WorldWideScience

Sample records for haiti quake slices

  1. Got Quakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    This resource contains instructions for building a seismometer to record movements of the Earth's crust using a cereal box, string, a paper cup, strips of paper, and weights, such as marbles or washers. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  2. A hypothesis of earth quake

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yeong-shyeong

    2008-01-01

    Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. We will define a quantity, the event-degree, in the paper. This quantity plays an important role in the model of quakes forecasting. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: "(i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most maj...

  3. Make a Quake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    When quakes strike urban areas, the toll in life and property can be great. Luckily, scientists have been working to uncover safer methods of construction and new structural techniques that "mitigate" the effects of earthquakes. In this simple simulation, you choose the ground on which to erect your building and which quake-proofing technological prevention to employ. You can then subject your building to three levels of intensity and see how it stands up.

  4. Strong Quake Strikes Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

  5. A hypothesis of earth quake

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Yeong-Shyeong

    2008-01-01

    Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: (i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most major quakes in continental plates Eurasian Plate, North America Plate, South America Plate, Africa Plate and Australia Plate are triggered breaking. (iii) These triggered quakes are triggered by the movements of high pressure centers and low pressure centers of the atmosphere on continental plates. (iv) How can the movements of the high pressure centers trigger a quake? It depends on the extent of the high pressure center and the speed of the movement. Here, we stress high pressure center instead of low pressure center because it is dominated by high pressure center mostly. Of course, the boundary of the plates must have stored enough energy to have quakes, that is, near t...

  6. QuakeTables: The Fault Database for QuakeSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, L. B.; Donnellan, A.; McLeod, D.; Pierce, M.; Chen, A. Y.; Gould, M.; Noriega-Carlos, G.; Paul, R.; Sung, S.; Ta, M. V.

    2004-12-01

    The QuakeSim project will provide the first web-services based, interoperable environment for doing large-scale forward models for earthquake processes. Through a web-services based portal, QuakeSim provides global access to geologic reference models of faults and fault data, simple analysis tools, new parallel forward models, and visualization support. The database system for this project must manage a variety of types of earthquake science data and information, including real and simulated data, and pre-existing structured collections containing "validated" data from official sources such as U.S. and California Geological Surveys, and "non-validated" data sets such as Virtual California. The fault database component of QuakeSim is called QuakeTables. QuakeTables was developed using a basic public domain database management system (DBMS), MySQL, to be ported to a more fully functional relational DBMS. These systems support the definition, storage, access, and control of collections of structured data. To provide for the access and manipulation of heterogeneous data sources, the integration of information from such sources, and the structural organization and data mining of this data, QuakeTables employs techniques for wrapper-based information fusion to support data source access and integration. QuakeTables is searchable with annotated fault records from original sources. The QuakeSim team designed the fields that constitute the database records and provided a web-based interface that enables the submitting and accessing of those records. The fields include primary geologic and paleoseismic fault parameters (fault location/geometry, slip rate at measured location, measurements of co-seismic displacement, dates and locations of previous ruptures) as well as non-primary fault parameters such as names, segments and characteristic recurrence interval.

  7. The QuakeAware Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Ryan Thomas; Paor, Donal Richard

    2011-01-01

    This business plan details the operating, marketing, financial, competitive, and technological landscapes of QuakeAware. QuakeAware is a website and iPhone / Android mobile phone application that helps citizens prepare for and react to a local earthquake. Presently, QuakeAware faces the challenges of becoming a sustainable enterprise and selecting the optimal strategic direction and operating mode for its future growth. This business plan identifies and assesses the options available to Quake...

  8. Citizen initiatives in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen Wall

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 earthquake in Haiti ushered in a new era for the role and power of technology and communication systems in disaster response – especially for how local responders used them.

  9. Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I

    2011-01-01

    In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument shows that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-induced energy conversion from seismic vibrations to magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetar.

  10. Surgical palliative care in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Joan L

    2012-03-01

    Palliative care in itself has many challenges; these challenges are compounded exponentially when placed in the setting of a mass casualty event, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Haiti itself was an austere environment with very little infrastructure before the disaster. US surgeons, intensivists, and nurses worked hand in hand with other international providers and Haitian volunteers to provide the best care for the many. Improvisation and teamwork as well as respect for the Haitian caregivers were crucial to their successes. Sisyphean trials lie ahead. Haiti and its people must not be forgotten. PMID:22405433

  11. Thanks from Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

  12. Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Haiti maavärinas on süüdistatud nii USA-d kui ka üleloomulikke jõude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste võlg!" ütleb autor, et päästetööd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

  13. QuakeSim 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

    2012-01-01

    QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

  14. 76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ...Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice...Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen). By...methods: Email: Quaking_Aspen_Wind_Energy_WY@blm.gov; or...

  15. Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

  16. Cholera vaccination in urban Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

    2013-10-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  17. New Type of Deeper, Longer Quake Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    This radio broadcast reports on the discovery of a new kind of earthquake that is much deeper and longer lasting than other kinds of quakes. These long, super-deep tremors originate at a depth of 15-20 miles, below the crust in the upper mantle of Earth, and last 10-20 minutes. The broadcast reports on their occurrence in California and how research is being conducted to determine their relationship to other seismic activity along the San Andreas Fault. The clip is 4 minutes and 48 seconds in length.

  18. Haiti Earthquake, Deforestation Heighten Landslide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic

    This photo from National Geographic shows the difference in deforestation between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The accompanying article describes the increased risk of earthquake-related landslides such deforestation carries.

  19. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christian Pierre, Raccurt; Philippe, Brasseur; Jacques, Boncy.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilar [...] iae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  20. Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow Induced Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Muite, B K; Rao, K K; Sundaresan, S; Muite, Benson K.; Quinn, Shandon F.; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2003-01-01

    Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. The latter is produced by stick-slip friction between the wall and the granular material in tall narrow silos. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence and frequency of flow pulsations are determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating motion of the granular material drives the oscillatory motion of the silo and the occurrence of silo quake does not require a resonant interaction between the silo and the granular material.

  1. Slices and Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We study the slice filtration for S^1-spectra over a field k, and raise a number of questions regardings its properties. We show that the slices, except for the 0th slice, admit a further filtration whose layers are in a natural way the Eilenberg-Maclane spectra associated to a homotopy invariant complex of Nisnevic sheaves with transfer, i.e., an effective motive. We give an example to show that in general the 0th slice does not admit transfers.

  2. Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system. PMID:25276595

  3. Pseudo-slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, Charles

    2000-01-01

    For n >1, if the Seifert form of a knotted 2n-1 sphere K in S^{2n+1} has a metabolizer, then the knot is slice. Casson and Gordon proved that this is false in dimension three (n = 1). However, in the three dimensional case it is true that if the metabolizer has a basis represented by a strongly slice link then K is slice. The question has been asked as to whether it is sufficient that each basis element is represented by a slice knot to assure that K is slice. For genus one ...

  4. ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

  5. Special Event Page: August 17, 1999: Turkey Quake

    Science.gov (United States)

    On August 17, 1999, an Earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale devastated Northwest Turkey. With the United Nations estimating final death tolls to top 40,000, this quake is proving to be one of the worst natural disasters in recent history. Immediately following news of the quake, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a consortium of United States Universities, posted a special event page to provide links to sites, graphics, general and technical information, and news on the recent seismic event in Turkey. Contributions made by IRIS consortium members include US Geological Survey reports, data from data stations in Poland, and links to the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Turkish Press Review.

  6. Slices and Ellipse Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dattoli, G.; Sabia, E.; Del Franco, M.; Petralia, A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the new problems emerging in charged beam transport for SASE FEL dynamics. The optimization of the magnetic transport system for future devices requires new concepts associated with the slice emittance and the slice phase space distribution. We study the problem of electron beam slice matching and guiding in transport devices for SASE FEL emission discussing matching criteria and how the associated design of the electron transport line may affect the FEL output pe...

  7. "Slicing" the Hopf link

    OpenAIRE

    Krushkal, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    A link in the 3-sphere is called (smoothly) slice if its components bound disjoint smoothly embedded disks in the 4-ball. More generally, given a 4-manifold M with a distinguished circle in its boundary, a link in the 3-sphere is called M-slice if its components bound in the 4-ball disjoint embedded copies of M. A 4-manifold M is constructed such that the Borromean rings are not M-slice but the Hopf link is. This contrasts the classical link-slice setting where the Hopf link...

  8. Parametric Trace Slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  9. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  10. The Riley slice revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Komori, Yohei; Series, Caroline

    1998-01-01

    In [4]: `The Riley slice of Schottky space', (Proc. London Math. Soc. 69 (1994), 72-90), Keen and Series analysed the theory of pleating coordinates in the context of the Riley slice of Schottky space R, the deformation space of a genus two handlebody generated by two parabolics. This theory aims to give a complete description of the deformation space of a holomorphic family of Kleinian groups in terms of the bending lamination of the convex hull boundary of the associated t...

  11. Improved Perfect Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ho?rmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. The originally proposed method is rather slow and thus several improvements have been suggested. However, two of them are erroneous. In this article we give a short introduction to perfect slice sampling, point out incorrect methods, and give a new improved version of the original algorithm. (author's abstract)

  12. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000$. The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  13. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  14. Soil degradation in Haiti causative factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis, Stervin; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s

    2004-01-01

    THE recovery of soil productivity is undoubtedly one the most urgent measures needed for Haiti's continued development. On this basis, we undertook an extensive review of the literature concerning the past history of soil degradation -from the precolumbine era to the present- in an effortto identify the principal factors causing the rampant soil degradation suffered by Haiti. Ourstudy was conducted from the three standpoints: physico-natural, political and socio-economic and de...

  15. Child malnutrition in Haiti: progress despite disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Pierre, Joseline Marhone; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Undernutrition, a chief child killer in developing countries, has been a major public health problem in Haiti. Following the 2010 disasters (earthquake and cholera) and the intensive relief efforts to address them, we sought to determine the trends of child undernutrition in Haiti using data from the 2005-06 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS) and from a Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) survey in 2012. Growth data analyses included 2,463 (HDHS) and 4,727 (SMART) children ages 0-59 months. We calculated the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight for each survey using World Health Organization 2006 growth standards. To account for sampling design, probability weights were applied to all analyses. Statistical significance was determined by non-overlapping confidence intervals around estimates. Stunting prevalence declined from 28.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?25.9, 31.3) in 2005-06 to 22.2% (95% CI?=?20.2, 24.3) in 2012; wasting, from 10.1% (95% CI?=?8.2, 12.7) to 4.3% (95% CI?=?3.6, 5.2); and underweight, from 17.7 % (95% CI?=?15.6, 20.1) to 10.5% (95% CI?=?9.3, 11.9). Additionally, stunting declined more in rural areas, from 33.6% (95% CI?=?30.1, 37.2) in 2005-06 to 25% (95% CI?=?23.4, 26.7) in 2012, than in urban areas, from 18.6% (95% CI?=?15.3, 22.5) in 2005-06 to 18.4% (95% CI?=?16.7, 20.1) in 2012, for reasons that remain unknown. Results of the 2012 HDHS confirmed the observed trends. Thus, undernutrition among Haitian children under 5 declined significantly between 2005-06 and 2012. Our results should be interpreted in view of investments and changes that occurred in different sectors (within and outside health and nutrition) before and after the earthquake. PMID:25276552

  16. Slicing softly with shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyssat, E; Tallinen, T; Le Merrer, M; Mahadevan, L

    2012-12-14

    A soft solid is more easily sliced using a combination of normal and shearing deformations rather than diced by squeezing down on it normally with the same knife. To explain why this is so, we experimentally probe the slicing and dicing of a soft agar gel with a wire, and complement this with theory and numerical simulations of cutting of a highly deformable solid. We find that purely normal deformations lead to global deformations of the soft solid, so that the blade has to penetrate deeply into the sample, well beyond the linear regime, to reach the relatively large critical stress to nucleate fracture. In contrast, a slicing motion leads to fracture nucleation with minimal deformation of the bulk and thus a much lower barrier. This transition between global and local deformations in soft solids as a function of the angle of shear explains the mechanics of the paper cut and design of guillotine blades. PMID:23368324

  17. An outlook on event rates of induced earth quakes in the Netherlands: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Putten, Anton F. P.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate in earth quakes in the Netherlands is attributed to the enhanced depletion of Groningen natural gas, currently at a rate of 50 billion m3 per year. We performed a model-independent analysis of the earth quake event counts in KNMI data. We find an exponential growth since 2001 with a standard deviation of 0.37% and a doubling time of 6.2 years, giving rise to one event per day in 2025. A trend in the magnitude of the quakes is indiscernible. There is no ap...

  18. An outlook on event rates of induced earth quakes in the Netherlands: a preliminary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate in earth quakes in the Netherlands is attributed to the enhanced depletion of Groningen natural gas, currently at a rate of 50 billion m3 per year. Here, we report on an exponential growth in the earth quake event rate, based on a surprisingly accurate fit to publicly available KNMI data. The data show a doubling in the rate every 6.2 years, leading to a rate of one event per day in 2025. A trend in the magnitude of the quakes is indiscernible.

  19. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  20. IMPROVED COOK STOVES FOR HAITI USING THERMOELECTRICS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is plagued with continual problems due to severe deforestation throughout the country. Haiti was once nearly completely covered by lush forest, but now less than three percent of Haiti is forested. This environmental cala...

  1. The need for dialysis in haiti: dream or reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exantus, Judith; Desrosiers, Florence; Ternier, Alexandra; Métayer, Audie; Abel, Gérard; Buteau, Jean-Hénold

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization reports, nowadays burden of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is well documented. The high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which are the main causes of CKD, is a big concern in the world health scenario [1]. These NCD can progress slowly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the low-middle income countries (LMIC) like Haiti are not left unscathed by this worldwide scourge. Several well-known public health issues prevalent in Haiti such as acute diarrheal infections, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), can also impair the function of the kidney. Dialysis, a form of renal replacement therapy (RRT), represents a life-saving therapy for all patients affected with impaired kidney. In Haiti, few patients have access to health insurance or disability financial support. Considering that seventy-two percent (72%) of Haitians live with less than USD 2 per day [2], survival with CKD can be quite stressful for them. Data on the weight of the dialysis and its management are scarce. Addressing the need for dialysis in Haiti is an important component in decision-making and planning processes in the health sector. This paper is intended to bring forth discussion on the use of this type of renal replacement therapy in Haiti: the past, the present, and the challenges it presents. We will also make some recommendations in order to manage this serious problem. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25672966

  2. Slices of the Kerr ergosurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

  3. QuakeSim and the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Rundle, John; Fox, Geoffrey; McLeod, Dennis; Grant, Lisa; Tullis, Terry; Pierce, Marlon; Parker, Jay; Lyzenga, Greg

    2004-01-01

    We are developing simulation and analysis tools in order to develop a solid Earth science framework for understanding and studying active tectonic and earthquake processes. The goal of QuakeSim and its extension, the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO), is to study the physics of earthquakes using state-of-the-art modeling, data manipulation, and pattern recognition technologies. We are developing clearly defined accessible data formats and code protocols as inputs to simulations, which are adapted to high-performance computers. The solid Earth system is extremely complex and nonlinear resulting in computationally intensive problems with millions of unknowns. With these tools it will be possible to construct the more complex models and simulations necessary to develop hazard assessment systems critical for reducing future losses from major earthquakes. We are using Web (Grid) service technology to demonstrate the assimilation of multiple distributed data sources (a typical data grid problem) into a major parallel high-performance computing earthquake forecasting code. Such a linkage of Geoinformatics with Geocomplexity demonstrates the value of the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO) Grid concept, and advances Grid technology by building the first real-time large-scale data assimilation grid.

  4. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Saul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

  5. The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María del, Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint, Jean; Carlos A, Fuster Callaba; Lorenzo, Somarriba López.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sit [...] es, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

  6. Non-Seismology Seismology: Using QuakeCatchers to Analyze the Frequency of Bridge Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier, A. M.; Constantin, C.; Wilson, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted an experiment to test the feasibility of measuring seismic waves generated by traffic near James Madison University. We used QuakeCatcher seismometers (originally designed for passive seismic measurement) to measure vibrations associated with traffic on a wooden bridge as well as a nearby concrete bridge. This experiment was a signal processing exercise for a student research project and did not draw any conclusions regarding bridge safety or security. The experiment consisted of two temporary measurement stations comprised of a laptop computer and a QuakeCatcher - a small seismometer that plugs directly into the laptop via a USB cable. The QuakeCatcher was taped to the ground at the edge of the bridge to achieve good coupling, and vibrational events were triggered repeatedly with a control vehicle to accumulate a consistent dataset of the bridge response. For the wooden bridge, the resulting 'seismograms' were converted to Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format and analyzed in MATLAB. The concrete bridge did not generate vibrations significant enough to trigger the recording mechanism on the QuakeCatchers. We will present an overview of the experimental design and frequency content of the traffic patterns, as well as a discussion of the instructional benefits of using the QuakeCatcher sensors in this non-traditional setting.

  7. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  8. Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison with single-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Presentation and evaluation of slice sensitivity profile and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison to single-slice CT. Methods: Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of a multi-slice CT equiped with a 2D matrix detector array and of a single-slice CT were evaluated in phantom studies. Results: For the single-slice CT the width of the slice sensitivity profiles increased with increasing pitch. In spite of a much higher table speed the slice sensitivity profiles of multi-slice CT were narrower and did not increase with higher pitch. Noise in single-slice CT was independent of pitch. For multi-slice CT noise increased with higher pitch and for the higher pitch decreased slightly with higher detector row collimation. Conclusions: Multi-slice CT provides superior z-resolution and higher volume coverage speed. These qualities fulfill one of the prerequisites for improvement of 3D postprocessing. (orig.)

  9. Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

  10. Digital Globe sample imagery gallery: Port au Prince, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    This viewer presents imagery produced by Digital Globe of Haiti both before and after the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Users can select "before" imagery, select a particular day's views to see, or pick the most recent imagery which is automatically updated.

  11. Elevated temperature during slicing enhances acute slice preparation quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarylkaYoeUusisaari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that brain dissection and slicing using solutions warmed to near-physiological temperature (~ +34?C, greatly enhance slice quality without affecting intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the neurons. Improved slice quality is seen not only when using young (< 1 month, but also mature (>2.5 month mice. This allows easy in vitro patch-clamp experimentation using adult deep cerebellar nuclear slices, which until now have been considered very difficult. As proof of the concept, we compare intrinsic properties of cerebellar nuclear neurons in juvenile (< 1 month and adult (up to 7 months mice, and confirm that no significant developmental changes occur after the fourth postnatal week. The enhanced quality of brain slices from old animals facilitates experimentation on age-related disorders as well as optogenetic studies requiring long transfection periods.

  12. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  13. HAITI: MUCH ATTENTION, NO RESULTS. WHY DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DOESN’T WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MARI?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an excerpt, with little adaptation, from the master thesis: “Project management’s contribution to international cooperation. How to make things work: ODA in Haiti” wrote under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Horst Brezinski from Technical University Freiberg Bergakademie and Prof. Dr. Eng.. Sabina Irimie from University of Petrosani, while benefiting from an Erasmus study scholarship at the first mentioned institution. It presents the case of Haiti, a small country facing big challenges and enjoying plenty of international attention especially due to the recent earthquake that struck the country at the beginning of 2010. The SWOT analysis inside the paper offers a detailed view of Haiti’s actual situation, identifying in the same time its problems and the variables that should be taken into consideration when designing programmes and projects targeting Haiti’s development.

  14. OpenQuake, a platform for collaborative seismic hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Paul; Burton, Christopher; Butler, Lars; Crowley, Helen; Danciu, Laurentiu; Nastasi, Matteo; Monelli, Damiano; Pagani, Marco; Panzeri, Luigi; Simionato, Michele; Silva, Vitor; Vallarelli, Giuseppe; Weatherill, Graeme; Wyss, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, tools and models for global seismic hazard and risk assessment, within the context of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and international organisations, all contributions are being integrated into OpenQuake: a web-based platform that - together with other resources - will become accessible in 2014. With OpenQuake, stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualize and investigate earthquake hazard and risk, capture new data and share findings for joint learning. The platform is envisaged as a collaborative hub for earthquake risk assessment, used at global and local scales, around which an active network of users has formed. OpenQuake will comprise both online and offline tools, many of which can also be used independently. One of the first steps in OpenQuake development was the creation of open-source software for advanced seismic hazard and risk calculations at any scale, the OpenQuake Engine. Although in continuous development, a command-line version of the software is already being test-driven and used by hundreds worldwide; from non-profits in Central Asia, seismologists in sub-Saharan Africa and companies in South Asia to the European seismic hazard harmonization programme (SHARE). In addition, several technical trainings were organized with scientists from different regions of the world (sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Asia-Pacific) to introduce the engine and other OpenQuake tools to the community, something that will continue to happen over the coming years. Other tools that are being developed of direct interest to the hazard community are: • OpenQuake Modeller; fundamental instruments for the creation of seismogenic input models for seismic hazard assessment, a critical input to the OpenQuake Engine. OpenQuake Modeller will consist of a suite of tools (Hazard Modellers Toolkit) for characterizing the seismogenic sources of earthquakes and their models of earthquakes recurrence. An earthquake catalogue homogenization tool, for integration, statistical comparison and user-defined harmonization of multiple catalogues of earthquakes is also included in the OpenQuake modeling tools. • A data capture tool for active faults; a tool that allows geologists to draw (new) fault discoveries on a map in an intuitive GIS-environment and add details on the fault through the tool. This data, once quality checked, can then be integrated with the global active faults database, which will increase in value with every new fault insertion. Building on many ongoing efforts and the knowledge of scientists worldwide, GEM will for the first time integrate state-of-the-art data, models, results and open-source tools into a single platform. The platform will continue to increase in value, in particular for use in local contexts, through contributions from and collaborations with scientists and organisations worldwide. This presentation will showcase the OpenQuake Platform, focusing on the IT solutions that have been adopted as well as the added value that the platform will bring to scientists worldwide.

  15. Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Wickstrom; Cindy Obenhaus; Denise Fryzelka; Stan Shaffer

    2007-01-01

    High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of bar...

  16. Imaging microglia in brain slices and slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Michael E; Eyo, Ukpong; Fuller, Leah; Hass, John; Kurpius, Dana

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe a method for imaging fluorescently labeled parenchymal microglia (MG) in excised neonatal or adult rodent brain tissue slices. Using multichannel confocal or two-photon time-lapse imaging, the approach affords real-time analyses of MG behaviors, including motility, migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and phagocytosis in live brain tissues. The method is applicable to acutely prepared tissue slices from developing and adult rodents and to slice cultures derived from neonatal rodents, including transgenic and green fluorescent protein reporter mice. A variety of fluorescent tags can be used to study the structure and physiology of MG in these preparations. Moreover, bath application of reagents (such as ATP) can establish spatial and temporal gradients that induce chemokinesis- and chemotaxis-like MG migration in tissue slices. Thus, the approach is useful for dissecting the molecular basis of MG behaviors and testing whether candidate reagents alter MG behavior and function in semi-intact central nervous system tissue preparations. PMID:24298036

  17. Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Tomich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica.Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated with incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

  18. On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

  19. Convergence of Voevodsky's slice tower

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We consider Voevodsky's slice tower for a finite spectrum E in the motivic stable homotopy category over a perfect field k. In case k has finite cohomological dimension (in characteristic two, we also require that k is infinite), we show that the slice tower converges, in that the induced filtration on the bi-graded homotopy sheaves for each term in the tower for E is finite, exhaustive and separated at each stalk. This partially verifies a conjecture of Voevodsky.

  20. Viscous fingering of miscible slices

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, Anne; Bertho, Yann; Martin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface in...

  1. A cotangent bundle slice theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Schmah, Tanya

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns cotangent-lifted Lie group actions; our goal is to find local and ``semi-global'' normal forms for these and associated structures. Our main result is a constructive cotangent bundle slice theorem that extends the Hamiltonian slice theorem of Marle, Guillemin and Sternberg. The result applies to all proper cotangent-lifted actions, around points with fully-isotropic momentum values. We also present a ``tangent-level'' commuting reduction result and use ...

  2. Issues of Bilingual Education in the Caribbean: The Cases of Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current situations and the potential for bilingual programs in Haiti and Trinidad, bringing out major differences between the language situation in the two. Suggests ways by which bilingual programs may be implemented in Haiti and the ensuing benefits. Shows why bilingual programs are not likely to be implemented in Trinidad, what is…

  3. The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been installed by other regional seismic networks - all communicating via the common NetQuakes servers.

  4. Solution Structure of the QUA1 Dimerization Domain of pXqua, the Xenopus Ortholog of Quaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muzaffar; Broadhurst, R. William

    2013-01-01

    The STAR protein family member Quaking is essential for early development in vertebrates. For example, in oligodendrocyte cells it regulates the splicing, localization, translation and lifetime of a set of mRNAs that code for crucial components of myelin. The Quaking protein contains three contiguous conserved regions: a QUA1 oligomerization element, followed by a single-stranded RNA binding motif comprising the KH and QUA2 domains. An embryonic lethal point mutation in the QUA1 domain, E48G,...

  5. Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S; Takata, J; Chang, H -K; Xu, R X

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulae for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasi-periodic oscillations of the X-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored b...

  6. Recovering from disasters: a study of livelihoods in post-quake villages in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kashif Saeed; Shanmugaratnam, Nadarajah; Nyborg, Ingrid L P

    2015-04-01

    The October 2005 earthquake in northern Pakistan severely affected the livelihoods of 1.5 million people. With the destruction of material assets and communications infrastructure, the quake had a devastating impact on people's way of life in this remote mountainous region. This paper explores livelihood revival interventions undertaken during the earthquake response, and considers how differentiated livelihood outcomes were achieved. In addressing this objective the paper examines livelihood rehabilitation schemes in terms of structural aspects, working strategies, key factors, strengths of interventions and the role of human agency in influencing livelihood trajectories of quake-affected communities. Primary data for this study was gathered in northern Pakistan between October 2008 and January 2009. The study identifies structural shortcomings and strengths of the programmes attempting to revive the livelihoods of poor and vulnerable households. It identifies how households in two villages made the most of opportunities to improve their lives and move towards favourable outcomes. PMID:25442035

  7. Motivic slices and colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Javier J; Spitzweck, Markus; Østvær, Paul Arne

    2010-01-01

    Colored operads were introduced in the 1970's for the purpose of studying homotopy invariant algebraic structures on topological spaces. In this paper we introduce colored operads in motivic stable homotopy theory. Our main motivation is to uncover hitherto unknown highly structured properties of the slice filtration. The latter decomposes every motivic spectrum into its slices, which are motives, and one may ask to what extend the slice filtration preserves highly structured objects such as algebras and modules. We use colored operads to give a precise solution to this problem. Our approach makes use of axiomatic setups which specialize to classical and motivic stable homotopy theory. Accessible t-structures are central to the development of the general theory.

  8. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Saul; Philipp Kästli; Fabian Euchner; Danijel Schorlemmer

    2011-01-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

  9. Understanding Earthquake Fault Systems Using QuakeSim Analysis and Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Granat, Robert; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Al-Ghanmi, Rami; Grant, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    We are using the QuakeSim environment to model interacting fault systems. One goal of QuakeSim is to prepare for the large volumes of data that spaceborne missions such as DESDynI will produce. QuakeSim has the ability to ingest distributed heterogenous data in the form of InSAR, GPS, seismicity, and fault data into various earthquake modeling applications, automating the analysis when possible. Virtual California simulates interacting faults in California. We can compare output from long time history Virtual California runs with the current state of strain and the strain history in California. In addition to spaceborne data we will begin assimilating data from UAVSAR airborne flights over the San Francisco Bay Area, the Transverse Ranges, and the Salton Trough. Results of the models are important for understanding future earthquake risk and for providing decision support following earthquakes. Improved models require this sensor web of different data sources, and a modeling environment for understanding the combined data.

  10. Ground-water conditions in the Plaine de Moustiques, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Plaine des Moustiques lies on the north coast of Haiti about 12 kilometers west-southwest of Port-de-Paix. During January 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study to determine the availability of ground water in the plain for irrigation. At present irrigation is practiced by diversions from the Rivière des Moustiques. However, the dry-season flow of this stream is generally inadequate for irrigation or is sufficient to cover only a small part of the Irrigable area of the plain. According to Lieurance1 there is a total of about 1,120 hectares of irrigable land in the plain.

  11. Acute water shortage and health problems in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S B; Music, S I; Pollard, R A; Berggren, G; Boulos, C; Nagy, T; Brutus, M; Pamphile, M; Ferdinand, R O; Joseph, V R

    1980-03-01

    During a severe drought Port-au-Prince, Haiti, lost hydroelectric power for 10 weeks. This led to water shortages in areas of the city dependent on water supplied from electrically driven pumps. In a study of the impact of water restriction on disease, 400 families were randomly selected from two urban areas differentially affected by the water shortage. Disease in children was found to be related to quantity of water used, socioeconomic status, employment of head of household, and family size. The methods used in this study are recommended for the investigation of the relationship between water quantity and health. PMID:6102194

  12. Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dale, Tomich.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou [...] tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica. Abstract in english Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated wit [...] h incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

  13. Use of Damage Data for Calibration of GMPE's in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Y.; Molina, S.; Navarro, M.; Benito, B.

    2013-05-01

    After the 12 January 2010 earthquake that occurred in the south of Haiti, the Earthquake Engineering Researching Group (GIIS) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM, Spain) set up a cooperative line with the National Observatory of the Environment and Vulnerability of Haiti (ONEV), under the Ministry of the Environment. Within the frame of that working line, the project SISMO-HAITI was launched to estimate the seismic hazard in the country and the seismic risk in Port-au-Prince, the capital city. It was financed by the UPM. In the frame of the seismic risk study, an approach aimed at calibrating the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE`s) using damage data, was proposed and applied. This approach is presented here and may be useful in absence of strong motion data. The seismic risk estimation was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires two main inputs: classification of the building stock into predominant building typologies and a ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) to estimate the seismic demand. We found six building typologies in the city, and were assigned capacity and fragility curves (damage functions) taken from HAZUS and RISK-UE, which account for their vulnerability. Regarding the GMPE, as there are not relationships developed specifically for Haiti, we decided to use the next four: Boore & Atkinson (2008-2011), Abrahamson & Silva, (2008), Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008), Chiou & Youngs (2008). All of them belong to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models and allow including several parameters to define the seismic scenario, the source and the soil geotechnical characteristics. In this paper we present the results of the GMPE's calibration, a step aimed at figure out which is the most suitable relationship for the study area. We could not use acceleration records, since there were no accelerometers at the moment of the earthquake occurrence. Instead, we used data on the damage caused by the earthquake provided by the Haitian Ministry of Public Works. To achieve that, we simulated the earthquake in SELENA and compared our results with the observed damage. Through an iterative process based on minimizing the residuals, we calibrated both, the GMPE and the damage functions associated with the building typologies. We found that Boore & Atkinson and Campbell & Bozorgnia are the models that yield the lowest root mean square (RMS) error; hence, these GMPS's could be considered as the models that better predict the damage, together with the calibrated set of damage functions. Accordingly, we propose them to be used in future seismic risk assessments in the city.

  14. Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010 / Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melissa Simon, Guimaro; Milton, Steinman; Ana Merzel, Kernkraut; Oscar Fernando Pavão dos, Santos; Shirley Silva, Lacerda.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sinto [...] mas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the developm [...] ent of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

  15. Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Lee S.; Petkau, Aaron; Beaulaurier, John; Tyler, Shaun; Antonova, Elena S.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Orata, Fabini; Gladney, Lori M.; Stroika, Steven; Folster, Jason P.; Rowe, Lori; Freeman, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. chole...

  16. Hôpital Albert Schweitzer and the Republic of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R; Scalcini, M

    1986-01-01

    The Hôpital Albert Schweitzer was established near the village of Deschapelles in Haiti in 1956 by Dr. and Mrs. William Larimer Mellon of Arizona. The hospital currently has 162 acute care beds and provides inpatient and outpatient services to a district of about 160,000 people. In 1983, visits to the hospital and its dispensaries totaled 39,163. Since its founding the hospital has evolved into a tertiary care facility but has also established primary care programs through seven satellite dispensaries. Health agents and midwives play an important role in the hospital's field programs. Outreach programs concentrate on health and nutrition education, immunizations, supplementary food programs, tuberculosis screening, oral rehydration for infants with diarrheal diseases and cord cutting clinics for the prevention of neonatal tetanus. This paper describes the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in this area of Haiti, the functioning of the hospital and both its medical and non-medical programs. The latter include agricultural irrigation and well digging projects, and wood working, weaving and ceramic facilities to encourage local artisans. PMID:3771831

  17. 77 FR 12201 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...Guard of Haiti. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective February 29, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Candace M. J. Goforth, Acting Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy, U.S. Department of State, telephone...

  18. Viscous fingering of miscible slices

    CERN Document Server

    De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

  19. Virtual Slice Extraction Based on Hermite Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Wen-guang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the one-time scanning direction’s oneness and the limited slices’ number of the current CT imaging equip­ment, we propose an extraction algorithm of any angle virtual slice on 3D medical image based on the Hermite interpolation. In view of the large slice thickness, we first use the Hermite interpolation algorithm to interpolate the data between layers, and then by setting a virtual plane of normal vector and the interior point, combin­ed with improved three-dimensional linear interpolation algorithm for image sequence to be cut we obtain a virtual slice, finally we observe the extraction with a three-dimensional reconstruction of the virtual slices. Experimental result shows that the extracted virtual slice is close to the actual slice, it can be used for computer-aided diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and it compens­ates for the CT imaging equipment on the lack of imaging.

  20. The Quake-Catcher Network: Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Saltzman, J.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the Quake-Catcher Network is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. With greater understanding, teachers, students, and interested individuals can share their new knowledge, resulting in continued participation in the project, and better preparation for earthquakes in their homes, businesses, and communities. The primary educational outreach goals are 1) to present earthquake science and earthquake hazards in a modern and exciting way, and 2) to provide teachers and educators with seismic sensors, interactive software, and educational modules to assist in earthquake education. QCNLive (our interactive educational computer software) displays recent and historic earthquake locations and 3-axis real-time acceleration measurements. This tool is useful for demonstrations and active engagement for all ages, from K-college. QCN provides subsidized sensors at 49 for the general public and 5 for K-12 teachers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes to a broader audience. Academics are taking QCN to classrooms across the United States and around the world. The next time you visit a K-12 classroom or teach a college class on interpreting seismograms, bring a QCN sensor and QCNLive software with you! To learn how, visit http://qcn.stanford.edu.

  1. QuakeSim: a Web Service Environment for Productive Investigations with Earth Surface Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Granat, R. A.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; McLeod, D.; Al-Ghanmi, R.; Pierce, M.; Fox, G.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The QuakeSim science gateway environment includes a visually rich portal interface, web service access to data and data processing operations, and the QuakeTables ontology-based database of fault models and sensor data. The integrated tools and services are designed to assist investigators by covering the entire earthquake cycle of strain accumulation and release. The Web interface now includes Drupal-based access to diverse and changing content, with new ability to access data and data processing directly from the public page, as well as the traditional project management areas that require password access. The system is designed to make initial browsing of fault models and deformation data particularly engaging for new users. Popular data and data processing include GPS time series with data mining techniques to find anomalies in time and space, experimental forecasting methods based on catalogue seismicity, faulted deformation models (both half-space and finite element), and model-based inversion of sensor data. The fault models include the CGS and UCERF 2.0 faults of California and are easily augmented with self-consistent fault models from other regions. The QuakeTables deformation data include the comprehensive set of UAVSAR interferograms as well as a growing collection of satellite InSAR data.. Fault interaction simulations are also being incorporated in the web environment based on Virtual California. A sample usage scenario is presented which follows an investigation of UAVSAR data from viewing as an overlay in Google Maps, to selection of an area of interest via a polygon tool, to fast extraction of the relevant correlation and phase information from large data files, to a model inversion of fault slip followed by calculation and display of a synthetic model interferogram.

  2. Vulnerability to poverty : A microeconometric approach and application to the Republic of Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Jadotte, Evans

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates vulnerability to poverty in Haiti. Research in vulnerability in developing countries has been scarce due to the high data requirements of vulnerability studies (e.g. panel or long series of cross-sections). The methodology adopted here allows the assessment of vulnerability to poverty by exploiting the short panel structure of nested data at different levels. The decomposition method reveals that vulnerability in Haiti is largely a rural phenomenon and that schooling c...

  3. Supports for Health and Social Service Providers from Canada Responding to the Disaster in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Christine; O Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Dan

    2014-01-01

    In January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake shook Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The massive disaster made it difficult for local Haitian community officials to respond immediately, leaving the country reliant on foreign aid and international and non-governmental relief organizations. This study explores the effectiveness of various supports that were made available to health and social service providers in Haiti, by focusing on their lived experiences pre-deployment, on-site and post-deployment....

  4. Cost and profit efficiency of banks in Haiti: do domestic banks perform better than foreign banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Cadet, Raulin Lincifort

    2008-01-01

    I use the stochastic frontier methodology to estimate a cost and a profit frontier functions. The Fourier-flexible form is used in this paper because of its flexibility. Results show that, although foreign banks are more cost efficient than domestic banks, domestic banks are more profit efficient than foreign banks, in Haiti. The paper reveals also that, although treasury bills constitute an alternative source of profit for banks in Haiti, a growth of interest rate on treasury bills incre...

  5. An evaluation of seismic hazard in La Hispaniola, after the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Belizaire, Dwinel; Torres Ferna?ndez, Yolanda; Marti?nez Di?az, Jose? Jesu?s; Hue?rfano, Vi?ctor; Polanco, Eugenio; Garcia, R.; Gonza?lez?crende, Pilar; Serna Marti?nez, Ana Rita; Zevallos, F.

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of the seismic hazard in La Hispaniola Island has been carried out, as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and developed by several Spanish Universities, the National Observatory of Environment and Vulnerability) ONEV of Haiti, and with contributions from the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) and University Seismological Institute of Dominican Republic (ISU). The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for sei...

  6. Self-sustained oscillator as a model for explosion quakes at Stromboli Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Martino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze seismic signals produced by explosion-quakes at Stromboli Volcano. We use standard nonlinear procedures to search a low-order effective dynam-ics. The dimension of the reconstructed phase space depends on the number of samples. Namely larger time lengths cor-respond to dynamical systems of different complexity. If we restrict the analysis to the signal associated directly to the source (Chouet et al., 1997, we obtain a phase space dimen-sion equal to two. We reproduce this part of the signal with a simple single self-sustained oscillator.

  7. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Wampler Peter J; Rediske Richard R; Molla Azizur R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or gr...

  8. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast global conformational change that arises within picoseconds and precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This provides direct structural evidence for a 'protein quake': the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake-like structural motions.

  9. Image Slicing with Infrared Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, J. E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Graham, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We are proposing to build a new integral field instrument (OSIRIS) for use with the Keck Adaptive Optics System. It will utilize a large (1024 element) fiber optic bundle to slice the field and feed a standard infrared spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 5000. To improve the fill factor of the fiber bundle, we plan on coupling it to a matched lenslet array. The spectrograph will have three plate scales of 0.05'', 0.10'' and 0.20'' per pixel, and full broad band spectr...

  10. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly applicable to multi-fiber spectrometers to achieve similar enhancement. HTVS also provides the ability to anamorphically "stretch" the slit image in long-slit spectrometers, allowing the instrument designer to optimize the plate scale in the dispersion axis and cross-dispersion axes independently without sacrificing spatial information. This allows users to widen the input slit, with the associated gain of throughput and loss of spatial selectivity, while maintaining the spectral resolution of the spectrometer system. This "stretching" places increased requirements on detector focal plane height, as with image slicing techniques, but provides additional degrees of freedom to instrument designers to build the best possible spectrometer systems. We discuss the details of this technology for an astronomical context, covering the applicability from small telescope mounted spectrometers through long-slit imagers and radial-velocity engines. This powerful tool provides additional degrees of freedom when designing a spectrometer, enabling instrument designers to further optimize systems for the required scientific goals.

  11. The use of volunteer interpreters during the 201 0 Haiti earthquake: lessons learned from the USNS COMFORT Operation Unified Response Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Clydette; Pagliara-Miller, Claire

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude Richter earthquake devastated Haiti, leading to the world's largest humanitarian effort in 60 years. The catastrophe led to massive destruction of homes and buildings, the loss of more than 200,000 lives, and overwhelmed the host nation response and its public health infrastructure. Among the many responders, the United States Government acted immediately by sending assistance to Haiti including a naval hospital ship as a tertiary care medical center, the USNS COMFORT. To adequately respond to the acute needs of patients, healthcare professionals on the USNS COMFORT relied on Haitian Creole-speaking volunteers who were recruited by the American Red Cross (ARC). These volunteers complemented full-time Creole-speaking military staff on board. The ARC provided 78 volunteers who were each able to serve up to 4 weeks on board. Volunteers' demographics, such as age and gender, as well as linguistic skills, work background, and prior humanitarian assistance experience varied. Volunteer efforts were critical in assisting with informed consent for surgery, family reunification processes, explanation of diagnosis and treatment, comfort to patients and families in various stages of grieving and death, and helping healthcare professionals to understand the cultural context and sensitivities unique to Haiti. This article explores key lessons learned in the use of volunteer interpreters in earthquake disaster relief in Haiti and highlights the approaches that optimize volunteer services in such a setting, and which may be applicable in similar future events. PMID:22649867

  12. Characterization of inequality and poverty in the Republic of Haiti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evans, Jadotte.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Después de aproximadamente veinte años de estancamiento económico acompañado de disturbios políticos, la república de Haití, exhibiendo un PIB per capita en paridad de poder de compra de 1,470 dólares estadounidenses, es actualmente el país más pobre del hemisferio occidental y uno de los más pobres [...] del mundo. El presente trabajo de investigación también revela que es el país más desigual en la región más desigual del mundo, a saber, América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Amén del carácter endémico de la pobreza en este país, el problema de la distribución de la renta puede representar un verdadero escollo a las perspectivas de crecimiento y, por ende, debería constituir una de las principales preocupaciones de los responsables políticos en sus programas de lucha contra este flagelo. Para trabajo se utiliza la Encuesta sobre las Condiciones de Vida en Haití para estimar el estado de la pobreza y la desigualdad para el periodo 2000/2001. Los primeros resultados destacan, sin sorpresa, que la pobreza es más generalizada en la zona rural mientras la zona metropolitana de Puerto Príncipe acusa las tasas más bajas. El acceso a ciertos factores de producción, tales como la tierra agrícola, no constituye una vía de escape a la pobreza. También se propone una descomposición de la desigualdad en varios ámbitos vía la estimación de mínimos cuadrados ponderados para encuestas complejas. Finalmente, se estima un logit policotómico ordenado para investigar la probabilidad de un hogar de ser pobre o indigente. Abstract in english After nearly twenty years of stagnation and economic decline coupled with political upheavals, the Republic of Haiti, with a GDP per capita of approximately 1,470 USD (expressed in Purchasing Power Parity) in the year 2000, is at this date the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere and one of the [...] poorest of the world. The present research reveals that this country is also where income is worst distributed in the most unequal region of the world, viz., Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Thus, besides the pervasive nature of poverty, income distribution also emerges as a potential stumbling block to growth prospects and should be of high concern for policy makers, let alone be part of a global policy to tackle the poverty scourge. The present research uses the 2001 Haiti Living Conditions Survey, the most recent multi-topic survey for the Republic of Haiti, for distributive analysis and absolute poverty assessment. Preliminary results show that poverty, as expected, is more widespread in the rural area while the Metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince is where the incidence of poverty is the lowest. Surprisingly, access to physical productive asset, such as land, does not help the peasant escape poverty. In addition to the derivation of inequality and poverty profiles, a weighted least square with proper design based for stratified, multistage, and probability cluster sampling is used to additively decompose inequality by multiple factor components. Also, a polychotomous ordered logit is estimated to investigate the risk of being indigent or poor.

  13. Exploring Unintended Social Side Effects of Tent Distribution Practices in Post-Earthquake Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helen Logie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s social, economic and health infrastructure, leaving 2 million persons—one-fifth of Haiti’s population—homeless. Internally displaced persons relocated to camps, where human rights remain compromised due to increased poverty, reduced security, and limited access to sanitation and clean water. This article draws on findings from 3 focus groups conducted with internally displaced young women and 3 focus groups with internally displaced young men (aged 18–24 in Leogane, Haiti to explore post-earthquake tent distribution practices. Focus group findings highlighted that community members were not engaged in developing tent distribution strategies. Practices that distributed tents to both children and parents, and linked food and tent distribution, inadvertently contributed to “chaos”, vulnerability to violence and family network breakdown. Moving forward we recommend tent distribution strategies in disaster contexts engage with community members, separate food and tent distribution, and support agency and strategies of self-protection among displaced persons.

  14. A Note on Perfect Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ho?rmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. We show that the simplest version of the perfect slice sampler suggested in the literature does not always sample from the target distribution. (author's abstract)

  15. Update on progress in selected public health programs after the 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic--Haiti, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercant, J Wysler; Guillaume, Florence D; Marston, Barbara J; Lowrance, David W

    2015-02-20

    On January 12, 2010, an earthquake devastated Haiti's infrastructure, killing an estimated 230,000 persons and displacing more than 1.5 million. Ten months later, Haiti experienced the beginning of the largest cholera epidemic ever reported in a single country. Immediately after the earthquake and at the start of the cholera epidemic, health priorities in Haiti included improvement of surveillance and laboratory capacity for addressing public health threats in the general population and targeted surveillance and provision of improved water and sanitation in camps for internally displaced persons. As part of a multi-sector, post-earthquake response in collaboration with the Government of Haiti and others, CDC focused on supporting the recovery, expansion, or establishment of several key health programs. This update reports progress in selected health programs, services, and systems in Haiti as of the end of 2014. PMID:25695317

  16. Torsional seismic vibrations of solid crust in quaking paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Takata, J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an asteroseismic model of non-rotating paramagnetic neutron star with core-crust stratification of interior pervaded by homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field. Focus is on post-quake vibrational relaxation by torsional shear oscillations of electron-nuclear solid-state plasma in the metal-like crust about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. In accord with basic physics underlying the very notion of a neutron star and indirect observational evidence of the dipole configuration of magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars, the model under consideration presumes that micro-composition of core material is dominated by degenerate neutron matter in the state of Pauli's paramagnetic permanent magnetization caused by polarizations of spin magnetic moments of neutrons along magnetic axis of the star. Particular attention is given to the regime of node-free differentially rotational vibrations of crust against immobile core driven by Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic f...

  17. X-Ray Flares of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Quakes of Solid Quark Stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Renxin

    2008-01-01

    We propose a star-quake model to understand X-ray flares of both long and short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, i.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 10^3 to 10^6 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transition is a few MeV, and then a new source of free energy (i.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

  18. On the persistency of crater assignment criteria for Stromboli explosion-quakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Iacop

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the results of previous works by our group, this paper aims to investigate the correlation between features of a kind of seismic events recorded at Stromboli (the so called explosion-quakes and the source of such explosions, i.e. the different craters. The purpose is that of finding parameters in order to try an automatic assignment of new events to their crater of origin. These parameters must be searched for both in time and in frequency domain. Afterwards the stability in time of the discrimination is discussed. An important « side effect» of this analysis is the discovery that the percentage of summital explosions not producing seismic signals recordable by a 2 s seismometer is not negligible.

  19. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  20. Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

  1. Post-earthquake Haiti: the critical role for rehabilitation services following a humanitarian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; O'Connell, Colleen; Tardif, Gaetan; Burns, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 resulted in massive infrastructure damage, and created one of the largest single-day loss of life events in modern history. Despite the tragic mortality rates, many people with catastrophic injuries including spinal cord injuries and amputations survived due to swift emergency responses by local and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The outcome however is that Haiti now has a considerable cohort of people who live with important disabilities. In this 'perspectives in rehabilitation' we share our experiences of working in post-earthquake Haiti, and highlight that this event has raised awareness of the critical importance of providing rehabilitation services during and after a humanitarian crisis of this magnitude. PMID:20594036

  2. Environmental surveillance for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in surface waters of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Amy M; Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Mull, Bonnie J; Tarr, Cheryl L; Turnsek, Maryann; Katz, Lee S; Humphrys, Michael S; Derado, Gordana; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic V. cholerae was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for V. cholerae O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic V. cholerae could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic. PMID:25385860

  3. Who Benefit from Cash and Food-for-Work Programs in Post-Earthquake Haiti?

    OpenAIRE

    Echevin, Damien; Lamanna, Francesca; Oviedo, Ana-maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a unique post-earthquake survey designed to provide a rapid assessment of food insecurity in Haiti is used in order to address the question of whether cash and food-for-work (C/FfW) programs are allocated adequately in Haiti. We consider that the allocation principle should meet two main criteria. First, C/FfW programs should be targeted towards people who are in the most necessitous circumstances (i.e., poor and food insecure people). Second, these programs should be target...

  4. Visible human slice sequence animation Web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaud, Jean-Christophe; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.

  5. Proposed Method for Computing Interprocedure Slicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.S. Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Program slicing was originally introduced by Mark Weiser, is useful in program debugging, automatic parallelization, software aintenance, program integration etc. It is a method for automatically decomposing programs by analyzing their data flow and control flow reduces the program to a minimal form called “slice” which still produces that behavior. Interprocedure slicing is the slicing of multiprocedure program .In this paper a new method or algorithm (IP algorithm is introduced for the interprocedure static slicing of structured programs. The most time consuming part of the interprocedure slicing methods is the computation of transitive dependences (i.e. summary edgesdue to the procedure calls. Horowitz et al. [8] introduced an algorithm based on attribute grammar for computing summary edges. Reps et al. [7] and Istavan [9] defined an improved algorithm for computing summary edges representing interprocedural dependences at procedure calls. Here in this paper we discuss the improved interprocedure slicing algorithm (IP algorithm, which is faster than previous algorithm and takes less memory space

  6. Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsitus Green, in Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsitus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), very likely originated from Asia and was first observed in the Western Hemisphere in 1994 on the island of Grenada. Since then, the insect has spread to over 31 Caribbean Islands, plus countries in South America, Central America and North America. The PHM is very polyphagous and associated with some 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and trees, and very prolific with up to 500-600 eggs/female. This mealybug was introduced into the American continent without its natural enemies and has the potential of rapidly becoming a very serious threat to the agricultural industry and the environment of the region. In Haiti, the PHM was observed for the first time in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the capital, in May 2002. In July 2002, in a cooperative effort between the Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, and International Services (USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS), the International Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a biological control programme was developed for Haiti. The first action for the management of the PHM in Haiti was to initiate a public awareness campaign and train local technicians. The PHM biological control programme started with the technical assistrogramme started with the technical assistance of the USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS, and the support of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture (PRDA), which managed the insectary operation and provided two exotic parasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). From July 2002 to January 2004 Haiti received 180,000 parasitoids from PRDA. In April 2003 the National Association of Mango Exporters of Haiti (ANEM) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) representative in Haiti collectively developed support through the Haiti Ministry of Agriculture in order to establish an insectary to mass-produce locally the exotic parasitoids A. kamali and G. indica. From October 2003 to November 2004, 265,000 parasitoids were mass-produced at the Haiti insectary. These parasitoids were released in Haiti in PHM infested areas at the rate of 200 to 400 individuals per species per site and a distance of about one mile between releases. Six study sites were selected using infested hibiscus plants as field hosts and sampled for about one year in order to monitor the impact of the parasitoids on the population density of PHM. The results of the study indicated a 98% reduction in the PHM population density by the parasitoids, which maintained an average of 14% parasitisation following the mealybug population decline. The PHM has the capability of spreading across the country, but at a reduced rate of distribution since the implementation of this successful biological control programme. The Haiti Ministry of Agriculture continues to survey for new PHM infested areas and is prepared to release parasitoids as necessary to ensure the continued success of the PHM biological control programme. (author)

  7. Model for a national radiation protection infrastructure in Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation controls took an increasing trend in Haiti. The corresponding trend is in the making of a national authority that will oversee all private and public establishments where ionizing radiation sources are being used on a diagnostic basis or for therapeutic purposes. The primary purpose of this authority is to improve regulatory framework for radiation protection but also to layout mechanisms for controlling sources. With IAEA helps and expertise a national programme is being implemented that will reflect priorities of the international Basic Safety Standard. Our goal in this paper was to provide a model authority based on the legal culture of the country and mindset of healthcare worker. The unique feature of this proposed model is that it places greater emphasis on responding to a health priority, and greater government willingness to have and independent body to regulate every single user of ionizing radiations and this flexible model can be implemented with minimal expenditures for our national budget. The following key services have been identified to provide the needed control mechanism for the Authority: Administrative Affairs Services; Personal Dosimetry Services; Nuclear and Radiological Safety Services; Legal Affairs Services. The possibility to achieve reduction of the exposed x ray workers and to establish a greater discipline in the use nuclear and radiological technology and availability of state of the art technology can be reached only if such a technology can be reached only if such a national body is effectively implemented by mean of a national decree therefore abiding all citizens. A basic inventory model is annexed for the purposes of assessing current needs in radiation protection. (author)

  8. Outline and handling manual of experimental data time slice monitoring software 'SLICE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a software 'SLICE' which maps various kinds of plasma experimental data measured at the different geometrical position of JT-60U and JFT-2M onto the equilibrium magnetic configuration and treats them as a function of volume averaged minor radius ?. Experimental data can be handled uniformly by using 'SLICE'. Plenty of commands of 'SLICE' make it easy to process the mapped data. The experimental data measured as line integrated values are also transformed by Abel inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the database 'MAPDB'. 'SLICE' can read the data from 'MAPDB' and re-display and transform them. Still more 'SLICE' creates run data of orbit following Monte-Carlo code 'OFMC' and tokamak predictive and interpretation code system 'TOPICS'. This report summarizes an outline and the usage of 'SLICE'. (author)

  9. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  10. On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region

    OpenAIRE

    Cht Mavrodiev, S.

    2004-01-01

    The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region...

  11. On the slice genus of links

    CERN Document Server

    Florens, V; Florens, Vincent; Gilmer, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    We define Casson-Gordon sigma-invariants for links and give a lower bound of the slice genus of a link in terms of these invariants. We study as an example a family of two component links of genus h and show that their slice genus is h, whereas the Murasugi-Tristram inequality does not obstruct this link from bounding an annulus in the 4-ball.

  12. Optogenetic field potential recording in cortical slices

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method that uses optogenetic stimulation to evoke field potentials in brain slices prepared from transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin2-YFP. Cortical slices in a recording chamber were stimulated with a 473 nm blue laser via either a laser scanning photostimulation setup or by direct guidance of a fiber optic. Field potentials evoked by either of the two optogenetic stimulation methods had stable amplitude, consistent waveform, and similar components as events evoked with...

  13. Thin layer drying of tomato slices

    OpenAIRE

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-01-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453?×?10?9 to 2.3871?×?10?9 m2/s over the temperature range st...

  14. Haiti and the Earthquake: Examining the Experience of Psychological Stress and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risler, Ed; Kintzle, Sara; Nackerud, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of…

  15. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  16. Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wickstrom

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

  17. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  18. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2009-12-01

    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed more than 60 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System.

  19. Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Graham

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling, we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion.

  20. The visible human slice sequence animation web server

    OpenAIRE

    Bessaud, J. C.; Hersch, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired positio...

  1. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ting-wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-long; Steinmann, Scott P.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ?m thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 ?m slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examin...

  2. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453?×?10(-9) to 2.3871?×?10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices. PMID:24425966

  3. 78 FR 76817 - Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...Administration Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the...of Annual Quantitative Limit on Certain Apparel under HOPE...Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  4. 76 FR 78241 - Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...Administration Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the...of Annual Quantitative Limit on Certain Apparel under HOPE...Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  5. 77 FR 75148 - Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...Administration Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the...of annual quantitative limit on certain apparel under HOPE...Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  6. 75 FR 78215 - Limitation of Duty-free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...Administration Limitation of Duty-free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the...of Annual Quantitative Limit on Certain Apparel under HOPE...Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  7. The norwegian approach to peace:an analysis of the norwegian conflict preventive involvement between Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hetland, Hans-petter

    2005-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to examine how the Norwegian Ministry of foreign affairs (MFA) in cooperation with Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) has contributed to preventive conflict resolution through dialogues and negotiations between parties in a possible future conflict situation. The Norwegian involvement in the current peace process between Haiti and the Dominican Republic has constituted the basic case study of this project. The conflict between Haiti and the Dominican Republic ...

  8. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  9. The effects of slice thickness and reconstructive parameters on VR image quality in multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effects of slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval on VR image quality in multi-slice CT, in order to select the best slice thickness and reconstructive parameters for the imaging. Methods: Multi-slice CT scan was applied on a rubber dinosaur model with different slice thickness. VR images were reconstructed with different reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval. Five radiologists were invited to evaluate the quality of the images without knowing anything about the parameters. Results: The slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval did have effects on VR image quality and the effective degree was different. The effective coefficients were V1=1413.033, V2=563.733, V3=390.533, respectively. The parameters interacted with the others (P<0.05). The smaller of those parameters, the better of the image quality. With a small slice thickness and a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness, the image quality had no obvious difference when the reconstructive interval was 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 of the slice thickness. Conclusion: A relative small scan slice thickness, a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness and a reconstructive interval 1/2 of the slice thickness should be selected for the best VR image quality. The image quality depends mostly on the slice thickness. (authors)

  10. On the Orientability of the Slice Filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Pelaez, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a Noetherian separated scheme of finite Krull dimension. We show that the layers of the slice filtration in the motivic stable homotopy category $\\stablehomotopy$ are strict modules over Voevodsky's algebraic cobordism spectrum. We also show that the zero slice of any commutative ring spectrum in $\\stablehomotopy$ is an oriented ring spectrum in the sense of Morel, and that its associated formal group law is additive. As a consequence, we get that with rational coefficients the slices are in fact motives in the sense of Cisinski-D{\\'e}glise \\cite{mixedmotives}, and have transfers when the base scheme is geometrically unibranch. This proves a conjecture of Voevodsky \\cite[conjecture 11]{MR1977582}.

  11. A variational formulation of vertical slice models

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, C J

    2012-01-01

    A variational framework is defined for vertical slice models with three dimensional velocity depending only on x and z. The models that result from this framework are Hamiltonian, and have a Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem that results in a conserved potential vorticity in the slice geometry. These results are demonstrated for the incompressible Euler--Boussinesq equations with a constant temperature gradient in the $y$-direction (the Eady--Boussinesq model), which is an idealised problem used to study the formation and subsequent evolution of weather fronts. We then introduce a new compressible extension of this model. Unlike the incompressible model, the compressible model does not produce solutions that are also solutions of the three-dimensional equations, but it does reduce to the Eady--Boussinesq model in the low Mach number limit. This means that this new model can be used in asymptotic limit error testing for compressible weather models running in a vertical slice configuration.

  12. Interannual and intra-annual variability of rainfall in Haiti (1905-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Frelat, Romain; Jean-Jeune, Pierre Karly; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2014-09-01

    The interannual variability of annual and monthly rainfall in Haiti is examined from a database of 78 rain gauges in 1905-2005. The spatial coherence of annual rainfall is rather low, which is partly due to Haiti's rugged landscape, complex shoreline, and surrounding warm waters (mean sea surface temperatures >27 °C from May to December). The interannual variation of monthly rainfall is mostly shaped by the intensity of the low-level winds across the Caribbean Sea, leading to a drier- (or wetter-) than-average rainy season associated with easterly (or westerly) anomalies, increasing (or decreasing) winds. The varying speed of low-level easterlies across the Caribbean basin may reflect at least four different processes during the year: (1) an anomalous trough/ridge over the western edge of the Azores high from December to February, peaking in January; (2) a zonal pressure gradient between Eastern Pacific and the tropical Northern Atlantic from May/June to September, with a peak in August (i.e. lower-than-average rainfall in Haiti is associated with positive sea level pressure anomalies over the tropical North Atlantic and negative sea level pressure anomalies over the Eastern Pacific); (3) a local ocean-atmosphere coupling between the speed of the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the Caribbean basin (i.e. colder-than-average SST in the southern Caribbean sea is associated with increased easterlies and below-average rainfall in Haiti). This coupling is triggered when the warmest Caribbean waters move northward toward the Gulf of Mexico; (4) in October/November, a drier- (or wetter-) than-usual rainy season is related to an almost closed anticyclonic (or cyclonic) anomaly located ENE of Haiti on the SW edge of the Azores high. This suggests a main control of the interannual variations of rainfall by intensity, track and/or recurrence of tropical depressions traveling northeast of Haiti. During this period, the teleconnection of Haitian rainfall with synchronous Atlantic and Eastern Pacific SST is at a minimum.

  13. Lab Scale Profile of a Transition from Earthquakes to Slow Events, and Silent Quakes. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, J. R.; Voisin, C.; Larose, E.; Renard, F.; Zigone, D.

    2009-12-01

    The frictional behavior of a single crystal salt slider is investigated under constant conditions of normal load, driving velocity, and temperature. We observe a progressive change from stick-slip to stable sliding with accumulative displacement. During the experiment, all frictional parameters are evolving: a and b are decreasing while dc is increasing. These changes are contemporary to the morphological evolution of the contact interface, i.e. the development of a striated pattern driven by the coupling of pressure solution creep and slip. The increase in dc and the decrease in (b-a) both lead to the progressive vanishing of Kc, the critical stiffness for stick-slip. The salt slider is therefore forced to a mode of stable sliding, with no more rate and state dependence. Contemporary to the evolution of slip patterns, the recorded Acoustic Emission evolves with cumulative displacement and interface ageing, following a trend from strong impulsive events similar to earthquake seismic signals, to a collection of smaller amplitude and longer duration signals similar to Non Volcanic Tremor. Allowing deformation of the contact interface to interfere with friction reveals a continuum of slip patterns. Earthquakes, slow events, silent quakes and continuous sliding appear as different aspects of a holistic process. The ageing of the contact interface with cumulated displacement provides a global framework to capture the occurrence of the different slip patterns and seismic signals along subduction zones. Considering the cumulative displacement as a sine qua non condition for the occurrence of SSE and NVT reproduces the absence of these latter above the locked zone. The experimental results are consistent with and rationalize a posteriori: (i) the modeling of aseismic slip transients by a decrease in b-a [Liu and Rice, 2005] and an increase in dc [Shibazaki and Iio, 2003]; (ii) the hypothesis that silent slip and NVT pertain to one and unique phenomenon of friction; (iii) the hypothesis that NVT are local reminiscence of frictional instabilities in these aseismic slip transients [Shelly et al., 2007].

  14. The Quake Catcher Network: Cyberinfrastructure Bringing Seismology into Schools and Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.

    2007-12-01

    We propose to implement a high density, low cost strong-motion network for rapid response and early warning by placing sensors in schools, homes, and offices. The Quake Catcher Network (QCN) will employ existing networked laptops and desktops to form the world's largest high-density, distributed computing seismic network. Costs for this network will be minimal because the QCN will use 1) strong motion sensors (accelerometers) already internal to many laptops and 2) nearly identical low-cost universal serial bus (USB) accelerometers for use with desktops. The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC!) provides a free, proven paradigm for involving the public in large-scale computational research projects. As evidenced by the SETI@home program and others, individuals are especially willing to donate their unused computing power to projects that they deem relevant, worthwhile, and educational. The client- and server-side software will rapidly monitor incoming seismic signals, detect the magnitudes and locations of significant earthquakes, and may even provide early warnings to other computers and users before they can feel the earthquake. The software will provide the client-user with a screen-saver displaying seismic data recorded on their laptop, recently detected earthquakes, and general information about earthquakes and the geosciences. Furthermore, this project will install USB sensors in K-12 classrooms as an educational tool for teaching science. Through a variety of interactive experiments students will learn about earthquakes and the hazards earthquakes pose. For example, students can learn how the vibrations of an earthquake decrease with distance by jumping up and down at increasing distances from the sensor and plotting the decreased amplitude of the seismic signal measured on their computer. We hope to include an audio component so that students can hear and better understand the difference between low and high frequency seismic signals. The QCN will provide a natural way to engage students and the public in earthquake detection and research.

  15. Dysmyelination with preservation of transverse bands in a long-lived allele of the quaking mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverneff, Florence; Mierzwa, Amanda; Weinstock, Michael; Ketcham, Maren; Lang, Eric J; Rosenbluth, Jack

    2015-02-01

    The new mutant mouse shaking (shk) differs from other "myelin mutants" in having a more stable neurological impairment and a much longer lifespan. We have shown that transverse bands (TBs), the component of the paranodal junction (PNJ) that attaches the myelin sheath to the axon, are present in the shk central nervous system (CNS), in contrast to more severely affected mutants, in which TBs are absent or rare. We have proposed that TBs are the major determinant underlying shk neurological stability and longevity. Here we report that TBs are abundant not only in the shk CNS but also in its peripheral nervous system (PNS), which, as in other "myelin mutants", is not as severely dysmyelinated as the CNS but does display structural abnormalities likely to affect impulse propagation. In particular, myelin sheaths are thinner than normal, and some axonal segments lack myelin sheaths entirely. In addition, we establish that the shk mutation, previously localized to chromosome 17, is a quaking (qk) allele consisting of a 105-nucleotide insertion in the qk regulatory region that decreases qk transcription but does not extend to the Parkin and Parkin coregulated genes, which are affected in the qk allele. We conclude that: 1) dysmyelination is less severe in the shk PNS than in the CNS, but TBs, which are present in both locations, stabilize the PNJs and prevent the progressive neurological deficits seen in mutants lacking TBs; and 2) the insertional mutation in shk mice is sufficient to produce the characteristic neurological phenotype without involvement of the Parkin and Parkin coregulated genes. PMID:25185516

  16. Effects of Temperature and Slice Thickness on Drying Kinetics of Pumpkin Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Limpaiboon, Kongdej

    2011-01-01

    Dried pumpkin slice is an alternative crisp food product. In this study, the effects of temperature and slice thickness on the drying characteristics of pumpkin were studied in a lab-scale tray dryer, using hot air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C and 2, 3 and 4 mm slice thickness at a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The initial moisture content of the pumpkin samples was 900.5 % (wb). The drying process was carried out until the final moisture content of product was 100.5 % (wb). The resu...

  17. Rain Check Application: Mobile tool to monitor rainfall in remote parts of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Rainfall observations performed uniformly and continuously over a period of time are valuable inputs in developing climate models and predicting events such as floods and droughts. Rain-Check is a mobile application developed in Google App Inventor Platform, for android based smart phones, to allow field researchers to monitor various rain gauges distributed though out remote regions of Haiti and send daily readings via SMS messages for further analysis and long term trending. Rainfall rate and quantity interact with many other factors to influence erosion, vegetative cover, groundwater recharge, stream water chemistry and runoff into streams impacting agriculture and livestock. Rainfall observation from various sites is especially significant in Haiti with over 80% of the country is mountainous terrain. Data sets from global models and limited number of ground stations do not capture the fine-scale rainfall patterns necessary to describe local climate. Placement and reading of rain gauges are critical to accurate measurement of rainfall.

  18. Impacts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake in the diaspora: findings from Little Haiti, Miami, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetz, Erin; Menard, Janelle; Kish, Jonathan; Bishop, Ian; Hazan, Gabrielle; Nicolas, Guerda

    2013-04-01

    In January 2010, a massive earthquake struck Haiti resulting in unprecedented damage. Little attention, however, has focused on the earthquake's mental health impact in the Haitian diaspora community. As part of an established community-based participatory research initiative in Little Haiti, the predominately Haitian neighborhood in Miami, FL, USA, community health workers conducted surveys with neighborhood residents about earthquake-related losses, coping strategies, and depressive/traumatic symptomology. Findings reveal the earthquake strongly impacted the diaspora community and highlights prominent coping strategies. Following the earthquake, only a small percentage of participants self-reported engaging in any negative health behaviors. Instead, a majority relied on their social networks for support. This study contributes to the discourse on designing culturally-responsive mental health initiatives for the Haitian diaspora and the ability of existing community-academic partnerships to rapidly adapt to community needs. PMID:22585312

  19. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappero, Jordan W; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths, poor nutrition, and frequent infectious diseases such as HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria. Many nations, multinational agencies, and nongovernmental organizations rapidly mobilized to assist Haiti. The US government provided emergency response through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the US Agency for International Development and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This report summarizes the participation by the Centers and its partners. The efforts needed to reduce the spread of the epidemic and prevent deaths highlight the need for safe drinking water and basic medical care in such difficult circumstances and the need for rebuilding water, sanitation, and public health systems to prevent future epidemics. PMID:22099111

  20. Complementary nature of surface and atmospheric parameters associated with Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh P. Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes surface (surface air temperature and atmospheric parameters (relative humidity, surface latent heat flux over the epicenter (18°27´25´´ N 72°31´59´´ W of Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010. Our analysis shows pronounced changes in surface and atmospheric parameters few days prior to the main earthquake event. Changes in relative humidity are found from the surface up to an altitude of 500 hPa clearly show atmospheric perturbations associated with the earthquake event. The purpose of this paper is to show complementary nature of the changes observed in surface, atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The total ozone concentration is found to be lowest on the day of earthquake and afterwards found to be increased within a week of earthquake. The present results show existence of coupling between lithosphere-atmosphere associated with the deadly Haiti earthquake.

  1. On the powerful use of simulations in the quake-catcher network to efficiently position low-cost earthquake sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, K.; Estrada, T.; Taufer, M.; Lawrence, J.; Cochran, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) uses low-cost sensors connected to volunteer computers across the world to monitor seismic events. The location and density of these sensors' placement can impact the accuracy of the event detection. Because testing different special arrangements of new sensors could disrupt the currently active project, this would best be accomplished in a simulated environment. This paper presents an accurate and efficient framework for simulating the low cost QCN sensors and identifying their most effective locations and densities. Results presented show how our simulations are reliable tools to study diverse scenarios under different geographical and infrastructural constraints. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  2. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier Le?pinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Mazabraud, Yves; Delouis, Bertrand; Clouard, Vale?rie; Hello, Yann; Crozon, Jacques; Marcaillou, Boris; Graindorge, David; Valle?e, Martin; Perrot, Julie; Bouin, Marie-paule; Saurel, Jean-marie; Charvis, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    After the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake, we deployed a mainly offshore temporary network of seismologic stations around the damaged area. The distribution of the recorded aftershocks, together with morphotectonic observations and mainshock analysis, allow us to constrain a complex fault pattern in the area. Almost all of the aftershocks have a N-S compressive mechanism, and not the expected left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. A first-order slip model of the mainshock shows a N264 degrees...

  3. Design of Public-Private Partnership for Waste Management in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Waste management is a growing concern in rapidly urbanizing developing countries and Haiti is noexception. Excessive amounts of improperly discharged waste endangers unique tropical environment, appears to bea reason of fast spread of epidemic diseases, increases risk of floods during the hurricane season and contributes toclimate change. Due to various historical, economic, natural and socio-political reasons, public sector of Haitianstate is not able to provide decent waste management servi...

  4. Public Health Surveillance After the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: the Experience of Médecins Sans Frontières

    OpenAIRE

    Polonsky, Jonathan; Luquero, Francisco; Francois, Gwenola; Rousseau, Caroline; Caleo, Grazia; Ciglenecki, Iza; Delacre, Clara; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Terzian, Mego; Verhenne, Leen; Porten, Klaudia; Checchi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background In January 2010, Haiti was struck by a powerful earthquake, killing and wounding hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. In order to better understand the severity of the crisis, and to provide early warning of epidemics or deteriorations in the health status of the population, Médecins Sans Frontières established surveillance for infections of epidemic potential and for death rates and malnutrition prevalence. Methods Trends in infections of epidemic potent...

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6–59 Months Old in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Ngnie-teta, Ismael; Se?raphin, Marie Nancy; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Boldon, Ellen; Saint-fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Bernard, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6–59 months old (n = 557) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associat...

  6. Reassessment of the 2010–2011 Haiti cholera outbreak and rainfall-driven multiseason projections

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Blokesch, Melanie; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Murray, Megan; Vesenbeckh, Silvan M.; Rodriguez-iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and by anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. We study the ex post reliability of predictions of the 2010–2011 Haiti cholera outbreak from four independent modeling studies that appeared almost simultaneously during the unfolding epidemic. We consider the impact of different approaches to the modeling of spa...

  7. Modeling the Influence of Environment and Intervention on Cholera in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Tennenbaum, Stephen; Freitag, Caroline; Roudenko, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple model with two infective classes in order to model the cholera epidemic in Haiti. We include the impact of environmental events (rainfall, temperature and tidal range) on the epidemic in the Artibonite and Ouest regions by introducing terms in the transmission rate that vary with environmental conditions. We fit the model on weekly data from the beginning of the epidemic until December 2013, including the vaccination programs that were recently undertaken...

  8. New concepts in post-disaster development: Learning from social entrepreneurs in Northern Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Farny, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Research Objective This research studies social entrepreneurship as a development tool. The motivation stems from the low ability of the hundreds of international organizations to provide tangible solutions for a better life for the local population in the post-disaster situation. The question raised is how social entrepreneurs can support the development of post-disaster Haiti. Social entrepreneurship seems a promising way to acknowledge social opportunities, while applying business pract...

  9. Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10?days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were mor...

  10. The Dry Season in Haiti: a Window of Opportunity to Eliminate Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Rebaudet, Stanislas; Gazin, Pierre; Barrais, Robert; Moore, Sandra; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Barthelemy, Nickolson; Gaudart, Jean; Boncy, Jacques; Magloire, Roc; Piarroux, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti, attack rates have varied drastically with alternating peak and lull phases, which were partly associated with the fluctuating dry, rainy and cyclonic seasons. According to a study conducted in 2012, the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strain responsible for the outbreak did not settle at a significant level in the Haitian aquatic environment. Therefore, we hypothesize that some areas of lingering cholera transmission during the dry se...

  11. Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Jc, Jackson; Al, Farone; Mb, Farone

    2011-01-01

    John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 3...

  12. Elastic theory of a confocal slice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Schindler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent confocal experiments on colloidal solids, as well as jammed and disordered materials, motivate a fuller study of the projection of three-dimensional fluctuations onto a two-dimensional confocal slice. We show that the effective theory of a projected crystal displays several exceptional features, and we give analytic expressions relating three-dimensional elastic constants to observed two-dimensional properties.

  13. Explanatory models and mental health treatment: is vodou an obstacle to psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Nayla M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Brewster, Aimee-Rika T; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2012-09-01

    Vodou as an explanatory framework for illness has been considered an impediment to biomedical psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti by some scholars and Haitian professionals. According to this perspective, attribution of mental illness to supernatural possession drives individuals to seek care from houngan-s (Vodou priests) and other folk practitioners, rather than physicians, psychologists, or psychiatrists. This study investigates whether explanatory models of mental illness invoking supernatural causation result in care-seeking from folk practitioners and resistance to biomedical treatment. The study comprised 31 semi-structured interviews with community leaders, traditional healers, religious leaders, and biomedical providers, 10 focus group discussions with community members, community health workers, health promoters, community leaders, and church members; and four in-depth case studies of individuals exhibiting mental illness symptoms conducted in Haiti's Central Plateau. Respondents invoked multiple explanatory models for mental illness and expressed willingness to receive treatment from both traditional and biomedical practitioners. Folk practitioners expressed a desire to collaborate with biomedical providers and often referred patients to hospitals. At the same time, respondents perceived the biomedical system as largely ineffective for treating mental health problems. Explanatory models rooted in Vodou ethnopsychology were not primary barriers to pursuing psychiatric treatment. Rather, structural factors including scarcity of treatment resources and lack of psychiatric training among health practitioners created the greatest impediments to biomedical care for mental health concerns in rural Haiti. PMID:22544545

  14. Slice sensitivity profile, effective slice thickness, and anisotropic blurring in spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slice sensitivity profile of a spiral-CT-scanner using a 180 -interpolation algorithm was measured at various pitches by means of a phantom. From the resulting data the contrast attenuation of smaller structures was quantified. It was found that by means of reducing the image reconstruction intervall (increment), the mean value of image contrast was equivalent to that of axial-CT scans, as long as the pitch was less than 1.4. In addition, spiral-CT scans in the xy-plane show an anisotropic contribution to blurring independent of the partial volume effect. Taking into consideration clinically relevant image qualities it was shown that a so-called effective slice thickness of spiral-CT is difficult to define. From the formal slice thickness parameters the effective slice thickness is underestimated by the FWHM and overestimated by the FWTA. (orig.)

  15. A note on the choice of the number of slices in sliced inverse regression

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Sliced inverse regression (SIR) is a clever technique for reducing the dimension of the predictor in regression problems, thus avoiding the curse of dimensionality. There exist many contributions on various aspects of the performance of SIR. Up to now, few attention has been paid to the problem of choosing the number of slices within the SIR procedure appropriately. The aim of this paper is to show that especially the estimation of the reduced dimension can be strongly in?uenced by the chosen...

  16. Tissue slices in the study of lung metabolism and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, B. A.; O Neil, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Lung tissue slices are model systems for the study of pulmonary metabolism. Because of the speed and simplicity of slice preparation, lung slices have been used in studies of oxygen, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid utilization and adenine nucleotide metabolism. Dose-response characteristics for toxicants are readily described because multiple lung samples can be studied from the same animal or a population of animals. Lung slices prepared from animals exposed to oxidant air pollutants exhi...

  17. TISSUE SLICES IN THE STUDY OF LUNG METABOLISM AND TOXICOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung tissue slices are model systems for the study of pulmonary metabolism. Because of the speed and simplicity of slice preparation, lung slices have been used in studies of oxygen, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid utilization and adenine nucleotide metabolism. Dose-response c...

  18. Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knebel Elisa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficient training at the pre-service level to carry out this important work. Methods To address this issue, the Ministry of Health and Population collaborated with the International Training and Education Center on HIV over a period of 12 months to create a competency-based HIV/AIDS curriculum to be integrated into the 4-year baccalaureate programme of the four national schools of nursing. Results Using a review of the international health and education literature on HIV/AIDS competencies and various models of curriculum development, a Haiti-based curriculum committee developed expected HIV/AIDS competencies for graduating nurses and then drafted related learning objectives. The committee then mapped these learning objectives to current courses in the nursing curriculum and created an 'HIV/AIDS Teaching Guide' for faculty on how to integrate and achieve these objectives within their current courses. The curriculum committee also created an 'HIV/AIDS Reference Manual' that detailed the relevant HIV/AIDS content that should be taught for each course. Conclusion All nursing students will now need to demonstrate competency in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, skills and attitudes during periodic assessment with direct observation of the student performing authentic tasks. Faculty will have the responsibility of developing exercises to address the required objectives and creating assessment tools to demonstrate that their graduates have met the objectives. This activity brought different administrators, nurse leaders and faculty from four geographically dispersed nursing schools to collaborate on a shared goal using a process that could be easily replicated to integrate any new topic in a resource-constrained pre-service institution. It is hoped that this experience provided stakeholders with the experience, skills and motivation to strengthen other domains of the pre-service nursing curriculum, improve the synchronization of didactic and practical training and develop standardized, competency-based examinations for nursing licensure in Haiti.

  19. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

  20. Water-resources reconnaissance of Île de la Gonâve, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Joseph W.; Turvey, Michael D.

    Île de la Gonâve is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day. L'Île de la Gonâve est une île de 750 km2 au large de la côte d'Haïti. La profondeur de la nappe varie entre moins de 30 m dans les calcaires de l'Éocène et du Miocène supérieur à plus de 60 m dans les calcaires quaternaires épais de 300 m. Les précipitations annuelles sont comprises entre 800-1.400 mm. La plus grande partie des précipitations est perdue par évapotranspiration et il n'y a pratiquement pas d'eau de surface. Le bilan de masse des chlorures permet d'estimer à 4% des précipitations le montant de la recharge de l'aquifère karstique. Des bassins dans les grottes et des sources sont la source d'eau courante. Des puits creusés à la main fournissent de l'eau dans les zones côtières. Quelques puits productifs ont été forés dépassant 60 m de profondeur. L'analyse des reconnaissances de terrain indique que les eaux souterraines à l'intérieur de l'île sont de faciès bicarbonaté calcique, tandis que l'eau près de la côte a un faciès chloruré sodique dépassant les valeurs recommandées par l'OMS pour le sodium et les chlorures. Des tests pour la présence de bactéries productrices d'hydrogène sulfuré se sont révélés négatifs dans la plupart des forages, mais positifs dans la plupart des sources captées et tous les autres sources, bassins de grottes et puits creusés à la main, ce qui indique une contamination bactérienne de la plupart des sources d'eau. Du fait des difficultés pour s'approvisionner en eau douce, les 110.000 habitants utilisent en moyenne seulement 7 L par personne et par jour. La Isla de la Gonavê, cercana a la costa de Haití, tiene 750 km2. La profundidad al nivel freático está comprendida entre menos de 30 m para las calcitas del Eoceno y Mioceno Superior y más de 60 m en el acuífero de calcitas cuaternarias, el cual posee 300 m de espesor. La precipitación anual varía entre 800-1.400 mm, si bien la mayor parte se pierde por evapotranspiración y prácticamente no hay aguas superficiales. Según un balance de masas de cloruros, alrededor del 4% de la precipitación recarga el acuífero kárstico. Las cavidades y manantiales son una fuente habitual de agua. Los pozos excavados proporcionan agua en las áreas costeras. Pocos pozos productivos se han perforado a más de 60 m. El reconocimiento de los análisis de campo indica que las aguas subterráneas son de tipo bicarbonatado-cálcico en el interior, mientras que es de tipo clorurado-sódico en la costa, donde se sobrepasan las concentraciones recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud para sodio y cloruro. Los ensayos efectuados para detectar la presencia de bacterias productoras de sulfuro de hidrógeno resultaron negativos en la mayoría de los pozos perforados, pero fueron positivos en la muchos manantiales explotados y en todos los manantiales, cavidades y pozos excavados, hecho que indica la contamina

  1. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  2. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  3. Thin Sectioning of Slice Preparations for Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-joon; Cunningham, Miles Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Many investigations in neuroscience, as well as other disciplines, involve studying small, yet macroscopic pieces or sections of tissue that have been preserved, freshly removed, or excised but kept viable, as in slice preparations of brain tissue. Subsequent microscopic studies of this material can be challenging, as the tissue samples may be difficult to handle. Demonstrated here is a method for obtaining thin cryostat sections of tissue with a thickness that may range from 0.2-5.0 mm. W...

  4. Reference curves estimation via Sliced Inverse Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Gannoun, Ali; Girard, Stephane; Guinot, Christiane; Saracco, Jero?me

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain reference curves for data sets when the covariate is multidimensional, we propose a new methodology based on dimension-reduction and nonparametric estimation of conditional quantiles. This semiparametric approach combines sliced inverse regression (SIR) and a kernel estimation of conditional quantiles. The convergence of the derived estimator is shown. By a simulation study, we compare this procedure to the classical kernel nonparametric one for different dimensions of the ...

  5. Sliced Inverse Regression In Reference Curves Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Gannoun, Ali; Girard, Ste?phane; Guinot, Christiane; Saracco, Jero?me

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain reference curves for data sets when the covariate is multidimensional, we propose in this paper a new procedure based on dimension-reduction and nonparametric estimation of conditional quantiles. This semiparametric approach combines sliced inverse regression (SIR) and a kernel estimation of conditional quantiles. The asymptotic convergence of the derived estimator is shown. By a simulation study, we compare this procedure to the classical kernel nonparametric one for diffe...

  6. Sliced Inverse Regression for big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Modem advances in computing power have greatly widened scientists' scope in gathering and investigating information from many variables. We describe sliced inverse regression (SIR), for reducing the dimension of the input variable x without going through any parametric or nonparametric model-fitting process. This method explores the simplicity of the inverse view of regression. Instead of regressing the univariate output variable y against the multivariate x, we regress x against y. Forward r...

  7. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  8. An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a method to dynamically slice object-oriented (00) programs based on dependence analysis. It uses the Control Dependency Graph for object program and other static information to reduce the information to be traced during program execution. In this paper we present a method to find the dynamic Slice of object oriented programs where we are finding the slices for object and in case of function overloading.

  9. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions.

  10. Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado / Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANDREAS, FELDMANN; JUAN ESTEBAN, MONTES.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado [...] algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH) que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional. Abstract in english This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the countr [...] y. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

  11. Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

    2014-08-01

    This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

  12. The characteristics of LTP induced in hippocampal slices are dependent on slice-recovery conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Capron, Brigitte; Sindic, Christian; Godaux, Emile; Ris, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    In area CA1 of hippocampal slices which are allowed to recover from slicing “in interface” and where recordings are carried out in interface, a single 1-sec train of 100-Hz stimulation triggers a short-lasting long-term potentiation (S-LTP), which lasts 1–2 h, whereas multiple 1-sec trains induce a long-lasting LTP (L-LTP), which lasts several hours. Moreover, the threshold and the features of these LTP depend on the history of the neurons, a phenomenon known as metaplasticity. Here, wh...

  13. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ?m thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 ?m slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 ?m or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 ?m-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 ?m or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate. PMID:22323314

  14. Skopje and Sofia 2005 Earthquake and Geomagnetic data and the Geomagnetic Quake as Imminent Reliable Earthquakes Precursor

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S C

    2006-01-01

    The imminent WHEN earthquake predictions are based on the correlation between geomagnetic quakes and the incoming minimum (or maximum) of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the incoming earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately one day and for the maximum- two days. The statistic evidence for reliability is based on of distributions of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2005 for Sofia region and 2004- 2005 for Skopje. The project for complex Balkan- Black Sea region NETWORK for earthquake prediction by using the reliable precursors will be proposed in near future. The Project is based on the temporary data acquisition system for preliminary archiving, testing, visualizing and analyzing of the data with aim to prepare regional daily risk estimation.

  15. Torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking neutron star restored by combined forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Molodtsova, I V; Podgainy, D V

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of Newtonian magneto-solid-mechanics, relied on equations appropriate for a perfectly conducting elastic continuous medium threaded by a uniform magnetic field, an asteroseismic model of a neutron star undergoing global differentially rotational, torsional, nodeless vibrations under the combined action of Hooke's elastic and Lorentz magnetic forces is considered with emphasis on toroidal Alfven mode. The obtained spectral equation for frequency is applied to l-pole identification of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux during flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Our calculations suggest that detected QPOs can be consistently interpreted as produced by global torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking magnetar if they are considered to be restored by joint action of bulk forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses.

  16. On the Reliability of the Geomagnetic Quake as Short Time Earthquake Precursor for Sofia Region- 2002, 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S C

    2004-01-01

    The local when earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic quakes and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately +/-1 day and for the maximum- +/-2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2003 for Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local when, where earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information as well as other precursory information is essential.

  17. On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cht. Mavrodiev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local 'when, where' earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth's surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information, as well as other precursory information, is essential.

  18. Impact glass spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Xenia; Deutsch, Alexander; Berndt, Jasper; Robin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated six impact glass spherules from the K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti, using optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe and in situ laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 37 trace elements, spot size 90-35 ?m), in order to understand geochemical changes during alteration. The mm-sized glass spherules are partly or totally altered to smectite, but original textural features are preserved. The average trace-element composition of glass matches that one of the upper continental crust. Hints for a "meteoritic component" are lacking (Ni/Cr rock methods are used.

  19. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  20. Evaluating the Sustained Health Impact of Household Chlorination of Drinking Water in Rural Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Harshfield, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele; Turbes, Anna; Null, Clair

    2012-01-01

    The Jolivert Safe Water for Families program has sold sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine) and conducted household visits in rural Haiti since 2002. To assess the impact of the program on diarrheal disease, in 2010 we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 201 program participants and 425 control households selected at random. Fifty-six percent of participants (versus 10% of controls) had free chlorine residuals between 0.2 and 2.0 mg/L, indicating correct water treatment. Using i...

  1. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  2. Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (Haiti). A Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Palacios, Sergio; Torres Ferna?ndez, Yolanda; Moise, Junie; Benito Oterino, Belen

    2011-01-01

    The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital. The earthquake occurred in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North American plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastwa...

  3. 40Ar/39Ar age of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites from Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izett, G.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of tektites discovered recently in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary marine sedimentary rocks on Haiti indicates that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 million years ago. Sanidine from a bentonite that lies directly above the K-T boundary in continental, coal-bearing, sedimentary rocks of Montana was also dated and has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 64.6 ?? 0.2 million years ago, which is indistinguishable statistically from the age of the tektites.

  4. BRDF Slices: Accurate Adaptive Anisotropic Appearance Acquisition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Ji?í; Vávra, Radomír; Haindl, Michal; Žid, Pavel; Krupi?ka, Mikuláš; Havran, V.

    New York : IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services , 2013, s. 1468-1473. ISBN 978-0-7695-4990-3. ISSN 2160-7508. [Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Portland, OR (US), 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: EC FP7, European Reintegration Grant(BE) 239294 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF slices * adaptive anisotropic material appearance * measurement device Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/filip-0393865.pdf

  5. Optimal quantization applied to Sliced Inverse Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Romain, Aza\\"\\is; Jérôme, Saracco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a semiparametric regression model involving a $d$-dimensional quantitative explanatory variable $X$ and including a dimension reduction of $X$ via an index $\\beta'X$. In this model, the main goal is to estimate the euclidean parameter $\\beta$ and to predict the real response variable $Y$ conditionally to $X$. Our approach is based on sliced inverse regression (SIR) method and optimal quantization in $\\mathbf{L}^p$-norm. We obtain the convergence of the proposed estimators of $\\beta$ and of the conditional distribution. Simulation studies show the good numerical behavior of the proposed estimators for finite sample size.

  6. Effects of Temperature and Slice Thickness on Drying Kinetics of Pumpkin Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried pumpkin slice is an alternative crisp food product. In this study, the effects of temperature and slice thickness on the drying characteristics of pumpkin were studied in a lab-scale tray dryer, using hot air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C and 2, 3 and 4 mm slice thickness at a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The initial moisture content of the pumpkin samples was 900.5 % (wb. The drying process was carried out until the final moisture content of product was 100.5 % (wb. The results showed that the drying time decreased with increasing drying temperature, but it increased with increasing slice thickness of the pumpkin. In all tests, the experimental drying curves obtained show results for only the falling rate period.Fick’s diffusion equation has been used to model the drying characteristics and fits all experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity during drying varied from 1.359×10-10 to 5.301×10-10 m2/s. The effective moisture diffusivity results were in agreement with previously reported diffusivity values.

  7. Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction with Noise Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim B.; Gold, Garry E.; Pauly, John M.; Hargreaves, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants is often hampered by severe metal artifacts. To obtain distortion-free MR images near metallic implants, SEMAC (Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction) corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of excited slices against metal-induced field inhomogeneities, followed by combining the data resolved from multiple SEMAC-encoded slices. However, as many of the resolved data elements only contain noise, SEMAC-corrected images can suffe...

  8. The Fock space in the slice hyperholomorphic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene; Salomon, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and study some basic properties of the Fock space (also known as Segal-Bargmann space) in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. We discuss both the case of slice regular functions over quaternions and also the case of slice monogenic functions with values in a Clifford algebra. In the specific setting of quaternions, we also introduce the full Fock space. This paper can be seen as the beginning of the study of infinite dimensional analysis in the qua...

  9. Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

  10. On the slice-ribbon conjecture for pretzel knots

    OpenAIRE

    Lecuona, Ana G.

    2013-01-01

    We give a necessary, and in some cases sufficient, condition for sliceness inside the family of pretzel knots $P (p_1,...,p_n)$ with one $p_i$ even. The three stranded case yields two interesting families of examples: the first consists of knots for which the non-sliceness is detected by the Alexander polynomial while several modern obstructions to sliceness vanish. The second family has the property that the correction terms from Heegaard-Floer homology of the double branch...

  11. Slices for biparabolics of index one

    CERN Document Server

    Fauquant-Millet, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\mathfrak a$ be an algebraic Lie subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra $\\mathfrak g$ with index $\\mathfrak a \\leq \\rank \\mathfrak g$. Let $Y(\\mathfrak a)$ denote the algebra of $\\mathfrak a$ invariant polynomial functions on $\\mathfrak a^*$. An algebraic slice for $\\mathfrak a$ is an affine subspace $\\eta+V$ with $\\eta \\in \\mathfrak a^*$ and $V \\subset \\mathfrak a^*$ a subspace of dimension index $\\mathfrak a$ such that restriction of function induces an isomorphism of $Y(\\mathfrak a)$ onto the algebra $R[\\eta+V]$ of regular functions on $\\eta+V$. Slices have been obtained in a number of cases through the construction of an adapted pair $(h,\\eta)$ in which $h \\in\\mathfrak a$ is ad-semisimple, $\\eta$ is a regular element of $\\mathfrak a^*$ which is an eigenvector for $h$ of eigenvalue minus one and $V$ is an $h$ stable complement to $(\\ad \\mathfrak a)\\eta$ in $\\mathfrak a^*$. The classical case is for $\\mathfrak g$ semisimple. Yet rather recently many other cases have been provided. For example if $\\mathfrak...

  12. Radiation chemistry of the hippocampal brain slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. S.; Carmichael, A. J.; Pellmar, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    The in vitro hippocampal brain slice is a 0.4 mm thick neural network that can be used to study brain responses to radiation and related injuries. This preparation is unique in that it responds to ionizing radiation within minutes after exposure without complications from changes in vascularity, blood flow, blood pressure, etc. Electrophysiological studies have shown that x- and ?-rays alter synaptic transmission and spike generation, elements of normal brain activity. To evaluate the role of hydroxyl free radicals (.OH) in these changes, slices were exposed to dilute H2O2 solutions. EPR spin trapping experiments verified that .OH is produced. Neural responses, while similar, were not identical to those due to radiation, possibly because of a different distribution of .OH. Although H2O2 is freely diffusible, it produces .OH at specific sites where, e.g. iron reduces it. In contrast, x- and ?-rays produce .OH more uniformly throughout the tissue. H2O2 may provide a better model for high-LET radiation where yields of radical products of water radiolysis are decreased and peroxide reactions predominate.

  13. Realizations of slice hyperholomorphic generalized contractive and positive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Lewkowicz, Izchak; Sabadini, Irene

    2013-01-01

    We introduce generalized Schur functions and generalized positive functions in setting of slice hyperholomorphic functions and study their realizations in terms of associated reproducing kernel Pontryagin spaces

  14. Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clover, A James P

    2011-06-01

    After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

  15. Haití: huracanes en un año de calma Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN ESTEBAN MONTES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental.Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabilization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

  16. Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Athanasiou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

  17. Haití: huracanes en un año de calma / Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN ESTEBAN, MONTES; ANDREAS, FELDMANN; SANDRA, PIRACÉS.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH) y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de [...] estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental. Abstract in english Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabi [...] lization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

  18. Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Tamar E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR and sulphadoxine (SDX treatment combination (SP, have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61 of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540 examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59. Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

  19. Web Service Generation through Program Slicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhou Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As the development of web service (WS, applications based on web services (WS, which are convent and platform-independent, have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, how to identify, generate and compose services has become an open issue recently. This paper proposes a method based on program slicing to realize the generation and composition of web services. This paper introduces the method about how to generate a WSDL file and a SOAP message from source codes as well as the theory of function dependence graph (FDG. In addition, this paper gives the way to generate a proxy service for each service, which allows users to easily call a service. The results of experiments show that our generation and composition methods of WS are feasible and flexible.

  20. Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate "obscuring torus", that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the "torus" into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

  1. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  2. Socio-cultural characteristics and policies vis-à-vis seismic risk reduction throught post-quake rural reconstruction : a case study of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abidi, Syeda Raaeha Tuz Zahra

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at exploring the relation of socio-cultural characteristics and policies with post-quake reconstruction of rural areas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. The primary concern of the study is limited to examine the traditional architectural practice ; dhajji-dewari and social composition of the community during and after reconstruction. It is analyzed that how the socio-cultural aspects of rural communities are affected by the policies, how policies are affected by the soci...

  3. Organotypic heart slices for cell transplantation and physiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeler, Walter; Peschanski, Marc; Monville, Christelle

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have significantly improved our ability to investigate cell transplantation and study the physiology of transplanted cells in cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have shown that fully-immersed heart slices can be used for electrophysiological investigations. Additionally, ischemic heart slices induced by glucose and oxygen deprivation offer a useful tool to investigate mechanical integration and to measure forces of contraction of engrafted cells, at least for short term analysis. A recent and novel model of heart slices, prepared from rat and human tissues, can be maintained in culture for up to two months. This new heart slice model can be used for long term in vitro cell transplantation studies and for pharmacological evaluation. This review will focus on describing these models and demonstrating the use of organotypic heart slices as a novel tool for drugs for studying electrophysiology and developing cellular therapeutic approaches to alleviate cardiac tissue damage. PMID:19794901

  4. Coulomb stress change on surrounding faults by the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Haase, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The M7 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake occurred on the previously unmapped Léogâne Fault, a transpressional fault located very close to the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), the major fault system and primary seismic hazard in southern Haiti. How the rupture of the Léogâne fault influenced stresses on the Enriquillo Fault - especially toward Port-au-Prince - as well as on other regional faults is critical to understanding how seismic hazard in this heavily populated region has been altered as a result of the devastating 2010 earthquake. We calculated Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) changes in the region surrounding the M7 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake using dislocation theory, assuming elastic properties for the region. We considered two possible slip models, the simple single-fault slip model proposed by Calais et al. (2010) and the more complex model by Hayes et al. (2010), which involves three subfaults. We resolve CFS changes on the Léogâne rupture plane itself, as well as on regional faults such as the Enriquillo, Neiba-Matheux, and Trois Baies faults. We find that the aftershock distribution is well explained by CFS changes caused by the coseismic rupture, in particular the cluster of reverse faulting events to the west of the rupture, offshore, coincident with the Trois Baies fault. This fault therefore appears to have been triggered by the January 2010 event. The aftershock distribution in the rupture area clearly outlines the Léogâne fault (see Douilly et al., this meeting) but shows no clear evidence of activity on the other subfaults suggested by Hayes et al. (2010). Both slip models imply a ~1 bar increase of CFS bar on the Enriquillo fault to the west and east of the January 2010 rupture. For the Calais et al. (2010) model, CFS changes are higher to the east if the Enriquillo Fault is modeled with a dip of 65° and a rake 20°, as suggested by some geological observations, compared to a purely strike-slip vertical fault, as often assumed. For average values of the coefficient of friction (0.4) we find a large CFS decrease in the segment of the Enriquillo Fault that is adjacent to the 2010 rupture. For the Trois Baies fault, located to the northwest of the rupture between the Gonâve island and the Southern Peninsula and striking N120°, we find a modest CFS increase (~0.1 bar) on the shallow portion of the segment and a ~0.5 bar CFS increase on the deeper portion. There are no significant CFS changes on most other nearby faults, such as the Neiba-Matheux fault to the north.

  5. Improving the resolution of the 2010 Haiti earthquake fault geometry using temporary seismometer deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Haase, J. S.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Bouin, M.; Calais, E.; Armbruster, J. G.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Deschamps, A.; Saint Louis, M.; Meremonte, M. E.; Hough, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Haiti has several active faults that are capable of producing large earthquakes such as the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. This earthquake was not unexpected, given geodetic measurements showing strain accumulation on the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone, the major fault system in southern Haiti (Manaker et al. 2008). GPS and INSAR data (Calais et al., 2010) show, however, that this rupture occurred on the previously unmapped Léogâne fault, a 60° north dipping oblique blind thrust located immediately north of the Enriquillo Fault. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks. Natural Resources Canada installed three broadband seismic stations, Géoazur installed 21 ocean bottom seismometers, L'Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris installed 5 broadband seismometers, and the United States Geological Survey deployed 17 short period and strong motion seismometers in and around Port-au-Prince. We use data from this complete set of stations, along with data from permanent regional stations, to relocate all of the events from March 17 to June 24, to determine the regional one-dimensional crustal structure and determine focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined data set clearly delineate the Léogâne fault. The strike and dip closely agrees with that of the global centroid moment tensor solution, but appears to be more steeply dipping than the finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a flat structure on the west side of the rupture zone and may indicate triggered seismicity on the Trois Baies fault, although the depths of these events are not as well constrained. There is no clear evidence for aftershocks on the other rupture segments inferred in the Hayes et al. (2010) mainshock rupture model. There is a cluster of aftershocks in the hanging wall near the western patch of high slip identified by Calais et al. (2010) and Meng et al. (2011), or central patch in the Hayes et al. (2010) model. We use first-motion focal mechanism solutions to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the mechanisms of the larger events.

  6. Comparison of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) generated from 4-slice and 64-slice helical CT scanners, a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated from CT data sets and playa vital role for verifying patient position for many radiotherapy treatments. The present study aimed to investigate the impact on the image quality of DRRs due to changes in the original CT data acquisition; specifically a 4-slice CT scanner and a 64-slice CT scanner have been considered. A specifically designed CT simulation phantom (Nuclear Associates Model 76--417) with test patterns to measure low contrast and modulation transfer function (MTF) was used to evaluate DRR characteristics for Siemens Somatom Sensation 4 and Sensation 64 CT scanners. The phantom was scanned as described in the manufacturer's manual, using the departmental protocol for head CT. The CT images were obtained with 120 kV, 300 mAs, a scanning and reconstruction pitch of I and collimation of I mm. Each of the test patterns from the DRRs was compared for the 4-slice and the 64-slice helical scans. Results The calculated relative MTF (RMTF) showed higher spatial resolution for DRRs generated from 64-slice scans compared with 4-slice scans, Fig. 1. The low contrast values for hole diameter patterns on the DRRs ranged from 0.01-8.04% for 64 slice scans and 0.06-6.15% for 4 slice scans.

  7. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  8. Predictors of disease severity in patients admitted to a cholera treatment center in urban Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcin, Claude-Lyne; Severe, Karine; Riche, Claudia T; Anglade, Benedict S; Moise, Colette Guiteau; Woodworth, Michael; Charles, Macarthur; Li, Zhongze; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Wright, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    Cholera, previously unrecognized in Haiti, spread through the country in the fall of 2010. An analysis was performed to understand the epidemiological characteristics, clinical management, and risk factors for disease severity in a population seen at the GHESKIO Cholera Treatment Center in Port-au-Prince. A comprehensive review of the medical records of patients admitted during the period of October 28, 2010-July 10, 2011 was conducted. Disease severity on admission was directly correlated with older age, more prolonged length of stay, and presentation during the two epidemic waves seen in the observation period. Although there was a high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severity of cholera was not greater with HIV infection. This study documents the correlation of cholera waves with rainfall and its reduction in settings with improved sanitary conditions and potable water when newly introduced cholera affects all ages equally so that interventions must be directed throughout the population. PMID:24106188

  9. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  10. Shelter recovery in urban Haiti after the earthquake: the dual role of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahill, Guitele J; Ganapati, N Emel; Clérismé, J Calixte; Mukherji, Anuradha

    2014-04-01

    This paper documents the culture-specific understanding of social capital among Haitians and examines its benefits and downsides in post-disaster shelter recovery following the 12 January 2010 earthquake. The case study of shelter recovery processes in three socioeconomically diverse communities (Pétion-Ville, Delmas and Canapé Vert) in Port-au-Prince suggests that social capital plays dual roles in post-disaster shelter recovery of the displaced population in Haiti. On the one hand, it provides enhanced access to shelter-related resources for those with connections. On the other hand, it accentuates pre-existing inequalities or creates new inequalities among displaced Haitians. In some cases, such inequalities lead to tensions between the haves and have-nots and instigate violence among the displaced. PMID:24601933

  11. Considerations for oral cholera vaccine use during outbreak after earthquake in Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Vicari, Andrea; Hyde, Terri B; Mintz, Eric; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Henry, Ariel; Tappero, Jordan W; Roels, Thierry H; Abrams, Joseph; Burkholder, Brenton T; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Andrus, Jon; Dietz, Vance

    2011-11-01

    Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed. PMID:22099114

  12. The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

  13. Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser

    2014-05-01

    Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

  14. Determinants of Institutional Delivery Among Women of Childbearing Age in Rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

    2014-11-25

    Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery. PMID:25418752

  15. Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

  16. Attack diagnosis on binary executables using dynamic program slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zheng, Yudi; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the level of the practically used programs is often complex and of such a large scale so that it is not as easy to analyze and debug them as one might expect. And it is quite difficult to diagnose attacks and find vulnerabilities in such large-scale programs. Thus, dynamic program slicing becomes a popular and effective method for program comprehension and debugging since it can reduce the analysis scope greatly and drop useless data that do not influence the final result. Besides, most of existing dynamic slicing tools perform dynamic slicing in the source code level, but the source code is not easy to obtain in practice. We believe that we do need some kinds of systems to help the users understand binary programs. In this paper, we present an approach of diagnosing attacks using dynamic backward program slicing based on binary executables, and provide a dynamic binary slicing tool named DBS to analyze binary executables precisely and efficiently. It computes the set of instructions that may have affected or been affected by slicing criterion set in certain location of the binary execution stream. This tool also can organize the slicing results by function call graphs and control flow graphs clearly and hierarchically.

  17. Influence of the slice thickness in CT to clinical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is a kind of tomography. Therefore, what thickness of tissue is being observed in the picture - this is important in the clinical application of CT. The influence of slice thickness on the pictures, especially its clinical effect, was examined. The apparatus used is EMI CT 5005. For varying the slice thickness, it cannot be any larger than the thickness essential to the apparatus. Therefore, to make it thinner than the essential 14 mm, collimators were specially prepared, which were used on the sides of an X-ray tube and a detector. As basic observation, the revelation ability of form owing to the difference of slice thickness using acryl pipes, and the revelation ability of slice face owing to the difference of slice thickness, were examined. About clinical observation, the results for certain cases of cancer were compared with the CT images for the slice thickness of 14 mm essential to EMI CT 5005 and the slice thickness of 7 mm achieved by means of the collimators. (J.P.N.)

  18. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain slices from 8-day old (P8) mouse pups. Fluorescence microscopic monitoring of GFP was utilized as an indicator of tissue viability. The final format of the developed system, featuring ”plug-and-play” technolgy with a reusable fluidic connection board and easily changeable microfluidic chips, facilitated brain slice culturing for 16 days.

  19. Schur functions and their realizations in the slice hyperholomorphic setting

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2011-01-01

    we start the study of Schur analysis in the quaternionic setting using the theory of slice hyperholomorphic functions. The novelty of our approach is that slice hyperholomorphic functions allows to write realizations in terms of a suitable resolvent, the so called S-resolvent operator and to extend several results that hold in the complex case to the quaternionic case. We discuss reproducing kernels, positive definite functions in this setting and we show how they can be obtained in our setting using the extension operator and the slice regular product. We define Schur multipliers, and find their co-isometric realization in terms of the associated de Branges-Rovnyak space.

  20. Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

    2011-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was tre...

  1. Consistent evolution with different time-slicings in quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cosgrove, R

    1995-01-01

    Rovelli's `` quantum mechanics without time'' motivates an intrinsically time-slicing independent picture of reduced phase space quantum gravity, which may be described as ``quantization after evolution''. Sufficient criteria for carrying out quantization after evolution are developed in terms of a general concept of the classical limit of quantum mechanics. If these criteria are satisfied then it is possible to have consistent unitary evolution of operators, with respect to an infinite parameter family of time-slicings (and probably all time-slicings), with the correct classical limit. The criteria are particularly amenable to study in (2+1)-dimensional gravity, where the reduced phase space is finite dimensional.

  2. Low detection of Vibrio cholerae carriage in healthcare workers returning to 12 Latin American countries from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, R; Somarriba, L; Hernández, G; Bardaji, Y; Aguila, A; Mazumder, R N

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This investigation was undertaken to characterize the prevalence of intestinal Vibrio cholerae in healthcare workers (HCWs) returning from Haiti due to the ongoing cholera epidemic. Eight hundred and fifty asymptomatic HCWs of the Cuban Medical Brigade, who planned to leave Haiti, were studied by laboratory screening of stool culture for V. cholerae. A very low percentage (0·23%) of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa was found. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest reported screening study for V. cholerae infection in asymptomatic HCWs returning from a cholera-affected country. Cholera transmission to health personnel highlights a possible risk of transmitting cholera during mobilization of the population for emergency response. Aid workers are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk for acquiring cholera and special care should be taken by consuming safe water and food and practising regular hand washing. PMID:25016919

  3. Measuring Youth Sexual Risk-Taking in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Programmatic Recommendations from Different Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry; Go?mez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    No studies have examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying youth at high risk of unintended pregnancies and contracting HIV. This study compares sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors of youth (ages 15-24) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti surveyed using three different study methodologies. The three study methodologies are compared in terms of their utility for identifying high risk youth and utility for program planning. The three study methodologies are: a represen...

  4. Access to Safe Water in Rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 Months after the Onset of the Cholera Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Murphy, Jennifer; Bertrand, Fabienne; Husain, Farah; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest improved water and sanitation coverage in the Western Hemisphere and is suffering from the largest cholera epidemic on record. In May of 2012, an assessment was conducted in rural areas of the Artibonite Department to describe the type and quality of water sources and determine knowledge, access, and use of household water treatment products to inform future programs. It was conducted after emergency response was scaled back but before longer-term water, sanitation, and h...

  5. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Furio Massolino; Andrea Pardini

    2011-01-01

    Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the sam...

  6. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  7. On surgery curves for genus one slice knots

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmer, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    If a knot K bounds a genus one Seifert surface F in the 3-sphere and F contains an essential simple closed curve alpha that has induced framing 0 and is smoothly slice, then K is smoothly slice. Conjecturally, the converse holds. It is known that if K is slice, then there are strong constraints on the algebraic concordance class of such alpha, and it was thought that these constraints might imply that alpha is at least algebraically slice. We present a counterexample; in the process we answer negatively a question of Cooper and relate the result to a problem of Kauffman. Results of this paper depend on the interplay between the Casson-Gordon invariants of K and algebraic invariants of alpha.

  8. Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2014-12-01

    We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector.

  9. Architectural Slicing : Towards Automatic Harvesting of Architectural Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.

  10. 64-slice MSCT diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect the value of 64-slice multiple slice CT (MSCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. Methods: Data of 64-slice MSCT for 7 patients with pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma confirmed by operation and pathology was retrospectively analyzed. the 2 male and 4 female patients ranged in age from 17 to 66 (average age was 43.4). Both plain and contrast volume scan were performed on all patients. Results: In the group, 5 cases of lesion were found in periphery of lung especially near pleura. Vessels-close-to-lesions'-periphery-sign was observed in 6 patients, air crescent sign in 1 patient and obvious homogeneous enhancement was noticed in all the patients. Conclusion: 64-slice MSCT could play an important role in the evaluation of location, margin, peripheral relation and the enhancement of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. It could be effective in prompting diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. (authors)

  11. Sheets, slice induction and G2(2) case

    OpenAIRE

    Bulois, Michael; Hivert, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study sheets of symmetric Lie algebras through their Slodowy slices. In particular, we introduce a notion of slice induction of nilpotent orbits which coincides with the parabolic induction in the Lie algebra case. We also study in more details the sheets of the non-trivial symmetric Lie algebra of type G2. We characterize their singular loci and provide a nice desingularisation lying in so7.

  12. CT Coronary Angiography: 256-Slice and 320-Detector Row Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Edward M.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Steigner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners, has enabled volumetric imaging of the entire heart free of stair-step artifac...

  13. Schur functions and their realizations in the slice hyperholomorphic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2011-01-01

    we start the study of Schur analysis in the quaternionic setting using the theory of slice hyperholomorphic functions. The novelty of our approach is that slice hyperholomorphic functions allows to write realizations in terms of a suitable resolvent, the so called S-resolvent operator and to extend several results that hold in the complex case to the quaternionic case. We discuss reproducing kernels, positive definite functions in this setting and we show how they can be obt...

  14. Single-slice mapping of ultrashort T 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R.

    2011-05-01

    In this communication we present a method for single-slice mapping of ultrashort transverse relaxation times T2. The RF pulse sequence consists of a spin echo preparation of the magnetization followed by slice-selective ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging with radial k-space sampling. In order to keep the minimum echo time as small as possible, avoid out-of-slice contamination and signal contamination due to unwanted echoes, the implemented pulse sequence employs a slice-selective 180° RF refocusing pulse and a 4-step phase cycle. The slice overlap of the two slice-selective RF pulses was investigated. An acceptable Gaussian slice profile could be achieved by adjusting the strength of the two slice-selection gradients. The method was tested on a short T2 phantom consisting of an arrangement of a roll of adhesive tape, an eraser, a piece of modeling dough made of Plasticine®, and a 10% w/w agar gel. The T2 measurements on the phantom revealed exponential signal decays for all samples with T2(adhesive tape) = (0.5 ± 0.1) ms, T2(eraser) = (2.33 ± 0.07) ms, T2(Plasticine®) = (2.8 ± 0.06) ms, and T2(10% agar) = (9.5 ± 0.83) ms. The T2 values obtained by the mapping method show good agreement with the T2 values obtained by a non-selective T2 measurement. For all samples, except the adhesive tape, the effective transverse relaxation time T2? was significantly shorter than T2. Depending on the scanner hardware the presented method allows mapping of T2 down to a few hundreds of microseconds. Besides investigating material samples, the presented method can be used to study the rapidly decaying MR-signal from biological tissue (e.g.: bone, cartilage, and tendon) and quadrupolar nuclei (e.g.: 23Na, 35Cl, and 17O).

  15. Organotypic heart slices for cell transplantation and physiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Habeler, Walter; Peschanski, Marc; Monville, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have significantly improved our ability to investigate cell transplantation and study the physiology of transplanted cells in cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have shown that fully-immersed heart slices can be used for electrophysiological investigations. Additionally, ischemic heart slices induced by glucose and oxygen deprivation offer a useful tool to investigate mechanical integration and to measure forces of contraction of engrafted cells, at least for short term a...

  16. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardwick, S. J.; Adam, A.; Smith, L. L.; Cohen, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 microM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and ...

  17. NMR surprizes with thin slices and strong gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of our work on diffusion-relaxation-coupling in thin excited slices, we perform NMR experiments in static magnetic field gradients up to 200 T/m. For slice thicknesses in the range of 10?m, the frequency bandwidth of the excited slices becomes sufficiently narrow that free induction decays (FIDs) become observable despite the presence of the strong static gradient. The observed FIDs were also simulated using standard methods from MRI physics. Possible effects of diffusion during the FID duration are still minor at this slice thickness in water but might become dominant for smaller slices or more diffusive media. Furthermore, the detailed excitation structure of the RF pulses was studied in profiling experiments over the edge of a plane liquid cell. Side lobe effects to the slices will be discussed along with approaches to control them. The spatial resolution achieved in the profiling experiments furthermore allows the identification of thermal expansion phenomena in the NMR magnet. Measures to reduce the temperature drift problems are presented

  18. NMR surprizes with thin slices and strong gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim; Kresse, Benjamin [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Nestle, Nikolaus

    2008-07-01

    In the context of our work on diffusion-relaxation-coupling in thin excited slices, we perform NMR experiments in static magnetic field gradients up to 200 T/m. For slice thicknesses in the range of 10{mu}m, the frequency bandwidth of the excited slices becomes sufficiently narrow that free induction decays (FIDs) become observable despite the presence of the strong static gradient. The observed FIDs were also simulated using standard methods from MRI physics. Possible effects of diffusion during the FID duration are still minor at this slice thickness in water but might become dominant for smaller slices or more diffusive media. Furthermore, the detailed excitation structure of the RF pulses was studied in profiling experiments over the edge of a plane liquid cell. Side lobe effects to the slices will be discussed along with approaches to control them. The spatial resolution achieved in the profiling experiments furthermore allows the identification of thermal expansion phenomena in the NMR magnet. Measures to reduce the temperature drift problems are presented.

  19. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  20. Structural analysis of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop: application to the HIV-Haiti isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, A M; Veresov, V G

    2007-06-01

    The model describing the structure and conformational preferences of the HIV-Haiti V3 loop in the geometric spaces of Cartesian coordinates and dihedral angles was generated in terms of NMR spectroscopy data published in literature. To this end, the following successive steps were put into effect: (i) the NMR-based 3D structure for the HIV-Haiti V3 loop in water was built by computer modeling methods; (ii) the conformations of its irregular segments were analyzed and the secondary structure elements identified; and (iii) to reveal a common structural motifs in the HIV-Haiti V3 loop regardless of its environment variability, the simulated structure was collated with the one deciphered previously for the HIV-Haiti V3 loop in a water/trifluoroethanol (TFE) mixed solvent. As a result, the HIV-Haiti V3 loop was found to offer the highly variable fragment of gp120 sensitive to its environment whose changes trigger the large-scale structural rearrangements, bringing in substantial altering the secondary and tertiary structures of this functionally important site of the virus envelope. In spite of this fact, over half of amino acid residues that reside, for the most part, in the functionally important regions of the gp120 protein and may present promising targets for AIDS drug researches, were shown to preserve their conformational states in the structures under review. In particular, the register of these amino acids holds Asn-25 that is critical for the virus binding with primary cell receptor CD4 as well as Arg-3 that is critical for utilization of CCR5 co-receptor and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The conservative structural motif embracing one of the potential sites of the gp120 N-linked glycosylation was detected, which seems to be a promising target for the HIV-1 drug design. The implications are discussed in conjunction with the literature data on the biological activity of the individual amino acids for the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop. PMID:17508782

  1. Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change might result in worsening tropical storms that impede access due to the poor condition of footpaths and thus adversely affect maternal mortality. Additional factors such as deforestation and associated accelerated rainwater runoff may further worsen conditions. The linkage between maternal mortality and climate change will not be detected unless more robust methods are used. We propose using a mixed methods approach that combines use of secondary climate and health data (e.g. Landsat, stream flow, precipitation) with a stratified spatial sampling strategy across this complex land mass coupled with direct observation and qualitative methods using key informant interviews to probe for root causes of changes in health outcomes such as weather, deforestation, food and economic security. This mixed methods approach can be used for cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies linking the impact of climatological factors and important determinants of health such as economic activity. We propose that the impact of climate change on health will be best studied by mixed method approaches and that reliance on secondary data alone risks missing important associations between changes in climate and health.

  2. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants: detailed determination of safety margins and their scattering for buildings in case of earth quakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants studies and evaluations of earth quake events have to be performed. The methodology is aimed to quantify the actual safety margins of the existing structures and their scattering. These data are essentially based on empirical values and results from US power plants. The authors discuss the accuracy and applicability of the simplified methodologies. It turns out that the simplified models can only roughly describe the complex non-linear behavior of buildings. Additional system engineering based effects on the safety reserves cannot be taken into account by the simplified modeling.

  3. Transboundary Impacts of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Disaster: Focus on Legal Dilemmas in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic disasters affect not just the areas/regions and countries where they strike, but also have transboundary effects and repercussions on neighboring countries, which often serve as receiving areas for displaced survivors. South Florida, for example, served as a receiving area for earthquake survivors after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. To understand the transboundary sociolegal impacts on host communities, we draw theoretical insights from research on transboundary crises and interviewed key members of school districts, city and county governments, non-profit organizations, relief task forces, the Haitian-American diaspora, and local government agencies. We also looked at relevant plans/policies modified by governmental and non-governmental institutions in response to the legal issues that arose. The findings highlight the manner in which street-level workers in state and non-state organizations deal with legal complexities and ramifications, along with the role played by the Haitian-American diaspora actors and their networks. Los desastres por catástrofes no afectan solo a las áreas/regiones y países a los que golpean, sino que también tienen efectos transfronterizos y repercuten en los países vecinos, que a menudo sirven como áreas de recepción para los sobrevivientes desplazados. El sur de Florida, por ejemplo, sirvió como área de acogida para los supervivientes del terremoto de Haiti de 2010. Para entender el impacto sociojurídico a nivel transfronterizo en las comunidades de acogida, se trazan nuevas percepciones teóricas a partir de la investigación de crisis transfronterizas, y mediante entrevistas a miembros clave de distritos escolares, gobiernos de ciudades y condados, organizaciones sin ánimos de lucro, grupos de trabajo de auxilio, la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense, y agencias del gobierno local. También se estudian los planes/políticas relevantes, modificados por las instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales para responder a las cuestiones jurídicas que se plantearon. Los resultados destacan cómo se enfrentan los trabajadores a nivel de calle de las organizaciones estatales y no estatales a las complejidades y consecuencias legales, junto con el papel desempeñado por los protagonistas de la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense y sus redes de contactos.

  4. Novel clinical applications of state-of-the-art multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijf, J. D.; Delgado, V.; Werkhoven, J. M.; Graaf, F. R.; Velzen, J. E.; Boogers, M. M.; Kroft, L. J.; Roos, A.; Jukema, J. W.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Wall, E. E.; Bax, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) technology. The number of detector rows has increased from 4-slices to the current availability of 64-slice and even 320-slice systems. In addition, images are acquired with thinner slices and faster rotation times resulting in substantially improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Simultaneously, effective dose reduction acquisition techniques have been developed allowing considerable reduction o...

  5. Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

  6. Public Health Surveillance After the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: the Experience of Médecins Sans Frontières

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Jonathan; Luquero, Francisco; Francois, Gwenola; Rousseau, Caroline; Caleo, Grazia; Ciglenecki, Iza; Delacre, Clara; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Terzian, Mego; Verhenne, Leen; Porten, Klaudia; Checchi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background In January 2010, Haiti was struck by a powerful earthquake, killing and wounding hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. In order to better understand the severity of the crisis, and to provide early warning of epidemics or deteriorations in the health status of the population, Médecins Sans Frontières established surveillance for infections of epidemic potential and for death rates and malnutrition prevalence. Methods Trends in infections of epidemic potential were detected through passive surveillance at health facilities serving as sentinel sites. Active community surveillance of death rates and malnutrition prevalence was established through weekly home visits. Results There were 102,054 consultations at the 15 reporting sites during the 26 week period of operation. Acute respiratory infections, acute watery diarrhoea and malaria/fever of unknown origin accounted for the majority of proportional morbidity among the diseases under surveillance. Several alerts were triggered through the detection of immediately notifiable diseases and increasing trends in some conditions. Crude and under-5 death rates, and acute malnutrition prevalence, were below emergency thresholds. Conclusion Disease surveillance after disasters should include an alert and response component, requiring investment of resources in informal networks that improve sensitivity to alerts as well as on the more common systems of data collection, compilation and analysis. Information sharing between partners is necessary to strengthen early warning systems. Community-based surveillance of mortality and malnutrition is feasible but requires careful implementation and validation. PMID:23330069

  7. Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid Pichler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

  8. A feeding education program to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Dévieux, Jessy G; Théodore, Harry; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Antillus, Lynda; Cadot, Ionie; Pape, Jean William; Malow, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    In Haiti, as in most of the developing world, vertical transmission of HIV from infected mother to infant through postpartum breastfeeding remains a significant mode of transmission. As part of their prevention of mother-to-child transmission program, the Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers developed a feeding education program in which over 83% of the HIV-positive pregnant women who were eligible to participate, enrolled. Bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compare feeding choices of the 290 women who participated in the feeding education program to 58 who did not. Of those who participated, 91.7% chose to use replacement formulas for their newborns, while 75.9% of those who did not participate chose replacement feeding. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, analyses revealed that the no education group was less likely to adopt replacement feeding and more likely to use mixed feeding (OR=0.31, p=0.004; and OR=2.74, p=0.05, respectively). This suggests that a targeted and culturally appropriate education program can be effective in encouraging replacement feeding, even in those countries where breastfeeding is the norm. PMID:18781456

  9. Disclosure and impact of maternal HIV+ serostatus on mothers and children in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine M; Louis, Ermaze; King, Gary; Scanlan, Fiona; Mukherjee, Joia S; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWHs) in the United States have reported that one of their main challenges is the decision to disclose their HIV serostatus to their children and the potential consequences of their disclosure. Little is known about the experiences of MLWHs regarding disclosing their HIV serostatus to their children and the impact of maternal HIV serostatus disclosure in the island nations of the Caribbean. Study objectives were to identify the factors influencing maternal HIV serostatus disclosure, examine the breadth of maternal HIV serostatus, and understand the impact of disclosure on mothers and the children. Baseline interviews were conducted between 2006 and 2007 with 25 HIV-positive mothers and 26 children ages 10-17 participating in a pilot psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in Haiti. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded for topical themes by two investigators. Analysis of the interviews yielded several themes relevant to reasons for disclosure, including children's experience of HIV stigma in the community, social support and encouragement from psychosocial intervention workers. The main themes related to breadth of disclosure were brief disclosure and explicit disclosure with some mothers sharing information about how they learned about their illness diagnosis and their medication. Themes related to impacts of disclosure included emotional reactions of children and mothers, and children's desire to assist mothers with illness and become involved. These findings suggest the need to provide more psychosocial support to HIV-affected families in the Caribbean region. PMID:24158504

  10. Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Natural Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

  11. Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

  12. Conformal Parameterizations of Slices of Flat Kasner Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, David

    2014-01-01

    The Kasner metrics are among the simplest solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, and we use them here to examine the conformal method of finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. After describing the conformal method's construction of constant mean curvature (CMC) slices of Kasner spacetimes, we turn our attention to non-CMC slices of the smaller family of flat Kasner spacetimes. In this restricted setting we obtain a full description of the construction of certain $U^{n-1}$ symmetric slices, even in the far-from-CMC regime. Among the conformal data sets generating these slices we find that most data sets construct a single flat Kasner spacetime, but that there are also far-from-CMC data sets that construct one-parameter families of slices. Although these non-CMC families are analogues of well-known CMC one-parameter families, they differ in important ways. Most significantly, unlike the CMC case, the condition signaling the appearance of these non-CMC families is not naturally detected fro...

  13. Employing the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to Investigate Site Effects in Christchurch, New Zealand Using the ? Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, C.; Liao, E. J.; Cochran, E. S.; Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Christensen, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The 3 September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake was felt over 900 km from the source. The maximum felt-intensity was estimated to be at Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 9 and measured near-field accelerations were found to exceed 1 g. The mainshock damaged or destroyed over 100,000 buildings and spatially variable effects (such as liquefaction, slumping, and amplification) were observed throughout the city of Christchurch. Following the mainshock, a vigorous aftershock sequence has continued for months in the region. To record the aftershocks for early warning and other hazard mitigation efforts, a network of over 192 low-cost, 14-bit accelerometers were deployed in local buildings as part of the Quake-Catcher Network Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP). With a large number of sensors covering a city area of ~300 km2, the RAMP collected vastly more data and at a finer scale relative to the deployment of costly traditional broadband sensors. Recent comparison of the signal-to-noise quality of the 14-bit QCN sensors to the strong motion 24-bit New Zealand GeoNet sensors show similar responses. Initial analyses of the data show that aftershocks of magnitude >M4.5 within 30 km of the hypocentral distance were well recorded by QCN sensors. Utilizing the dense coverage, we investigate local site amplification by analyzing the spectra decay parameter, kappa (?). Following the routine outlined in Douglas et al. (2010, Pure Appl. Geophys.), whereby a 5-sec S-wave window is used to calculate the Fourier spectra and ? for each station, investigations of ? values between stations are used to estimate site conditions on seismic wave behavior at each location. Results from this study will be compared to work performed by New Zealand researchers using other methods to calculate site response, such as the spectral ratio method. Together, these studies will highlight areas of the Christchurch region that may be more susceptible to ground shaking, which can be used to mitigate loss prior to future large earthquakes.

  14. Role of 64-slices spiral CT in acute chest pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore role of 64-slices spiral CT in differentiation of acute chest pains. Methods: Thirty six patients with acute chest pains undergone 64-slices spiral CT chest angiography. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction was performed in all patients by means of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) (coronal, sagittal oblique), curved planar reformation (CPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering (VR). All images were blindly reading by two experienced radiologist. DSA were performed at the same time in 16 cases. Results: The coronary artery branches, pulmonary artery and aortic artery in all patients were showed clearly. The acute myocardial infarction were showed in 10 cases, The pulmonary artery embolism in 14 cases, The aortic dissection in 6 eases respectively, The Coronary embolism in One case, pneumothorax In One case, The constrictive pericarditis in 1 case respectively. Normal findings in 4 cases. Conclusion: 64-slices spiral CT is a useful and noninvasive examination in acute chest pain. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of physical characteristics in multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a quality-of-image evaluation in multi-slice CT equipment. Image noise, section sensitivity profile (SSP), and spatial resolution of axial plane images were determined using two types of multi-slice CT equipment (Hispeed Advantage QX/i: GE-YMS Co. Ltd.; Aquilion: Toshiba Co. Ltd.). Suggestion: Based on theoretical considerations image noise was increased for helical pitch. Spatial resolution in the axial plane has been improved in the frequency domain by quarter-quarter offset reconstruction. Although slice thickness changed with helical pitch, as compared with a single CT, the profile has been improved notably. The limits of thin stratification of beam collimation and SSP evaluation by the bead method (point spread function using a small tungsten ball) were examined experimentally. (author)

  16. Morphological correlates of persistent potentiation in the chick brain slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P M; Burns, B D; Titmuss, J; Webb, A C

    1991-04-01

    In an in-vitro slice preparation of the chick brain it is possible to induce persistent potentiation of responses to single electrical stimuli by giving two bursts of 300 stimuli at 5 Hz separated by ten minutes of control stimulation at 0.1 Hz. We investigated the morphological correlates of this potentiation in a group of 2 day old chicks using quantitative electron microscopical techniques. It was found that in slices which showed a clearly potentiated response there was a significant increase in the size of the postsynaptic densities of synapses on spines in the left hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV). No such increases were seen in a control group nor in slices which failed to potentiate. These results provide further evidence for the lability of synapses in the IMHV. PMID:1893094

  17. Slope Stability Analysis Using Radial Slices: A Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gyan Prakash; Das, Adarsha; Rai, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Ashok

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model has been formulated for calculating the factor of safety of a slope. Corresponding computer code has also been developed. Limit equilibrium method (moment equilibrium) has been adopted for calculating the net resulting driving and resisting forces. The probable slip circle region has been divided into radial slices for the simulation process. In this approach, the inter-slice shear forces are zero. Thus, the calculation process becomes simpler as compared to that with vertical slices. The slope stability analyses were done. Validation of the present program was done with existing limit equilibrium based methods. Various models were prepared and analysed with varying geometry and soil strength parameters. These models were also analysed with other limit equilibrium methods like Bishop, Janbu and Spencer method. The results were found to be in agreement with the results of other limit equilibrium methods for the same dump soil properties and slope parameters.

  18. 40-slice coronary CTA: initial experience and establishing a practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Fletcher Allen Health Care and the Univ. of Vermont Coll. of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Watkins, M. [Dept. of Cardiology, Fletcher Allen Health Care and the Univ. of Vermont Coll. of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The introduction of 4-slice scanners with subsecond gantry rotation times paved way for such demanding applications as cardiac imaging. However, challenges remained. For example, the breath hold times of 40 seconds caused many patient groups to be excluded. Some of these issues were addressed by the introduction of 16-slice CT scanners with submillimeter spatial resolution and faster gantry rotation times, resulting in a significant decrease in the coverage time (less than 20 s). Further developments in scanner technology were brought about by the introduction of 40- and 64-slice scanners, such as the Philips' Brilliance, with a z-axis coverage of 40 mm, making it possible to cover the entire cardiac anatomy in less than 15 seconds [1]. Additionally, the COBRA trademark adaptive multi-cycle reconstruction approach can result in further improvement in temporal resolution by using projection data from two or more cardiac cycles [2-5]. (orig.)

  19. Plastinated heart slices aid echocardiographic interpretation in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Alejandro; Del Palacio, Josefa F; Latorre, Rafael; Henry, Robert W; Sarriá, Ricardo; Albors, Octavio López

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to compare plastinated sections of the canine heart with corresponding two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic images. Thirteen dog hearts were fixed by dilation and then processed by the S10 silicon plastination method (Biodur). Two dogs without evidence of cardiac disease were imaged using 2D echocardiography so as to obtain a complete series of the standard right and left parasternal images, which were compared with corresponding plastinated slices obtained by knife sectioning of the hearts. The plastinated slices revealed the internal anatomy of the heart with great detail and were particularly useful to display the spatial relationship between complex anatomic structures. The plastinated slices corresponded accurately with the echocardiographic images. Because of the dilation of the right heart during the fixation process, it was not possible to obtain plastinated specimens in ventricular systole. This paper may be a reference atlas for assisting 2D echocardiography interpretation. PMID:22092521

  20. Thin-slice judgments in the clinical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Bogart, Kathleen R; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians make a variety of assessments about their clients, from judging personality traits to making diagnoses, and a variety of methods are available to do so, ranging from observations to structured interviews. A large body of work demonstrates that from a brief glimpse of another's nonverbal behavior, a variety of traits and inner states can be accurately perceived. Additionally, from these "thin slices" of behavior, even future outcomes can be predicted with some accuracy. Certain clinical disorders such as Parkinson's disease and facial paralysis disrupt nonverbal behavior and may impair clinicians' ability to make accurate judgments. In certain contexts, personality disorders, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts and outcomes can be detected from others' nonverbal behavior. Additionally, thin slices can predict psychological adjustment to divorce, bereavement, sexual abuse, and well-being throughout life. Thus, for certain traits and disorders, judgments from a thin slice could provide a complementary tool for the clinician's toolbox. PMID:24423788

  1. 40-slice coronary CTA: initial experience and establishing a practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of 4-slice scanners with subsecond gantry rotation times paved way for such demanding applications as cardiac imaging. However, challenges remained. For example, the breath hold times of 40 seconds caused many patient groups to be excluded. Some of these issues were addressed by the introduction of 16-slice CT scanners with submillimeter spatial resolution and faster gantry rotation times, resulting in a significant decrease in the coverage time (less than 20 s). Further developments in scanner technology were brought about by the introduction of 40- and 64-slice scanners, such as the Philips' Brilliance, with a z-axis coverage of 40 mm, making it possible to cover the entire cardiac anatomy in less than 15 seconds [1]. Additionally, the COBRA trademark adaptive multi-cycle reconstruction approach can result in further improvement in temporal resolution by using projection data from two or more cardiac cycles [2-5]. (orig.)

  2. Thin slices of teleost retina continue to grow in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, A F; Fernald, R D

    1991-02-01

    Thin slices of differentiated fish retinas were maintained up to 5 days in culture conditions where they exhibited properties essentially identical to those found in retinas of intact animals. Retinal slices were prepared by embedding eyecups from young fish in agarose and sectioning them on a vibratome. Phenotypic integrity of specific cell types was maintained, as demonstrated by specific antibody staining patterns. Stem cells in the retinal margin and presumptive rod progenitor cells in the outer nuclear layer continued to proliferate in vitro, just as they do in vivo. Some of these cells differentiated in vitro as demonstrated by labelling both cell division and cell phenotype. After several days in culture, some regeneration-like responses were observed, such as growth of neurites and swelling of cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. This retinal slice preparation appears to offer a unique opportunity for studying the interactions among developing retinal cells. PMID:2062114

  3. Evaluation of fibrosis in precision-cut tissue slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, I M; Pham, B T; Groothuis, G M M; Olinga, P

    2013-01-01

    1.In this review, the use of precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) of the liver, kidney, lung and intestine in fibrosis research are evaluated and future possibilities are discussed. 2.In vivo models or techniques that are applicabless to be investigated in PCTS are discussed. 3.It is concluded that the early onset of fibrosis can be induced successfully in PCTS prepared from human and experimental animals. 4.Moreover, precision-cut slices of fibrotic tissue are effective in gaining new knowledge of the mechanisms of fibrosis and of the mode of action of potential antifibrotic drugs. 5.Both healthy and fibrotic human tissue slices will pave the way for the testing of novel therapeutic drugs to treat patients with fibrosis avoiding interspecies extrapolation. PMID:23002908

  4. In vitro metabolism of rumenic acid in bovine liver slices

    OpenAIRE

    Anne De La Torre,; Gruffat, Dominique; Chardigny, Jean-michel; Sebedio, Jean-louis; Durand, Denys; Loreau, Olivier; Bauchart, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Ruminant products are the major source of CLA for humans. However, during periods of fat mobilization, the liver might play an important role in CLA metabolism which would limit the availability of the latter for muscles and milk. In this context, rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) metabolism in the bovine liver (n = 5) was compared to that of oleic acid (n = 3) by using the in vitro liver slice method. Liver slices were incubated for 17 h in a medium containing 0.75 mM of FA mixture and ...

  5. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

  6. Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones--the case of post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

    2014-10-15

    Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. PMID:25058930

  7. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Urbain Fifi; Thierry Winiarski; Evens Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch test...

  8. Investigation of the slice sensitivity profile for step-and-shoot mode multi-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomography (MCT) is one of the recent technology advancements in CT. Compared to single slice CT, MCT significantly improves examination time, x-ray tube efficiency, and contrast material utilization. Although the scan mode of MCT is predominately helical, step-and-shoot (axial) scans continue to be an important part of routine clinical protocols. In this paper, we present a detailed investigation on the slice sensitivity profile (SSP) of MCT in the step-and-shoot mode. Our investigation shows that, unlike single slice CT, the SSP for MCT exhibits multiple peaks and valleys resulting from intercell gaps between detector rows. To fully understand the characteristics of the SSP, we developed an analytical model to predict the behavior of MCT. We propose a simple experimental technique that can quickly and accurately measure SSP. The impact of the SSP on image artifacts and low contrast detectability is also investigated

  9. Quaking Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

  10. A spatially explicit model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to July 2011, climb to 385,000 cases and 5,800 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of textit{Vibrio cholera}, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan texttrademark project). The model directly account for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

  11. An epidemic model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-04-01

    As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to December 2011, climb to 522,000 cases and 7,000 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan project). The model directly accounts for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. To this end, we generate realistic scenario of future precipitation in order to forecast possible epidemic paths up to the end of the 2013. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

  12. Slip partitioning on the Enriquillo and Lamentin faults during the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël; Jacques, Éric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann

    2014-05-01

    A general consensus has emerged from the study of the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake: the coseismic rupture was complex, portraying both reverse and strike-slip motion, but lacking unambiguous surface break. Based on seismological, geodetic and geologic data, numerous slip models have been proposed for that event. However, using an incomplete fault map, the latter models were preliminary, proposing a rupture on unmapped buried faults. Here, using bathymetric data offshore Port-au-Prince along with a digital elevation model derived from LiDAR on-land, we identified the south-dipping Lamentin thrust in the Bay of Port-au-Prince. The fault prolongs on-land where it deforms active alluvial fans in the city of Carrefour. The geometry and distribution of the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake and the analysis of the regional geology allow us to place constraints on the connection at depth between the Lamentin thrust and the sinistral strike-slip Enriquillo -Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Inversion of geodetic data suggests that both faults may have broken in 2010, consistently with the regional geodynamical setting. The rupture initiated along the Lamentin thrust and further propagated along the EPGF due to instantaneous unclamping at depth. The corals uplifted around the Léogâne Delta Fan, contributing to the build-up of long-term topography between the Lamentin thrust and the EPGF. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on unruptured EPGF segments as well as on the thrust fault sitting in the middle of the city of Carrefour, in the direct vicinity of Port-au-Prince, thereby increasing the seismic hazard in these areas.

  13. Impact glass spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Xenia; Deutsch, Alexander; Berndt, Jasper; Robin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated six impact glass spherules from the K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti, using optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe and in situ laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 37 trace elements, spot size 90-35 ?m), in order to understand geochemical changes during alteration. The mm-sized glass spherules are partly or totally altered to smectite, but original textural features are preserved. The average trace-element composition of glass matches that one of the upper continental crust. Hints for a "meteoritic component" are lacking (Ni/Cr glass, smectites are strongly depleted in trace elements, except for Li, Sc, V, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are flat with subchondritic abundances, related to their very low degree of crystallinity. We observe a positive Eu and a strong negative Ce anomaly; the latter is explained by formation of an organic Ce4+-complex, soluble under reducing conditions. Zr/Hf of glasses and smectites is chondritic to superchondritic (35-40), whereas Nb/Ta in smectite is subchondritic (5-12) compared to Nb/Ta in the glass (~14-18). The low Nb/Ta is due to the low Nb concentrations in the smectite. Using in situ techniques with high spatial resolution, we have documented for the first time the significant changes in diagnostic elemental ratios during alteration of glass spherules. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of geochemical data of not only impact materials but also volcanic glass, especially if bulk rock methods are used.

  14. HAITÍ: ¿LA MISIÓN DE LA ÚLTIMA OPORTUNIDAD? / Haiti: The Mission of Last Opportunity?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROODY, RESERVE.

    Full Text Available En términos de los procesos sociales y políticos, 2013 terminó de la misma manera que lo hizo 2012: sin elecciones, protestas populares cotidianas y un enfrentamiento, a ratos incluso sangriento, entre partidarios y detractores de oposición y oficialista. El Diálogo Político entre haitianos, iniciad [...] o a mediados de enero de 2014 y auspiciado por los obispos católicos, intenta encontrar una solución al atasco político y hartazgo social. Este artículo hace un recuento de los principales acontecimientos sociales, económicos y políticos de 2013. Muestra que el voluntarismo desde la sociedad civil ha sido el camino elegido para desenmarañar los hilos del atascado proceso político. Subraya la novedad y muestra a la misma vez las limitaciones del llamado proceso de Diálogo Político Nacional. Abstract in english In terms of its political and social processes 2013 ended the same way 2012 did. Elections were not held; there were massive and quotidian political protests, and street fighting took place between opponents and partisans of the president. The National Political Dialogue, held in the presence of the [...] Episcopal Commision, tried to quell the violence and look for a solution to the social and political problems of the country. This article looks back at the political, social and economic events that took place during 2013. It shows that actors from the civil society have been very active in the search for a solution to the turmoil faced by Haiti during the year. They have sought, by means of voluntarism, to solve the problems of a stuck political process. The article shows both the merits and limits of the solutions they offered.

  15. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective: We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design: We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results: The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of ‘real-time’ medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055, respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, p<0.0001, respectively. The PCIP allows the hospital staff to identify and order medications with a critically low supply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions: An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  16. Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson JC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 34 patients with signs and symptoms of diarrhea and stored in BBLTM Cary-Blair transport medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD until transit to the USA. Swab material was inoculated on to different enrichment and selective agars for incubation. Fermenting and nonfermenting bacteria that grew on the enteric selection media were identified by the BBLTM CrystalTM Enteric/Nonferementing Identification system (Becton, Dickinson and Company. Organisms identified as Escherichia coli were further screened for the presence of virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 34 patients, no Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Vibrio spp. were isolated from swabs transported to the USA for culture. Of 73 E. coli isolates cultured from the swabs, one enteropathogenic strain of E. coli was identified by multiplex PCR. Escherichia fergusonii and Cronobacter sakazakii, both potential gastrointestinal pathogens, were also isolated from patient stools. Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine if bacterial enteropathogens could be detected in the stools of patients suffering from diarrhea or dysentery and, in the absence of sufficient facilities, rectal swabs could be transported to the USA for culture. Although several genera of overt enteropathogens were not detected, one enteropathogenic E. coli and other pathogenic enterobacteriaceae were successfully cultured and identified. Keywords: Escherichia, Cronobacter, diarrheagenic, stool

  17. Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse in polar time slicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse provides a good test-bed calculation for general-relativistic numerical codes that evolve matter in strong gravitational fields. Such codes are often based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism, for which an appropriate choice of coordinates (lapse and shift functions) is the key to a successful spacetime evolution. Polar time slicing has been proposed as a good choice of time coordinate because of its singularity-avoidance features. We express the entire Oppenheimer-Snyder solution analytically in polar time slicing to facilitate calibrations of numerical codes written in this gauge. We examine two possible choices of radial coordinate: isotropic and Schwarzschild. We find that, while polar slicing does indeed hold back collapse near the center of a black hole, it is not alone sufficient to allow a singularity-free numerical evolution. For example, with the Schwarzschild radial coordinate the radial metric coefficient develops an ever-increasing spike at the surface of the black hole. This does not occur in isotropic coordinates, where the metric coefficient reaches a finite maximum value at the center. By contrast, the isotropic radial metric coefficient in maximal time slicing diverges exponentially at the center at late times. These generic features may be important in constructing a numerical code

  18. Convolution reconstruction algorithm for multi-slice helical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jiang; Grekowicz, Brian; Simoni, Piero; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Joshi, Mukta C.; Dutta, Sandeep; Williams, Eugene C.; Shaughnessy, Charlie; Sainath, Paavana

    2003-05-01

    One of the most recent technological advancements in computed tomography (CT) is the introduction of multi-slice CT (MSCT). The state-of-the-art MSCT contains 16 detector rows and is capable of acquiring 16 projections simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a reconstruction algorithm that makes use of nontraditional reconstruction planes and convolution weighting. To minimize the impact of interpolation on slice-sensitivity-profile (SSP), conjugate samples are used for the projection interpolation. We use multiple convex planes as teh region of construction. This allows the generated weighting function to be smooth and differentiable. In addition, we make use of the fact that projections collected from a subset of detector rows are sufficient to perform a complete reconstruction. A convolution function is applied to the weighting function of each subset to minimize the impact of cone beam effects. The convolution function is chosen so that optimal balance is achieved between image artifact, slice-sensitivity-profile (SSP), and noise. Extensive phantom and clinical studies have been conducted to validate our approach. Our study indicates that compared to other row-interpolation based reconstruction algorithms, a 30% SSP improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach. In addition, image artifact suppression achieved with the proposed approach is on par or slightly better than the existing reconstruction algorithms. Extensive clinical studies have shown that the 16-slice scanner in conjugation with this algorithm produces nearly isotropic spatial resolution and allows much improved diagnostic image quality.

  19. The Adams-Novikov spectral sequence and Voevodsky's slice tower

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We show that the spectral sequence converging to the stable homotopy groups of spheres, induced by the Betti realization of the slice tower for the motivic sphere spectrum, agrees with the Adams-Novikov spectral sequence, after a suitable re-indexing. The proof relies on an extension of Deligne's d\\'ecalage construction to the Tot-tower of a cosimplicial spectrum.

  20. The slice filtration and Grothendieck-Witt groups

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Let k be a perfect field of characteristic different from two. We show that the filtration on the Grothendieck-Witt group GW(k) induced by the slice filtration for the sphere spectrum in the motivic stable homotopy category is the I-adic filtration, where I is the augmentation ideal in GW(k).

  1. Recovering missing slices of the discrete Fourier transform using Ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shekhar S; Svalbe, Imants D; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Kingston, Andrew M; Normand, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) underpins the solution to many inverse problems commonly possessing missing or unmeasured frequency information. This incomplete coverage of the Fourier space always produces systematic artifacts called Ghosts. In this paper, a fast and exact method for deconvolving cyclic artifacts caused by missing slices of the DFT using redundant image regions is presented. The slices discussed here originate from the exact partitioning of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) space, under the projective Discrete Radon Transform, called the discrete Fourier slice theorem. The method has a computational complexity of O(n log(2) n) (for an n=N×N image) and is constructed from a new cyclic theory of Ghosts. This theory is also shown to unify several aspects of work done on Ghosts over the past three decades. This paper concludes with an application to fast, exact, non-iterative image reconstruction from a highly asymmetric set of rational angle projections that give rise to sets of sparse slices within the DFT. PMID:22752128

  2. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  3. Multi-slice detector spiral computed tomography in clinical cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years mechanical multidetedor-row CT (MDCT) systems with simultaneous acquisition of four slices and half-second scanner rotation have become widely available. Data acquisition with these scanners allows for considerably faster coverage of the heart volume, compared to single-slice scanning. This increased scan speed can be used for retrospective gating together with 1 mm collimated slice widths and allows coverage of the entire cardiac volume in one breath hold. First results from studies in correlation with intracoronary ultrasound suggest that multidetedor-row CT- technology not only offers the possibility to visualize intracoronary stenoses non-invasively, but also to differentiate plaque morphology. This is especially the case with the next generation row multidetector CT; an increased number of simultaneously acquired slices and sub-millimeter collimation for cardiac applications allows true isotropic scanning with high resolution. Contrast enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography is a promising non-invasive technique for the detection, visualization and characterization of stenotic artery disease. It could ad as a gatekeeper prior to cardiac catheterization and finally replaces conventional diagnostic modalities

  4. Gravitational clustering of galaxies in the CfA slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clustering properties of the Galaxies in the CfA slice have been analyzed by comparing the properties of the neighbor distributions to the predictions of gravitational clustering theory. The agreement is excellent and implies that the observed structures can be explained by gravitational effects alone and do not require exotic explanations

  5. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  6. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 ?M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP+, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14CO2 from D-[14C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  7. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.7 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled water for 0 min (control), 40 min and 90 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50degreesC for 30 and 70 min; 70degreesC for 8 and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips. Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching reduced on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50degreesC for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mum/kg) even when they were fried at 190degreesC. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150degreesC. For the three pre-treatments studied, acrylamide formation increased dramatically as the frying temperature increased from 150degreesC to 190degreesC. (C) 2004 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MicroRNA-155 promotes the proliferation and invasion abilities of colon cancer cells by targeting quaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Gao, Sheng-Qiang; Huang, Li-Dong; Huang, Yue-Han; Zhang, Qi-Yu; Zhou, Meng-Tao; Shi, Hong-Qi; Song, Qi-Tong; Shan, Yun-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The increasing expression of microRNA?155 (miR?155) and decreasing expression of RNA?binding protein quaking (QKI) in colon cells have been observed previously. In this study, we attempted to establish the correlation between miR?155 and QKI. In addition, we assessed whether the expression of miR?155 and QKI is linked to the proliferation and invasion capabilities of colon cells. Firstly, nineteen tumor samples, divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of lymphatic metastasis, were obtained from colon cancer patients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. The expression level of miR?155 and QKI was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Secondly, the GES?1, SW480 and COLO205 cell lines were cultured and the expression level of QKI and miR?155 was also assessed by qPCR. Thirdly, a luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to detect the association between miR?155 and QKI, and qPCR and western blot analysis were performed to confirm the effects of miR?155 on the expression of QKI at the mRNA and protein level. Subsequently, the SW480 cells were used in the following experiments. Following treatment with miR?155 inhibitor and QKI overexpression vector, western blot analysis, propidium iodide (PI) staining and a cell scratch assay were carried out to assess the effects of miR?155 on the proliferation and invasion potential of colon cancer cells. qPCR findings revealed higher miR?155 expression and lower QKI expression in colon cancer tissues as well as the colon cancer cell lines SW480 and COLO205. The relative luciferase activity of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) was decreased by approximately 45% when SW480 cells stimulated by mimic?miR?155 were combined with the wild?type 3'UTR constructs. In addition, when the cells were treated with mimic?miR?155, QKI expression was significantly decreased at the mRNA and protein level. These outcomes revealed that miR?155 decreased the production of QKI by acting on the 3'UTR of the QKI gene. Furthermore, PI staining and the cell scratch assay revealed that miR?155 influenced the cell cycle and invasion abilities of colon cancer cells by directly targeting QKI and decreased the production of QKI by acting on the 3'UTR of the QKI gene. This study has demonstrated the correlation between miR?155 and QKI, in which miR?155 regulates the cell cycle and invasion ability of colon cancer cells via the modulation of QKI expression. Our study provides novel therapeutic strategies for colon cancer therapy. PMID:25420938

  9. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first two pairs of horizontal vibrational frequencies, which are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. The approach has been applied to a CSN-instrumented 12-story reinforced concrete building near downtown Los Angeles. The frequencies were identified directly from spectra of the 8 August 2012 M4.5 Yorba Linda, California earthquake acceleration time series. When the basic dimensions and the first two frequencies are input into a prismatic Timoshenko beam model of the building, the model yields mode shapes that have been shown to match well with densely recorded data. For the instrumented 12-story building, comparisons of the predictions of responses on other floors using only the record from the 9th floor with actual data from the other floors shows this method to approximate the true response remarkably well.

  10. A method for estimation of enzymatic browning and its suppression in apple slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Varoquaux

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A described method is based on diffuse light reflectance in the spectral region 400-720 nm for the examination of enzymatic browning of apple slices. In this method apples are sliced as directly dipped for 4 s in the inhibitors. Based on the obtained results data for the limits of visual acceptance of the slice colour are proposed. An enzymatic browning parameter of the slices is determined from the time-course measurements of the difference in absorbance at 440 nm between the brown slice and the same slice where the original colour was restored by slicing a further 1.5 mm layer. Three varieties of apples Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious were sliced under water or in ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and sodium bisulphite solutions. Different concentrations of the suppressant were objectively compared, and their efficiencies were expressed by the allowable period of cold storage.

  11. Beyond command and control: USSOUTHCOM's use of social networking to 'connect and collaborate' during Haiti relief operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    On 12 January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti killing over 230,000 unsuspecting victims, injuring tens of thousands more and displacing over 1.1 million people. The physical damage was so severe that over 50 percent of buildings in and near the affected areas were completely destroyed or damaged. After struggling for decades with adversity, and besieged by a myriad of social, economic and political challenges, Haiti, its government, and its people were by most accounts already in a state of crisis. The earthquake's devastation and its aftermath shocked the world and prompted a global response. Over 800 institutions and organizations representing the whole of society - governments and their militaries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, public institutions, academia, corporations, and private citizens - mobilized to provide aid and relief. However, coordinating and managing their activities seemed a daunting, if not impossible, task. How could a global response achieve "unity of effort" when "unity of command" was not feasible? To provide a solution, US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) looked beyond traditional Command and Control systems for collaboration with non-traditional partners and implemented the All Partners Access Network (APAN) in order to "Connect and Collaborate."

  12. Human and rat organ slices : a tool to study drug metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was aimed to develop a universal in vitro infrastructure to study drug metabolism and toxicity in liver, lung, kidney and intestines using precision-cut slices from both human and animal organs. Liver slices have been applied in numerous studies before. Also, lung and kidney slices have been used in several studies on drug metabolism and toxicity, but the use of intestinal slices was only scarcely described. ... Zie: Summary.

  13. Application of the device of slices for automation of matrix calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The basic concepts of the device of slices for the processing of multidimensional numerical arrays are represented. The data on the developed matrix component supporting the concept of simple and generalized slices are given. The application efficiency of the slicing device and matrix components in industrial automation at the stages of matrix computation automation is shown.

  14. Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaylah J. Lomotey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6% were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verificada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6% resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas. Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P < 0,0001. La tasa estimada de sífilis congénita en la zona fue de 767 por 100000 nacidos vivos. CONCLUSIONES: La sífilis materna es frecuente en las zonas rurales de Haití, lo que combinado con la entrada tardía a los servicios de atención prenatal, contribuye a los desenlaces adversos de los embarazos y a la alta tasa estimada de sífilis congénita. Se requieren más estudios sobre la sífilis congénita y los hábitos de búsqueda de atención prenatal de las mujeres de zonas rurales de Haití para comprender el impacto de la sífilis materna en esta parte del país y mejorar el desenlace de los embarazos.

  15. Thin slices of behavior as cues of personality and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenau, Peter; Mauer, Nadine; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Angleitner, Alois

    2004-04-01

    Self-reports, peer reports, intelligence tests, and ratings of personality and intelligence from 15 videotaped episodes were collected for 600 participants. The average cross-situational consistency of trait impressions across the 15 episodes was .43. Shared stereotypes related to gender and age were mostly accurate and contributed little to agreement among judges. Agreement was limited mainly by nonshared meaning systems and by nonoverlapping information. Personality inferences from thin slices of behavior were significantly associated with reports by knowledgeable informants. This association became stronger when more episodes were included, but gains in prediction were low beyond 6 episodes. Inferences of intelligence from thin slices of behavior strongly predicted intelligence test scores. A particularly strong single predictor was how persons read short sentences. PMID:15053708

  16. 16-slices helical CT features of torsion of ovarian tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT 16-slices helical features of torsion of ovarian tumor. Methods: CT manifestations of torsion of ovarian tumor in 12 cases proven by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of 12 cases, the tube thickening was found on the twisted side in 9. Ten of the ovarian tumors were cystic or cystic-solid, which proved eccentric wall thickening in 7 cases. Five cystic or cystic-solid tumors were lack of enhancement after contrast administration. No enhancement was seen after injecting contrast agent in 2 solid masses. Ascites was present in 5 patients. Deviation of uterus to the side of the twisted ovarian was noted in 7 patients. Conclusion: Three findings (tube thickening, smooth wall thickening and lack of contrast enhancement of the internal solid component or the thickened wall) seem to be diagnostic for the twisted ovarian tumor. 16-slices helical CT imaging may be more helpful in detecting a thickened tube. (authors)

  17. Verification-Driven Slicing of UML/OCL Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Asadullah; Clarisó Viladrosa, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Model defects are a significant concern in the Model-Driven Development (MDD) paradigm, as model transformations and code generation may propagate errors to other notations where they are harder to detect and trace. Formal verification techniques can check the correctness of a model, but their high computational complexity can limit their scalability. In this paper, we consider a specific static model (UML class diagrams annotated with unrestricted OCL constraints) and a specific property to verify (satisfiability, i.e., “is it possible to create objects without violating any constraint?”). Current approaches to this problem have an exponential worst-case runtime. We propose a technique to improve their scalability by partitioning the original model into submodels (slices) which can be verified independently and where irrelevant information has been abstracted. The definition of the slicing procedure ensures that the property under verification is preserved after partitioning.

  18. Metabelian representations, twisted Alexander polynomials, knot slicing, and mutation

    CERN Document Server

    Herald, Chris; Livingston, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Given a knot complement X and its p-fold cyclic cover X_p, we identify twisted polynomials associated to 1-dimensional linear representations of the fundamental group of X_p with twisted polynomials associated to related p-dimensional linear representations of the fundamental group of X. This provides a simpler and faster algorithm to compute these twisted polynomials, allowing us to prove that 16 (of 18 previously unknown) algebraically slice knots of 12 or fewer crossings are not slice. We also use this improved algorithm to prove that the 24 mutants of the pretzel knot P(3,7,9,11,15), corresponding to permutations of (7,9,11,15), represent distinct concordance classes.

  19. A method for estimation of enzymatic browning and its suppression in apple slices

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, P.; Kuczya?…a?„ski, A.

    1996-01-01

    A described method is based on diffuse light reflectance in the spectral region 400-720 nm for the examination of enzymatic browning of apple slices. In this method apples are sliced as directly dipped for 4 s in the inhibitors. Based on the obtained results data for the limits of visual acceptance of the slice colour are proposed. An enzymatic browning parameter of the slices is determined from the time-course measurements of the difference in absorbance at 440 nm between the brown slice and...

  20. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  1. Compact Image Slicing Spectrometer (ISS) for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2009-01-01

    An image slicing spectrometer (ISS) for microscopy applications is presented. Its principle is based on the redirecting of image zones by specially organized thin mirrors within a custom fabricated component termed an image slicer. The demonstrated prototype can simultaneously acquire a 140nm spectral range within its 2D field of view from a single image. The spectral resolution of the system is 5.6nm. The FOV and spatial resolution of the ISS depend on the selected microscope objective and f...

  2. CONDITIONED SLICING FOR EFFICIENT MULTIWAY DECISION GRAPHS MODEL-CHECKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Elmansori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal verification techniques into the hardware design process provides the means to rigorously prove critical properties. However, most automatic verification techniques, such as model checking, are only effectively applicable to designs of limited sizes due to the state explosion problem. The Multiway Decision Graphs (MDG method is an efficient method to define hardware designs into more abstract environments; however, the MDG model checker (MDG-MC still suffers from the state explosion problem. Furthermore, all the backward reduction algorithms cannot be used in MDG, due to the presence of abstract state variables. In this study, an efficient extractor for MDG Hardware Descrpiton Languge (MDG-HDL is introduced based on static (SS-MDG and conditioned (CS-MDG program slicing techniques. The techniques can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. The main advantages of these techniques are: It has no MDG-HDL coding style limitation, it is accurate and it is competent in dealing with various MDG-HDL constructions. The main motivation for introducing this approach is to tackle the state explosion problem of MDG-MC that big MDG-HDL may cause. We apply our proposed techniques on different MDG-HDL designs and our analyses have shown that the proposed reduction techniques resulted in significantly improved performance of the MDG-MC. In this study, we present a general idea of program slicing, a discussion of how to slice MDG-HDL programs, implementation of the tool and a brief overview of some applications and experimental results. The underlying method and the tool based on it need to be empirically evaluated when applying to various applications.

  3. Noninvasive coronary venous system imaging using 64 slice CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the 64-slice CT angiography in characterizing the coronary venous anatomy and the arterio-venous relationship. Methods: Sixty-four slice CT coronary veins angiography images of 300 patients (187 men and 113 women) were analyzed. The visibility of the coronary veins and arterio-venous spatial relationship were assessed qualitatively on two- and three- dimensional displays. The diameter of the coronary sinus ostium (CSO), middle cardiac vein ostium (MCVO) and posterior vein of left ventricle ostium (PVLVO) were measured. All data was statistically processed with SPSS for Windows. Results: The CS, great cardiac vein (GCV) and MCV could be clearly visualized in all of the images. 1-3 branches of PVLV could be observed in 273 patients (91.0%). Small cardiac vein (SCV) and Marshall vein were found in 56 (18.7%) and 24 (8.0%) cases respectively. Three patients had permanent vena cava superior on the left and one patient had a CS diverticulum. Posterior' descending artery (PDA) was concomitant with MCV in 189 cases (63.0%) and intersected with MCV in 96 cases (32.0%). Left circumflex artery (LCX)was concomitant with CS in 122 cases (40.7%), intersected with MCV in 15 cases (5.0%), and intersected with PVLV in 104 cases (34.7%). There were no significant differences in age, sex and CHD groups among CSO, MCV, PVLV value. The supero-inferior diameter of CSO had a significant difference between male and female (F=6.67, P<0.05). Conclusion: Sixty-four slice 67, P<0.05). Conclusion: Sixty-four slice CT venous angiography is able to be used for guiding electrophysiological procedures, which is especially useful due to the considerable variations in venous anatomy. (authors)

  4. Analysis of aliasing artifacts in 16-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To recognize the features of aliasing artifacts on CT images, and to investigate the effects of imaging parameters on the magnitude of this artifacts. Methods: An adult dry skull was placed in a plastic water-filled container and scanned with a PHILIPS 16-slice helical CT. All the acquired transaxial images by using several different acquisition or reconstruction parameters were examined for comparative assessment of the aliasing artifacts. Results: The aliasing artifacts could be seen in most instances and characterized as the spokewise patterns emanating from the edges of high contrast structure as its radius varies sharply in the longitudinal direction. The images that scanned with pitch of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9, respectively, showed aliasing artifacts, and its severities increased with pitches escalated (detector combination 16 x 1.5, reconstruction thickness 2 mm); There were more significant aliasing artifacts on the images reconstructed with 0.8 mm slice width compared with 1-mm slice width, and no aliasing artifacts were observed on the images reconstructed with 2-mm slice width (detector combination 16 x 0.75, pitch 0.6); No artifacts were perceived on the images scanned with detector combination 16 x 0.75, while presented evidently with the use of detector combination 16 x 1.5 (pitch 0.6, reconstruction thickness 2 mm); The degrees of aliasing artifacts were unaltered when reconstruction interval and tube current changed. Conclusions: Aliasing artifactnt changed. Conclusions: Aliasing artifacts are caused by undersampling. When the operator choose the thinner sampling thickness, lower pitch and a much wider reconstruction thickness judiciously, aliasing artifacts could be effectively mitigated or suppressed. (authors)

  5. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10-10 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  6. Nilpotent slices, Hilbert schemes, and the Jones polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    Manolescu, Ciprian

    2004-01-01

    Seidel and Smith have constructed an invariant of links as the Floer cohomology for two Lagrangians inside a complex affine variety Y. This variety is the intersection of a semisimple orbit with a transverse slice at a nilpotent in the Lie algebra $sl_{2m}.$ We exhibit bijections between a set of generators for the Seidel-Smith cochain complex, the generators in Bigelow's picture of the Jones polynomial, and the generators of the Heegaard Floer cochain complex for the double...

  7. Pontryagin de Branges Rovnyak spaces of slice hyperholomorphic functions

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We study reproducing kernel Hilbert and Pontryagin spaces of slice hyperholomorphic functions which are analogs of the Hilbert spaces of analytic functions introduced by de Branges and Rovnyak. In the first part of the paper we focus on the case of Hilbert spaces, and introduce in particular a version of the Hardy space. Then we define Blaschke factors and Blaschke products and we consider an interpolation problem. In the second part of the paper we turn to the case of Pontr...

  8. Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, R. M.; Malcata, F. X.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

  9. Response surface optimization of osmotic dehydration process for aonla slices

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Amarjit, Singh; Sawhney, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of sugar concentration (50-70° Brix), solution temperature (30–60°C), solution to fruit ratio (4:1–8:1) and immersion time (60–180 min) on the water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, vitamin-C loss, colour change and sensory overall acceptability of Indian gooseberry (aonla) slices. The optimum process parameters obtained by computer generated response surfaces, canonical analysis and contour plot interpretation were:...

  10. Consistent Evolution with Different Time-Slicings in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, R.

    1995-01-01

    Rovelli's `` quantum mechanics without time'' motivates an intrinsically time-slicing independent picture of reduced phase space quantum gravity, which may be described as ``quantization after evolution''. Sufficient criteria for carrying out quantization after evolution are developed in terms of a general concept of the classical limit of quantum mechanics. If these criteria are satisfied then it is possible to have consistent unitary evolution of operators, with respect to...

  11. Velocity dominated singularities in the cheese slice universe

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Dan; Dyer, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of spacetimes resulting from matching together exact solutions using the Darmois matching conditions. In particular we focus on the asymptotically velocity term dominated property (AVTD). We propose a criterion that can be used to test if a spacetime constructed from a matching can be considered AVTD. Using the Cheese Slice universe as an example, we show that a spacetime constructed from a such a matching can inherit the AVTD property from the ...

  12. On line track detection with fast bit-slice microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bit-slice microprocessor is described which renders possible to calculate the track-coordinates of selected events. The microprocessor is constructed with fast hardware and software. The hardware is described in detail and the problems of the software are discussed. The results of the calculation of the track coordinats as well as the radius and the tangent of the track are figured. They demonstrate, that the microprocessor works effectively as an event filter

  13. Molecular Characterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated from Patients in an AIDS Counseling Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a 1-Year Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Se?verine; Sola, Christophe; Verdol, Be?atrice; Legrand, Eric; Goh, Khye Seng; Berchel, Myle?ne; Aube?ry, Alexandra; Timothe?e, Maryse; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Rastogi, Nalin

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic diseases that appear among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in Haiti. In this context the probable emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of great epidemiological concern. However, as routine culture of M. tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing are not performed in Haiti, it has not been possible so far to evaluate the rate of drug resistance among M. tuberculosis isola...

  14. Organotypic slice cultures to study oligodendrocyte dynamics and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert A; Medved, Jelena; Patel, Kiran D; Nishiyama, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    NG2 expressing cells (polydendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells) are the fourth major glial cell population in the central nervous system. During embryonic and postnatal development they actively proliferate and generate myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells have commonly been studied in primary dissociated cultures, neuron cocultures, and in fixed tissue. Using newly available transgenic mouse lines slice culture systems can be used to investigate proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in both gray and white matter regions of the forebrain and cerebellum. Slice cultures are prepared from early postnatal mice and are kept in culture for up to 1 month. These slices can be imaged multiple times over the culture period to investigate cellular behavior and interactions. This method allows visualization of NG2 cell division and the steps leading to oligodendrocyte differentiation while enabling detailed analysis of region-dependent NG2 cell and oligodendrocyte functional heterogeneity. This is a powerful technique that can be used to investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic signals influencing these cells over time in a cellular environment that closely resembles that found in vivo. PMID:25177825

  15. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10?days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

  16. Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

    2010-12-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the response and recovery phases. Our team consists of experts in natural hazards, public health, shelter and infrastructure, education, and security. We are performing a network analysis based on the content of news and situation reports in media and from UN and aid agencies, field reports by academics and organizations like EERI, and discussions with agencies in Haiti. During three trips to Haiti, we have documented what information was being collected by key stakeholders including government, United Nations, non-governmental organizations, and both domestic and international educational institutions. Insights gained from this analysis of disaster response and recovery operations are invaluable in informing the next state of risk reduction, the transition to a sustainable recovery in a damaged region.

  17. Effect of the slice thickness and the size of region of interest on CT number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of the slice thickness and the size of region of interest (ROI) on CT number using quantitative CT phantom The phantom containing 150 mg/cc, 75 mg/cc and 0 mg/cc calcium hydroxyapatite was scanned with 1, 3, 5 and 10 mm slice thickness by single thickness by single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT). CT numbers were measured on center position of the phantom. Shape of ROI was circular and sizes were 1, 3, 5, 11, 16, 21, 26 and 33 mm 2. ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison method were performed for statistical comparisize of CT numbers according to different slice thickness. Coefficient of variation of CT number measured in each size of ROI was evaluated in same slice thickness. CT number had statistically significant difference according to slice thickness (p2 in 1 mm slice thickness, 5 mm 2 in 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm 2 in 5 mm slice thickness, the coefficient of variation became consistent. In 10 mm slice thickness, the size of ROI had little effect on the coefficient of variation. CT number had variation according to the slice thickness and the size of ROI although the object was homogeneous. The slice thickness and the size of ROI are critical factoess and the size of ROI are critical factors in precision of the CT number measurements

  18. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center database. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti. Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed. This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broad based view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level te

  19. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the iti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center data base. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti.Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed.This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broadbased view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti t

  20. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. PMID:25510716

  1. Building damage assessment after the earthquake in Haiti using two post-event satellite stereo imagery and DSMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinartz, Peter; Tian, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel disaster building damage monitoring method is presented. This method combines the multispectral imagery and DSMs from stereo matching to obtain three kinds of changes. The proposed method contains three basic steps. The first step is to segment the panchromatic images to get the smallest possible homogeneous regions. In the second step, based on a rule based classification using change information from Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) and height, the changes are classified to ruined buildings, new buildings, and changes without height change (mainly temporary residential area, etc. tents). In the last step, a region based grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measurement is used to refine the third change class. The method is applied to building change detection after the Haiti earthquake.

  2. Artemisinin Resistance-Associated Polymorphisms at the K13-Propeller Locus are Absent in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tamar E; Boulter, Alexis; Existe, Alexandre; Romain, Jean R; St Victor, Jean Yves; Mulligan, Connie J; Okech, Bernard A

    2015-03-01

    Antimalarial drugs are a key tool in malaria elimination programs. With the emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia, an effort to identify molecular markers for surveillance of resistant malaria parasites is underway. Non-synonymous mutations in the kelch propeller domain (K13-propeller) in Plasmodium falciparum have been associated with artemisinin resistance in samples from southeast Asia, but additional studies are needed to characterize this locus in other P. falciparum populations with different levels of artemisinin use. Here, we sequenced the K13-propeller locus in 82 samples from Haiti, where limited government oversight of non-governmental organizations may have resulted in low-level use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. We detected a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 1,359 in a single isolate. Our results contribute to our understanding of the global genomic diversity of the K13-propeller locus in P. falciparum populations. PMID:25646258

  3. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Epidemic Cholera in Haiti to Assess Spectrum of Illness and Risk Factors for Severe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Talkington, Deborah F.; Pruckler, James M.; Fouché, M. D. Bernadette; Lafosse, Elsie; Nygren, Benjamin; Gómez, Gerardo A.; Dahourou, Georges A.; Archer, W. Roodly; Payne, Amanda B.; Hooper, W. Craig; Tappero, Jordan W.; Derado, Gordana; Magloire, Roc; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Mintz, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the spectrum of illness from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and risk factors for severe cholera in Haiti, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural commune with more than 21,000 residents. During March 22–April 6, 2011, we interviewed 2,622 residents ? 2 years of age and tested serum specimens from 2,527 (96%) participants for vibriocidal and antibodies against cholera toxin; 18% of participants reported a cholera diagnosis, 39% had vibriocidal titers ? 320, and 64% had vibriocidal titers ? 80, suggesting widespread infection. Among seropositive participants (vibriocidal titers ? 320), 74.5% reported no diarrhea and 9.0% had severe cholera (reported receiving intravenous fluids and overnight hospitalization). This high burden of severe cholera is likely explained by the lack of pre-existing immunity in this population, although the virulence of the atypical El Tor strain causing the epidemic and other factors might also play a role. PMID:24106192

  4. The accuracy of 1- and 3-mm slices in coronary calcium scoring using multi-slice CT in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of coronary calcium scoring using 16-row MSCT comparing 1- and 3-mm slices was assessed. A thorax phantom with calcium cylinder inserts was scanned applying a non-enhanced retrospectively ECG-gated examination protocol: collimation 12 x 0.75 mm; 120 kV; 133 mAseff. Thirty-eight patients were examined using the same scan protocol. Image reconstruction was performed with an effective slice thickness of 3 and 1 mm. The volume score, calcium mass and Agatston score were determined. Image noise was measured in both studies. The volume score and calcium mass varied less than the Agatston score. The overall measured calcium mass compared to the actual calcium mass revealed a relative difference of +2.0% for 1-mm slices and -1.2% for 3-mm slices. Due to increased image noise in thinner slices in the patient study (26.1 HU), overall calcium scoring with a scoring threshold of 130 HU was not feasible. Interlesion comparison showed significantly higher scoring results for thinner slices (all P<0.001). A similar accuracy comparing calcium scoring results of 1- and 3-mm slices was shown in the phantom study; therefore, the potentially necessary increase of the patient's dose in order to achieve assessable 1-mm slices with an acceptable image-to-noise-ratio appears not to be justified. (orig.)

  5. Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy H. Puttkammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives: This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART program. Design: The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1 individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2 aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods: The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results: Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03, and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01 and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001. The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion: These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis.

  6. Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy H.; Zeliadt, Steven B.; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet G.; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Duvilaire, Jean Marie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Design The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1) individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2) aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03), and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01) and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001). The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis. PMID:25103146

  7. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient screening of genome supercontig assemblies. These loci are suitable for genetic and population studies using multiplex-PCR.

  8. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64% (average value) in comparison with control chips at the three oil temperatures tested. For the two pre-treatments studied, average acrylamide content increased -58 times as the frying temperature increased from 120 to 180degreesC. There was a linear correlation between acrylamide content of potato chips and their color represented by the redness component a(*) in the range of the temperatures studied.

  9. A multiscale slice model for continuous casting of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple Lagrange-an traveling slice model has been applied for the prediction of the relations between process parameters, macrosegregation and solidification grain structure formation (equiaxed to columnar and columnar to equiaxed transition) during the continuous casting process of steel billets. The main advantage of the slice model is its very fast calculation time in comparison with the complete 3D heat and fluid flow model which might need calculation time, measured in days. The slice models thus allows for fast optimisation and even for on-line simulation. The heat and species transfer models are based on the mixture continuum assumptions with Lever solidification rule and enhanced thermal and solutal diffusivities for heuristic accounting of fluid flow effects. The grain structure evolution model is based on the Gaussian nucleation rule, and KGT growth model, coupled to the macroscopic heat and species transfer models. The heat and species transfer models are solved by the meshless technique by using local collocation with radial basis functions. The grain structure evolution model is solved by the point automata technique, a novel meshless variant of the cellular automata method. A comparison of the results with the experimental data for steel grade 51CrV4 is shown in terms of macrosegregation and grain structure across the billet. Simulations and comparisons have been carried out for nominal casting conditions, reduced casting temperature, and reduced casticed casting temperature, and reduced casting speed. The model predicts surprisingly well the qualitative features of the macrosegregation and grain structure patterns. Possible refinements of the model with respect to other physical mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Glutathione modulation and oxidative stress in human liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Alison E M; Fisher, Robyn L; Sinclair, John R

    2010-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) levels are modulated in human liver slices to evaluate if drug induced liver injury is enhanced by a poor liver GSH status. Liver slice GSH levels were decreased by: 1) BSO (L-buthionine-S-sulfoximine) to inhibit GSH synthesis, and by 2) APAP (acetaminophen) which consumes GSH via conjugation to a metabolite. In this study, methimazole (MMI) liver injury was evaluated in the presence of a poor GSH status. MMI was selected because its structural thione moiety is linked with hepatotoxicity and during metabolism GSH is co-oxidized. MMI (500-1000 µM) affected oxidative stress pathways and mitochondrial function, resulting in lower liver slice GSH and ATP levels. Co-incubation of MMI with BSO or APAP led to further decreases of GSH and ATP levels in some human livers, at time points and concentrations not detected with MMI alone. Variation in human response was evident and demonstrated that some subjects with a poor liver GSH status could be further compromised with high MMI concentrations. MMI induced an up-regulation of gene expression linked with the GSH pathway, mitochondrial GSH and inflammation. Co-treatment of MMI with BSO induced a mixed response of oxidative stress related genes and an up-regulation of heat shock genes. The combination of MMI with APAP increased the expression of genes involved with oxidative stress and anti-oxidant defense, likely to protect the cells from mitochondrial injury. In summary, MMI induces oxidative stress at high concentrations, which can be augmented when liver GSH levels are decreased by the co-administration of some drugs or health status. PMID:20843295

  11. A multiscale slice model for continuous casting of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarler, B.; Vertnik, R.; Lorbiecka, A. Z.; Vušanovi?, I.; Sen?i?, B.

    2012-07-01

    A simple Lagrange-an traveling slice model has been applied for the prediction of the relations between process parameters, macrosegregation and solidification grain structure formation (equiaxed to columnar and columnar to equiaxed transition) during the continuous casting process of steel billets. The main advantage of the slice model is its very fast calculation time in comparison with the complete 3D heat and fluid flow model which might need calculation time, measured in days. The slice models thus allows for fast optimisation and even for on-line simulation. The heat and species transfer models are based on the mixture continuum assumptions with Lever solidification rule and enhanced thermal and solutal diffusivities for heuristic accounting of fluid flow effects. The grain structure evolution model is based on the Gaussian nucleation rule, and KGT growth model, coupled to the macroscopic heat and species transfer models. The heat and species transfer models are solved by the meshless technique by using local collocation with radial basis functions. The grain structure evolution model is solved by the point automata technique, a novel meshless variant of the cellular automata method. A comparison of the results with the experimental data for steel grade 51CrV4 is shown in terms of macrosegregation and grain structure across the billet. Simulations and comparisons have been carried out for nominal casting conditions, reduced casting temperature, and reduced casting speed. The model predicts surprisingly well the qualitative features of the macrosegregation and grain structure patterns. Possible refinements of the model with respect to other physical mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of intermediary metabolism by amiodarone in dog thyroid slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiodarone, an iodine-containing antiarrhythmic drug, has been reported to interfere with thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism. We studied the effects of amiodarone on basal and agonist [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), phorbol ester, or carbachol]-stimulated glucose oxidation, 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids, and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) concentration in dog thyroid slices. Slices were preincubated with amiodarone at 37 degrees C for 1 h before the addition of agonist and the appropriate radioisotope. cAMP stimulation was measured after 20 min, glucose oxidation for 45 min, and 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids for 2 h. Amiodarone (0.5 mM) had no effect on basal 14CO2 formation or 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids but significantly inhibited TSH, phorbol ester, and carbachol stimulation of these parameters. It also inhibited cAMP stimulation by TSH. Inhibition of TSH-stimulated [14C]glucose oxidation was also obtained with another iodide-containing compound, iopanoic acid (0.5 mM), but not with iothalamate (up to 10 mM). Inhibition by amiodarone was still present, but to a lesser extent, when it was added at the same time as the agonist. Inhibition of stimulated [14C]glucose oxidation persisted even after the slices were incubated without amiodarone for 6 h. Inhibition by amiodarone, in contrast to that by inorganic iodide, was not prevented by 1 mM methimazole added at the same time as amiodarone. These results indicae time as amiodarone. These results indicate that the inhibitory effects of amiodarone on thyroid function are not due to dissociation of iodide from the molecule

  13. Comparative dosimetry and image quality for a GE CT/i single-slice helical and a GE lightspeed QX/i multi-slice helical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper compares both image quality and the radiation dose parameters for a GE multi-slice scanner with a 'conventional' GE single-slice scanner presently being used at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre. Multi-slice helical CT platforms have the potential to radically alter the image acquisition and patient dosimetry parameters compared to previous single detector, single-slice platforms. Various combinations of detector elements for acquisition and greater flexibility in retro-reconstruction software offer the MIT and Radiologist a wider choice of acquisition and reconstruction possibilities. One potential cost to the patient is an increase in radiation dose. It has been reported by Thomson and Tingay that CT scanning already accounts for about half of the total population dose from all diagnostic examinations in Australia. With the introduction of these new multi-slice CT scanning systems an increase in the total population dose delivered from CT is expected occur. A GE CT/i single-slice helical CT platform and GE QX/i multi-slice helical CT platform (version 1.1) were tested for image quality in axial and helical modes using the Catphan 500 and the RMI461A image quality QA phantoms. Image quality parameters measured were low and high contrast limiting resolution, image uniformity and noise, MTF, spatial linearity, CT number linearity and slice width. Half value layer (HVL) and CTDIw slice and volume dosimetry were measured using a nd volume dosimetry were measured using a PTW DIADOS electrometer with 10cm CT pencil chamber. Dosimetry measurements were performed free in air and with a Nuclear Associates 16cm and 32cm diameter perspex CT phantoms. Assessment of image quality revealed it to be excellent for both CT platforms. A slight improvement in both low and high contrast spatial resolution was evident for the multi-slice system. However, some helical artifacts were more apparent on this CT platform. Radiation doses and slice profiles were greater on the multi-slice system for all measured scan widths. The multi-slice platform resulted in a significant reduction in overall exam time and tube loading. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864

    2011-01-01

    We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.

  15. Image restoration using the W-slice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayrol, E; Nikias, C L; Gasull, A

    1995-01-01

    We propose the use of higher order statistics (HOS)-based methods to address the problem of image restoration. The restoration strategy is based on the fact that the phase information of the original image and its HOS are not distorted by some types of blurring. The difficulties associated with the combination of 2-D signals and their HOS are reduced by means of the Radon transform. Two methods that apply the weight-slice algorithm over the projections are developed. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed methods. PMID:18292014

  16. Velocity dominated singularities in the cheese slice universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giang, Dan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of spacetimes resulting from matching together exact solutions using the Darmois matching conditions. In particular we focus on the asymptotically velocity term dominated property (AVTD). We propose a criterion that can be used to test if a spacetime constructed from a matching can be considered AVTD. Using the Cheese Slice universe as an example, we show that a spacetime constructed from a such a matching can inherit the AVTD property from the original spacetimes. Furthermore the singularity resulting from this particular matching is an AVTD singularity.

  17. Linear slices of the quasifuchsian space of punctured tori

    OpenAIRE

    Komori, Yohei; Yamashita, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    After fixing a marking (V, W) of a quasifuchsian punctured torus group G, the complex length l_V and the complex twist tau_V,W parameters define a holomorphic embedding of the quasifuchsian space QF of punctured tori into C^2. It is called the complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates of QF. For a complex number c, let Q_gamma,c be the affine subspace of C^2 defined by the linear equation l_V=c. Then we can consider the linear slice L of QF by QF \\cap Q_gamma,c which is a holomorp...

  18. Scatter imaging of injured brain slices: detection of mitochondrial injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee J.; Hanley, Daniel F.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    1999-06-01

    Stroke has been shown to cause exitotoxic injury, two of its manifestations being cellular and mitochondrial swelling. In vitro models of stroke attempt to reproduce the effects of stroke by treating brain tissue with excitotoxins or hypotonic solutions. To further resolve the mechanism of stroke injury, we have designed a dual-angle scatter imaging (DASI) system sensitive to particle size. The DASI system has been used with a hippocampal slice preparation to contrast cellular swelling, induced by hypotonicity, and combined cellular and mitochondrial swelling caused by excitotoxicity. We found that both hypotonic end excitotoxic treatments caused changes in light scatter. However, only excitotoxic treatment caused a significant change in DASI.

  19. Detection of local site conditions influencing earthquake shaking and secondary effects in Southwest-Haiti using remote sensing and GIS-methods

    OpenAIRE

    Theilen-willige, B.

    2010-01-01

    The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in SW-Haiti in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a...

  20. Monetary and exchange rate policies for the perfect storm: The case of the Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad & Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Minella, Andre?; Powell, Andrew; Rebucci, Alessandro; Souza-sobrinho, Nelson F.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a set of tools to analyze the monetary and exchange rate policy issues in the seven countries of the Inter-American Development Bank's Caribbean region (The Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, Haiti, Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago). It then applies some of them to the analysis of the impact of the global turmoil on these economies in the last quarter of 2008. The paper also discusses, in light of both recent theoretical developments and key aspects of these economies, t...

  1. Oblique or orthoradial CBCT slices for preoperative implant planning: which one is more accurate?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico Sampaio, Neves; Taruska Ventorini, Vasconcelos; Anne Caroline Costa, Oenning; Sergio Lins, de-Azevedo-Vaz; Solange Maria de, Almeida; Deborah Queiroz, Freitas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess which slice inclination would be more accurate in measuring sites for implant placement: the oblique or the orthoradial slice. METHODS: Five regions of eight edentulous mandibles were selected (incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar). The mandibles were scanned [...] with a Next Generation i-CAT CBCT unit. Two previously calibrated oral radiologists performed vertical measurements in all the selected regions using both the oblique and orthoradial slices. The mandibles were sectioned in all the evaluated regions in order to obtain the gold standard. The Wilcoxon signed rank test compared the measurements obtained in the oblique and orthoradial slices with the gold standard. RESULTS: The bone height measurements for the first and second molar regions using the orthoradial slices were statistically different from the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: Using the orthoradial slices to obtain cross-sectional images may offer insufficient accuracy for implant placement in the posterior region.

  2. Eta invariants as sliceness obstructions and their relation to Casson-Gordon invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, S

    2003-01-01

    We classify the metabelian unitary representations of $\\pi_1(M_K)$, where $M_K$ is the result of zero-surgery along a knot $K\\subset S^3$. We show that certain eta invariants associated to metabelian representations $\\pi_1(M_K)\\to U(k)$ vanish for slice knots and that even more eta invariants vanish for ribbon knots and doubly slice knots. We show that this result contains the Casson-Gordon sliceness obstruction. It turns out that eta invariants can in many cases be easily computed for satellite knots. We use this to study the relation between the eta invariant sliceness obstruction, eta-invariant ribboness obstruction, and the $L^2$--eta invariant sliceness obstruction recently introduced by Cochran, Orr and Teichner. In particular we give an example of a knot which has zero eta invariant and zero metabelian $L^2$--eta invariant sliceness obstruction but is not ribbon.

  3. Rapid ultrathin slice plastination of embalmed specimens with minimal tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soal, S; Pollard, M; Burland, G; Lissaman, R; Wafer, M; Stringer, M D

    2010-07-01

    A modified technique of producing 1 mm (ultrathin) E12 plastinated slices of tissue specimens from embalmed cadavers for anatomical teaching and research is described. Specimens up to 150 mm in length and width were embedded in polyurethane foam and serially sectioned using an OMAS C300 food slicer. Individual slices were then processed by cold dehydration, degreasing, resin impregnation, mounting and curing. Bone-containing specimens were first decalcified. Tissue slices could be cut with remarkable accuracy (0.98 +/- 0.01 mm per slice) and minimal tissue loss (less than 2% per slice). The entire production process could be achieved in 25 days and was associated with tissue volume shrinkage of no more than 6%. These results demonstrate a relatively rapid method of producing ultrathin E12 slices with minimal tissue loss. The technique may be particularly applicable to submacroscopic morphologic studies and three-dimensional reconstruction in clinical anatomy. PMID:20235170

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Content of Apple Slices (Var. Golab) During Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Meisami-asl; Shahin Rafiee; Alireza Keyhani; Ahmad Tabatabaeefar

    2009-01-01

    Drying is one of the primary methods of food preservation. Determining coefficients used in drying models is essential to predict the drying behavior. The present study was conducted to compute drying characteristics of apple slices. Thin layer drying kinetics of apple slices (variety-Golab) was experimentally investigated in a convective dryer and the mathematical modeling was performed by using thin layer drying models in the literature. Drying characteristics of apple slices were determine...

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Coronary Angiography Using 64-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Tarzamni, M. K.; Javad Rashid, R.; Aslanabadi, N.; Salehi, R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study was evaluation the diagnostic accuracy of multislice computed tomo-graphy (MSCT) coronary angiography using a 64-slicescanner. The 64-slice MSCT scanner has im-proved spatial resolution and a faster rotation time (0.33 s) compared to prior 16 and 32-slice scanners. Materials and methods: We studied the results of 64-slice MSCT coronary angiography (CTA), with elec-tive invasive coronary angiography, in 50 patients. The mean time span between invasive coronar...

  6. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-01-01

    Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO), while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with ...

  7. Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease in the Lymph Nodes of Free-Ranging Cervids by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Henderson, Davin M.; Davenport, Kristen A.; Bunting, Elizabeth; Gray, Shawn; Trindle, Bruce; Galeota, Judith; LeVan, Ivy; Dubovos, Tracy; Shelton, Paul; Hoover, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer, elk, and moose, is the only prion disease affecting free-ranging animals. Since the disease was first identified in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming in 1967, new epidemic foci of the disease have been identified in 20 additional states, as well as two Canadian provinces and the Republic of South Korea. Identification of CWD-affected animals currently requires postmortem analysis of brain or lymphoid tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with no practical way to evaluate potential strain types or to investigate the epidemiology of existing or novel foci of disease. Using a standardized real-time (RT)-quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assay, a seeded amplification assay employing recombinant prion protein as a conversion substrate and thioflavin T (ThT) as an amyloid-binding fluorophore, we analyzed, in a blinded manner, 1,243 retropharyngeal lymph node samples from white-tailed deer, mule deer, and moose, collected in the field from areas with current or historic CWD endemicity. RT-QuIC results were then compared with those obtained by conventional IHC and ELISA, and amplification metrics using ThT and thioflavin S were examined in relation to the clinical history of the sampled deer. The results indicate that RT-QuIC is useful for both identifying CWD-infected animals and facilitating epidemiological studies in areas in which CWD is endemic or not endemic. PMID:24958799

  8. Detection of chronic wasting disease in the lymph nodes of free-ranging cervids by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Carver, Scott; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Henderson, Davin M; Davenport, Kristen A; Bunting, Elizabeth; Gray, Shawn; Trindle, Bruce; Galeota, Judith; LeVan, Ivy; Dubovos, Tracy; Shelton, Paul; Hoover, Edward A

    2014-09-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer, elk, and moose, is the only prion disease affecting free-ranging animals. Since the disease was first identified in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming in 1967, new epidemic foci of the disease have been identified in 20 additional states, as well as two Canadian provinces and the Republic of South Korea. Identification of CWD-affected animals currently requires postmortem analysis of brain or lymphoid tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with no practical way to evaluate potential strain types or to investigate the epidemiology of existing or novel foci of disease. Using a standardized real-time (RT)-quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assay, a seeded amplification assay employing recombinant prion protein as a conversion substrate and thioflavin T (ThT) as an amyloid-binding fluorophore, we analyzed, in a blinded manner, 1,243 retropharyngeal lymph node samples from white-tailed deer, mule deer, and moose, collected in the field from areas with current or historic CWD endemicity. RT-QuIC results were then compared with those obtained by conventional IHC and ELISA, and amplification metrics using ThT and thioflavin S were examined in relation to the clinical history of the sampled deer. The results indicate that RT-QuIC is useful for both identifying CWD-infected animals and facilitating epidemiological studies in areas in which CWD is endemic or not endemic. PMID:24958799

  9. Status of post-quake reconstruction project and scheduled introduction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at the multi tandem accelerator facility, the University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. We have mapped out a strategy for the post-quake reconstruction project. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator at the 2nd experimental room instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. A new accelerator system will consist of a horizontal type 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources and the polarized ion source which will be moved from the 9th floor to a new experimental booth on the ground, an accelerator mass spectrometry system and an ion beam analysis system. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the 2nd experimental room to the present experimental facilities at the 1st experimental room. The new AMS system will be capable of measuring environmental levels for long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I. The new IBA system will be equipped with a high-precision five-axis goniometer. The 6 MV tandem accelerator will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The beam delivery will start on September 2014. (author)

  10. Detection and discrimination of classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Favole, Alessandra; Corona, Cristiano; Mazza, Maria; Manca, Matteo; Groveman, Bradley R; Hughson, Andrew G; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Caramelli, Maria; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Casalone, Cristina; Caughey, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Statutory surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) indicates that cattle are susceptible to both classical BSE (C-BSE) and atypical forms of BSE. Atypical forms of BSE appear to be sporadic and thus may never be eradicated. A major challenge for prion surveillance is the lack of sufficiently practical and sensitive tests for routine BSE detection and strain discrimination. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) test, which is based on prion-seeded fibrillization of recombinant prion protein (rPrP(Sen)), is known to be highly specific and sensitive for the detection of multiple human and animal prion diseases but not BSE. Here, we tested brain tissue from cattle affected by C-BSE and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-type BSE or L-BSE) with the RT-QuIC assay and found that both BSE forms can be detected and distinguished using particular rPrP(Sen) substrates. Specifically, L-BSE was detected using multiple rPrP(Sen) substrates, while C-BSE was much more selective. This substrate-based approach suggests a diagnostic strategy for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection and discrimination of at least some BSE forms. PMID:25609728

  11. Assessment of aec system response in ge 16 slices scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography scanners equipped with system for Automatic Exposure Control ( AEC ) have been recently installed into clinical practice in Macedonia. Assessment of their AEC settings and performances is important task from patient doses and images quality point of view . This study was done by analyzing of CT examinations in patients in the City Hospital ' 8 September' in Skopje. The examinations were carried out by GE Bright Speed 16 slices scanner equipped with AEC system . In all patients were applied the same protocol with constant acquisition parameters was applied , and images were reconstructed by standard mode . Patient dimensions and image noise were measured from the scouts and axial images. From DICOM header the information related to dose, TCM and slice position were extracted . It was found that scanner automatic exposure system adjusts exposure mainly according to maximal patient lateral dimension (LR) and applying the same Noise Index (NI) value in patients with different size does not provides necessarily the same image noise level. In patients which LR dimension was less than 30 cm it was found that AEC adjusts tube current at the minimum of m A interval with no modulation throughout different body parts. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of radiation dose in 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To estimate the effective dose during 64-slice CT examination on head, chest and abdomen and determine the conversion coefficient of effective dose and dose length product (DLP). Methods: The plain CT scan was performed in 48 cases on head, 50 cases on chest and 45 cases on abdomen using GE Lightspeed 64-slice spiral CT. The kV, mA, scan time, CTDIvol, and DLP were recorded in each examination. Effective dose on patients was estimated using the SR 250 software. Results The effective dose on head, chest and abdomen was (3.1±0.1), (6.9±0.1) and (8.0±0.1) mSv, and the conversion coefficient was 0.0025,0.0191 and 0.0166 mSv·mGy-1·cm-1 respectively. Conclusion: CTDIvol, DLP and effective dose were recommended for patient dose control during CT examination. The conversion factor of effective dose and DLP were recommended for radiation risk evaluation during different X-ray examinations. (authors)

  13. Brivaracetam inhibits spreading depression in rat neocortical slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margineanu, Doru Georg; Klitgaard, Henrik

    2009-07-01

    Epilepsy and migraine are episodic neurological disorders with marked co-morbidity, making migraine common among epileptic patients. Conversely, several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used as migraine-preventive medication. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) represents a transient suppression of bioelectric activity and is considered a key event in migraine and stroke. This study assessed the novel AED candidate brivaracetam (BRV) vs. the chemically related AED levetiracetam in a rat neocortical slice model allowing consistent quantification of drug effects on CSD. CSD episodes were regularly elicited on slices upon delivery of calibrated KCl drops and were recorded via two micropipette electrodes. After control CSDs, the drug was added to the perfusion and five subsequent CSDs were elicited during drug perfusion. Effects were assessed via CSD amplitude (Ampl) and duration at half-amplitude (D(1/2)). BRV, 10 and 32 microM reduced the Ampl and transiently the D(1/2). Levetiracetam, 32 and 100 microM had no effect on either Ampl or D(1/2). The anti-CSD effect of BRV in this in vitro model might suggest a potential anti-migraine activity of this compound, which warrants further investigation. PMID:19211275

  14. Evaluation of the ankle syndesmosis: a plastination slices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sora, Mircea-Constantin; Strobl, Birgit; Staykov, Dimitre; Förster-Streffleur, Sophie

    2004-09-01

    Plastination is an excellent tool for studying different anatomical and clinical questions. This technique is unique because it offers the possibility to produce transparent slices series that can be easily processed morphometrically. It is very difficult to recognize the subtle widening of the tibiofibular syndesmosis in less severe injuries of this articulation. Proper anatomic knowledge of the syndesmosis might be helpful. The ankle syndesmosis was investigated on 20 cadaver feet by using the E12 plastination technique. Each foot was cut into 1.6-mm transverse slices and then plastinated. The following parameters (reflecting the position of the fibula in the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis) were measured: the length (LFI) and the depth of the fibular incisure (DFI); the width of the clear space (TCS) and the tibiofibular overlap (TFO); the position of the fibula regarding the anterior aspect of the tibia (A); and the width of the fibula (W). Due to the unique approach of this method, values for the position of the fibular incisure with respect to the frontal (F) and sagittal (S) plane were described for the entire syndesmosis. The prevalence of syndesmotic injury in association with sprains of the ankle is up to 11%. The data presented in the study are useful for the appreciation of the correct position of the fibula in the fibular incisure and can be correlated with standard anterior-posterior radiographies and CT examinations of the ankle joint. PMID:15300872

  15. Thin-slice spiral CT diagnosis of solitary pulmonary tuberculoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of thin-slice spiral CT for diagnosing solitary pulmonary tuberculoma (SPT). Methods: Fifty patients with SPT (20 treated with surgery, 28 treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, 2 confirmed by PCR-TB) underwent CT. CT of 50 patients with peripheral lung cancer was evaluated as comparison. Results: Foci of SPT were located in the bilateral apico-posterior segments (10 patients, 20%), postero-basal segments of both lower lobes (30,60%), right middle lobe and left lingula (10,20%). SPT was round with smooth margins in 40 patients, heterogeneous in density with calcifications in 30, and cavitating in 5. Two lesions showed micro-lobulation and 10 were spiculated. Adjacent focal pleural thickening was noted in 10, pleural retraction in 1, surrounding ground-glass opacity in 1. Of 20 contrast-enhanced studies, no contrast enhancement was observed in 15, rim enhancement in 4, mild heterogeneous enhancement in 1. Conclusion: Imaging findings on thin-slice spiral CT are valuable for distinguishing SPT from early peripheral lung cancer. (authors)

  16. Stenoser i koronararterierne påvist med 64-slice-computertomografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Tilsted, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of 64-slice computed tomography of the coronary arteries (CTCA) with invasive coronary angiography (CA) as reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 194 patients (mean age: 62.7 ± 9.5 years, males: 97) with symptoms suggesting angina who had been referred for CA according to usual criteria. We excluded patients with known ischaemic heart disease and patients with an unstable heart rhythm. CTCA was analysed without knowledge of CA and vice versa. Stenoses > 50% were considered significant. The effective radiation (mSv) was measured with both methods. RESULTS: In 17 patients (8.8%), the CT-angiogram was not assessable. In 177 patients (91.2%) with assessable CT-angiogram, the sensitivity of CTCA was 97%, the specificity 63%, the predictive value of a positive test 58%, and the predictive value of a negative test 97%. In the 174 patients in whom CTCA was performed using retrospective technique, the effective radiation was 14.0 ± 2.3, versus 4.9 ± 2.6 at CA (p < 0.0005). In the 20 patients in whom CTCA was performed using prospective technique, the effective radiation was 5.4 ± 1.2 versus 5.9 ± 3.6 at CA (non-significant) CONCLUSION: CTCA with 64-slice scanner has a high sensitivity for demonstration coronary artery stenoses. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Oct-11

  17. Quality of tomato slices disinfected with ozonated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Encarna; Escalona, Víctor; Silveira, Ana Cecilia; Artés, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Fresh-cut industry needs novel disinfectant to replace the use of chlorine. Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents and is applied in gaseous or aqueous form for sanitation purposes. However, the strong oxidative effect could affect the nutritional and sensorial quality, in particular, when time of washing is extended. For that reason, the overall impact of ozonated water (0.4?mg/L) dipping applied during 1, 3 and 5?min compared to control washed in water during 5?min was studied in tomato slices stored during 14 days at 5?. According to the results, ozonated water treatment of 3?min achieved the best firmness retention, microbial quality (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and yeas load) and reduced the consumption of fructose and glucose. The use of ozonated water did not affect the total acidity, pH, total solid soluble, organic acid as ascorbic, fumaric or succinic acid and the sensorial parameters, which were only affected by storage time. However, the poor appearance, aroma and overall quality obtained in all treatments prevented shelf life of 14 days and the quality at acceptable levels was established in 10 days at 5?. It is recommended to wash tomato slices with 0.4?mg/L ozonated water for 3?min only. Extending treatment duration did not improve the microbiological quality, possibly due to the extra time permitting the ozone to react with other components of the fruit tissue, undermining the antimicrobial benefits. PMID:23774605

  18. Multispot multiphoton Ca²? imaging in acute myocardial slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borile, Giulia; de Mauro, Claudio; Urbani, Andrea; Alfieri, Domenico; Pavone, Francesco S; Mongillo, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become essential for dynamic imaging in thick living tissues. High-rate, full-field image acquisition in multiphoton microscopy is achievable by parallelization of the excitation and detection pathways. We developed our approach via a diffractive optical element which splits a pulsed laser into 16 beamlets and exploits a descanned detection system consisting of an array of beamlet-associated photomultiplier tubes. The optical performance of the multiphoton multispot system (MCube) has been characterized in cardiac tissue sections and subsequently used for the first time for fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte Ca²? dynamics in viable acute cardiac slices. Multispot multiphoton microscopy (MMM) has never been used before to monitor Ca²? dynamics in thick, viable tissue samples. Acute heart slices are a powerful close-to-in vivo model of Ca²? imaging allowing the simultaneous observation of several cells in their own tissue environment, exploiting the multiphoton excitation ability to penetrate scattering tissues. Moreover, we show that the concurrent high spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by the parallel scanning in MMM can be exploited to simultaneously assess subcellular Ca²? dynamics in different cells in the tissue. We recorded local Ca²? release events including macrosparks, travelling waves, and rotors. PMID:25517401

  19. Transfer of Listeria monocytogenes during slicing of turkey breast, bologna, and salami with simulated kitchen knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorst, Keith L; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2006-12-01

    In response to continued concerns regarding Listeria cross-contamination during the slicing of deli meats, a series of specially prepared grade 304 and 316 stainless steel kitchen knife blades was inoculated with a six-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail (10(8), 10(5), and 10(3) CFU per blade) composed of two weak, two medium, and two strong biofilm-forming strains. The blades were then attached to an Instron 5565 electromechanical compression analyzer and used to slice whole chubs of delicatessen turkey breast, bologna, and salami to entirety (30 slices) at a cutting speed of 8.3 mm/s. Homogenates of the slices in University of Vermont Medium were surface or pour plated with modified Oxford agar and then enriched. Listeria transfer from knife blades inoculated at 10(8) CFU per blade was logarithmic, with a 2-log decrease seen after 8 to 12 slices and direct counts obtained thereafter out to 30 slices. However, blades containing 10(5) and 10(3) CFU per blade typically yielded direct counts out to only 20 and 5 slices, respectively. Normalizing data on a log scale for the first 10 slices resulted in significantly greater Listeria transfer and "tailing" from grade 304 as opposed to grade 316 stainless (P 0.05) within stainless steel grade (P scoring on the blade likely affected Listeria transfer during slicing. PMID:17186662

  20. Psychological work in humanitarian emergencies in Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo: some considerations based on two work experiences / Intervenção psicológica em emergências humanitárias no Haiti e na República Democrática do Congo: considerações baseadas em duas experiências de trabalho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes, Weintraub.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Por meio da descrição de dois exemplos de intervenções de saúde mental em emergências humanitárias, esta reflexão visa problematizar o trabalho do psicólogo nestas situações. Os conceitos de "humanitário" e de "emergência" são discutidos à luz dos trabalhos realizados na República Democrática do Con [...] go e no Haiti. Em ambos os países, as intervenções de saúde mental se deram por meio de uma organização humanitária internacional e nos dois casos, o objetivo era oferecer apoio psicológico à população em conjunto com uma equipe nacional formada por profissionais de diferentes áreas. Em ambos os casos, as especificidades culturais, assim como os desafios teóricos e metodológicos da ação do psicólogo são apresentados, notadamente as questões morais, de gênero e de inscrição do trabalho psicológico em contextos de grande carência de redes e de seguridade social. Por fim, são apresentadas considerações a respeito de algumas teorias e técnicas já descritas para este tipo de atuação psicológica, enfatizando-se a importância da escuta e da ressignificação dentro do contexto cultural de cada sujeito. Abstract in english Through the description of two examples of psychological interventions in humanitarian emergencies, this article aims to problematize the work of the psychologist in those situations. The concepts of "humanitarianism" and "emergency" are discussed based on two interventions made in Haiti and in the [...] Democratic Republic of Congo. In both countries the mental health interventions happened inside a humanitarian organization and the objective of those interventions was to offer psychosocial support to the population of concern through a national mental health team. Cultural specificities, as well as theoretical and methodological challenges to the work of the psychologist in those situations are presented, especially those related to moral issues, to gender-based conflicts and to the insertion of the psychological work in a context where there is very little institutional support. Considerations related to theories and techniques of the area are presented, emphasizing the importance of interpreting the contents of the discourses taking into account the culture from where each person comes.

  1. Geochemistry of basalts from the Dumisseau formation, southern Haiti: Implications for the origin of the Caribbean Sea crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalt and diabase from the Cretaceous Dumisseau Formation, southern Haiti have Mg-numbers of 43-63, TiO2 contents of 1.6-3.9% and La abundances of 3.6-15.3 ppm. La/Ta ratios average 10, and indicate that the basalts are oceanic in character, distinct from the arc associations forming the northern part of Haiti. Oldest lavas have low TiO2, (1.6%) and are LREE-depleted, similar to N-MORBs, whereas overlying lavas have higher TiO2 (2-3.9%) and are LREE-enriched, similar to E-MORBs or hotspot basalts. 87Sr/86Sr ratios vary from 0.70280 to 0.70316, 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512929 to 0.513121, and 206Pb/204Pb from 19.00 to 19.27 LREE-depleted lavas have high 143Nd/144Nd (0.51309-0.51310) typical of MORBs, whereas 143Nd/144Nd in the LREE-enriched lavas varies widely (0.512929-0.513121). Chemical features of the Dumisseau basalts are equivalent to those of Caribbean seafloor basalts recovered on DSDP Leg 15, and support the contention that the Dumisseau is an uplifted section of Caribbean Sea crust. Oldest lavas are analogous to MORB-like basalts cored at Leg 15 Sites 146, 150, 152 and 153, and the overlying lavas are analogous to incompatible-element-enriched basalts cored at Site 151 on the Beata Ridge. Isotopic compositions of the Dumisseau basalts overlap with those of the eastern Pacific Galapagos and Easter Island hotspots. However, tgos and Easter Island hotspots. However, the presence of N-MORB basalts in the lower part of the Dumisseau and at the majority of Leg 15 Sites indicates that the anomalously thick Caribbean crust probably did not originate as a hotspot-related basaltic-plateau, but may have been generated by on-ridge or near-ridge hotspot magmatism. (orig.)

  2. Landslides triggered by the January 12, 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Mw 7.0 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong

    2014-05-01

    The January 12, 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate correlations of the occurrence of landslides and its erosion thickness with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and distance from roads. A total of 30,828 landslides triggered by the earthquake cover a total area of 15.736 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 30,000,000 m3, and throughout an area more than 3,000 km2. These landslides are of various types, mainly in shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, and also including coherent deep-seated landslides, shallow disrupted landslides, rock falls, and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolutions satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were respectively constructed in order to more intuitive to discover the spatial distribution patterns of the co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of the co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events. Four proxies of co-seismic landslides abundances, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate the co-seismic landslides with various landslide controlling parameters. These controlling parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, stratum/lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). Comparing of controls of impact parameters on co-seismic landslides show that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslides occurrence. In addition, it should be noted that the co-seismic landslides of our inventories is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results were carried out and the reasons of such differences were presented. We suggest it should not be limited by past empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides or it is necessary to update the past empirical functions based on more and more latest and complete co-seismic landslide inventories. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (41202235)

  3. Terrain Classification of Aster gDEM for Seismic Microzonation of Port-Au Haiti, Using - and - Based Analytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Hough, S. E.; Cox, B. R.; Rathje, E. M.; Bachhuber, J.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.

    2010-12-01

    The aftermath of the M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 witnessed an impressive scientific response from the international community. In addition to conventional post-earthquake investigations, there was also an unprecedented reliance on remote-sensing technologies for scientific investigation and damage assessment. These technologies include sensors from both aerial and space-borne observational platforms. As part of the Haiti earthquake response and recovery effort, we develop a seismic zonation map of Port-au-Prince based on high-resolution satellite imagery as well as data from traditional seismographic monitoring stations and geotechnical site characterizations. Our imagery consists of a global digital elevation model (gDEM) of Hispaniola derived from data recorded by NASA-JPL's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the multi-platform satellite Terra. To develop our model we also consider recorded waveforms from portable seismographic stations (Hough et al., in review) and 36 geotechnical shear-wave velocity surveys (Cox et al., in review). Following a similar approach developed by Yong et al. (2008; Bull. Seism Soc. Am.), we use both pixel- and object- based imaging analytic methods to systematically identify and extract local terrain features that are expected to amplify seismic ground motion. Using histogram-stretching techniques applied to the rDEM values, followed by multi-resolution, segmentations of the imagery into terrain types, we systematically classify the terrains of Hispaniola. By associating available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meter depth) calculated from the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave) survey method, we develop a first-order site characterization map. Our results indicate that the terrain-based Vs30 estimates are significantly associated with amplitudes recorded at station sites. We also find that the damage distribution inferred from UNOSAT (UNITAR Operational Satellite Applications Program) data matches our estimates. However, the strongest amplifications are observed at two stations on a foothill ridge, where Vs30 values indicate that amplification should be relatively lower. Hough et al. (2010, this session) conclude that the observations can be explained by topographic amplification along a steep, narrow ridge. On the basis of these preliminary results, we conclude that the terrain-based framework, which characterizes topographic amplification as well as sediment-induced amplification, is needed to develop a microzonation map for Port-au-Prince.

  4. Geochemistry of basalts from the Dumisseau formation, southern Haiti: Implications for the origin of the Caribbean Sea crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, G.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Maurrasse, F.; Waggoner, D.G.

    1988-03-01

    Basalt and diabase from the Cretaceous Dumisseau Formation, southern Haiti have Mg-numbers of 43-63, TiO/sub 2/ contents of 1.6-3.9% and La abundances of 3.6-15.3 ppm. LaTa ratios average 10, and indicate that the basalts are oceanic in character, distinct from the arc associations forming the northern part of Haiti. Oldest lavas have low TiO/sub 2/, (1.6%) and are LREE-depleted, similar to N-MORBs, whereas overlying lavas have higher TiO/sub 2/ (2-3.9%) and are LREE-enriched, similar to E-MORBs or hotspot basalts. /sup 87/Sr/sup 86/Sr ratios vary from 0.70280 to 0.70316, /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd from 0.512929 to 0.513121, and /sup 206/Pb/sup 204/Pb from 19.00 to 19.27 LREE-depleted lavas have high /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd (0.51309-0.51310) typical of MORBs, whereas /sup 143/Nd/sup 144/Nd in the LREE-enriched lavas varies widely (0.512929-0.513121). Chemical features of the Dumisseau basalts are equivalent to those of Caribbean seafloor basalts recovered on DSDP Leg 15, and support the contention that the Dumisseau is an uplifted section of Caribbean Sea crust. Oldest lavas are analogous to MORB-like basalts cored at Leg 15 Sites 146, 150, 152 and 153, and the overlying lavas are analogous to incompatible-element-enriched basalts cored at Site 151 on the Beata Ridge. Isotopic compositions of the Dumisseau basalts overlap with those of the eastern Pacific Galapagos and Easter Island hotspots. However, the presence of N-MORB basalts in the lower part of the Dumisseau and at the majority of Leg 15 Sites indicates that the anomalously thick Caribbean crust probably did not originate as a hotspot-related basaltic-plateau, but may have been generated by on-ridge or near-ridge hotspot magmatism.

  5. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies fault, which might explain observed triggered aftershocks on this fault and small increase of shear stresses on the Enriquillo fault. We also find that a shift to north of about 3 km of the western segment of the Léogâne fault from recent studies provides a better fit to the coseismic InSAR and GPS displacements.

  6. Source rupture process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben

    2010-05-01

    The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P., Stein, R. S. y Lin, J, 1994, Static stress changes and the triggering of earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84,935-953.

  7. Analytic Computation Method of the Equivalent Thickness of Superposition Multi-Throttle-Slices of Twin-Tubes Shock Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available By elastic mechanics, the deformation of single throttle-slice for shock absorber was analyzed, the formula of its deformation was established. According to the relation of the deformation of multi-throttle-slices with the pressure on each slice, the analytic formula of equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices was established. Followed is a practical example for the computation of the equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices, compared the computed results with that simulated by ANSYS. The results show that the computation method of equivalent thickness of multi-throttle-slices is accurate enough.

  8. Diagnosis of horseshoe lung with multi-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the multi-slice helical CT (MSCT) features of horseshoe lung and to improve its diagnostic ability. Methods: The clinical and imaging data were retrospectively reviewed in 5 patients. All of them underwent plain MSCT scan, and 4 patients also had enhanced MSCT scan and three- dimensional reconstruction. Results: In horseshoe lung, the basal segments of the right and left lungs were fused together by a isthmus of pulmonary parenchyma, across the midline behind the pericardium and before the esophagus, descending aorta and spine. All patients were companied with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, anomalous origin of the central bronchi, anomalous arterial supply. Anomalous pulmonary venous return to inferior vena cava and congenital cardiovascular malformations were also found in 4 cases. Conclusion: MSCT and three-dimensional reconstruction are valuable for identification of horseshoe lung. (authors)

  9. Pontryagin de Branges Rovnyak spaces of slice hyperholomorphic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We study reproducing kernel Hilbert and Pontryagin spaces of slice hyperholomorphic functions which are analogs of the Hilbert spaces of analytic functions introduced by de Branges and Rovnyak. In the first part of the paper we focus on the case of Hilbert spaces, and introduce in particular a version of the Hardy space. Then we define Blaschke factors and Blaschke products and we consider an interpolation problem. In the second part of the paper we turn to the case of Pontryagin spaces. We first prove some results from the theory of Pontryagin spaces in the quaternionic setting and, in particular, a theorem of Shmulyan on densely defined contractive linear relations. We then study realizations of generalized Schur functions and of generalized Carath'eodory functions.

  10. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 ?mol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 ?mol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  11. GA Based Test Case Generation Approach for Formation of Efficient Set of Dynamic Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated test case generation is an efficient approach for software testing. Slicing of program provides ease to testability and enhances debugging capacity. To generate the dynamic slice, slicing criterionis required in which the input data parameter is the essential component. Most of the research work focuses on deriving the input by random consideration but it simply takes a longest period of time to generate slices that provides the path coverage of Unit Under Test (UUT. This paper generates the optimal test cases by using Genetic Algorithm (GA and Control Flow Graph (CFG, these test cases cover all the independent path present in the CFG. The optimal test cases are supplied as input component of the dynamic slicing criteria. So the dynamic slice criteria that use these optimal test cases as the input generates the efficient dynamic slice set that is helpful in efficient testing and efficient debugging. Here two approaches, first the dynamic slice using node marking and the second by using relevant sets are discussed according to optimal test cases as input component.

  12. The anatomy and pathology of the brain stem demonstrated by thin slice CT cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated normal CT anatomy of the brain stem and adjacent structures using this slice CT cisternography. Reducing the streak artifact caused by bony structures, thin slice CT cisternography can visualize the detailed features of the brain stem and its pathological changes. In addition, reconstructed images are also useful in diagnosis. (author)

  13. Chromaticity and wake field effect on the transverse motion of longitudinal bunch slices in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar, V.H.; Ivanov, P.; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    The Transverse turn-by-turn evolution of a bunch slice after an impulse kick is examined considering chromatic and impedance effects. It is found that by fitting the envelope of the beam slice motion to simulated data is consistent with a resistive wall wake field the strength of which can be determined by fitting.

  14. UPTAKE OF INORGANIC LEAD IN VITRO BY ISOLATED MITOCHONDRIA AND TISSUE SLICES OF RAT RENAL CORTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slices of rat renal cortex were shown to take up Pb2+ during incubation in vitro; Pb2+ was also shown to enter mitochondria within the slices. The uptake of Pb2+ by isolated mitochondria was inhibited by N3-, La3+ and ruthenium red. A steady state of uptake was attained within 60...

  15. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  16. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  17. Neuronal field potential in acute hippocampus slice recorded with transistor and micropipette electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Christian; Fromherz, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Arrays of planar electrodes are often applied to record spatial patterns of neuronal field potentials in acute brain slices. The approach is hampered by layers of inactive tissue caused by the cutting process and also by a film of bath electrolyte that may exist between the slice and the substrate. To address this issue, we used a micropipette electrode to measure the vertical profile of evoked field potentials across acute slices from mouse hippocampus. In this way, we found that the signal due to an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at the bottom of the slice was about 40% of the maximum at its centre. The vertical profile was matched by a volume-conductor model with proper boundary conditions. Simultaneously, voltage transients caused by EPSPs were measured with a field-effect transistor in the substrate. The transistor signals were in agreement with the evoked field potentials at the bottom of the slice. The study demonstrates: (i) that the loss of signal amplitude from the centre of a slice to the bottom is modest, despite an inactive tissue layer; and (ii) that in principle, planar sensors are able to record the field potential at the bottom of a slice. The results raise questions about the small voltages that are often observed with planar metal electrodes and about the reconstruction of the neuronal activity from field potentials at the bottom of acute slices using current-source density analysis. PMID:18333966

  18. Development changes of protein-bound radioactivity distribution in rat brain slices incubated with labelled leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of protein-bound labelled leucine in cortical slices prepared from young rats was investigated by autoradiography and complemented with measurements of the rate of protein synthesis in slices. During the second and third postnatal weeks the rate of protein synthesis in cortical slices from rat brain declined rapidly. The distribution of protein-bound radioactivity was fairly homogenous within the neuronal cell population of cortical slices from 7-day-old rats and was not influenced by the level of labelled leucine in the incubation medium (0.01 and 1 mM). On the contrary, the gradient-like distribution of incorporated radioactivity appeared in slices from 14-day-old rats, at both trace and 1 mM levels of the precursor. The laminar analysis of neuronal cell labelling confirmed the preponderence of incorporation into the neurones localized near the slice surface and the considerable inhibition of neuronal protein synthesis in the slice centre. Therefore, these limitations on the use of cortical slices for the study of brain protein synchesis in the rat should be respected from the beginning of the second postnatal week. (Auth.)

  19. Ring artifacts removal from synchrotron CT image slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring artifacts can occur in reconstructed images from x-ray Computerized Tomography (CT) as full or partial concentric rings superimposed on the scanned structures. Due to the data corruption by those ring artifacts in CT images, qualitative and quantitative analysis of these images are compromised. In this paper, we propose to correct the ring artifacts on the reconstructed synchrotron radiation (SR) CT image slices. The proposed correction procedure includes the following steps: (1). transform the reconstructed CT images into polar coordinates; (2) apply discrete two-dimensional (2D) wavelet transform to the polar image to decompose it into four image components: low pass band image component, as well as the components from horizontal, vertical and diagonal details bands; (3). apply 2D Fourier transform to the vertical details band image component only, since the ring artifacts become vertical lines in the polar coordinates; (4). apply Gaussian filtering in Fourier domain along the abscissa direction to suppress the vertical lines, since the information of the vertical lines in Fourier domain is completely condensed to that direction; (5). perform inverse Fourier transform to get the corrected vertical details band image component; (6). perform inverse wavelet transform to get the corrected polar image; (7). transform the corrected polar image back to Cartesian coordinates to get the CT image slice with reduced ring artifacts. This approach has been successfully uses. This approach has been successfully used on CT data acquired from the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline in Canadian Light Source (CLS), and the results show that the ring artifacts in original SR CT images have been effectively suppressed with all the structure information in the image preserved.

  20. Slice image pretreatment for cone-beam computed tomography based on adaptive filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the noise properties and the serial slice image characteristics in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) system, a slice image pretreatment for CBCT based on adaptive filter was proposed. The judging criterion for the noise is established firstly. All pixels are classified into two classes: adaptive center weighted modified trimmed mean (ACWMTM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by Gauss noise and adaptive median (AM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by impulse noise. In ACWMTM filtering algorithm, the estimated Gauss noise standard deviation in the current slice image with offset window is replaced by the estimated standard deviation in the adjacent slice image to the current with the corresponding window, so the filtering accuracy of the serial images is improved. The pretreatment experiment on CBCT slice images of wax model of hollow turbine blade shows that the method makes a good performance both on eliminating noises and on protecting details. (authors)

  1. Spectrum of outpatient illness in a school-based cohort in haiti, with a focus on diarrheal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau De Rochars, Valery E M; Alam, Meer T; Telisma, Taina; Masse, Roseline; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Marie G; Guillaume, Herold Jean; Gelin, Gedeon; Kirkpatrick, Ericka L; Okech, Bernard A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Rashid, Mohammed; Karst, Stephanie; Johnson, Judith A; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Currently, there are only limited data available on rates of major diagnostic categories of illnesses among Haitian children. We have established a cohort of 1,245 students attending schools run by the Christianville Foundation in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, for whom our group provides primary medical care. Among 1,357 clinic visits during the 2012-2013 academic year, the main disease categories (with rates per 1,000 child years of observation) included acute respiratory infection (ARI) (385.6 cases/1,000 child years of observation), gastrointestinal complaints (277.8 cases/1,000 child years), febrile illness (235.0 cases/1,000 child years), and skin infections (151.7 cases/1,000 child years). The most common diarrheal pathogen was enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (present in 17% of children with diarrhea); Vibrio cholerae O1 and norovirus were the next most common. Our data highlight the importance of better defining etiologies for ARI and febrile illnesses and continuing problems of diarrheal illness in this region, including mild cases of cholera, which would not have been diagnosed without laboratory screening. PMID:25732684

  2. A new species of Urocopitid land snail from Haiti and a discussion of the genus Autocoptis (Gastropoda: Urocoptidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred G., Thompson.

    1187-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Para Haití se describe Autocoptis paulsoni n. sp. Esta especie se caracteriza por su gran tamaño, su forma cilíndrica-cónica, teleoconcha en forma de costillas, una clara pero débil quilla circumbasal y concha juvenil cónica y abreviada. Es muy similar a Autocoptis gruneri (Dunker, 1844), que se des [...] cribe de nuevo y su distribución se revisa. También se presenta el estado taxonómico del género Autocoptis y del subgénero Urocoptola. El género es endémico de La Española y las islas satélites. Abstract in english Autocoptis paulsoni n. sp. is described from Haiti. it is characterized by its large size, its cylindricaltapered shape, its fine costate sculpture on the teleoconch, a distinct but weak circum basal keel and its abbreviate conical juvenile shell. it is most similar to Autocoptis gruneri (Dunker 184 [...] 4), which is redescribed, and its distribution is reviewed. The taxonomic status of the genus Autocoptis Pilsbry 1902 and its subgenus Urocoptola Clench, 1 935 are reviewed. The genus is endemic to Hispaniola and satellite islands.

  3. Language of sexual violence in Haiti: perceptions of victims, community-level workers, and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manisha; Rahill, Guitele J; Lescano, Celia; Jean, Florence

    2014-11-01

    Non-partner sexual violence (NPSV), an important risk factor for HIV, is of global public health significance and understudied. The 2010 earthquake interacted syndemically with structural factors to increase sexual violence and HIV risk for women in Cité Soleil, Haiti. We used an exploratory sequential qualitative design and Grounded Theory to investigate language/terminology for NPSV, victims and perpetrators, and health effects of NPSV on victims, in four focus groups: Health care providers (HCPs) (n=3; n=8), community advocates (n=8), and victims (n=8). Crucial differences exist among stakeholders: HCPs prefer French and possess different explanatory models of illness from victims, who provided more extensive and explicit descriptions (e.g., “strangled like a chicken,” “tuyo”/“faucet”/“flooding” for gang rapes). Victims also reported purposeful injury to their external and internal genitalia, signaling STI/HIV risk. Reconciling within-culture differences between victims and HCPs can inform screening, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and delivery of relevant interventions. PMID:25418231

  4. Performance of the CareStart glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) rapid diagnostic test in Gressier, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Masse, Roseline; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Okech, Bernard A

    2014-07-01

    Administering primaquine (PQ) to treat malaria patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can pose a serious risk of drug-induced hemolysis (DIH). New easy to use point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests are being developed as an alternative to labor-intensive spectrophotometric methods, but they require field testing before they can be used at scale. This study screened 456 participants in Gressier, Haiti using the Access Bio CareStart qualitative G6PD rapid detection test compared with the laboratory-based Trinity Biotech quantitative spectrophotometric assay. Findings suggest that the CareStart test was 90% sensitive for detecting individuals with severe deficiency and 84.8% sensitive for detecting individuals with moderate and severe deficiency compared with the Trinity Biotech assay. A high negative predictive value of 98.2% indicates excellent performance in determining those patients able to take PQ safely. The CareStart G6PD test holds much value for screening malaria patients to determine eligibility for PQ therapy. PMID:24778197

  5. Identification of Caribbean ciguatoxins as the cause of an outbreak of fish poisoning among U.S. soldiers in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, M A; Lewis, R J; Dickey, R W; Musser, S M; Buckner, C A; Carpenter, L G

    1997-05-01

    On 24 February 1995, six U.S. soldiers serving with the Multinational Force in Haiti became ill after eating a locally caught fish identified as the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili. The victims presented with nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps 5-8 hr after consumption. Also present in some victims were numbness in the extremities or perioral region, bradycardia and scalp paresthesia. Patients were treated with i.v. hydration therapy and antiemetics. All recovered without sequelae over the course of 1-3 months. A portion of the cooked fish was obtained for analysis. A semipurified lipid extract was prepared according to standard methods and analyzed for the presence of Na+ channel site 5 binding activity using a brevetoxin receptor binding assay. By this assay, the fish sample contained the equivalent of approximately 20 ng Caribbean ciguatoxin/g flesh. The presence of the major Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using the receptor binding assay to monitor activity in TSK and PRP-1 column fractions, two minor toxins were detected in addition to C-CTX-1. One of these minor toxins was more polar, and the other less polar, than C-CTX-1. These data provide firm evidence that a family of C-CTX-1 is responsible for ciguatera in the Caribbean. PMID:9203298

  6. Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake, as based on medium-distance subionospheric VLF propagation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010 (with a magnitude of 7.0 and depth of 10 km are investigated on the basis of subionospheric propagation data from the NAA transmitter on the east coast of the USA to a VLF receiving station in Peru. The local nighttime VLF amplitude data are extensively investigated during the period from the beginning of October 2009 to the end of March 2010, in which the trend (nighttime average amplitude, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation are analysed. It is found that a clear precursory ionosphere perturbation is detected just around New Years day of 2010, about 12 days before the main shock, which is characterised by the simultaneous decrease in the trend and the increases in dispersion and nighttime fluctuation. An additional finding might be the presence of the effect of the Earth's tide one and two months before the main shock, which can only be seen for a huge EQ.

  7. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  8. STAR proteins quaking-6 and GLD-1 regulate translation of the homologues GLI1 and tra-1 through a conserved RNA 3'UTR-based mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiza, Olga; Frater, Leah; Yoo, Young; Villavicencio, Elisabeth; Walterhouse, David; Goodwin, Elizabeth B; Iannaccone, Philip

    2005-11-01

    The binding of the STAR protein GLD-1 to an element in the tra-2 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), called the TGE (tra GLI element), represses tra-2 translation, allowing for hermaphrodite spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. GLD-1 is a member of the STAR family that includes the mammalian quaking (Qk) proteins. Here, we show that the 3'UTR of the nematode homologue of GLI1, called tra-1, also contains a TGE, through which translation is regulated by GLD-1. We find that GLD-1 activity is required for proper TRA-1 protein expression in hermaphrodites. RNA gel shift assays show that GLD-1 binds the predicted sites. Using reporter transgenes, we show that the human GLI1 (hGLI1) 3'UTR controls translation in the mouse embryo. We demonstrate that the addition of the mouse QK isoform-6 (QKI-6) protein to a mammalian cell line that lacks QKI-6 can confer regulation on reporter and GLI1 mRNAs in a TGE-specific manner, and reduction of QKI-6 activity with siRNA disrupts translational control. Further, siRNA knockdown of QKI-6 increases the activity of a reporter transgene that monitors the transcriptional activity of mouse Gli1 (mGli1) and increases mouse Gli1 protein. We show by immunoprecipitation that QKI-6 antibody specifically co-purifies TGE-containing mRNAs in ribonucleoproteins. Thus, we find that the mouse QKI-6 protein acts through the mGli1 and hGLI1 RNAs to repress translation. Our results suggest that STAR family-dependent translational control of GLI mRNAs is ancient, and that it existed before the division of nematodes and mammals. PMID:16198329

  9. Shelf life of sliced raw potatoes of various cultivar varieties--substitution of bisulfites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, E K; Hurme, E U; Ahvenainen, R T

    1998-10-01

    The effects of potato variety (Van Gogh, Bintje and Fambo), washing with browning prevention chemicals in place of sodium bisulfite, percentages of CO2, O2, and N2 in the package headspace, and storage time (1, 4, and 7 days) on the sensory and microbiological quality of potato slices were examined. Citric acid and ascorbic acid (at 0.1% each and at 0.5% each) were used as browning prevention chemicals. In the packaging atmosphere the percentage of N2 was 75 or 80%, the percentage of O2 was 5 or 0%, and the percentage of CO2 was 20% at the beginning of storage. Packed potato slices were stored in the dark at 5 degrees C. Darkening was the most important factor limiting the sensory quality of raw potato slices. Darkening occurred quickly with Fambo slices; it seems that Fambo is not a suitable potato variety if slices are to be stored. Water-washed and cooked Van Gogh slices were still acceptable for retailing after a storage period of 7 days. After 7 days of storage the best sensory quality of both raw and cooked Bintje slices was obtained with washing solutions containing 0.1 to 0.5% citric and ascorbic acids and with the gas mixture containing 20% CO2 and 80% N2. The number of microorganisms was higher in samples stored in the atmosphere containing 5% O2 than samples stored in the atmosphere containing 0% O2. Washing of potato slices with browning prevention chemicals decreased the number of microorganisms compared to potato slices not washed or potato slices washed with water after 7 days of storage. PMID:9798156

  10. Axonal and dendritic density field estimation from incomplete single-slice neuronal reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van Pelt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal information processing in cortical networks critically depends on the organization of synaptic connectivity. Synaptic connections can form when axons and dendrites come in close proximity of each other. The spatial innervation of neuronal arborizations can be described by their axonal and dendritic density fields. Recently we showed that potential locations of synapses between neurons can be estimated from their overlapping axonal and dendritic density fields. However, deriving density fields from single-slice neuronal reconstructions is hampered by incompleteness because of cut branches. Here, we describe a method for recovering the lost axonal and dendritic mass. This so-called completion method is based on an estimation of the mass inside the slice and an extrapolation to the space outside the slice, assuming axial symmetry in the mass distribution. We validated the method using a set of neurons generated with our NETMORPH simulator. The model-generated neurons were artificially sliced and subsequently recovered by the completion method. Depending on slice thickness and arbor extent, branches that have lost their outside parents (orphan branches may occur inside the slice. Not connected anymore to the contiguous structure of the sliced neuron, orphan branches result in an underestimation of neurite mass. For 300 ?m thick slices, however, the validation showed a full recovery of dendritic and an almost full recovery of axonal mass. The completion method was applied to three experimental data sets of reconstructed rat cortical L2/3 pyramidal neurons. The results showed that in 300 ?m thick slices intracortical axons lost about 50% and dendrites about 16% of their mass. The completion method can be applied to single-slice reconstructions as long as axial symmetry can be assumed in the mass distribution. This opens up the possibility of using incomplete neuronal reconstructions from open-access data bases to determine population mean mass density fields.

  11. 78 FR 61389 - Sanyo Solar of Oregon, LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...Sanyo Solar of Oregon, LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations...Sanyo Solar of Oregon, LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations...The workers were engaged in the production of polysilicon wafers and included workers who...

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants: detailed determination of safety margins and their scattering for buildings in case of earth quakes; Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse fuer Kernkraftwerke. Detaillierte Ermittlung der Sicherheitsreservefaktoren der Bauwerke und deren Streuung fuer Erdbeben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegh-Azar, H. [HOCHTIEF Consult IKS Energy (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants studies and evaluations of earth quake events have to be performed. The methodology is aimed to quantify the actual safety margins of the existing structures and their scattering. These data are essentially based on empirical values and results from US power plants. The authors discuss the accuracy and applicability of the simplified methodologies. It turns out that the simplified models can only roughly describe the complex non-linear behavior of buildings. Additional system engineering based effects on the safety reserves cannot be taken into account by the simplified modeling.

  13. Uma revolução racial em perspectiva: relatos de testemunhas oculares da Insurreição do Haiti / Facing Racial Revolution: eyewitness accounts of the Haitian Insurrection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeremy D., Popkin.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse artigo é analisar as reações dos brancos que testemunharam pessoalmente a Revolução do Haiti, de 1791 a 1804, e escreveram acerca de suas experiências. Este é um pequeno e geralmente negligenciado capítulo dessa história. Estas testemunhas da Revolução do Haiti foram os primeiros ho [...] mens brancos que viveram segundo uma verdadeira revolução racial, na qual pessoas que anteriormente eram definidas, pelo mundo europeu, como inferiores, obtiveram êxito em subverter a hierarquia racial. Embora suas memórias não tivessem sido muito lidas, em sua época, os brancos que estavam presentes nesse evento nos oferecem uma visão única do impacto de se viver segundo este tipo de inversão das relações raciais de poder. Os relatos acerca da Revolução do Haiti também demonstram quão profundamente incômoda se tornou a literatura memorialista para a noção de identidade branca da Europa. Abstract in english My purpose in this article is to examine just one small and neglected chapter of it, namely, the reactions of whites who personally witnessed the Haitian Revolution of 1791 to 1804 and then wrote about their experiences. The witnesses of the Haitian Revolution were the first whites to live through a [...] true racial revolution, one in which people who the European world had defined as inferior succeeded in overturning the racial hierarchy. Although their memoirs were not widely read at the time, the whites who had been at this extraordinary event give us a unique window into the impact of living through this kind of inversion of racial power relations. These witness accounts from the Haitian Revolution thus demonstrated the deeply troubling implications of personal memoir literature for white Europeans' sense of self.

  14. Uma revolução racial em perspectiva: relatos de testemunhas oculares da Insurreição do Haiti Facing Racial Revolution: eyewitness accounts of the Haitian Insurrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Popkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é analisar as reações dos brancos que testemunharam pessoalmente a Revolução do Haiti, de 1791 a 1804, e escreveram acerca de suas experiências. Este é um pequeno e geralmente negligenciado capítulo dessa história. Estas testemunhas da Revolução do Haiti foram os primeiros homens brancos que viveram segundo uma verdadeira revolução racial, na qual pessoas que anteriormente eram definidas, pelo mundo europeu, como inferiores, obtiveram êxito em subverter a hierarquia racial. Embora suas memórias não tivessem sido muito lidas, em sua época, os brancos que estavam presentes nesse evento nos oferecem uma visão única do impacto de se viver segundo este tipo de inversão das relações raciais de poder. Os relatos acerca da Revolução do Haiti também demonstram quão profundamente incômoda se tornou a literatura memorialista para a noção de identidade branca da Europa.My purpose in this article is to examine just one small and neglected chapter of it, namely, the reactions of whites who personally witnessed the Haitian Revolution of 1791 to 1804 and then wrote about their experiences. The witnesses of the Haitian Revolution were the first whites to live through a true racial revolution, one in which people who the European world had defined as inferior succeeded in overturning the racial hierarchy. Although their memoirs were not widely read at the time, the whites who had been at this extraordinary event give us a unique window into the impact of living through this kind of inversion of racial power relations. These witness accounts from the Haitian Revolution thus demonstrated the deeply troubling implications of personal memoir literature for white Europeans' sense of self.

  15. Growth in Late Infancy among HIV-Exposed Children in Urban Haiti Is Associated with Participation in a Clinic-Based Infant Feeding Support Intervention123

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Pape, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The integration of nutrition support for infants of HIV-infected mothers is a recognized need; however, the evidence for effective programmatic solutions is weak. The objective of our study was to implement and evaluate a new infant feeding support intervention for HIV-exposed, uninfected, non–breast-fed infants 6–12 mo of age attending the Groupe Haïtien d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) pediatric clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The 24-wk interven...

  16. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Huang, WenHui; Du, YingChao; Yan, LiXin; Tang, ChuanXiang

    2011-12-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  17. The formation and distribution of bilirubin monoglucuronide and diglucuronide in rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M T; Dutton, G J

    1979-06-01

    1. Bilirubin conjugation in rat liver slices was reassessed by using analysis of ethyl anthranilate azopigments to estimate separately the formation of bilirubin mono- and di-glucuronides. 2. Conjugation in slices resembles the situation in vivo more closely than does microsomal conjugation, in that diglucuronide is formed in appreciable quantity. 3. Both bilirubin mono- and di-glucuronides were present in slices in approximately equal amounts, but the monoglucuronide was the major product found in the incubation medium. 4. These results are discussed in relation to recent theories on the relationship between bilirubin mono- and di-glucuronide formation in vivo. PMID:475763

  18. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  19. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and establishment of synaptic transmission. Here, we used calcium imaging in slice cultures of the postnatal cerebellum, and observe spontaneous propagating calcium waves in NeuN-positive granule-like cells. Wave formation was blocked by TTX and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, but persisted after NMDA receptor blockade with MK-801. Whole-cell recordings during wave formation showed cyclic EPSP barrages with an amplitude of 10-20 mV concurrent with wave activity. Local non-propagating putative transglial waves were also present in the cultures, and could be reproduced by pressure application of ATP. We hypothesize, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits.

  20. Strategies for spectroscopy on Extremely Large Telescopes. I - Image Slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Allington-Smith, J R

    2009-01-01

    One of the problems of producing spectrographs for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) is that the beam size is required to scale with telescope aperture if all other parameters are held constant, leading to enormous size and implied cost. This is a particular problem for image sizes much larger than the diffraction limit, as is likely to be the case if Adaptive Optics systems are not initially able to deliver highly corrected images over the full field of the instrument or if signal/noise considerations require large spatial samples. In this case, there is a potential advantage in image slicing to reduce the effective slitwidth and hence the beam size. However, this implies larger detectors and oversizing of the optics which may cancel out the advantage. By the means of a toy model of a spectrograph whose dimensions are calibrated using existing instruments, the size and relative cost of spectrographs for ELTs have been estimated. Using a range of scaling laws derived from the reference instruments, it is poss...

  1. Detection of myocardial ischemia using 64-slice MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to investigate the ability of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) only at rest to detect myocardial ischemia, conventionally depicted by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). In 75 patients with suspected coronary artery disease, cardiac 64-MDCT at rest and stress/rest MPS were performed. The 2D myocardial images were reconstructed in diastolic and systolic phases using raw data from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). CT numbers in the myocardium were used as an estimate of myocardial enhancement. The myocardium was shown using a color scale that detects faint low-density areas more clearly than gray scale. The variation in myocardial enhancement was evaluated at systole and diastole for those segments depicted as ischemia on MPS. A pattern of transient endocardial hypo-enhancement at systole and normal enhancement at diastole as the ischemic pattern on CT myocardial images was defined. MPS diagnosed myocardial ischemia in 40 of 75 patients. Use of the ischemic pattern on CT images had a positive predictive value of 86% and a negative predictive value of 88%. CT myocardial imaging at rest demonstrates a characteristic enhancement pattern for ischemia. This has potential as a non-invasive method for detecting ischemia. (author)

  2. Tetraethylammonium exacerbates ischemic neuronal injury in rat cerebrocortical slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Atsumi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Kume, Toshiaki; Akaike, Akinori

    2005-01-31

    We investigated potential contribution of K+ channel activity to regulation of ischemia-induced neuronal injury, using cerebrocortical slice cultures. Exposure of cultures to a glucose-free conditioning solution containing sodium azide and 2-deoxyglucose caused neuronal cell death as assessed by cellular uptake of propidium iodide, which was prevented by MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Application of tetraethylammonium markedly exacerbated ischemic neuronal injury. Charybdotoxin, a blocker of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ (BK(Ca)) channels, also augmented ischemic injury, whereas AM 92016, a blocker of delayed rectifier K+ channels, and dequalinium, a blocker of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, had no significant effect. In addition, tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin were effective in augmenting NMDA-induced neuronal injury. These results present unprecedented evidence for the ability of tetraethylammonium to enhance ischemic neuronal death, and suggest that BK(Ca) channels constitute an endogenous system to protect cortical neurons from ischemic injury, via prevention of NMDA receptor over-activation. PMID:15680257

  3. The LMC stellar complexes in luminosity slices. Star formation indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragoudaki, F.; Kontizas, M.; Kontizas, E.; Dapergolas, A.; Morgan, D. H.

    1998-10-01

    An approach towards the investigation of the star formation mechanisms in galaxies can be achieved through the search of stellar complexes and the determination of their properties. A method has been developed for the detection of stellar complexes and the derivation of their fundamental properties in the LMC. Photographic plates taken with the 1.2m U.K. Schmidt Telescope have been digitized by the APM and SuperCosmos machines to produce homogeneous data for extended regions. Star counts have been performed for extended areas in selected luminosity slices and colours (U, HeII, R filters). Isodensity contours have been used to identify the various structures with enhanced stellar number density (3sigma above the mean background density). About 50 large stellar groupings have been revealed showing: 1) hierarchical structure, where the smallest are found within the large ones. 2) their size distribution has peaks at 250+/-50 pc (aggregates) and 600+/-50 pc (complexes), there are also a few cases with size 1200+/-50 pc (supercomplexes). 3) there is evidence that at the fainter magnitudes these structures are aligned to a general trend whereas at the most bright end (B1, O spectral types) they become more clumpy and symmetrical in shape. The relationship between the above complexes' properties and the various scenarios of star formation are discussed.

  4. Initial data for perturbed Kerr black holes on hyperboloidal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct initial data corresponding to a single perturbed Kerr black hole in vacuum. These data are defined on specific hyperboloidal (ACMC) slices, on which the mean extrinsic curvature K asymptotically approaches a constant at future null infinity I+. More precisely, we require that K obeys the Taylor expansion K=K0+O(?4), where K0 is a constant and ? describes a compactified spatial coordinate such that I+ is represented by ?=0. We excise the singular interior of the black hole and assume a marginally outer trapped surface as the inner boundary of the computational domain. The momentum and Hamiltonian constraints are solved by means of pseudo-spectral methods and we find exponential rates of convergence of our numerical solutions. Some of the physical properties of the initial data are studied with the calculation of the Bondi mass, together with a multipole decomposition of the horizon. We probe the standard picture of gravitational collapse by assessing a family of Penrose-like inequalities and discuss in particular their rigidity aspects. Dynamical evolutions are planned in a future project. (paper)

  5. Structural shielding design for 30-slice volumetric CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design a machine room for 320-slice volumetric CT by calculating the thickness of wall in accordance with protection standard of GBZ/T180, in order to make sure that people around the machine room are safe. Use CT dose-length product (DLP) method that NCRP recommended. DLP multiplied by a constant approximately equals to the air kerma on d spot. Work out the corresponding workload per week and the value of the scattering air kerma per week on d spot. After the transmission function B is obtained, the thickness of shielding materials can be calculated by looking up the table of the relation curve between Pb or concrete with B. The walls of the machine room to be designed respectively need 0.23, 0.38, 0.75, 0.57 (mm) Pb or 28.44, 73.64 (mm) concrete. 0.23, 0.38, 0.75, 0.57 (mm) Pb or 28.44, 73.64 (mm) concrete is required to make sure that people around the machine room are safe. (authors)

  6. Efficient Face Recognition in Video by Bit Planes Slicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa R. Inbathini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Video-based face recognition must be able to overcome the imaging interference such as pose and illumination. Approach: A model is designed to study for face recognition based on video sequence and also test image. In training stage, single frontal image is taken as a input to the recognition system. A new virtual image is generated using bit plane feature fusion to effectively reduce the sensitivity to illumination variances. A Self-PCA is performed to get each set of Eigen faces and to get projected image. In recognition stage, automatic face detection scheme is first applied to the video sequences. Frames are extracted from the video and virtual frame is created. Each bit plane of test face is extracted and then the feature fusion face is constructed, followed by the projection and reconstruction using each set of the corresponding Eigen faces. Results: This algorithm is compared with conventional PCA algorithm. The minimum error of reconstruction is calculated. If error is less than a threshold value, then it recognizes the face from the database. Conclusion: Bit plane slicing mechanism is applied in video based face recognition. Experimental results shows that its far more superior than conventional method under various pose and illumination condition.

  7. Stress analysis for the 2010 Haiti seismic crisis: an example of strain partitioning on a transpressive setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cuesta, Víctor; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Gárate Pasquín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Zurrunero, Álvaro

    2014-05-01

    The Mw=7 event occurred the 12th of January, 2010 triggered a seismic crisis in the southern Haiti that continued for 3 months. The epicentral region was located in an E-W oriented transpressive plate boundary where the Caribbean and North American plates converge ~20 mm/y trending 070º. The convergence is very oblique yielding a strain partitioning model where coexist E-W trending structures that accommodate the left-lateral strike-slip motion (e. g., Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone; EPGFZ) and NW-SE trending structures that accommodate the compressive motion component (Transhaitian thrust belt; TTB). The main shock occurred at 15 km southward of Port-au-Prince and to 12 km of depth yielding large personal and material damage. Despite of its significant magnitude and relative shallow depth this event did not yield surface rupture complicating the studies about the source fault. The main event was followed by 50 aftershocks with magnitudes between 4.5 and 5 located to the west of the main event along an E-W trending segment of 50 km of length. All the events occurred along the interaction zone between the NW-SE oriented compressive structures of the TTB and E-W strike-slip structures of the EPGFZ. The TTB and the EPGFZ are first-order structures that define the eastern boundary of the Gonave microplate. In this study we show the results of the stress inversion analysis carried out over the focal mechanisms calculated from the centroid tensor method for the main event and 50 aftershocks of the 2010 seismic crisis. Calculated active stress tensors (maximum horizontal stress, Shmax, and stress regime) have been compared with structural data and inter-seismic surface deformations derived from GPS data. The main event was generated by a N084º north-dipping fault plane with a major left-lateral slip component and a reverse component located at the deformation front of the TTB (i. e., Léogâne fault). This reverse oblique fault was activated by a Shmax trending 020°. All the aftershocks have been generated by ENE-WSW pure reverse faults located in the area of interaction between the 135º oriented compressive structures of the TTB front and 085º oriented strike-slip structures of the EPGFZ. These aftershocks have been activated by a very homogeneous uniaxial compressive stress regime with Shmax oriented 017º±10º. Their focal depths (located between 7 and 12 km), together with the absence of surface rupture indicate that the sources of the aftershocks are blind thrusts oriented between 097º and 117º. Although the reverse faults derived from focal mechanisms agree with the compressive structures of the TTB, there is an angular deviation of 18º-38º between these blind thrusts and the mapped thrusts orientations. The inter-seismic surface convergence, derived from GPS velocities for the epicentral region, shows an angular deviation of ?30° related to the orientation of Shmax derived from the stress inversion analysis. These differences between the surface and deep deformations strongly suggest that a significant part of the elastic energy accumulated in the island arc crust along the E-W trending EPGFZ was not released during seismic crisis of 2010. This study supports the hypothesis that there is an increased probability of occurrence of a significant earthquake in southern Haiti that accommodates the E-W deformation component did not released during the seismic crisis of 2010.

  8. Slice-selective J-coupled coherence transfer using symmetric linear phase pulses: applications to localized GABA spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun

    2003-07-01

    Symmetric, linear phase, slice-selective RF pulses were analyzed theoretically for performing slice-selective coherence transfer. It was shown using numerical simulations of product operators that, when a prefocusing gradient of the same area as that of the refocusing gradient is added, these pulses become slice-selective universal rotator pulses, therefore, capable of performing slice-selective coherence transfer. As an example, a slice-selective universal rotator pulse based on a seven-lobe hamming-filtered sinc pulse was applied to in vivo single-shot simultaneous spectral editing and spatial localization of neurotransmitter GABA in the human brain.

  9. A retrospective review of maternal and child health services at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C E; Marshall, F N; Robinson, C

    1982-01-01

    For the past 25 years the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Deschapelles, Haiti has been providing a wide range of maternal and child health services to the people of its rural district. Numerous special services for mothers and children have been added over the years, but these began to realize considerably greater potential with the creation of the hospital's Community Health Department in 1967. This department has carried out numerous preventive health programs and services designed to accommodate these groups' special health needs. Attention is directed to neonatal tetanus control; surveillance, treatment, and prevention of malnutrition; and other maternal and child health services (school programs, immunization activities, prenatal and postnatal care, family planning, the midwives' program, the "cord-cut" unit, the low birth weight project, and dispensaries and health agents). In 1967 the hospital began to develop programs especially designed to control neonatal tetanus. Communities were immunized systematically. By establishing outdoor immunization clinics at the hospital and at major marketplaces in the district and by working with traditional midwives, these programs were responsible for a sharp decline in the incidence of neonatal tetanus. Malnutrition has remained the most frequently occurring health problem among children in the hospital district. Several services and programs have been established throughout the years to meet the identified needs. These include the following which are described: the nutrition clinic; courtyard education; "weigh-ins;" nutrition recovery centers; the 3-day center at Deschapelles; nutrition intervention and case follow-up program; and malnutrition treatment. The hospital's family planning program has gradually increased its use of community education to reach the population and to try to gain acceptance of the need to space and limit births. This community education has been disseminated by dispensaries, mobile health team workers, public health nurses, and physicians. Implementation of immunization, health surveillance, health education, and improved tuberculosis control activities have produced gratifying reductions in overall maternal and child morbidity and mortality in the Schweitzer hospital district. PMID:7042019

  10. SPET I. Figures of merit for two multiple detector (single slice) and one area detector (multiple slice) single photon emission tomographic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figures of merit are presented for the physical performance of two multi-detector single-slice acquisition scanners; (1) a brain scanner, the Cleon-710 and (ii) a whole body scanner, the Cleon-711; and one area multiple slice acquisition rotating gamma camera detector, the IGE400T, linked to an Informatek-Simis-3 processor. Phantoms have been constructed for the measurement of sensitivity, slice thickness and reconstructed transverse section resolution. Values have been obtained using three different isotopes: 99Tcsup(m), 75Se and 131I. The characteristics of these instruments with respect to lesion detection have been investigated by considering the minimum ratios of target-to-background specific activity necessary for visualization. Values have been obtained both for 'hot' and 'cold' lesions. The effect of energy discrimination and window width on these parameters is demonstrated and discussed. The ability of each instrument to size lesions accurately, both 'hot' and 'cold', is also reported. (author)

  11. A slice-by-slice blurring model and kernel evaluation using the Klein-Nishina formula for 3D scatter compensation in parallel and converging beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converging collimation increases the geometric efficiency for imaging small organs, such as the heart, but also increases the difficulty of correcting for the physical effects of attenuation, geometric response and scatter in SPECT. In this paper, 3D first-order Compton scatter in non-uniform scattering media is modelled by using an efficient slice-by-slice incremental blurring technique in both parallel and converging beam SPECT. The scatter projections are generated by first forming an effective scatter source image (ESSI), then forward-projecting the ESSI. The Compton scatter cross section described by the Klein-Nishina formula is used to obtain spatial scatter response functions (SSRFs) of scattering slices which are parallel to the detector surface. Two SSRFs of neighbouring scattering slices are used to compute two small orthogonal 1D blurring kernels used for the incremental blurring from the slice which is further from the detector surface to the slice which is closer to the detector surface. First-order Compton scatter point response functions (SPRFs) obtained using the proposed model agree well with those of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for both parallel and fan beam SPECT. Image reconstruction in fan beam SPECT MC simulation studies shows increased left ventricle myocardium-to-chamber contrast (LV contrast) and slightly improved image resolution when performing scatter compensation using the proposed model. Physical torso phantom fan beam SPECT experiments torso phantom fan beam SPECT experiments show increased myocardial uniformity and image resolution as well as increased LV contrast. The proposed method efficiently models the 3D first-order Compton scatter effect in parallel and converging beam SPECT. (author)

  12. Altered magnesium transport in slices of kidney cortex from chemically-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of magnesium-28 was measured in slices of kidney cortex from rats with alloxan-diabetes and from rats with streptozotocin-diabetes of increasing durations. In both forms of chemically-induced diabetes, magnesium-28 uptake by kidney cortex slices was significantly increased over uptake measured in kidney cortex slices from control rats. Immediate institution of daily insulin therapy to the diabetic rats prevented the diabetes-induced elevated uptake of magnesium without controlling blood glucose levels. Late institution of daily insulin therapy was ineffective in restoring the magnesium uptake to control values. These alterations in magnesium uptake occurred prior to any evidence of nephropathy (via the classic indices of proteinuria and increased BUN levels). The implications of these findings, together with our earlier demonstrations of altered calcium transport by kidney cortex slices from chemically-induced diabetic rats, are discussed in terms of disordered divalent cation transport being at least part of the basic pathogenesis underlying diabetic nephropathy

  13. Study on diagnosis of gastric cancer with triphase enhanced multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the application of triphase enhanced multi-slice CT in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Methods: 36 cases of triphase enhanced multi-slice CT images of gastric cancer confirmed by surgery and/or pathology were restrospectively analyzed. Results: Detectability of gastric cancer with the arterial-parenchymal phase of enhanced muliti-slice CT and coincidence of surgery or pathology were 100%, the equilibrium phase could improve the accuracy of T-staging of gastric cancer, and the accuracy of TNM staging was 83.3%. Conclusion: Triphase enhanced multi-slice CT is recommended for the detection, qualitation, staging and prognosic appraisal of gastric cancer. (authors)

  14. Krein-Langer factorization and related topics in the slice hyperholomorphic setting

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We study various aspects of Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. We present two sets of results: first, we give new results on the functional calculus for slice hyperholomorphic functions. In particular, we introduce and study some properties of the Riesz projectors. Then we prove a Beurling-Lax type theorem, the so-called structure theorem. A crucial fact which allows to prove our results, is the fact that the right spectrum of a quaternionic linear operator and the S-spectrum coincide. Finally, we study the Krein-Langer factorization for slice hyperholomorphic generalized Schur functions. Both the Beurling-Lax type theorem and the Krein-Langer factorization are far reaching results which have not been proved in the quaternionic setting using notions of hyperholomorphy other than slice hyperholomorphy

  15. Value of MRCP combined with thin-sliced T2WI in diagnosis of biliary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRCP and thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI for diagnosing biliary calculi. Methods: MRI and MRCP were performed on 56 patients with suspected biliary calculi including thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI in the area of interest. Compared with ERCP or surgical findings, diagnostic accordance rates before and after thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI were calculated. Results: The diagnostic accordance rate for biliary calculi was significantly higher (P2WI. Conclusion: Thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI depicts small biliary calculi and biliary tract malformation, thus reducing the incidence of biliary tract injury and residual calculi after surgery. (authors)

  16. The practicalities of using tissue slices as preclinical organotypic breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Deborah L; Moss, Marcus A; Pollock, Steven; Lane, Sally; Shaaban, Abeer M; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Nash, Claire; Hanby, Andrew M; Speirs, Valerie

    2013-03-01

    Models considering breast cancer complexity cannot be easily or accurately replicated in routine cell line or animal models. We aimed to evaluate the practicality of organotypic tissue slice culture in breast cancer. Following ethical approval, 250 µm thick sections from surplus breast tumours (n=10) were prepared using a vibrating blade microtome. Triplicate tissue slices were placed in 6-well plates and cultured for up to 7 days ± tamoxifen (1 nM) or doxorubicin (1 µM). Tissue slices were fixed and embedded before sectioning for morphological evaluation and immunohistochemistry. H&E showed good preservation of tissue morphology. Collagen production was evident. Biomarkers of proliferation and apoptosis could be evaluated using immunohistochemistry and used as surrogates to quantify drug effects. In summary, breast cancer tissue slices can be cultured in vitro as organotypic models. Nevertheless, although simple in concept, the delicacy of the model with regard to handling makes subsequent analytical processes challenging. PMID:23076396

  17. The clinical application of 64-slices spiral CT in angiography of coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical application of 64-slices spiral CT in coronary artery. Methods: Twenty-six patients were performed 64-slices spiral CT in coronary artery, 15 of the 26 patients underwent selective coronary artery angiography. Results: The main branches and part of the sub-branches of the coronary artery were clearly displayed. 38 coronary artery branches of 16 patients were found stenosis. In 15 cases with conventional angiography, all main branches and parts of sub-branches of coronary artery were displayed clearly. All patients demonstrated coronary artery stenosis. The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slices spiral CT was 94.12%. Conclusion: As a minimally invasive examination, 64-slices spiral CT is a valuable method to detect and diagnose the diseases of coronary artery. (authors)

  18. Comparison of multislice and single-slice acquisitions for pulsed arterial spin labeling measurements of cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alison M; Beaulieu, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Multislice Q2TIPS is a widely used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) technique for efficient and accurate quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Slices are typically acquired inferior to superior from a tagging plane. Superior slices show signal loss greater than the loss expected from blood T1 decay. In order to assess the reasons for this additional signal loss, three single-slice acquisition studies were compared to multislice acquisition (six slices) in healthy volunteers. In Study 1 (n=8), the tagging plane was fixed in location, and the inversion time (TI2) was 1500 ms for each slice. For Study 2 (n=12), the tagging plane was fixed as in Study 1; however, TI2 increased as slices were acquired further from the tagging plane. In Study 3 (n=9), the tagging plane was kept adjacent to the imaging slice, and TI2 was 1500 ms for every slice. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CBF were measured per slice. GM SNR from single-slice acquisitions was significantly higher at slices 4-6 in Study 2 and at slices 2-6 in Study 3 compared to multislice acquisitions. Signal loss in distal slices of multislice acquisitions can be attributed to the destruction of tagged bolus in addition to blood T1 decay. If limited brain coverage is acceptable, perfusion images with greater SNR are achievable with limited slices and placement of the tagging region immediately adjacent to the site of interest. PMID:16916704

  19. Food assistance is associated with improved body mass index, food security and attendance at clinic in an HIV program in central Haiti: a prospective observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivers Louise C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available to guide programmatic solutions to the overlapping problems of undernutrition and HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of food assistance on patient outcomes in a comprehensive HIV program in central Haiti in a prospective observational cohort study. Methods Adults with HIV infection were eligible for monthly food rations if they had any one of: tuberculosis, body mass index (BMI 2, CD4 cell count 3 (in the prior 3 months or severe socio-economic conditions. A total of 600 individuals (300 eligible and 300 ineligible for food assistance were interviewed before rations were distributed, at 6 months and at 12 months. Data collected included demographics, BMI and food insecurity score (range 0 - 20. Results At 6- and 12-month time-points, 488 and 340 subjects were eligible for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that at 6 months, food security significantly improved in those who received food assistance versus who did not (-3.55 vs -0.16; P Conclusions Food assistance was associated with improved food security, increased BMI, and improved adherence to clinic visits at 6 and 12 months among people living with HIV in Haiti and should be part of routine care where HIV and food insecurity overlap.

  20. Gamma oscillation underlies hyperthermia-induced epileptiform-like spikes in immature rat hippocampal slices

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Kris; Ellsworth Kevin; Javedan Sam P; Wu Jie; Fisher Robert S

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently a hyperthermic rat hippocampal slice model system has been used to investigate febrile seizure pathophysiology. Our previous data indicates that heating immature rat hippocampal slices from 34 to 41°C in an interface chamber induced epileptiform-like population spikes accompanied by a spreading depression (SD). This may serve as an in vitro model of febrile seizures. Results In this study, we further investigate cellular mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced initial...

  1. Preparation of Gene Gun Bullets and Biolistic Transfection of Neurons in Slice Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Georgia; Zito, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Biolistic transfection is a physical means of transfecting cells by bombarding tissue with high velocity DNA coated particles. We provide a detailed protocol for biolistic transfection of rat hippocampal slices, from the initial preparation of DNA coated bullets to the final shooting of the organotypic slice cultures using a gene gun. Gene gun transfection is an efficient and easy means of transfecting neurons and is especially useful for fluorescently labeling a small subset of cells in tiss...

  2. Slice emittance, projected emittance and properties of the FEL SASE radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dattoli, G.; Del Franco, M.; Petralia, A.; Ronsivalle, C.; Sabia, E.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of a characteristic coherence length in FEL SASE Physics determines the independent lasing of different portions, namely the slices, of the electron bunch. Each slice may be characterized by different phase space properties (not necessarily equal emittances and Twiss coefficients). This fact opens new questions on the concept of beam matching and how the various portions of the beam contribute to the performances of the output radiation, including those associa...

  3. Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Acheheb, H.; Ferradji, A.; Khatir, A.

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%), temperature (30-60°C), time (15-240 min). The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL%) and solid gain (SG %) as responses. The models obtained for all the ...

  4. Krein-Langer factorization and related topics in the slice hyperholomorphic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We study various aspects of Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. We present two sets of results: first, we give new results on the functional calculus for slice hyperholomorphic functions. In particular, we introduce and study some properties of the Riesz projectors. Then we prove a Beurling-Lax type theorem, the so-called structure theorem. A crucial fact which allows to prove our results, is the fact that the right spectrum of a quaternionic linear operato...

  5. Dose reduction using prospective electrocardiograph-triggered axial coronary scan on the 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare radiation dose and image quality between prospective electrocardiograph (ECG)-triggered axial scan and retrospective ECG-gated helical scan in coronary 64-slice CT angiography (CTA). Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive patients [group A. Average body mass index (BMI): 24.6, heart rate 0.05). Conclusion: Prospective ECG-triggered axial scan in 64-slice coronary CTA can significantly reduce radiation exposure and the image quality can fulfill clinical diagnostic needs. (authors)tic needs. (authors)

  6. Preservation of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica, L.) Slices in Darfur

    OpenAIRE

    Soad El-Tayeb Ahmed; Omer Khidir Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Sun drying of 'Kitchiner', 'Alphonse' and 'Dibsha' mango (Mangifera indica, L.) cultivars grown in Darfur, Sudan was conducted to enhance durability, utilization of mango fruits and to reduce the cost of transportation and storage. Slices were soaked in cane-sugar, lime-juice and sodium chloride. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were measured initially and every three months. After six months, sensory acceptance of dried slices was determined fo...

  7. Altered Network Timing in the CA3-CA1 Circuit of Hippocampal Slices from Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Rose, Gregory M.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3–CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared m...

  8. On Some Geometric Properties of Slice Regular Functions of a Quaternion Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Sorin G.; Gonza?lez-cervantes, J. Oscar; Sabadini, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and study some geometric properties of slice regular functions of quaternion variable like univalence, subordination, starlikeness, convexity and spirallikeness in the unit ball. We prove a number of results, among which an Area-type Theorem, Rogosinski inequality, and a Bieberbach-de Branges Theorem for a subclass of slice regular functions. We also discuss some geometric and algebraic interpretations of our results in terms of maps fr...

  9. Adult human heart slices are a multicellular system suitable for electrophysiological and pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelliti, Patrizia; Al-Saud, Sara Abou; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Al-Ayoubi, Samha; Bussek, Alexandra; Wettwer, Erich; Banner, Nicholas R; Bowles, Christopher T; Yacoub, Magdi H; Terracciano, Cesare M

    2011-09-01

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological data from the human heart are limited due to the absence of simple but representative experimental model systems of human myocardium. The aim of this study was to establish and characterise adult human myocardial slices from small patients' heart biopsies as a simple, reproducible and relevant preparation suitable for the study of human cardiac tissue at the multicellular level. Vibratome-cut myocardial slices were prepared from left ventricular biopsies obtained from end-stage heart failure patients undergoing heart transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, and from hearts of normal dogs. Multiple slices were prepared from each biopsy. Regular contractility was observed at a range of stimulation frequencies (0.1-2 Hz), and stable electrical activity, monitored using multi-electrode arrays (MEA), was maintained for at least 8 h from slice preparation. ATP/ADP and phosphocreatine/creatine ratios were comparable to intact organ values, and morphology and gap junction distribution were representative of native myocardium. MEA recordings showed that field potential duration (FPD) and conduction velocity (CV) in human and dog slices were similar to the values previously reported for papillary muscles, ventricular wedges and whole hearts. Longitudinal CV was significantly faster than transversal CV, with an anisotropic ratio of 3:1 for human and 2.3:1 for dog slices. Importantly, slices responded to the application of E-4031, chromanol and 4-aminopyridine, three potassium channel blockers known to affect action potential duration, with an increase in FPD. We conclude that viable myocardial slices with preserved structural, biochemical and electrophysiological properties can be prepared from adult human and canine heart biopsies and offer a novel preparation suitable for the study of heart failure and drug screening. PMID:21740909

  10. Brain Slices as Models for Neurodegenerative Disease and Screening Platforms to Identify Novel Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seongeun; Wood, Andrew; Bowlby, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent improvements in brain slice technology have made this biological preparation increasingly useful for examining pathophysiology of brain diseases in a tissue context. Brain slices maintain many aspects of in vivo biology, including functional local synaptic circuitry with preserved brain architecture, while allowing good experimental access and precise control of the extracellular environment, making them ideal platforms for dissection of molecular pathways underlying neuronal dysfuncti...

  11. Identificatie van de specifieke intrinsieke leverklaring uit een liver-slice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jch, Eijkeren

    2007-01-01

    A model describing metabolism experiments with precision-cut liver-slices incubated in a culture medium is developed. Formal mathematical techniques are presented that solve the problem of identifying the specific intrinsic liver clearance from the experimental data. The formal solution is discussed from the perspective of experimental practice. A necessary condition for identification is sampling parent compound in slice or culture medium. However, sampling parent co...

  12. Low dose coronary CT angiography with 256-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the image quality and patient radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) received by prospectively-gated step-and-shoot (SAS) technique with those obtained by retrospectively-gated spiral ( RGS) technique on a 256-slice CT scanner. Methods: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred patients underwent CCTA with SAS mode were subdivided into two groups: (1) 50 patients with an average heart rate (HR) ? 70 bpm were scanned with a data acquisition time window centered at the 75% of the R-R cycle (group A) and (2) 50 patients with HR > 70 bpm were scanned with the data acquisition time window centered at the 45% of the R-R cycle, including a phase tolerance of ± 5% (group B). Other 100 patients underwent CCTA with RGS mode and ECG-based tube current modulation were also subdivided into two groups: (3) 50 patients with HR ? 70 bpm were scanned with cardiac dose right set to phase of 75% ( group C) and (4) 50 patients with HR > 70 bpm were scanned with cardiac ose Rdight set to phases of 45% and 75% (group D). All patients were grouped in randomized order. The image quality of CCTA were evaluated using a rank scale from 1 to 4 (1: excellent; 4: non-assessable). Radiation dose of the four groups received was also estimated. The image quality between groups was compared by Mann-Whitney U test. The radiation dose between groups was compared by t test. For the 100 patients received by prospective ECG-gated CCTA, the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to analyze the CCTA image quality and average heart rate to determine the uppercutoff of HR for obtaining diagnostic coronary images with SAS mode. A Spearman correlation analysis was also performed to analyze the correlation of HR and image quality in patients underwent CCTA with SAS mode. Results: Of 2338 coronary artery segments, excellent or good image quality (score of 1 or 2) was achieved in 96.5% (585 of 606) in group A, 77.7% (445 of 573) in B, 96.1% (548 of 570) in C, and 85.7% (505/589) in D, with no significant difference for A vs C (Z= -1.351, P>0.05) and with significant differences for B vs D (Z=-2.236, P<0.05). Linear correlation analysis indicated a significant degradation of image quality with the increase of heart rate using SAS mode (Spearman correlation, r=0.577, P<0.01). ROC analysis established an upper HR threshold of 78 bpm for obtaining diagnostic image quality using SAS mode (AUC = 0.827, P<0.05). The average radiation dose in group A [(2.6±0.5) mSv] reduced 75% comparing with that in group C [(10.6±2.3) mSv], and the average radiation dose in group B [(4.0±0.7) mSv] reduced 69% comparing with that in group D [(13.0±1.4) mSv]. Conclusion: Using SAS mode to perform low-dose CCTA with 256-slice helical CT could keep the image quality and reduce radiation dose significantly. Our preliminary experience suggests a good promise of this technique which could be applied to a wider group of patients such as with higher heart rates. (authors)

  13. Thick slice MR cholangiography of the intrahepatic biliary tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To assess the value of single shot fast spin echo MR sequence (SS-FSE) in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic intrahepatic biliary tree. Material and Methods. 418 consecutive patients (457 examinations) referred for clinical and/or biological suspicion of biliary obstruction underwent MR cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP). All patients were imaged with a Signa 1.5 T GE MR unit, with High Gradient Field Strength and Torso Phased Array Coil. Biliary ducts were imaged with SS-FSE sequence, coronal and oblique coronal 20 mm thick slices on a 256 x 256 matrix. Total acquisition time was 1 second. Source images were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical information. In case of disagreement, a third radiologist's opinion was requested. In all cases, MRCP results were compared with direct biliary tract evaluation, other imaging studies and clinical and biological follow-up. Results. In all cases, MRCP produced high quality images. Numerous branch of division were observed although the peripheral intrahepatic ducts were well seen in more than 90% in an area 2 cm below the capsule. The number of division was statistically higher when mechanical obstruction was present. Intrahepatic calculi or peripheral cholangio-carcinoma were well detect by MRCP. For the detection of cholangitis, MRCP sensitivity was 87.5% but the positive predictive value was only 57.7% because of a high number of false positive. The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis must is of primary sclerosing cholangitis must be made only on strict criteria and slightly dilated peripheral bile ducts unconnected to the central ducts in several hepatic segments were a characteristic MR sign of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Conclusion. MRCP can be proposed as a first intention imaging technique for the evaluation of intrahepatic ducts. (authors)

  14. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude x longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation distribution is based on published data and reconstructions and consultation with members of the paleobotanical community and is represented as generalized biomes that should be easily translatable to many vegetation-modeling schemes.

  15. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, J. O.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; van der Zwan, K.; van Oosterhout, C.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Scotese, C. R.

    2007-11-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution) for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma). These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude × longitude) paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs) of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University) and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation distribution is based on published data and reconstructions and consultation with members of the paleobotanical community and is represented as generalized biomes that should be easily translatable to many vegetation-modeling schemes.

  16. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude × longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation distribution is based on published data and reconstructions and consultation with members of the paleobotanical community and is represented as generalized biomes that should be easily translatable to many vegetation-modeling schemes.

  17. Analysis and improvement of SNR using time slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanam, Srikrishna; Singh, Amarjot; Kumar, Devinder; Choubey, Akash; Bacchuwar, Ketan

    2011-06-01

    Noise is a very important factor which in most cases, plays an antagonistic role in the vast field of image processing. Thus noise needs to be studied in great depth in order to improve the quality of images. The quantity of signal in an image, corrupted by noise is generally described by the term Signal-to-Noise ratio. Capturing multiple photos at different focus settings is a powerful approach for improving SNR. The paper analyses a frame work for optimally balancing the tradeoff's between defocus and sensor noise by experimenting on synthetic as well as real video sequences. The method is first applied to synthetic image where the improvement in SNR is studied by the ability of Hough transform to extract the number of lines with respect to the variation in SNR. The paper further experiments on real time video sequences while the improvement in SNR is analyzed using different edge operators like Sobel, Canny, Prewitt, Roberts and Laplacian. The result obtained is further analyzed using different edge operators. The main aim is to detect the edges at different values of SNR which will be a prominent measure of the signal strength as well as clarity of an image. The paper also explains in depth the modeling of noise leading to better understanding of SNR. The results obtain from both synthetic image and real time video sequences elaborate the increase in SNR with the increment in the total number of time slices in a fixed budget leading to clear pictures. This technique can be very effectively applied to capture high quality images from long distances.

  18. The anal verge: localization with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine and evaluate the method of localization of anal verge by multislice spiral CT. To provide an imaging reference for operative guidance of low-rectal cancer. Methods Forty eight consecutive adult patients suspected of abnormalities other than rectal disease were evaluated with abdominal and pelvic CT scans since August, 2009. They were divided into two groups based on sex and age. There were 23 men and 25 women. The ages of young group were 28 to 50 years and the average age was 41 years. The ages of elderly group were 52 to 81 years and the average age was 64 years. A small cotton ball dipped with contrast media was put at the anal verge as a marker and CT scans were performed with 64-slice spiral CT scanner. The distances between the cotton balls and the lower margin of the pubis combination (La), the lower margin of the Sth sacral vertebra (Lb), the inferior aperture of minor pelvis (Lc) and the lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter (Ld) were measured on the mid- sagittal images obtained by MPR. The averages, the standard deviations (s), the 95% and 80% confidence intervals of La, Lb, Lc and Ld were calculated. We took the intervals of ±1.96 s or ±1.28 s 0.05) between two different sex groups [male group, (10.0±1.2) mm], female group, (9.6±1.2) mm and between two age groups [young group, (9.6±1.2) mm, elderly group, (9.9±1.3) mm]. Conclusions: The lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter was a useful anatomic landmark for localizing the anal verge, and could be definitely identified on the middle sagittal pelvic CT image. The distance between the structure and anal verge is constant enough and can be used in measuring distance from low rectal lesion to the anal verge. (authors)

  19. Hygienic quality and antibiotic resistance profile of sliced butchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the microbiological quality of different meat products on the Greek market, 200 samples were collected from the following preparations: boiled turkey (n=50), boiled pork ham (n=50), smoked turkey (n=50) and smoked pork ham (n=50). In all cold meat preparations Clostridium perfringens vegetative and spore forms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other Clostridium sp lec(-), as well as Lactobacillus, Bacillus sp. and Salmonella sp. were recovered. For instance Bacillus cereus was present in 6% of the samples. L. monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were rarely present (1-4%) while Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter lari were absent. Differences in the occurrence of S. aureus, Salmonella sp., E. coli and spore forms of C. perfringens in boiled and smoked samples, reflects either the differences in the processing of the foods or could be associated to the extensive handling by the personnel during the purchasing (storage, slicing, wrapping). Antibiotic resistance on specific antibiotics for each pathogen was also studied. A multiresistance antibiotic profile was effective for most bacterial strains, and pronounced resistance profiles were observed for the commonly used antibiotics as ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin followed by ceftriaxone and gentamycin. Albeit this high observed resistance profile, the tested strains generally conserved their susceptibility to amikacin, aztreonam, chloramphenicol and tylosin conserved an almost absent resistance. Antibiotics commonly used for therapeutic purposes, as well as antibiotics added to feed stuff of animals for increasing animal flesh production should contribute to the extensive spreading of antibiotic resistance in food and the environment. Systematically monitoring of the microbiological quality of cold butchery preparations must be done, in order to preserve food quality, optimizing the processing and elaboration methods of the product and safeguard the public health. PMID:21722746

  20. Measurement of slice thickness in magnetic resonance image by the impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of measurement of slice thickness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the delta method, and to discuss the measurement precision by the disk diameter and baseline setup of the slice profile of the delta method. The delta method used the phantom which put in the disk made of acrylic plastic. The delta method measured the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) from the slice profile of the disk signal. Evaluation of the measurement precision of the delta method by the disk diameter and baseline setup were verified by comparison of the FWHM and FWTM. In addition, evaluation of the applicability of the delta method was verified by comparison of the FWHM and FWTM using the wedge method. The baseline setup had the proper signal intensity of an average of 10 slices in the disk images. There were statistically significant difference in the FWHM between disk diameter of 10 mm and disk diameter of 30 mm and 5 mm. The FWHM of the disk diameter of 10 mm was smaller than the disk diameter of 30 mm and 5 mm. There was no statistically significant difference in the FWHM between the delta method and the wedge method. There is no difference in the effective slice thickness of the delta method and the wedge method. The delta method has an advantage in measurement of thin slice thickness. (author)

  1. Using pancreas tissue slices for in situ studies of islet of Langerhans and acinar cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Cohrs, Christian M; Tsata, Vasiliki; Chouinard, Julie A; Selck, Claudia; Stertmann, Julia; Reichelt, Saskia; Rose, Tobias; Ehehalt, Florian; Weitz, Jürgen; Solimena, Michele; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Speier, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed protocol for the preparation of pancreas tissue slices. This procedure is less damaging to the tissue and faster than alternative approaches, and it enables the in situ study of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell physiology in a conserved environment. Pancreas tissue slices facilitate the investigation of cellular mechanisms underlying the function, pathology and interaction of the endocrine and exocrine components of the pancreas. We provide examples for several experimental applications of pancreas tissue slices to study various aspects of pancreas cell biology. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of human and porcine pancreas tissue slices for the validation and translation of research findings obtained in the mouse model. Preparation of pancreas tissue slices according to the protocol described here takes less than 45 min from tissue preparation to receipt of the first slices. PMID:25393778

  2. Computer simulation of the slice profile in magnetic-resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulation has been developed of the slice profile generated by the most commonly used pulse sequences in clinical imaging. Artefacts may be produced in an image by features lying outside the desired slice, and variation of the slice profile with various parameters of the pulse sequences used can seriously affect the measurement of relaxation times. This simulation enables a full description of the magnetisation vector to be made at any position across the slice at any time, both during and after the application of a pulse, to any desired accuracy. Presented here is an analysis of the most common pulse sequences: free-induction decay, inversion recovery, spin echo, saturation recovery and Carr-Purcell. Preliminary results are presented of the variation of slice profile with the key interpulse decay times for the first four of these sequences. Saturation recovery is shown to be the best choice of sequence for multiple-point T1 measurement as it presents the best compromise between slice profile artefacts and imaging time. (author)

  3. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order prefe) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  4. A power handling capability improved HTS filter using modified sliced line resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We proposed a modified sliced line resonator with high power handling capability. • The peak current densities of all sliced lines in the resonator are almost equal. • A 10 W HTS filter was designed and fabricated. • The power handling capacity increases 76% compared with the sliced line resonator. - Abstract: In this article, a modified sliced-line resonator for high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters with high power handling capability is proposed. The resonator consists of 18 equal length lines in parallel with 3 unequal length lines on both outsides. The maximum current density of this kind of resonator is investigated and compared with the conventional microstrip line resonator and the sliced-line resonator. The simulations show that the resonator enables an increase of 76% power handling capability compared with the sliced-line resonator. A four-pole HTS filter with a centre frequency of 3.65 GHz and a bandwidth of 0.7% was designed and fabricated based on the proposed resonator. The measurements of the filter show a power handling capability more than 10 W

  5. Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sheng Su

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micronized chitosan-coated sliced papayas were significantly lower than those of the-coated. The sliced papayas that had been treated with 1% MC had a higher total soluble solid content and lower b* value after four days of storage. Also, the chitosan coating on the sliced papaya effectively retarded water loss and inhibited the growth of microorganisms. The results reveal that applying a chitosan coating effectively maintained the quality attributes and prolonged the shelf life of the sliced papayas.

  6. Science Nation: Japanese Quake Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State University engineer John van de Lindt leads a team that's developing new ways to build mid-rise, wood-frame buildings that can stand up to earthquakes. In many earthquake-prone areas of the U.S., wood-frame buildings taller than three stories are uncommon--and building codes generally limit such construction to just four stories. Van de Lindt hopes validation of the new design techniques could safely push those building codes to six stories, or even taller. To test their new design, the team turned to E-Defense, a remote shake table facility in Miki City, Japan. The event was the grand finale in a series of shake tests on wood structures funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES).

  7. Quarks make the earth quake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the characteristics of quarks and reviews the recent discoveries or assumptions concerning this topic. Some theoricians have shown that a particular mix of free quarks with a strong proportion of strange quarks could exist and be stable whatever the temperature may be. Some particular earthquakes could have been triggered by such quark clusters, no bigger than a cell but weighing more than one ton, coming from the universe, impacting the surface of the earth and crossing all its thickness. (A.C.)

  8. Discriminant function analysis for pericolic infiltration in colorectal cancer with dynamic enhanced 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of discriminant function analysis for pericolic infiltration in colorectal cancer on enhanced 64-slice spiral CT and to improve the diagnostic accuracy and specificity of pericolic infiltration. Methods: Dynamic enhanced 64-slice spiral CT was performed in 49 colorectal cancer patients (49 masses in total) before surgery. One or two slices were selected for each mass, with a total of 96 slices. The 96 slices were classified into two groups (pericolic infiltration or non- pericolic infiltration group) according to pathological data. Discriminant analysis was performed on the CT values between the mass and the corresponding pericolic tissue 5 mm from the mass at different time points as follows: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 s. The discriminant function was calculated, and the pericolic infiltration determined by discriminant function and CT morphology were compared with the pathological results. The CT values in pericolic and non-pericolic infiltration groups at different enhancement time points were assessed using analysis of variance. Results: The mean CT values ranged from (43.6±27.8) HU to (52.3±30.8) HU in the pericolic infiltration group, and ranged from (100.4±20.3) HU to (116.2±21.4) HU in the non-pericolic infiltration group. At 20 s and 40 s, the mean CT values were (43.6±27.8) HU and (50.9±27.8) HU in the pericolic infiltration group, (102.0±16.9) HU and (116.2±21.4) HU in the non- pericolic infiltration group, respectively. The mean CT value in the pericolic infiltration group was significantly lower than that in the non-pericolic infiltration group at all contrast enhancement time points (F=6.278, P1 + 0.017X2 - 0.001X12 - 0.001X22 + 0.002X1 × X2. Based on the CT morphology of colorectal cancer, 69 slices were identified correctly and 27 slices were falsely interpreted, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for pericolic infiltration determination were 82.5%, 64.3% and 71.9%, respectively. Based on discriminant function, 85 slices were identified correctly and 11 slices were falsely interpreted, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 85.0%, 91.1% and 88.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The discriminant function with dynamic enhanced 64-slice spiral CT can improve the diagnostic accuracy and specificity of pericolic infiltration in colorectal cancer patients. (authors)

  9. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C; Thor, M; Liu, M; Moissenko, V; Petersen, S E; Høyer, M; Apte, A; Deasy, J O

    2014-07-21

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. PMID:24936956

  10. Quantitative parameters to compare image quality of non-invasive coronary angiography with 16-slice, 64-slice and dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive modality to visualize coronary arteries with an overall good image quality. Improved spatial and temporal resolution of 64-slice and dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) scanners are supposed to have a positive impact on diagnostic accuracy and image quality. However, quantitative parameters to compare image quality of 16-slice, 64-slice MSCT and DSCT are missing. A total of 256 CT examinations were evaluated (Siemens, Sensation 16: n=90; Siemens Sensation 64: n=91; Siemens Definition: n=75). Mean Hounsfield units (HU) were measured in the cavum of the left ventricle (LV), the ascending aorta (Ao), the left ventricular myocardium (My) and the proximal part of the left main (LM), the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the right coronary artery (RCA) and the circumflex artery (CX). Moreover, the ratio of intraluminal attenuation (HU) to myocardial attenuation was assessed for all coronary arteries. Clinical data [body mass index (BMI), gender, heart rate] were accessible for all patients. Mean attenuation (CA) of the coronary arteries was significantly higher for DSCT in comparison to 64- and 16-slice MSCT within the RCA [347±13 vs. 254±14 (64-MSCT) vs. 233±11 (16-MSCT) HU], LM (362±11/275 ± 12/262±9), LAD (332±17/248±19/219±14) and LCX (310±12/210±13/221±10, all p<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between DSCT and 64-MSCT for the LV, the Ao and My. Heart rate had a significant iHeart rate had a significant impact on CA ratio in 16-slice and 64-slice CT only (p<0.05). BMI had no impact on the CA ratio in DSCT only (p<0.001). Improved spatial and temporal resolution of dual-source CT is associated with better opacification of the coronary arteries and a better contrast with the myocardium, which is independent of heart rate. In comparison to MSCT, opacification of the coronary arteries at DSCT is not affected by BMI. The main advantage of DSCT lies with the heart rate independency, which might have a positive impact on the diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  11. A shape-based statistical method to retrieve 2D TRUS-MR slice correspondence for prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Srikantha, Abhilash; Sidibé, Désiré; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C.; Comet, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on shape-context and statistical measures to match interventional 2D Trans Rectal Ultrasound (TRUS) slice during prostate biopsy to a 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) slice of a pre-acquired prostate volume. Accurate biopsy tissue sampling requires translation of the MR slice information on the TRUS guided biopsy slice. However, this translation or fusion requires the knowledge of the spatial position of the TRUS slice and this is only possible with the use of an electro-magnetic (EM) tracker attached to the TRUS probe. Since, the use of EM tracker is not common in clinical practice and 3D TRUS is not used during biopsy, we propose to perform an analysis based on shape and information theory to reach close enough to the actual MR slice as validated by experts. The Bhattacharyya distance is used to find point correspondences between shape-context representations of the prostate contours. Thereafter, Chi-square distance is used to find out those MR slices where the prostates closely match with that of the TRUS slice. Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) values of the TRUS slice with each of the axial MR slices are computed after rigid alignment and consecutively a strategic elimination based on a set of rules between the Chi-square distances and the NMI leads to the required MR slice. We validated our method for TRUS axial slices of 15 patients, of which 11 results matched at least one experts validation and the remaining 4 are at most one slice away from the expert validations.

  12. DATA PUBLISHING AND PRIVACY MAINTENANCE BY AN APPROACH ORIENTED SLICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addagarla Harica

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Techniques based on the some of the oriented strategy and are completely reliable on these particular phenomena for the purpose of the accurate analysis takes place in a well effective manner respectively. A lot of analysis has been made on a present technique where the extraction of the performance is a key role it is quite effective on comparison to that of the several previous existing techniques in a well effective manner where it is further used in the real time scenario respectively. Here the designed strategy is done or implemented by the technically oriented method naming strategy based on the slicing where it is implemented where the accurate classification of the data takes place in a well effective manner both with respect to the row wise as well as the column wise respectively. Here there is a huge challenge to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks or the problems which is mainly used for the degradation of the performance takes place. Where there is no relation between the extracted data based on the properties related to that particular technique in an accurate oriented fashion. From the other end when the application of the other alternative technique as mentioned above the name of the bucket oriented strategy there is no similarity between the data take place and also the minute oriented operations it is a failure based approach respectively. Here by the above generalized technique there may be complete loss o the data therefore there is no sought of the efficiency in the system takes place in an effective manner so that the performance can be reduced in an effective manner where the consideration of the data related to the high dimension oriented approach. There are some of the previously implemented which are implemented in a well efficient manner and its oriented techniques are implemented beyond the security oriented aspect includes method of generalization followed by the phenomena oriented buckets in a quite respective fashion. Actually here the transmission of the data takes place in a environment based on the wireless based strategy in a well efficient manner. The user is very much concerned and frustrated about his own data in the well efficient manner that is either data is completely transferred from one to other end vice versa or not.  

  13. Abscisic Acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation.When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO(3), 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage). PMID:16664022

  14. Tomotherapy planning and image registration for planning CT image slice thickness for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji-Young; Kay, Chul-Seung; Son, Seok-Hyun; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Myong-Ho [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung-Ock; Kang, Young-Nam [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae-Hyuk [The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi-Woong; Park, Hyong-Wook [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI, USA) is a helical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) modality using rotational delivery of a fan beam like a CT scanner to deliver highly conformal radiation dose distributions in an intensity-modulated fashion. Tomotherapy can image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT). In this study, different CT slice thicknesses were acquired in order to evaluate the effect of CT slice thickness on tomotherapy planning and image registration for stereotactic body radio therapy (SBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by using end-to-end (EtoE) phantom (Accuray, USA). EtoE phantom kilovoltage CT (KVCT) and MVCT images were acquired using CT (LightSpeed 16, GE, USA), and tomotherapy (Tomotherapy, USA), respectively. Reference planning target volumes (RPTV) in the EtoE phantom were contoured. The volume of the RPTV was 14.13 cc, and the CT image thicknesses were 2, 4, and 6 mm. CT images were planned based on the tomotherapy planning system (TPS), and all plans had the same constraints and iterations. The PTV volumes were 16.58 cc, 18.88 cc, and 20.28 cc in 2-, 4- and 6 mm planning KVCTs, respectively. The PTV volumes were 16.32, 18.00, and 22.04 cc in 2-, 4-, and 6 mm using MVCT, respectively. Heavy thickness planning of the CT slice overestimated the RPTV volume in TPS. Also, the heavy thickness MVCT image skipped target slice images. The target coverage of the treatment plans for different slice thicknesses was correlated with the tumor volume. At 10-Gy prescription dose of PTV, dose coverages of the reference planning target volume were 10.14, 10.25, and 10.27 Gy for 2-, 4-, and 6-mm slice thicknesses. Therefore, when radiosurgery is supplemented with tomotherapy, thin slice (<2 mm) planning should be done and MVCT images should be acquired.

  15. Tomotherapy planning and image registration for planning CT image slice thickness for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI, USA) is a helical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) modality using rotational delivery of a fan beam like a CT scanner to deliver highly conformal radiation dose distributions in an intensity-modulated fashion. Tomotherapy can image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT). In this study, different CT slice thicknesses were acquired in order to evaluate the effect of CT slice thickness on tomotherapy planning and image registration for stereotactic body radio therapy (SBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by using end-to-end (EtoE) phantom (Accuray, USA). EtoE phantom kilovoltage CT (KVCT) and MVCT images were acquired using CT (LightSpeed 16, GE, USA), and tomotherapy (Tomotherapy, USA), respectively. Reference planning target volumes (RPTV) in the EtoE phantom were contoured. The volume of the RPTV was 14.13 cc, and the CT image thicknesses were 2, 4, and 6 mm. CT images were planned based on the tomotherapy planning system (TPS), and all plans had the same constraints and iterations. The PTV volumes were 16.58 cc, 18.88 cc, and 20.28 cc in 2-, 4- and 6 mm planning KVCTs, respectively. The PTV volumes were 16.32, 18.00, and 22.04 cc in 2-, 4-, and 6 mm using MVCT, respectively. Heavy thickness planning of the CT slice overestimated the RPTV volume in TPS. Also, the heavy thickness MVCT image skipped target slice images. The target coverage of the treatment plans for different slice thicknesses was correlated with the tumor volume. At 10-Gy prescription dose of PTV, dose coverages of the reference planning target volume were 10.14, 10.25, and 10.27 Gy for 2-, 4-, and 6-mm slice thicknesses. Therefore, when radiosurgery is supplemented with tomotherapy, thin slice (<2 mm) planning should be done and MVCT images should be acquired.

  16. The feasibility and limitation of patch-clamp recordings from neonatal rat cardiac ventricular slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Li, Jingbo

    2011-04-01

    Examine the feasibility of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the cardiac ventricular slices of newborn (P(3)-P(7)) Sprague-Dawley rats to identify a better substitute for single cardiac myocytes prepared using enzymatic treatment. High resistance seals (>1 G?) were obtained from cardiac ventricle tissues prepared without using enzymatic treatment. Thereafter, cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used on thin cardiac slices (200 ?m thick) in 2009 in the Institute of Molecular Medicine of Peking University. An averaged sodium current (n=11 cells) was recorded in the cell-attached mode, and this displayed features similar to those previously reported for isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The outward potassium current, hyperpolarization-activated cation channel or I (f) channel (HCN channel), and action potential were recorded in the whole-cell mode (n=2 cells), and the identical properties were observed from the cardiac slices. The cell-attached mode is stable and reliable for recording the ion current. The resting potential for cardiac slices measured using current-clamp recording in the whole-cell mode was -50 to -70 mV. The resting potential of cardiac slices has properties similar to those of enzyme-prepared cardiomyocytes, with the exception that it is positive. We achieved whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cardiac slices and affirmed the feasibility and values of both cell-attached and whole-cell recording modes using this technique. Nevertheless, there remain difficulties and limitations associated with the application of whole-cell patch-clamping to cardiac slices, due primarily to the existence of large amounts of connective tissue even in newborn rats. PMID:21359820

  17. Using the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to derive source parameters and the site attenuation term, kappa (?), using aftershocks of the 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Ryan, K. J.; Funning, G.; Kaiser, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize a dense network of Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) MEMs accelerometers to investigate source parameters and the shallow site attenuation parameter, kappa (?), for aftershocks of the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake in Christchurch, NZ. Approximately 190 QCN accelerometers captured over 180 aftershocks ? Mw4.0 from 9 September 2010 to 31 July 2011. Sensors were deployed in local residences as part of the QCN Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP), collecting vast amounts of data at dense spatial scales. The low cost, 14-bit QCN sensors perform within ANSS Class C sensor standards (Evans et al., 2013), and, the time series and response spectra of the sensors compare favorably to the strong-motion 24-bit NZ GeoNet sensors (Cochran et al., 2011). To find ?, we measure deviations from the ?-2 fall-off on the acceleration amplitude spectrum of Fourier-transformed S-wave windows containing 80% of the S-wave energy. We use both manual and automated methods to fit the slope of the fall-off (i.e., ?) following Anderson and Hough (1984). A known issue with this method is that ? should be measured above the corner frequency (f0) to avoid bias from source effects. Studies have recently reported larger than average stress drops for these aftershocks (e.g., Kaiser and Oth, 2013), which may yield significant variation from the theoretically determined f0. Here, we aim to find the site attenuation, ?, by simultaneously solving for f0 and the seismic moment (M0) for each station and event. For robust results, we employ several methods to find the source and site parameters. Initially, we use a linearized least-squares fitting routine for each event-station pair (e.g., Anderson and Humphrey, 1991). This method does not require a single M0 for an event recorded at multiple stations, resulting in disagreements across M0 and f0 for any given event. Consequently, we also employ a more physically meaningful approach that calculates a single M0 and f0 for a given event using a linearized general inversion scheme (e.g., Sarker and Abers, 1998; Stachnik et al., 2004). Due to a strong trade-off between f0 and ?, we lastly try the nonlinear least-squares Gauss-Newton algorithm, which obtains a constant M0 and produces a more reasonable f0 and well-fitted ?. Initial results show ? estimates range from 0.01 to 0.1 sec and our calculated moment magnitudes (Mw) agree with the USGS NEIC catalog. Another goal of this study is to determine if the QCN data can be confidently used to find source parameters. With the vast amount of strong-motion data collected, QCN offers an ideal dataset to determine source parameters from spectral fitting; particularly in Christchurch, where smaller datasets may contain a proportionally higher number of recordings that are biased by local effects, including site amplification and nonlinear response like liquefaction. For a single event, preliminary findings show that QCN sensors yield higher M0 values than GeoNet stations, thus prompting further investigation.

  18. Intersection-based registration of slice stacks to form 3D images of the human fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kio; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2008-01-01

    Clinical fetal MR imaging of the brain commonly makes use of fast 2D acquisitions of multiple sets of approximately orthogonal 2D slices. We and others have previously proposed an iterative slice-to-volume registration process to recover a geometrically consistent 3D image. However, these approaches depend on a 3D volume reconstruction step during the slice alignment. This is both computationally expensive and makes the convergence of the registration process poorly defined. In this paper our key contribution is a new approach which considers the collective alignment of all slices directly, via shared structure in their intersections, rather than to an estimated 3D volume. We derive an analytical expression for the gradient of the collective similarity of the slices along their intersections, with respect to the 3D location and orientation of each 2D slice. We include examples of the approach applied to simulated data and clinically acquired fetal images.

  19. Thick slices from tomosynthesis data sets: phantom study for the evaluation of different algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Felix; Meyer, Henning; Diekmann, Susanne; Puong, Sylvie; Muller, Serge; Bick, Ulrich; Rogalla, Patrik

    2009-10-01

    Tomosynthesis is a 3-dimensional mammography technique that generates thin slices separated one to the other by typically 1 mm from source data sets. The relatively high image noise in these thin slices raises the value of 1-cm thick slices computed from the set of reconstructed slices for image interpretation. In an initial evaluation, we investigated the potential of different algorithms for generating thick slices from tomosynthesis source data (maximum intensity projection-MIP; average algorithm-AV, and image generation by means of a new algorithm, so-called softMip). The three postprocessing techniques were evaluated using a homogeneous phantom with one textured slab with a total thickness of about 5 cm in which two 0.5-cm-thick slabs contained objects to simulate microcalcifications, spiculated masses, and round masses. The phantom was examined by tomosynthesis (GE Healthcare). Microcalcifications were simulated by inclusion of calcium particles of four different sizes. The slabs containing the inclusions were examined in two different configurations: adjacent to each other and close to the detector and with the two slabs separated by two 1-cm thick breast equivalent material slabs. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices were postprocessed using MIP, AV, and softMip to generate 1-cm thick slices with a lower noise level. The three postprocessing algorithms were assessed by calculating the resulting contrast versus background for the simulated microcalcifications and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for the other objects. The CNRs of the simulated round and spiculated masses were most favorable for the thick slices generated with the average algorithm, followed by softMip and MIP. Contrast of the simulated microcalcifications was best for MIP, followed by softMip and average projections. Our results suggest that the additional generation of thick slices may improve the visualization of objects in tomosynthesis. This improvement differs from the different algorithms for microcalcifications, speculated objects, and round masses. SoftMip is a new approach combining features of MIP and average showing image properties in between MIP and AV. PMID:17955296

  20. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized by Nissl staining, Timm sulphide silver-staining, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, the slice cultures grown on chips did not differ from conventionally grown slice cultures. Neither were there any signs of astrogliosis or neurodegeneration around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and develop normally with display of normal subfield differentiated susceptibilities to known excito- and neurotoxins. From this it is anticipated that the set-up, designed for recording of electrophysiological parameters, can be used for long-term studies of defined neuronal networks and provide valuable information on both normal, neurotoxicological and neuropathological conditions.

  1. Thin Slice Ratings of Client Characteristics in Intake Assessments: Predicting Symptom Change and Dropout in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sasso, Katherine E.; Strunk, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Thin slice ratings of personality have been shown to predict a number of outcomes, but have yet to be examined in the context of psychotherapy. In a sample of 66 clients participating in cognitive therapy for depression, we examined the predictive utility of thin slice rated pre-treatment client traits. On the basis of short video clip excerpts (i.e., thin slices) of intake assessments, trained observers rated clients on personality characteristics and specific personality disorder (PD) trait...

  2. Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Mathematical Model for Inactivation of Nitric Oxide by Rat Cerebellar Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Mehala; Lakshmanan. Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model for the inactivation of nitric oxide by rat cerebellar slices under non-steady state condition has been analyzed. This diffusion-inactivation model was used to estimate the kinetics of NO consumption by the rat cerebellar slices. He’s Homotopy perturbation method is used to solve the first order nonlinear differential equations which describe the concentrations given by net of diffusion and inactivation by the slices. Analytical expressions for the concentration of nitr...

  3. Dosimetric variation due to CT inter-slice spacing in four-dimensional carbon beam lung therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When CT data with thick slice thickness are used in treatment planning, geometrical uncertainty may induce dosimetric errors. We evaluated carbon ion dose variations due to different CT slice thicknesses using a four-dimensional (4D) carbon ion beam dose calculation, and compared results between ungated and gated respiratory strategies. Seven lung patients were scanned in 4D mode with a 0.5 mm slice thickness using a 256-multi-slice CT scanner. CT images were averaged with various numbers of images to simulate reconstructed images with various slice thicknesses (0.5-5.0 mm). Two scenarios were studied (respiratory-ungated and -gated strategies). Range compensators were designed for each of the CT volumes with coarse inter-slice spacing to cover the internal target volume (ITV), as defined from 4DCT. Carbon ion dose distribution was computed for each resulting ITV on the 0.5 mm slice 4DCT data. The accumulated dose distribution was then calculated using deformable registration for 4D dose assessment. The magnitude of over- and under-dosage was found to be larger with the use of range compensators designed with a coarser inter-slice spacing than those obtained with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Although no under-dosage was observed within the clinical target volume (CTV) region, D95 remained at over 97% of the prescribed dose for the ungated strategy and 95% for the gated strategy for all slice thicknesses. An inter-slice spacing of less than 3 mm may be able to minimize do less than 3 mm may be able to minimize dose variation between the ungated and gated strategies. Although volumes with increased inter-slice spacing may reduce geometrical accuracy at a certain respiratory phase, this does not significantly affect delivery of the accumulated dose to the target during the treatment course.

  4. Dosimetric variation due to CT inter-slice spacing in four-dimensional carbon beam lung therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Motoki; Mori, Shinichiro; Kandatsu, Susumu; Baba, Masayuki [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Sharp, Gregory C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Asakura, Hiroshi [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Department of Planning and Management, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: shinshin@nirs.go.jp

    2009-05-21

    When CT data with thick slice thickness are used in treatment planning, geometrical uncertainty may induce dosimetric errors. We evaluated carbon ion dose variations due to different CT slice thicknesses using a four-dimensional (4D) carbon ion beam dose calculation, and compared results between ungated and gated respiratory strategies. Seven lung patients were scanned in 4D mode with a 0.5 mm slice thickness using a 256-multi-slice CT scanner. CT images were averaged with various numbers of images to simulate reconstructed images with various slice thicknesses (0.5-5.0 mm). Two scenarios were studied (respiratory-ungated and -gated strategies). Range compensators were designed for each of the CT volumes with coarse inter-slice spacing to cover the internal target volume (ITV), as defined from 4DCT. Carbon ion dose distribution was computed for each resulting ITV on the 0.5 mm slice 4DCT data. The accumulated dose distribution was then calculated using deformable registration for 4D dose assessment. The magnitude of over- and under-dosage was found to be larger with the use of range compensators designed with a coarser inter-slice spacing than those obtained with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Although no under-dosage was observed within the clinical target volume (CTV) region, D95 remained at over 97% of the prescribed dose for the ungated strategy and 95% for the gated strategy for all slice thicknesses. An inter-slice spacing of less than 3 mm may be able to minimize dose variation between the ungated and gated strategies. Although volumes with increased inter-slice spacing may reduce geometrical accuracy at a certain respiratory phase, this does not significantly affect delivery of the accumulated dose to the target during the treatment course.

  5. Drying Characteristic of Apple Slices Undertaken the Effect of Passive Shelf Solar Dryer and Open Sun Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Aboud

    2013-01-01

    Apple Varity (Golden Delicious) is widely cultivated in Syria and is consumed either fresh or in the form processed products such as juice, marmalade, jam and less as dried product. The present study was conducted to investigate the drying characteristics of apple slices and the quality parameter of apple slices (color, Rehydration ratio) undertaken the slice thickness (5, 10 mm) pre-treatment and the drying method by using a Passive Shelf Solar Dryer (PSSD) and in the Open Sun Drying (...

  6. Dosimetric variation due to CT inter-slice spacing in four-dimensional carbon beam lung therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Motoki; Mori, Shinichiro; Sharp, Gregory C; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kandatsu, Susumu; Endo, Masahiro; Baba, Masayuki

    2009-05-21

    When CT data with thick slice thickness are used in treatment planning, geometrical uncertainty may induce dosimetric errors. We evaluated carbon ion dose variations due to different CT slice thicknesses using a four-dimensional (4D) carbon ion beam dose calculation, and compared results between ungated and gated respiratory strategies. Seven lung patients were scanned in 4D mode with a 0.5 mm slice thickness using a 256-multi-slice CT scanner. CT images were averaged with various numbers of images to simulate reconstructed images with various slice thicknesses (0.5-5.0 mm). Two scenarios were studied (respiratory-ungated and -gated strategies). Range compensators were designed for each of the CT volumes with coarse inter-slice spacing to cover the internal target volume (ITV), as defined from 4DCT. Carbon ion dose distribution was computed for each resulting ITV on the 0.5 mm slice 4DCT data. The accumulated dose distribution was then calculated using deformable registration for 4D dose assessment. The magnitude of over- and under-dosage was found to be larger with the use of range compensators designed with a coarser inter-slice spacing than those obtained with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Although no under-dosage was observed within the clinical target volume (CTV) region, D95 remained at over 97% of the prescribed dose for the ungated strategy and 95% for the gated strategy for all slice thicknesses. An inter-slice spacing of less than 3 mm may be able to minimize dose variation between the ungated and gated strategies. Although volumes with increased inter-slice spacing may reduce geometrical accuracy at a certain respiratory phase, this does not significantly affect delivery of the accumulated dose to the target during the treatment course. PMID:19420422

  7. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlavá?ová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staro?ová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  8. Separation of hard x-ray synchrotron radiation from electron beam slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Chubar, O.; Yu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the electron beam slicing scheme1, 2 considered for National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when a low energy electron bunch crosses from top of a high energy storage ring electron bunch, its coulomb force will kick a short slice (slicing bunch) from the core (core bunch) of the storage ring electron bunch. The short slice bunch and the long core bunch when passing through the 3 m long U20 in-vacuum undulator will radiate X-ray pulses with pulse length ~150 fs and 30 ps respectively. To separate the satellite radiation from the core radiation, we propose a conceptual optical scheme allowing for the separation. To get reliable estimates of the separation performances, we apply the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) physical optics computer code3, 4 to study the wavefront propagation. As calculations show, at 7.8 keV, the separation signal-to-noise ratio can reach 5~12 and the satellite photon flux per pulse at sample can be 5000~20000 photons/0.1%BW with x-ray pulse length 150 ~ 330 fs depending on the separation method and the crossing angle between the low energy electron bunch and the high energy storage ring bunch. Since the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system can reach 100 kHz, the average flux per second can reach 5 x 108 ` 2 x 109 photons/sec/0.1%BW.

  9. Accurate reconstruction of 3D cardiac geometry from coarsely-sliced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Jordan; Deo, Makarand; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Berenfeld, Omer; Snyder, Brett; Boyers, Pamela; Gold, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive validation analysis to assess the geometric impact of using coarsely-sliced short-axis images to reconstruct patient-specific cardiac geometry. The methods utilize high-resolution diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) datasets as reference geometries from which synthesized coarsely-sliced datasets simulating in vivo MRI were produced. 3D models are reconstructed from the coarse data using variational implicit surfaces through a commonly used modeling tool, CardioViz3D. The resulting geometries were then compared to the reference DTMRI models from which they were derived to analyze how well the synthesized geometries approximate the reference anatomy. Averaged over seven hearts, 95% spatial overlap, less than 3% volume variability, and normal-to-surface distance of 0.32 mm was observed between the synthesized myocardial geometries reconstructed from 8 mm sliced images and the reference data. The results provide strong supportive evidence to validate the hypothesis that coarsely-sliced MRI may be used to accurately reconstruct geometric ventricular models. Furthermore, the use of DTMRI for validation of in vivo MRI presents a novel benchmark procedure for studies which aim to substantiate their modeling and simulation methods using coarsely-sliced cardiac data. In addition, the paper outlines a suggested original procedure for deriving image-based ventricular models using the CardioViz3D software. PMID:24345413

  10. Diagnostic value of 64-slice multi-detector row cardiac CTA in symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography has shown high levels of sensitivity and especially negative predictive value regarding the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was designed to determine the value of a 64-slice-MDCT scanner in comparison to invasive coronary angiography for the detection of CAD in a population of symptomatic patients. Fifty-one patients with suspected CAD underwent conventional coronary angiography and ECG-gated cardiac 64-slice-MDCT angiography with a rotation time of 330 ms, a collimation of 64 x 0.6 mm and a slice thickness of 0.75 mm. Blinded patient- and segment-based analysis was performed for the detection of stenoses ?70% of the vessel lumen. 95% of all coronary segments were assessable by MDCT angiography. Patient-based (segment-based) analysis revealed a sensitivity of 97.8% (86.7%), specificity of 50% (95.2%), positive predictive value of 93.6% (75.2%) and negative predictive value of 75% (97.7%). Inter-rater agreement revealed a kappa-value of 0.558 (0.722). In this symptomatic patient group a 64-slice-MDCT scanner shows good agreement on a segment-based analysis but only moderate agreement on a patient-based analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice-MDCT coronary angiography is negatively influenced by the high pre-test probability of this symptomatic patient collective. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic value of 64-slice multi-detector row cardiac CTA in symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg [University Hospital (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Seyfarth, Tobias [Siemens Medical Solutions, Singapore (Singapore); Soo, Chee Siong; Pregalathan, Namasivayam [HSC Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH-Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Cardiac multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography has shown high levels of sensitivity and especially negative predictive value regarding the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was designed to determine the value of a 64-slice-MDCT scanner in comparison to invasive coronary angiography for the detection of CAD in a population of symptomatic patients. Fifty-one patients with suspected CAD underwent conventional coronary angiography and ECG-gated cardiac 64-slice-MDCT angiography with a rotation time of 330 ms, a collimation of 64 x 0.6 mm and a slice thickness of 0.75 mm. Blinded patient- and segment-based analysis was performed for the detection of stenoses {>=}70% of the vessel lumen. 95% of all coronary segments were assessable by MDCT angiography. Patient-based (segment-based) analysis revealed a sensitivity of 97.8% (86.7%), specificity of 50% (95.2%), positive predictive value of 93.6% (75.2%) and negative predictive value of 75% (97.7%). Inter-rater agreement revealed a kappa-value of 0.558 (0.722). In this symptomatic patient group a 64-slice-MDCT scanner shows good agreement on a segment-based analysis but only moderate agreement on a patient-based analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice-MDCT coronary angiography is negatively influenced by the high pre-test probability of this symptomatic patient collective. (orig.)

  12. An olfactory bulb slice-based biosensor for multi-site extracellular recording of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmei; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Ling, Shucai; Yin, Yifei; Dong, Qi; Wang, Ping

    2011-03-15

    Multi-site recording is the important component for studies of the neural networks. In order to investigate the electrophysiological properties of the olfactory bulb neural networks, we developed a novel slice-based biosensor for synchronous measurement with multi-sites. In the present study, the horizontal olfactory bulb slices with legible layered structures were prepared as the sensing element to construct a tissue-based biosensor with the microelectrode array. This olfactory bulb slice-based biosensor was used to simultaneously record the extracellular potentials from multi-positions. Spike detection and cross-correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the electrophysiological activities. The spontaneous potentials as well as the induced responses by glutamic acid took on different electrophysiological characteristics and firing patterns at the different sites of the olfactory bulb slice. This slice-based biosensor can realize multi-site synchronous monitoring and is advantageous for searching after the firing patterns and synaptic connections in the olfactory bulb neural networks. It is also helpful for further probing into olfactory information encoding of the olfactory neural networks. PMID:21295963

  13. Combined texture feature analysis of segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour CT slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, A; Sukanesh, R

    2013-01-01

    A computer software system is designed for the segmentation and classification of benign from malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography (CT) images. This paper presents a method to find and select both the dominant run length and co-occurrence texture features of region of interest (ROI) of the tumour region of each slice to be segmented by Fuzzy c means clustering (FCM) and evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based classifiers in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices. Two hundred and six tumour confirmed CT slices are considered in this study. A total of 17 texture features are extracted by a feature extraction procedure, and six features are selected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This study constructed the SVM-based classifier with the selected features and by comparing the segmentation results with the experienced radiologist labelled ground truth (target). Quantitative analysis between ground truth and segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy, segmentation error and overlap similarity measures such as the Jaccard index. The classification performance of the SVM-based classifier with the same selected features is also evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation method. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices efficiently and accurately with less computational time. The experimental results showed that the proposed system is able to achieve the highest segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by jaccard index and sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23094909

  14. Coupling of organotypic brain slice cultures to silicon-based arrays of electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    1999-01-01

    Fetal or early postnatal brain tissue can be cultured in viable and healthy condition for several weeks with development and preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization as so-called organotypic brain slice cultures. Here we demonstrate and describe how it is possible to establish such hippocampal rat brain slice cultures on biocompatible silicon-based chips with arrays of electrodes with a histological organization comparable to that of conventional brain slice cultures grown by the roller drum technique and on semiporous membranes. Intracellular and extracellular recordings from neurons in the slice cultures show that the electroresponsive properties of the neurons and synaptic circuitry are in accordance with those described for cells in acutely prepared slices of the adult rat hippocampus. Based on the recordings and the possibilities of stimulating the cultured cells through the electrode arrays it is anticipated that the setup eventually will allow long-term studies of defined neuronalnetworks and provide valuable information on both normal and neurotoxicological and neuropathological conditions.

  15. Interactive slice WIM: navigating and interrogating volume data sets using a multisurface, multitouch VR interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Dane; Malbraaten, Nicholas; Le, Trung Bao; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Erdman, Arthur G; Keefe, Daniel F

    2012-10-01

    We present Interactive Slice World-in-Miniature (WIM), a framework for navigating and interrogating volumetric data sets using an interface enabled by a virtual reality environment made of two display surfaces: an interactive multitouch table, and a stereoscopic display wall. The framework addresses two current challenges in immersive visualization: 1) providing an appropriate overview+detail style of visualization while navigating through volume data, and 2) supporting interactive querying and data exploration, i.e., interrogating volume data. The approach extends the WIM metaphor, simultaneously displaying a large-scale detailed data visualization and an interactive miniature. Leveraging the table+wall hardware, horizontal slices are projected (like a shadow) down onto the table surface, providing a useful 2D data overview to complement the 3D views as well as a data context for interpreting 2D multitouch gestures made on the table. In addition to enabling effective navigation through complex geometries, extensions to the core Slice WIM technique support interacting with a set of multiple slices that persist on the table even as the user navigates around a scene and annotating and measuring data via points, paths, and volumes specified using interactive slices. Applications of the interface to two volume data sets are presented, and design decisions, limitations, and user feedback are discussed. PMID:22144526

  16. Effects of dietary fat and enterostatin on dopamine and 5-hydroxytrytamine release from rat striatal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, David A; Teng, Lihong; Park-York, Miejung

    2010-08-19

    Studies have demonstrated defects of DA and 5HT neurotransmission in dietary fat induced obese animals. In the present study, we used a perfusion system to assay the release of DA and 5HT from striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]-DA or [(3)H]-5HT. The release of both DA and 5HT from striatal slices of rats fed a high fat diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, was reduced when compared to striatal slices taken from rats fed a low fat diet. Enterostatin, an endogenous pentapeptide inhibits dietary fat intake when administered peripherally and centrally in animals. The central mechanism for the action of enterostatin is not yet determined even though several mechanisms have been suggested. We have shown that enterostatin enhanced [(3)H]-DA release, but not [(3)H]-5HT release from striatal slices of rats that had been adapted to high fat diet for 10 days. The enterostatin-induced increase in [(3)H]-DA release was blocked by nomifensine. Enterostatin did not alter [(3)H]-DA or [(3)H]-5HT release from striatal slices of rats adapted to high fat or low fat diet feeding for 3 days. These findings suggest that enterostatin may inhibit dietary fat intake by blocking dopamine reuptake transport to increase central striatal DA release from rats that have acquired diminished dopamine signal after an adaptive period of fat consumption. PMID:20599830

  17. Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, M. J.; Shah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of (-)-baclofen, muscimol and phaclofen on endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from rat cortical slices, spinal cord slices and entire retinas were studied. 2. The spontaneous resting release of GABA from the three tissues was 3 to 6 pmol mg-1 wet wt 10 min-1. Depolarization of cortical slices with KCl (50 mM) (high-K) produced an 8 fold increase in GABA release but high-K did not evoke an increased release of GABA from spinal slices or retinas. 3. When rats were ...

  18. Recent developments in multi-wire fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST). [for low cost silicon wafer production from ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.; Smith, M. B.; Lynch, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Slicing is an important processing step for all technologies based on the use of ingots. A comparison of the economics of three slicing techniques shows that the fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) is superior to the internal diameter (ID) and the multiblade slurry (MBS) techniques. Factors affecting contact length are discussed, taking into account kerf width, rocking angle, ingot size, and surface speed. Aspects of blade development are also considered. A high concentration of diamonds on wire has been obtained in wire packs usd for FAST slicing. The material removal rate was found to be directly proportional to the pressure at the diamond tips.

  19. High early mortality in patients with chronic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diarrhea initiating antiretroviral therapy in Haiti: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Rebecca A; Pinkerton, Relana; Leger, Paul; Severe, Patrice; Guerrant, Richard L; Pape, J William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2009-06-01

    This case-control study examines whether chronic diarrhea at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects survival of human immunodefiency virus-infected patients. Cases (288) were treatment-naive, non-pregnant, adults with self report of frequent loose stool for > 3 weeks at the time ART was initiated. One-third of patients had an enteric pathogen identified including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Control patients (400) did not have diarrhea when initiating ART. At six weeks, mortality was 10% in the patients with diarrhea and 5% in the patients without diarrhea (P = 0.009). Chronic diarrhea in patients requesting ART in Haiti is associated with increased early mortality. PMID:19478276

  20. A secondary dengue 4 infection in a traveler returning from Haiti confirmed by virus isolation, complete genome sequencing and neutralisation assay: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Amelie; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Klitting, Raphaelle; Baronti, Cecile; Stein, Andreas; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the clinical and laboratory findings of a dengue 4 virus (DENV) secondary infection in a patient returning from Haiti to France. The diagnostic of acute DEN-4 virus infection was demonstrated by (i) the presence of DEN-4 RNA in two successive serum samples, (ii) the isolation of a DEN-4 virus in Vero cells and subsequent identification of subtype IIb through complete genome sequencing, (iii) the presence of dengue NS1 antigen, (iv) the seroconversion with detection of dengue IgM in the second serum while negative in the first serum. The diagnosis of secondary dengue episode was demonstrated by (i) the presence of dengue IgG in the early serum, and (ii) the demonstration that neutralising antibodies against DEN-3 were present at the acute stage of the disease. Next-generation sequencing has a primary role to play in phylogeographic studies including database sequences, sequences from imported cases, and sequences from autochthonous cases. PMID:25586648

  1. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 oC for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  2. Morphological correlates of protein kinase C induced potentiation in the chick brain slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P M; Burns, B D; Titmuss, J; Webb, A C

    1992-03-01

    Continuous perfusion of a chick brain slice with 10 microM 4 beta phorbol 12,13 diacetate (PDAc) produces a significant increase in the amplitude of the response to electrical stimulation at 0.1 Hz recorded within the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV). This PDAc-induced potentiation and that induced by tetanising stimulation appear to share similar mechanisms. Quantitative electron microscopy of synapses within the IMHV from slices in which a PDAc induced potentiation had been produced 30 minutes earlier showed that compared with control slices there was a significant increase in the size of the postsynaptic density of spine synapses. The change was greater in magnitude than that observed in spine synapses following tetanically induced potentiation. No other synaptic parameters were affected. PMID:1515573

  3. Slice mining of a thick seam with cutting of the consolidated roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, A.; Osiecki, A.; Maniakowski, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses descending slice mining of thick coal seams in the Dymitrow mine. Coal benches left in the roof were crushed during caving and formed the roof for the slice situated below. Roof condition depended on coal physical properties, coal bench thickness and consolidation time. Consolidation process was completed in about 2 years. Thick coal benches formed the direct roof consisting of crushed coal. Thin bench caving resulted in a direct roof consisting of 20% mine stones. Occupational safety during slice mining with cutting of the consolidated roof consisting of crushed coal depended on powered support type, support advance rate and personnel training. Support units were advanced immediately after shearer loader passage. The Fazos 12/28 Oz and Glinik 08/22 Oz shield supports were most efficient.

  4. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing two-dimensional planar slices from linear projections of non-absorbed radiation useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing, a beam of radiation in the shape of a fan is passed through an object lying in the same quasi-plane as the object slice and non-absorbtion thereof is recorded on oppositely-situated detectors aligned with the source of radiation. There is relative rotation between the source-detector configuration and the object within the quasi-plane. Periodic values of the detected radiation are taken, convolved with certain functions, and back-projected to produce a two-dimensional output picture on a visual display illustrating a facsimile of the object slice. A series of two-dimensional pictures obtained simultaneously or serially can be combined to produce a three dimensional portrayal of the entire object

  5. Viscosity scaling of fingering instability in finite slices with Korteweg stress

    CERN Document Server

    Pramanik, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    We perform linear stability analyses (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to investigate the influence of the dynamic viscosity on viscous fingering (VF) instability in miscible slices. Selecting the characteristic scales appropriately the importance of the magnitude of the dynamic viscosity of individual fluids on VF in miscible slice has been shown in the context of the transient interfacial tension. Further, we have confirmed this result for immiscible fluids and manifest the similarities between VF in immiscible and miscible slices with transient interfacial tension. In a more general setting, the findings of this letter will be very useful for multiphase viscous flow, in which the momentum balance equation contains an additional stress term free from the dynamic viscosity.

  6. Control of the release of (3H) -acetylcholine from rat slices by aminopyridines and phencyclidine hippocampal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the ability of various APs and PCP to release ACh from hippocampal slices. The hippocampus of male rats was chosen since cholinergic neurons terminating within the hippocampus have been extensively studied biochemmically, electrophysiologically, and anatomically. The effect of APs and PCP on the spontaneous release of tritium-ACh from the slices is shown. It is shown that both 4-AP and 3,4-AP markedly decreases the ability of K+ to release tritium-ACh from hippocampal slices. Results aer presented which show that the increase in spontaneous release produced by the APs was Ca2+ dependent. Which confirm previus evidence that APs can actively release tritium-ACh from brain tissue by a Ca2+ dependent process

  7. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 ?s) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 ?s at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%. PMID:25738537

  8. Agar-filled rat lung slices for use in toxicologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar-filled explants cultured in serum-free Minimum Essential Medium under ambient air were exposed to 10-3 -10-5 M paraquat or nitrofurantoin up to 48 hr. While control slices exhibited linear rates of protein, DNA, and phosphatidyl-choline synthesis, toxicant-challenged tissue reflected a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in each viability parameter; nonprotein sulfhydryl content also declined following intoxication. These changes were paralleled by an increase in 51Cr release from prelabeled slices, suggesting concomitant loss of membrane integrity. While histologic evaluation of control tissue revealed normal cellular architecture, treated tissue exhibited exhibited septal wall thickening coupled with areas of atelectasis. Because of the ability to correlate biochemical and histological changes, lung slices represent an integrated and controlled system for mechanistic pulmonary toxicology studies

  9. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H?S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. PMID:22370476

  10. The clinical applications of 16-slice Spiral CT in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical applications of 16-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Methods: 33 patients with pulmonary embolism were examined by 16-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiography. The post-processing methods included VR, MPR and MIP. Results: All the 33 cases could better show the position and extent of pulmonary embolism, as well as narrowing of pulmonary arteries. The direct presence of 25 cases acute pulmonary embolism was visualized as a 'total occlusion' or 'double canal' signs. However, 8 cases of chronic pulmonary embolism demonstrated partial or mural filling defect. Conclusion: 16-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiography can be used as a noninvasive and effective method in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, evaluating effect of thrombolysis and flowing-up as well. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by regulating phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Nie, Qixing; Zhang, Fengying; Zhu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    The effect of fumigation with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas on inhibiting enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices was investigated. Browning degree, changes in color, total phenol content, superoxide anion production rate (O2(-)), H2O2 content, antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging activity and the reducing power) and activities of the phenol metabolism-associated enzymes including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 15?lL(-1) H2S significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices (Pantioxidant capacities (Pactivities in the fresh-cut lotus root slices were also significantly inhibited by treatment with H2S (Pantioxidant capacities to alleviate the oxidative damage. PMID:25660900

  12. Diagnostic impact of multiplanar reformations in multi-slice CT of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessment of the diagnostic value of multiplanar reformations (MPR) in multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) by comparing relevant anatomic structures of the larynx and hypopharynx. Materials and Methods: MSCT of the neck was performed in 69 consecutive patients (including 30 laryngeal and 12 hypopharyngeal carcinomas). From a 4 x 1.0 mm collimation data set, 3.0-mm and 1.25-mm axial slices as well as 3-mm coronal and sagittal slices were reconstructed. Using the histological examination as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity regarding tumor infiltration for all relevant anatomical structures of the larynx and the hypopharynx were determined for each reconstruction and compared with the McNemar test. Moreover, 42 patients with laryngeal and/or hypopharyngeal carcinoma were subjectively evaluated to determine whether the respective reconstructions enables a better topographical visualization of the tumor in relation to surrounding structures and, furthermore, whether this has an influence on the therapeutical strategy (operation versus radiation therapy, type of operation, surgical approach). Results: Sensitivities and specificities were not significantly different between the reconstructions. However, coronal and sagittal MPR provided a better topographical visualization of the tumor in 14 of 42 (33%) of the patients, and influenced the therapeutical strategy in 8 of 42 (33%) of the patients, and influenced the therapeutical strategy in 8 of 42 (19%)he therapeutical strategy in 8 of 42 (19%) of the patients. A lowered signal-to-noise ratio impeded the evaluation of the relatively thin 1.25-mm axial slices in more than 23% of the cases. Conclusion: Besides the 3-mm axial slices, coronal and sagittal MPR can improve the topographical visualization of laryngopharyngeal tumors and are recommended for preoperative MSCT of laryngeal and/or hypopharyngeal carcinomas. Additionally reconstructed 1.25-mm axial slices can be discarded since they do not hold a higher value compared to 3-mm axial reconstructions. (orig.)

  13. A Multicenter Observer Performance Study of 3D JPEG2000 Compression of Thin-Slice CT

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Andriole, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the compression level at which 3D JPEG2000 compression of thin-slice CTs of the chest and abdomen–pelvis becomes visually perceptible. A secondary goal was to determine if residents in training and non-physicians are substantially different from experienced radiologists in their perception of compression-related changes. This study used multidetector computed tomography 3D datasets with 0.625–1-mm thickness slices of standard chest, abdomen, or pelv...

  14. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode Komolafe; Olaleye, Tolulope M.; Seeger, Rodrigo L.; Carvalho, Fabiano B.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Klimaczewski, Claudia V.; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.; Rocha, Joao B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200?µg/mL) or catechin (1, 5, or 10?µg/mL) for 30?min followed by further incubation with 300?µM H2O2, 300?µM SNP, or 200?µM PbCl2 f...

  15. The use of multi-slice spiral CT angiography for hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the use of CT angiography in the diagnosis of hemoptysis and guiding the treatment of it with 64-slice spiral CT. Methods: Twenty two patients with repeated and massive hemoptysis underwent chest CT angiography. Results: The blood supply of hemoptysis was nonbronchial systemic arteries in 3 patients, single or multiple bronchial arteries in 15 patients, mixed arteries of nonbronchial systemic and bronchial arteries in 3 patients and abnormal systemic arteries in 1 patient. Conclusion: With 64-slice spiral CT, CT angiography provided useful information for the treatment of hemoptysis by guiding bronchial arterial embolization. (authors)

  16. Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Pendre, N. K.; Nema, Prabhat K.; Sharma, Harsh P.; Rathore, S. S.; Kushwah, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, asco...

  17. Reproducibility of multi-slice spiral computed tomography scans: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) images interpolation artifacts are present. The relationship between the x-ray tube rotation angle and these artifacts is demonstrated. A head phantom was repeatedly scanned with a four-slice CT scanner at different pitch values. Two scans, made with identical scan parameters, nearly always have different x-ray tube starting angles. Consequently, artifacts appeared differently and residual artifacts appeared when subtractions were made. We conclude that only if the x-ray tube starting angle is equal for both scans or if a very low pitch is used, images are highly reproducible

  18. Preoperative planning for renal cell carcinoma: benefits of 64-slice CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri Dighe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the primary form of treatment in localized renal cell carcinoma. Adrenal-sparing nephrectomy, laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing partial nephrectomy are growing trends for more limited surgical resection. Accurate preoperative imaging is essential for planning the surgical approach. Multislice CT and MR are regarded as the most efficient modalities for imaging renal neoplasms. Development of faster CT systems like 64-slice CT with improved resolution and capability to achieve isotropic reformats have significantly enhanced the role of CT in imaging of renal neoplasms.This review article describes the present state, technique and benefits of 64-slice CT scanning in preoperative planning for RCC.

  19. GnRH neuron firing and response to GABA in vitro depend on acute brain slice thickness and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Stephanie; Piet, Richard; Iremonger, Karl; Hwa Yeo, Shel; Clarkson, Jenny; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-08-01

    The GnRH neurons exhibit long dendrites and project to the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to generate an acute brain slice preparation that enabled recordings to be undertaken from GnRH neurons maintaining the full extent of their dendrites or axons. A thick, horizontal brain slice was developed, in which it was possible to record from the horizontally oriented GnRH neurons located in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA). In vivo studies showed that the majority of AHA GnRH neurons projected outside the blood-brain barrier and expressed c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. On-cell recordings compared AHA GnRH neurons in the horizontal slice (AHAh) with AHA and preoptic area (POA) GnRH neurons in coronal slices [POA coronal (POAc) and AHA coronal (AHAc), respectively]. AHAh GnRH neurons exhibited tighter burst firing compared with other slice orientations. Although ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) excited GnRH neurons in all preparations, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was excitatory in AHAc and POAc but inhibitory in AHAh slices. GABA(A) receptor postsynaptic currents were the same in AHAh and AHAc slices. Intriguingly, direct activation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors respectively stimulated and inhibited GnRH neurons regardless of slice orientation. Subsequent experiments indicated that net GABA effects were determined by differences in the ratio of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in "long" and "short" dendrites of GnRH neurons in the different slice orientations. These studies document a new brain slice preparation for recording from GnRH neurons with their extensive dendrites/axons and highlight the importance of GnRH neuron orientation relative to the angle of brain slicing in studying these neurons in vitro. PMID:22719049

  20. Evaluation of small ischemic lesions after carotid artery stenting: the usefulness of thin-slice diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamatogi, Shigenari; Furukawa, Matakazu; Iida, Etsushi; Takahashi, Shotaro; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Ishihara, Hideyuki; Kato, Shoichi; Suzuki, Michiyasu [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    There has been concern regarding the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to evaluate the ischemic lesions associated with carotid artery stent placement (CAS). Some small lesions may be detected not by standard DWI but by thin-slice DWI alone, since most of the cerebral lesions are very small in size and clinically silent. The purpose of this study is to compare the detectability of the small ischemic lesions after CAS by standard and thin-slice DWI. Both standard DWI with slice thickness of 6 mm and thin-slice DWI with slice thickness of 2 mm were obtained at the same MR examination within 2 to 7 days after 20 procedures of CAS in 17 patients. Number and measured diameter size of the detected lesions on both DWI were compared. All CAS procedures in 17 patients were successfully completed. The focal ischemic lesions were detected in 14 of 20 on thin-slice DWI and seven examinations on standard DWI. The total numbers of hyperintense lesions were 31 on thin-slice DWI and ten on standard DWI (p < 0.001). The sizes of these ten lesions on thin-slice DWI were larger than those of standard DWI, and the mean size of the thin-slice DWI and that of standard DWI were significantly different (p < 0.005). Thin-slice DWI was able to detect small cortical lesions better than standard DWI. Thin-slice DWI may be useful to evaluate small silent ischemic lesions after CAS. (orig.)