astrocyte calcium signal regulates the activity of neuronal populations. In this study, we addressed this issue using functional multineuron calcium imaging in hippocampal slice cultures. Under normal conditions, CA3 neuronal networks exhibited temporally correlated activity patterns, occasionally generating large synchronization among a subset of cells. The synchronized neuronal activity was correlated with astrocyte calcium events. Calcium buffering by an intracellular injection of a calcium chelator into multiple astrocytes reduced the synaptic strength of unitary transmission between pairs of surrounding pyramidal cells and caused desynchronization of the neuronal networks. Uncaging the calcium in the astrocytes increased the frequency of neuronal synchronization. These data suggest an essential role of the astrocyte calcium signal in the maintenance of basal neuronal function at the circuit level. PMID:24710057

Sasaki, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Abe, Reimi; Nakayama, Ryota; Asada, Akiko; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

2014-07-01

351

Moisture Content Modeling of Sliced Kiwifruit (cv. Hayward During Drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drying behavior of kiwifruit slice was studied at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80oC and at a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s for constant sample thickness of 4 mm in a thin layer dryer. Sample weight, temperature and drying air velocity were measured during drying and drying curves were obtained for each experimental data. The curves were fitted to twelve different semi-theoretical and/or empirical thin-layer drying models to estimate a suitable model for drying of kiwifruit. Coefficients were evaluated by non-linear regression analysis. The models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (EF, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (x2. Midilli model had the highest value of EF (0.999319, the lowest RMSE (0.032536 and x2 (0.001119. The Midilli model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying behavior of kiwifruit.

Ali Mohammadi

2009-01-01

352

A small slice of the Milky Way disk in SDSS  

CERN Document Server

The present-day state of the Milky Way disk can tell us much about the history of our Galaxy and provide insights into its formation. We have constructed a high-precision catalogue of disk stars using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and use these stars to probe the heating history as well as investigating the detailed phase-space distribution. We also show how this sample can be used to probe the global properties of the Milky Way disk, employing the Jeans equations to provide a simple model of the potential close to the disk. Our model is in excellent agreement with others in the literature and provides an indication that the disk, rather than the halo, dominates the circular speed at the solar neighborhood. The work presented in these proceedings has been published as "Slicing and dicing the Milky Way disc in SDSS" (Smith et al. 2012).

Smith, Martin C

2012-01-01

353

Analytic Computation Method of the Equivalent Thickness of Superposition Multi-Throttle-Slices of Twin-Tubes Shock Absorber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By elastic mechanics, the deformation of single throttle-slice for shock absorber was analyzed, the formula of its deformation was established. According to the relation of the deformation of multi-throttle-slices with the pressure on each slice, the analytic formula of equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices was established. Followed is a practical example for the computation of the equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices, compared the computed results with that simulated by ANSYS. The results show that the computation method of equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices is accurate enough.

C.C. Zhou

2010-03-01

354

Modelling Mediterranean Climate for mid and early Holocene Time Slices  

Science.gov (United States)

During the early Holocene, the Mediterranean circulation has undergone big changes. These changes are reflected in the occurrence of organic-rich marine sediment layers (sapropels) in the eastern Mediterranean, which indicate the presence of oxygen depleted deep waters. The relative isolation of the basin together with a good coverage of available proxy data make this region an ideal testbed for modelling past climate changes. The work presented here is a first step towards elucidating the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the sapropels. A regional version of the ocean general circulation model MPIOM has been set up for the Mediterranean. This model was forced with atmospheric data derived from quasi-equilibrium time slice simulations with the coupled atmosphere-ocean-dynamical vegetation model ECHAM5/MPIOM/LPJ. Time slices available are 6000 and 9000 years before present. The model derived river-runoff and ocean hydrography were used as additional forcings, the latter used as boundary condition at the Atlantic margin of the regional ocean model. The model has been integrated for more than 100 years starting from climatology. The effect of insolation changes on Mediterranean ocean climate is analyzed. Due to the limited length of the simulations, only the upper few hundred meters are in equilibrium with the implied forcing. The increased runoff from the Nile due to the enhanced African monsoon leads to a substantial reduction of the salinity in the Levantine basin. The amplified seasonal cycle with reduced incoming short-wave radiation in winter leads to a general cooling of the upper few hundred meters of the ocean. The effect of the enhanced summer insolation is restricted to the upper ocean. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of SST is larger. The model results are compared to available proxy data.

Mikolajewicz, U.; Adloff, F.

2009-04-01

355

Design of Three-Dimensional Multiple Slice Turbo Codes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to designing low-complexity high-speed turbo codes for very low frame error rate applications. The key idea is to adapt and optimize the technique of multiple turbo codes to obtain the required frame error rate combined with a family of turbo codes, called multiple slice turbo codes (MSTCs, which allows high throughput at low hardware complexity. The proposed coding scheme is based on a versatile three-dimensional multiple slice turbo code (3D-MSTC using duobinary trellises. Simple deterministic interleavers are used for the sake of hardware simplicity. A new heuristic optimization method of the interleavers is described, leading to excellent performance. Moreover, by a novel asymmetric puncturing pattern, we show that convergence can be traded off against minimum distance (i.e., error floor in order to adapt the performance of the 3D-MSTC to the requirement of the application. Based on this asymmetry of the puncturing pattern, two new adapted iterative decoding structures are proposed. Their performance and associated decoder complexities are compared to an 8-state and a 16-state duobinary 2D-MSTC. For a information frame, the -state trellis 3D-MSTC proposed achieves a throughput of for an estimated area of in a technology. The simulation results show that the FER is below at SNR of , which represents a gain of more than over an -state 2D-MSTC. The union bound gives an error floor that appears at FER below . The performance of the proposed 3D-MSTC for low FERs outperforms the performance of a -state 2D-MSTC with 20% less complexity.

Boutillon Emmanuel

2005-01-01

356

Radiation exposure in multi-slice CT of the heart  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess radiation exposure of patients undergoing Multi-Row Detector CT (Multi-Slice CT, MSCT) of the heart. Material and Methods: Four different cardiac MSCT protocols with changing slice collimation (4x1, and 4x2.5 mm), and pitch-factor (1.5, 1.8, and 4) were examined. An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with LiF-thermoluminescent dosimeters at several organ sites, and effective doses were calculated using ICRP-weighting factors. These data were compared to data from standard MSCT of chest and abdomen. Results: Effective dose in different protocols for cardiac MSCT varies from 2.8 to 10.3 mSv (male), and from 3.6 to 12.7 mSv (female). In protocols with thin collimation and low pitch or a combination of several heart examinations, radiation exposure may be comparable to the effective dose of standard MSCT of the chest (male: 11.9 mSv, female: 12.9 mSv) or the abdomen (male: 16.1 mSv, female: 15.7 mSv). Highest organ doses were found for the female breast (up to 46.6 mGy), and the lungs (up to 36.4 mGy) with surface doses as high as 54.3 mGy. Conclusions: Cardiac MSCT adds significantly to the radiation exposure of patients and can reach the effective dose applied by standard MSCT of chest or abdomen. (orig.)

357

Science Nation: Japanese Quake Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorado State University engineer John van de Lindt leads a team that's developing new ways to build mid-rise, wood-frame buildings that can stand up to earthquakes. In many earthquake-prone areas of the U.S., wood-frame buildings taller than three stories are uncommon--and building codes generally limit such construction to just four stories. Van de Lindt hopes validation of the new design techniques could safely push those building codes to six stories, or even taller. To test their new design, the team turned to E-Defense, a remote shake table facility in Miki City, Japan. The event was the grand finale in a series of shake tests on wood structures funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES).

358

Orthogonal basis for functions over a slice of the Boolean hypercube  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an orthogonal basis for functions over a slice of the Boolean hypercube. Our basis is also an orthogonal basis of eigenvectors for the Johnson and Kneser graphs. As an application of our basis, we streamline Wimmer's proof of Friedgut's theorem for slices of the Boolean hypercube.

Filmus, Yuval

2014-01-01

359

From 2012 HAITI-SIS Survey: thick-skin versus thin-skin tectonics partitioned along offshore strike-slip Faults-Haïti  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the deformation along large strike-slip fault-systems like transpressive boundaries between N. Caribbean/N America is a challenging topic, which requires a multi-scale approach. Thanks to Haiti-sis new data, the precise description of the fault segmentation pattern, the sedimentogical distribution, the uplift/subsidence rates, the along-fault and intra-basin fluids circulations, allows to actualize the evolution of the deformation history up to present-day . All the co-seismic surface to near-surface events, have to be also identified in order to integrate geophysical solutions for the earthquake, within the present-day geological and structural pattern. These two approaches, ranging from geological to instantaneous time-scales have been used during multi-tools Haiti-Sis oceanographic survey, allowing to document and image these different aspects at a large scale. The complex strike-slip North Caribbean boundary registered significative stress partitioning. Oblique convergence is expressed by along-strike evolution; from rifted segments (Cayman Through) to transpressive ones (Haiti, Dominican Rep.), to subduction (Porto Rico). In the Haiti-Sis survey, we acquired new offshore data surrounding the active fault areas, in the Gonâve Bay, the Jamaica Channel and along Southern Peninsula. Mapping the sea-floor, and HR seismic acquisition were our main objectives, in order to characterize the fault and fold architecture, with a new delineation of active segments. Offshore piston cores, have been used as representative of the modern basin sedimentation, and to document the catastrophic events (earthquakes, massive flood or sudden destabilization of the platform ) represented by turbiditic or mass-flow sequences, with the objective to track the time recurrence of seismic events by dating some of these catastrophic sediment deposition. At surface, the other markers of the fault activity are linked with along-fault permeability and fluid circulation pathway changes. Geochemical signature and temperature of the fluids and gas, change drastically depending on location and depth provenance. Our first results show that 1) the present-day EPGF geometry results from oblique shortening processes along different segments of the fault. Deep basins previously localized south and north of the fault are inverted at different degrees, 2) the Gonâve Island is only the emerged part of a NW-SE, either growing large " anti-formal stack" or basement inversion responsible for the large present-day fold amplitude, or both of them successively. It separates two sub-basins South and North Gonâve with independant sedimentary and deformation evolution 3) the Jeremie Basin probably has a specific long-living evolution, allowing to precise the geodynamic evolution of the Western Hispaniola Margin.

Ellouz, N.; Leroy, S. D.; Momplaisir, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.

2013-12-01

360

Using the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to derive source parameters and the site attenuation term, kappa (?), using aftershocks of the 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We utilize a dense network of Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) MEMs accelerometers to investigate source parameters and the shallow site attenuation parameter, kappa (?), for aftershocks of the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake in Christchurch, NZ. Approximately 190 QCN accelerometers captured over 180 aftershocks ? Mw4.0 from 9 September 2010 to 31 July 2011. Sensors were deployed in local residences as part of the QCN Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP), collecting vast amounts of data at dense spatial scales. The low cost, 14-bit QCN sensors perform within ANSS Class C sensor standards (Evans et al., 2013), and, the time series and response spectra of the sensors compare favorably to the strong-motion 24-bit NZ GeoNet sensors (Cochran et al., 2011). To find ?, we measure deviations from the ?-2 fall-off on the acceleration amplitude spectrum of Fourier-transformed S-wave windows containing 80% of the S-wave energy. We use both manual and automated methods to fit the slope of the fall-off (i.e., ?) following Anderson and Hough (1984). A known issue with this method is that ? should be measured above the corner frequency (f0) to avoid bias from source effects. Studies have recently reported larger than average stress drops for these aftershocks (e.g., Kaiser and Oth, 2013), which may yield significant variation from the theoretically determined f0. Here, we aim to find the site attenuation, ?, by simultaneously solving for f0 and the seismic moment (M0) for each station and event. For robust results, we employ several methods to find the source and site parameters. Initially, we use a linearized least-squares fitting routine for each event-station pair (e.g., Anderson and Humphrey, 1991). This method does not require a single M0 for an event recorded at multiple stations, resulting in disagreements across M0 and f0 for any given event. Consequently, we also employ a more physically meaningful approach that calculates a single M0 and f0 for a given event using a linearized general inversion scheme (e.g., Sarker and Abers, 1998; Stachnik et al., 2004). Due to a strong trade-off between f0 and ?, we lastly try the nonlinear least-squares Gauss-Newton algorithm, which obtains a constant M0 and produces a more reasonable f0 and well-fitted ?. Initial results show ? estimates range from 0.01 to 0.1 sec and our calculated moment magnitudes (Mw) agree with the USGS NEIC catalog. Another goal of this study is to determine if the QCN data can be confidently used to find source parameters. With the vast amount of strong-motion data collected, QCN offers an ideal dataset to determine source parameters from spectral fitting; particularly in Christchurch, where smaller datasets may contain a proportionally higher number of recordings that are biased by local effects, including site amplification and nonlinear response like liquefaction. For a single event, preliminary findings show that QCN sensors yield higher M0 values than GeoNet stations, thus prompting further investigation.

Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Ryan, K. J.; Funning, G.; Kaiser, A. E.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Assessment of left ventricular function with 16- and 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography  

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Background: Important to the risk stratification and management of cardiac patients is the assessment of left ventricular function (LVEF), thus imaging modalities which can provide both anatomical and functional data is desirable. Electrocardiographic (ECG) gated multi-detector computed tomographic (MDCT) images may provide accurate assessment of LV ejection fraction, volume and dimensions but have shown systemic errors in the past due to slow gantry rotation speed. Methods: Between May 2004 and January 2005, 306 patients underwent ECG-gated cardiac CT studies at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Patients with available CT data sets and a recent (within 3 months) ECHO and/or SPECT perfusion imaging were included in the study. ECG-gated data sets were acquired either with a 16-slice or with a 64-slice MDCT. Functional MDCT data sets were reconstructed in 10 cardiac phases (5-95%) with 1.5 mm slices. Images were processed and interpreted by two observers blinded to ECHO and SPECT results. Results: A total of 69 patients had MDCT and ECHO or SPECT within 3 months (33 had 16-slice and 36 had 64-slice MDCT). There was fair correlation between LVEF measured by 16-slice MDCT and 'ECHO or SPECT' (62 {+-} 10% vs. 62 {+-} 10%; r = 0.56). There was poor correlation between LVEF measured by 16-slice MDCT and ECHO (64 {+-} 10% vs. 59 {+-} 11%; r = 0.26) and there was good correlation between LVEF measured by 16-slice MDCT and SPECT (62 {+-} 11% and 64 {+-} 9%, respectively; r = 0.76). There was very good correlation between LVEF measured by 64-slice MDCT and 'ECHO or SPECT' (57 {+-} 15% vs. 58 {+-} 13%; r = 0.86). There was very good correlation between LVEF measured by MDCT and ECHO (56 {+-} 14% vs. 54 {+-} 15%; r = 0.89) and between LVEF measured by 64-slice MDCT and SPECT (60 {+-} 13% and 60 {+-} 14%, respectively; r = 0.90). Conclusion: The assessment of LVEF and LV dimensions with 64-slice MDCT provide values which are similar to those obtained by echocardiography and Tc-99m gated SPECT. The accuracy of the 64-slice MDCT with a gantry rotation speed of 330 ms (when compared to ECHO and SPECT) may be superior to that of the 16-slice MDCT at 420 ms gantry rotation.

Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)], E-mail: Sabbara@partners.org; Chow, Benjamin J.W. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute (United States); Pena, Antonio J.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Hoffmann, Udo; Nieman, Koen; Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

2008-09-15

362

Seismic rupture process of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Mw7.0) inferred from seismic and SAR data  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12th 2010 at 21:53, the Port-au-Prince - Haiti region was struck by an Mw7 earthquake, the second most deadly of the history. The last seismic significant events in the region occurred in November 1751 and June 1770 [1]. Geodetic and geological studies, previous to the 2010 earthquake [2] have warned to the potential of the destructive seismic events in that region and this event has confirmed those warnings. Some aspects of the source of this earthquake are nonconsensual. There is no agreement in the mechanism of rupture or correlation with the fault that should have it generated [3]. In order to better understand the complexity of this rupture, we combined several techniques and data of different nature. We used teleseismic body-wave and Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR) based on the following methodology: 1) analysis of the rupture process directivity [4] to determine the velocity and direction of rupture; 2) teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the spatiotemporal fault slip distribution and a detailed rupture model; 3) near field surface deformation modeling using the calculated seismic rupture model and compared with the measured deformation field using SAR data of sensor Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR). The combined application of seismic and geodetic data reveals a complex rupture that spread during approximately 12s mainly from WNW to ESE with average velocity of 2,5km/s, on a north-dipping fault plane. Two main asperities are obtained: the first (and largest) occurs within the first ~ 5sec and extends for approximately 6km around the hypocenter; the second one, that happens in the remaining 6s, covers a near surface rectangular strip with about 12km long by 3km wide. The first asperity is compatible with a left lateral strike-slip motion with a small reverse component; the mechanism of second asperity is predominantly reverse. The obtained rupture process allows modeling a coseismic deformation which is in agreement with the deformation field measured by InSAR. [1] Bakun W, Flores C, Brink U, 2012 Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for Seismic Hazard. Bul. Seis. Soc. of America, 102(1):18-30. [2] Dixon, T. et al., 1998. Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation based on a decade of GPS observations. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15157-15182. [3] Mercier de Lépinay, B., Deschamps, A., Klingelhoefer, F., Mazabraud, Y., Delouis, B., Clouard, V., Hello Y., Crozon, J., Marcaillou, B., Graindorge, D., Vallée M., Perrot, J., Bouin, M., Saurel, J., Charvis, Philippe, C. and St-Louis, 2011. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations, Geoph. Res. Let., 30, L22305 [4] Caldeira B, Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF., 2009 DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J. of Seis.. 2009;14(3):565-600.

Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

2013-04-01

363

Antigenotoxic effect of Xanthohumol in rat liver slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., is suggested to have cancer chemo-preventive activities. Its mechanisms of protection have been proposed to be inhibition of metabolic activation, induction of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant activity. Our previous study showed that XN efficiently protected human hepatoma HepG2 cells against the genotoxic effects of two pro-carcinogens (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)) that are dependent on cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolic activation, and against genotoxic effects of the oxidative damage inducing tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH). In the present study, we investigated the antigenotoxic effects of XN in precision-cut rat liver slices. Using the comet assay, we detected that at non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01-10 microM) XN completely prevented IQ and BaP-induced DNA damage. The protective effects of XN against tBOOH-induced DNA damage was less efficient; the maximal 50% reduction of DNA damage was observed at 0.1 microM XN. In rat microsomes, XN (0.001-10 microM) inhibited CYP1A activity (7-ethoxycoumarin (7EC) de-ethylation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Surprisingly, no inhibition of 7EC metabolism by XN was observed in rat liver slices. XN also did not have any influence on mRNA expression of the enzymes CYP1A2 and quinone reductase (QR). These results indicate that inhibition of metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens by CYP1A is not likely to be the mechanism of its antigenotoxic action. In conclusion, XN efficiently protects DNA against genotoxicity of IQ and BaP and against oxidative DNA damage. Although the mechanism of the protective effect of XN is unclear, our results indicate that XN exhibits antigenotoxic effects in fresh liver tissue and provide additional evidence for the cancer preventive potential of XN. PMID:17981005

Plazar, Janja; Filipic, Metka; Groothuis, Geny M M

2008-03-01

364

Evaluation of Normal Adrenal Gland Volume by 64-slice CT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To measure volume and other parameters of normal adrenal glands in Chinese adults with 64-slice multidetector CT, to evaluate the relationship of volume result with age, sex and body size, and to explore the correlations between adrenal volume and other measurements. Methods This study was based on 125 acquired contrast-enhanced upper abdominal CT scans performed with a 64-slice CT. The final study group consisted of 81 patients (49 males, 32 females). Portal venous phase images were studied for the measurements. Both the reconstruction interval and thickness were 1.5 mm. Each adrenal gland was outlined manually with computer-assistant technology to calculate its volume. The maximal sectional area, length, width and thickness of each adrenal gland were also measured. Results The mean age of total population was 47.9±13.0 (range: 20-76) years. The left, right, and total adrenal gland volumes were 4.23±0.74 (range: 2.85-5.83) cm3, 4.26±0.86 (2.59-6.56) cm3, and 8.50±1.40 (5.80-11.39) cm3, respectively. These volumes increased with weight (r=0.381, 0.389, and 0.437 respectively, all Psex after applying General Linear Model procedure to reduce the impact of weight (F=1.304, 0.064, and 0.597, all P>0.05), nor did volume change significantly with age (r=-0.033, -0.014, and -0.026, all P>0.05). Nearly all descriptors of bilateral adrenal glands correlated with ipsilateral volume except thickness (r=-0.027, P=0.814) and width (r=0.166, P=0.138) in the left side. Among these parameters, length had a stronger correlation with volume than others in the both left (r=0.412, Pglands. Conclusion Our study has defined the volume distribution and other parameters of normal adrenal glands in Chinese adults, which provide a baseline for future studies. PMID:23294587

Wang, Xuan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xue, Hua-Dan; Liu, Wei; Sun, Hao; Chen, Yu; Xu, Kai

2013-01-01

365

Visualization of coronary artery stents by MSCT at 0.5-mm slice thickness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coronary artery visualization by multi-slice CT and the evaluation of coronary stenosis were examined. Multi-slice CT could not be used for evaluation after the coronary artery stent custody method. We examined various coronary artery stent custody phantoms and stent visualization of clinical examples by using multi-slice CT with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated scanning was done by inputting ECG using 4DAS (data acquisition system) multi-slice CT with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. We carried out image reconstruction, measured the CT number, and examined the inside stent. The CT number of the inside stent rose in accordance with stent diameter. The inside stent was visualized clearly at 0.5 mm in comparison with 1.0 mm in slice thickness. Visualization of the lumen was influenced in the Stent Custody Phantom by the quality of the stent material, Strut form, and the size of the diameter. The inside stent could be evaluated with the S670 4 mm? stent. Form evaluation of the inside stent was possible, although the cavity in the stent was influenced by the difference in distance between peaks. (author)

366

Lysosome stabilization in slices of rat liver when incubated with vitamin A excess  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An organ culture of slices of livers from adult rats was used to study effect of vitamin A (all-trans retinol) on lysosome stability. Lysosomes were purified by centrifugation in Percoll gradients. Preparations were monitored by electron microscopy and evaluated by morphometry and assays of marker enzymes. Enrichments relative to homogenates and crude pellets were estimated from latent (triton X-100) acid p-nitrophenylphosphatase specific activities. Lysosomes prepared from unincubated slices were enriched 50-fold in latent acid phosphatase relative to homogenates. In contrast, lysosomes prepared from slices incubated for 30 min in PBS alone were enriched only 20-fold. When 25 ?g/ml retinol was included in the incubation medium, enrichments of 40-fold were obtained. The integrity of the slices was monitored by electron microscopy and their viability was confirmed by a sustained uptake and incorporation of [3H]leucine into protein (up to 2 h in culture). The loss of lysosomes from homogenates of slices incubated in the absence of retinol was accompanied by a loss of acid phosphatase from the lysosomal pellet to the supernatant during purification. Addition of retinol to slices just prior to homogenization was without effect. The results demonstrate a stabilizing influence of vitamin A on lysosomes during incubation of licer slices. The findings contrast earlier reports of retinol-induced lysosome fragility in other in vitro systems

367

Organ slice viability extended for pathway characterization: an in vitro model to investigate fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver slice viability is extended to 96 h for rat, expanding the use of this in vitro model for studying mechanisms of injury and repair, including pathways of fibrosis. The contributing factors to increased organ slice survival consist of the use of a preservation solution for liver perfusion and slice preparation, obtaining rats that are within the weight range of 250-325 g, placing a cellulose filter atop the titanium mesh roller-insert to support the slice, and maintaining the slices in an optimized culture medium which is replaced daily. The liver slices remain metabolically active, synthesizing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutathione, and glycogen, and exhibit preserved organelle integrity and slice morphology. Slice preparation results in 2-cut surfaces which likely triggers a repair and regenerative response. The fibrogenic pathways are evident by the activation of stellate cells, the proliferation of myofibroblast-like cells, and an increased collagen deposition by 48 h. Markers indicative of activated stellate cells, alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1a1, desmin, and HSP47 are substantiated by real time-PCR. Increased staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin initially around the vessels and by 72-96 h in the tissue is accompanied by increased collagen staining. Microarray gene expression revealed extracellular matrix changes with the up-regulation of cytoskeleton, filaments, collagens, and actin genes; and the down-regulation of genes linked with lipid metabolism. The improvements in extending liver slice survival, in conjunction with its three-dimensional multi-cellular complexity, increases the application of this in vitro model for investigating pathways of injury and repair, and fibrosis. PMID:15456927

Vickers, Alison E M; Saulnier, Muriel; Cruz, Elba; Merema, Marjolijn T; Rose, Kristine; Bentley, Philip; Olinga, Peter

2004-12-01

368

Slice-based plan evaluation methods for three dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Dose volume histograms (DVHs) play a vital role in determining the optimal plan for radiotherapy treatment delivery. The current concepts of conformality index (CI), equivalent uniform dose (EUD) derived from dose volume histogram (DVH) does not provide any spatial information. In this study, slice-based evaluation methods have been proposed for spatially analyzing the radiotherapy treatment plans. A case of prostate cancer has been selected for demonstrating the proposed tools for evaluating the dose distribution. Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment planning (3D-CRT) was performed to a dose of 27 Gy/15 with three fields (6 MV anteroposterior and two 15 MV lateral fields) employing multilcaf collimator after delivering 45 Gy/25. The dose was normalized to isocenter and the treatment plan was evaluated with DVH. The dose maximum point, conformality index, planning target volume coverage index (PCI), planning target volume overdose index (POI) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were evaluated for every single slice along the cranio-caudal direction for all the planning target volume (PTV) contours and plotted against the slice location. The dose maximum point plotted against the slice position helps in identifying the slices where the dose maximum point is outside the target volume. The plot of conformality index gives the information about the location of those slices where excess of surrounding normal tissues is encompassed inside the prescriptissues is encompassed inside the prescription isodose. POI quantifies the high dose regions inside the PTV slices that receive doses above 107% of the prescription dose. Similarly, the plot of PCI and EUD with slice position gives the information about those slices where the tumor is not covered adequately. The proposed methods in this study forms as a simpler way to assess the spatial distribution of the dose inside the target volume. It could be used in combination with the current plan evaluation tools and will be very helpful in analyzing the treatment plans.

369

Vehicle tracking and classification in challenging scenarios via slice sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces a 3D vehicle tracking system in a traffic surveillance environment devised for shadow tolling applications. It has been specially designed to operate in real time with high correct detection and classification rates. The system is capable of providing accurate and robust results in challenging road scenarios, with rain, traffic jams, casted shadows in sunny days at sunrise and sunset times, etc. A Bayesian inference method has been designed to generate estimates of multiple variable objects entering and exiting the scene. This framework allows easily mixing different nature information, gathering in a single step observation models, calibration, motion priors and interaction models. The inference of results is carried out with a novel optimization procedure that generates estimates of the maxima of the posterior distribution combining concepts from Gibbs and slice sampling. Experimental tests have shown excellent results for traffic-flow video surveillance applications that can be used to classify vehicles according to their length, width, and height. Therefore, this vision-based system can be seen as a good substitute to existing inductive loop detectors.

Nieto, Marcos; Unzueta, Luis; Barandiaran, Javier; Cortés, Andoni; Otaegui, Oihana; Sánchez, Pedro

2011-12-01

370

Histamine modulates local inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. These experiments investigated the action of histamine on local inhibition in the CA1 region of the in vitro hippocampal slice preparation using a paired-pulse paradigm. 2. We observed that histamine produced a concentration-dependent and reversible attenuation of paired-pulse inhibition. This effect was reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and mimicked by the H2 receptor agonist, impromidine. 3. We also observed that histamine produced concentration-dependent effects on the amplitude of the population spike that could be correlated with alterations in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude and input fiber volley. High concentrations of histamine produced a reduction in the amplitude of the population spike which was always accompanied by a reduction in the EPSP and fiber volley amplitude. 4. These results suggest that histamine, through the occupancy of H2 receptors, acts to modulate the efficacy of the local synaptic circuitry which is involved in producing paired-pulse inhibition in the hippocampus. PMID:2975967

Springfield, S A; Geller, H M

1988-12-01

371

Mining Frequent Item and Item Sets Using Fuzzy Slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is an increasingly important technology for extracting useful knowledge hidden in large collections of data. The proposed work presents the design of mining frequent items from dataset. The mining approach is hybrid, that is, frequent items are calculated with a single pass, while frequent item sets are calculated by a further multi-pass analysis. Frequent items mining is to process a stream of items and find all items occurring more than a given fraction of the time. In particular, data stream analysis has been carried out for the computation of items and item sets that exceed a frequency threshold. In the proposed work Mining of frequent item and item sets is based on fuzzy slices. Fuzzy approaches can play an important role in data mining, because they provide comprehensible results. In addition, the approaches studied in data mining have mainly been oriented at highly structured and precise data. However, in mining the analysis of more complex heterogeneous information will become more important in the near future.

Ms. Poonam A. Manjare

2014-03-01

372

The LMC stellar complexes in luminosity slices. Star formation indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach towards the investigation of the star formation mechanisms in galaxies can be achieved through the search of stellar complexes and the determination of their properties. A method has been developed for the detection of stellar complexes and the derivation of their fundamental properties in the LMC. Photographic plates taken with the 1.2m U.K. Schmidt Telescope have been digitized by the APM and SuperCosmos machines to produce homogeneous data for extended regions. Star counts have been performed for extended areas in selected luminosity slices and colours (U, HeII, R filters). Isodensity contours have been used to identify the various structures with enhanced stellar number density (3sigma above the mean background density). About 50 large stellar groupings have been revealed showing: 1) hierarchical structure, where the smallest are found within the large ones. 2) their size distribution has peaks at 250+/-50 pc (aggregates) and 600+/-50 pc (complexes), there are also a few cases with size 1200+/-50 pc (supercomplexes). 3) there is evidence that at the fainter magnitudes these structures are aligned to a general trend whereas at the most bright end (B1, O spectral types) they become more clumpy and symmetrical in shape. The relationship between the above complexes' properties and the various scenarios of star formation are discussed.

Maragoudaki, F.; Kontizas, M.; Kontizas, E.; Dapergolas, A.; Morgan, D. H.

1998-10-01

373

Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and establishment of synaptic transmission. Here, we used calcium imaging in slice cultures of the postnatal cerebellum, and observe spontaneous propagating calcium waves in NeuN-positive granule-like cells. Wave formation was blocked by TTX and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, but persisted after NMDA receptor blockade with MK-801. Whole-cell recordings during wave formation showed cyclic EPSP barrages with an amplitude of 10-20 mV concurrent with wave activity. Local non-propagating putative transglial waves were also present in the cultures, and could be reproduced by pressure application of ATP. We hypothesize, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits.

Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria

2013-01-01

374

Dicarboxylic amino acids block epileptiform activity in hippocampal slice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of prolonged (5-10 min) continuous perfusion of excitatory amino acids on penicillin (PEN)-evoked epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices were examined with extracellular and intracellular recordings. L-glutamate (GLU), L-aspartate (ASP), quisqualate (QUIS), and N-methyl-D,L-aspartate reversibly depressed multiple (epileptiform) population spikes elicited by PEN (1.7 mM). Intracellularly recorded, PEN-evoked paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDS) were partially blocked by 1 mM GLU and largely eliminated by 2 mM GLU or ASP. In the presence of PEN, perfusion with both GLU and ASP induced a transient 4 to 6-mV depolarization, usually followed by spontaneous return of membrane potential to control levels. During the amino acid (AA)-induced block of epileptiform activity, there was no significant change in resting membrane potential, input resistance, or the ability to fire action potentials in response to depolarization, indicating that the decreased responsiveness is not a consequence of nonspecific pyramidal cell overdepolarization. The observed depression of epileptiform activity by continued exposure to GLU and its analogues may reflect desensitization or another regulatory mechanism to limit overexcitation. PMID:2877868

ffrench-Mullen, J M; Murphy, T H; Coyle, J T; Fisher, R S

1986-01-01

375

Strategies for spectroscopy on Extremely Large Telescopes. I - Image Slicing  

CERN Document Server

One of the problems of producing spectrographs for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) is that the beam size is required to scale with telescope aperture if all other parameters are held constant, leading to enormous size and implied cost. This is a particular problem for image sizes much larger than the diffraction limit, as is likely to be the case if Adaptive Optics systems are not initially able to deliver highly corrected images over the full field of the instrument or if signal/noise considerations require large spatial samples. In this case, there is a potential advantage in image slicing to reduce the effective slitwidth and hence the beam size. However, this implies larger detectors and oversizing of the optics which may cancel out the advantage. By the means of a toy model of a spectrograph whose dimensions are calibrated using existing instruments, the size and relative cost of spectrographs for ELTs have been estimated. Using a range of scaling laws derived from the reference instruments, it is poss...

Allington-Smith, J R

2009-01-01

376

Enhancement of DNA polymerase activity in potato tuber slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA polymerase was extracted from potato (Soleum tuberosum L.) tuber discs and the temporal correlation of its activity change to DNA synthesis in vivo was examined during aging of the discs. Most of the DNA polymerase was recovered as a bound form in the 18,000 x g precipitate. Reaction with the bound-form enzyme was dependent on the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg2+, and a template. ''Activated'' DNA and heat-denatured DNA, but not native DNA, were utilized as templates. The polymerase activity was sensitive to SH reagents. Fresh discs, which do not synthesize DNA in vivo, contained a significant amount of DNA polymerase and its activity increased linearly with time until 48 hr after slicing and became four times that of fresh discs after 72 hr, whereas the activity of DNA synthesis in vivo increased with time and decreased after reaching a maximum at 30 hr. Cycloheximide inhibited the enhancement of polymerase activity. DNA polymerase from aged and fresh discs had identical requirements for deoxynucleotides and a template in their reactions, sensitivity to SH reagent, and affinity to thymidine triphosphate. (auth.)

377

Effects of slice selection and diffusion on T2 measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton NMR imaging is a sensitive indicator of brain pathology that is being used at LBL to study radiation effects and aging human subjects. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies we examine the distributions of spin-spin relaxation (T2) and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time constants in different regions of the brain by a multi-echo spinwarp imaging sequence using selective excitation and selective refocusing rf pulses. Unfortunately, estimates of these parameters from images are subject to systematic errors resulting from the imaging technique. In addition it is important to distinguish among the various physical processes that contribute to the observed T2. We conducted an experimental study that confirms theoretical results suggesting that the use of selective refocusing pulses causes bias in such estimate of T2. This apparent change in T2 has been previously attributed to diffusion. With normal imaging gradient strength and duration, classical NMR diffusion theory suggests that suppression of signal due to diffusion during slice selection is insignificant. We verified that diffusion effects are small and that the apparent change in T2 is mainly due to resonance offset effects. In addition, we have demonstrated a method to correct for the T2 bias. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

378

The volume of the Schwarzschild black hole with respect to assorted time slicings  

CERN Document Server

The area of the Schwarzschild event horizon is well-defined and unique. However, the spatial volume contained within the event horizon depends on the time slicing used to define the spacelike hypersurface. Various time slicings were used to compute results for the volume of a Schwarzschild black hole by DiNunno and Matzner in arXiv:0801.1734. The present work considers further volume calculations of this geometry in Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates and in the related Lake-Martel-Poisson and Gautreau-Hoffman families. Also introduced are other time slicings that, to our knowledge, have not been discussed elsewhere.

Finch, Tehani K

2012-01-01

379

Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection

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Cartography of high-dimensional flows: A visual guide to sections and slices  

CERN Document Server

Symmetry reduction by the method of slices quotients the continuous symmetries of chaotic flows by replacing the original state space by a set of charts, each covering a neighborhood of a dynamically important class of solutions, qualitatively captured by a `template'. Together these charts provide an atlas of the symmetry-reduced `slice' of state space, charting the regions of the manifold explored by the trajectories of interest. Within the slice, relative equilibria reduce to equilibria and relative periodic orbits reduce to periodic orbits. Visualizations of these solutions and their unstable manifolds reveal their interrelations and the role they play in organizing turbulence/chaos.

Cvitanovic, Predrag; Carroll, Keith M; Robbins, Bryce; Siminos, Evangelos

2012-01-01