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1

A hypothesis of earth quake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. We will define a quantity, the event-degree, in the paper. This quantity plays an important role in the model of quakes forecasting. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: "(i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most maj...

Tsai, Yeong-shyeong

2008-01-01

2

Haiti - OECD  

... Haiti - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Haiti 6-July-2010 English, ,...the Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States: Country Case Study Haiti This report reviews the implementation in Haiti of the Principles for ...apportée en Haïti Also Available Building a Coherent Approach to Evaluating the Haiti Earthquake Response 15-April-2010 English Building a Coherent Approach to Evaluating the ... Haiti Earthquake Response There will be strong pressure to account for the results of the massive aid effort that is currently being delivered and ...

3

A New Era for Justice Sector Reform in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the months before the January earthquake, Haiti and its criminal justice institutions were the subject of an unprecedented effort by two UN agencies to measure the state of the Rule of Law. Drawing on the results of that pre-quake assessment as well as on post-quake assessments of the justice sector, this paper raises four questions that should guide recovery and further development of the police, courts, and prisons in Haiti—questions that focus attention on the meaning of justice secto...

Stone, Christopher

2010-01-01

4

Make a Quake  

Science.gov (United States)

When quakes strike urban areas, the toll in life and property can be great. Luckily, scientists have been working to uncover safer methods of construction and new structural techniques that "mitigate" the effects of earthquakes. In this simple simulation, you choose the ground on which to erect your building and which quake-proofing technological prevention to employ. You can then subject your building to three levels of intensity and see how it stands up.

2010-01-01

5

A hypothesis of earth quake  

CERN Document Server

Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: (i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most major quakes in continental plates Eurasian Plate, North America Plate, South America Plate, Africa Plate and Australia Plate are triggered breaking. (iii) These triggered quakes are triggered by the movements of high pressure centers and low pressure centers of the atmosphere on continental plates. (iv) How can the movements of the high pressure centers trigger a quake? It depends on the extent of the high pressure center and the speed of the movement. Here, we stress high pressure center instead of low pressure center because it is dominated by high pressure center mostly. Of course, the boundary of the plates must have stored enough energy to have quakes, that is, near t...

Tsai, Yeong-Shyeong

2008-01-01

6

Haiti - norad.no  

... Haiti - norad.no Skip to main content NOT TRANSLATED: javascript-required Norsk Sitemap A A A SearchSearchGo Thematic areas Countries Tools/publications Evaluation ...no / Countries / Latin America / Haiti Haiti Norway has given over 800 million NOK for rebuilding of Haiti after the catastrophic earthquake. Published 03/...Updated 19/09/2013 Print Tweet By sector By partner Aid trends Bilateral assistance to Haiti 2012 : 129,3 million kroner Laster data...... Bilateral assistance to Haiti 2012 : 129,3 million kroner Laster data... Bilateral assistance to Haiti 2012 : ...

7

The QuakeAware Business Plan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This business plan details the operating, marketing, financial, competitive, and technological landscapes of QuakeAware. QuakeAware is a website and iPhone / Android mobile phone application that helps citizens prepare for and react to a local earthquake. Presently, QuakeAware faces the challenges of becoming a sustainable enterprise and selecting the optimal strategic direction and operating mode for its future growth. This business plan identifies and assesses the options available to Quake...

Cole, Ryan Thomas; Paor, Donal Richard

2011-01-01

8

Orthopedic Anesthesia in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare practitioners from around the world responded almost immediately in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. This article reports on the efforts of an orthopedic trauma team in Haiti and its efforts in providing surgery without general anesthesia.

Osteen, Kristie D.

2011-01-01

9

Venezuela Cancels Haiti'  

... Venezuela Cancels Haiti's Oil Debt - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives ...Monthly Review MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2010 / January / 26 / Venezuela Cancels Haiti's Oil Debt Posted on January 26, 2010 Venezuela ...announced Monday that he would write off the undisclosed sum Haiti owes Venezuela for oil as part of the ALBA bloc’s plans to help ... “Haiti has no debt with Venezuela, just the opposite: Venezuela has a historical debt with that nation, with that people ...

10

The naming of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

David Geggus

1997-01-01

11

Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar  

CERN Document Server

In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument shows that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-induced energy conversion from seismic vibrations to magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetar.

Bastrukov, S; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I

2011-01-01

12

Citizen initiatives in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2010 earthquake in Haiti ushered in a new era for the role and power of technology and communication systems in disaster response – especially for how local responders used them.

Imogen Wall

2011-10-01

13

Hope for Haiti?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti, one of the world's five poorest nations, gets international attention because of the number of refugees who leave by boat in search of a better future. The 80,000 inhabitants of Ile de la Gonave are neglected, even in Haiti--there is no government medical post, and facilities in the health posts run by missions are minimal. Typhoid and cholera epidemics threaten the island. Médecins Sans Frontières plans to send staff and supplies and train local health workers.

Veeken, H.

1993-01-01

14

Haiti and Internet Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Who owns the top level Internet domains? How are decisions made over their assignments? This paper explores the recent history of the top level domain HT for Haiti, as an example of the need to re-examine procedures and processes developed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and other organizations and individuals.

Quarterman, John S.

1997-01-01

15

Fundraising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! 58 750 CHF collected for Haiti! Following the appeal launched on 15 February, the CERN Management and Staff Association would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and thank the whole of the CERN community for its generosity towards the victims of the Haiti earthquake. This is a record, an unprecedented show of solidarity at CERN, equal to the immense needs following this catastrophe. Thank you on behalf of the Haitians, they will most certainly need it in the coming months.   The donations will be shared out among various institutions and associations in both Host States, in accordance with the established practice in the event of a catastrophe hitting a non-Member State. The size and activities of each of them have been taken into account. After studying the various requests for aid, the beneficiaries are now known and will receive:     - IFRC - International Federation of Red Cross   and Red&...

2010-01-01

16

Ionospheric anomalies associated with the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 observed by DEMETER satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the ionospheric anomalies around the time of a strong earthquake (M = 7.0 which occurred in Haiti region (18.457° N, 72.533° W on 12 January 2010. DEMETER satellite data have been used to study the plasma parameters variation during the Haiti earthquake. One day (11 January 2010 before the earthquake there is a significant enhancement of electron density and electron temperature near the epicenter. Decrease of electron temperature is observed few days after the earthquake. Anomalous plasma parameter variations are detected both in day and nighttimes before the quake. Statistical processing of the DEMETER data demonstrates that satellite data can play an important role for the study of precursory phenomena associated with earthquakes.

S. Sarkar

2012-03-01

17

Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument suggests that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from a set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-decay induced energy conversion fro...

Bastrukov, S.; Yu, J. W.; Xu, R. X.; Molodtsova, I.

2011-01-01

18

76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice...Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen). By...methods: Email: Quaking_Aspen_Wind_Energy_WY@blm.gov; or...

2011-11-08

19

Surgical palliative care in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palliative care in itself has many challenges; these challenges are compounded exponentially when placed in the setting of a mass casualty event, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Haiti itself was an austere environment with very little infrastructure before the disaster. US surgeons, intensivists, and nurses worked hand in hand with other international providers and Haitian volunteers to provide the best care for the many. Improvisation and teamwork as well as respect for the Haitian caregivers were crucial to their successes. Sisyphean trials lie ahead. Haiti and its people must not be forgotten. PMID:22405433

Huffman, Joan L

2012-03-01

20

New Type of Deeper, Longer Quake Discovered  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast reports on the discovery of a new kind of earthquake that is much deeper and longer lasting than other kinds of quakes. These long, super-deep tremors originate at a depth of 15-20 miles, below the crust in the upper mantle of Earth, and last 10-20 minutes. The broadcast reports on their occurrence in California and how research is being conducted to determine their relationship to other seismic activity along the San Andreas Fault. The clip is 4 minutes and 48 seconds in length.

 
 
 
 
21

Thanks from Haiti  

CERN Document Server

Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

22

Haiti, país mal dito  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay seeks to share critical reflection based on time spent in Haiti before the advent of the earthquake where the author participated on a humanitarian medical aid mission. After experiencing Haiti face to face, we came to question the superficial image that the public has about the country, disregarding both the state of human degradation present in the nation - partially revealed to the world after the earthquake - and the political forces and international economic interests that provoke and sustain this reality. The paper also reflects on the mystification processess in which international news agencies participate and the political evil that historically has kept this population in a state of neglect and exploitation as well as in a perpetual state of extreme psychic and human suffering far beyond the notion of discontentment. The mechanisms that solely blame the poor nations for their ills by hiding the real violators of human and economic rights are also pointed out from a Haitian point of view.

Christina Sutter

2010-01-01

23

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Golden Nancy

2002-01-01

24

Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haiti maavärinas on süüdistatud nii USA-d kui ka üleloomulikke jõude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste võlg!" ütleb autor, et päästetööd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

2010-01-01

25

Fund Raising for Haiti  

CERN Document Server

Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

Association du personnel

2010-01-01

26

Rapid scientific response to Landers quake  

Science.gov (United States)

Early on the morning of June 28, 1992, millions of people in southern California were awakened by the largest earthquake (Ms 7.5, Mw 7.4) in the western U.S. in the past 40 years. The quake initiated near the town of Landers, Calif., at 11:57 (GMT) and ruptured to the north and then the northwest along a 70-km stretch of the Mojave Shear Zone. Fortunately, the strongest shaking occurred in uninhabited regions of the Mojave desert, but one child was killed in Yucca Valley and 400 people were injured in the surrounding area. The communities of Landers, Yucca Valley, and Joshua Tree in San Bernardino County sustained significant ($100 million) damage to buildings and roads. Damage to water and power lines also caused problems in many of the desert areas.

Mori, J.; Hudnut, K.; Jones, L.; Hauksson, E.; Hutton, K.

27

Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain Victims ... people who experienced the devastating 2011 earthquake in Japan shows that although traumatic events can shrink parts ...

28

Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated by the great Tohoku quake (11/03/2011). For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. From theoretical relations between air density, and vertical and horizontal velocities inside the gravity wave, we demonstrate that the measured perturbations are consistent with a gravity wave generated by the tsunami, and provide a way to estimate the propagation azimuth of the gravity wave. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It will allow to scan the GOCE data set to search for gravity wave crossings. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

Garcia, Raphael F.; Doornbos, Eelco; Bruinsma, Sean; Hebert, Hélène

2014-05-01

29

Haiti: uma reconstrução em pedaços  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O fantasma do passado colonial, juntamente com o oportunismo e o pragmatismo da ajuda humanitária internacional produzem ações desencontradas no processo de reconstrução do Haiti após o terremoto.

Thiago Gehre Galvão

2010-03-01

30

Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water resources in Haiti need a more rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be described as follows: the country receives as annual precipitation about 40 billion m3 of water. However, 70% of this water is lost by evapotranspiration and of the remaining fraction, considered as a renewable resource, about 20% drains through rivers and discharges into the sea. The remaining 10 % infiltrates into local aquifers. In Haiti water is not always available in the place where it is needed, depending on the precipitation regime, geography, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, most difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of the available resources. Since each economic sector in Haiti has specific needs, water resources management becomes a very important issue to provide access to water of sufficient quality and quantity to the population. This point is also relevant for adequate preservation of natural ecosystems and other uses. In Haiti there are many areas which contain aquifers: Plaine de l'Arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives and Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is heavily exploited due to its geographical location. In fact, since 1980, many studies, using isotope hydrology tools, have been carried out on this aquifer. Almost all studies conducted in the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac showed the same conclusion: the aquifer system is overexploited. Some recommendations have been made, but the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer still continues. Many years after these studies were conducted, the situation has not changed. In 2001, a project dealing with the integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac aquifer was initiated with the cooperation of the IAEA. Despite the difficulties, it is considered that this is the best way to solve this water resources problem. (author)

2007-12-01

31

Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

Vosman, Hendrik

2010-01-01

32

Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow Induced Vibration  

CERN Document Server

Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. The latter is produced by stick-slip friction between the wall and the granular material in tall narrow silos. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence and frequency of flow pulsations are determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating motion of the granular material drives the oscillatory motion of the silo and the occurrence of silo quake does not require a resonant interaction between the silo and the granular material.

Muite, B K; Rao, K K; Sundaresan, S; Muite, Benson K.; Quinn, Shandon F.; Sundaresan, Sankaran

2003-01-01

33

Cholera vaccination in urban Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

2013-10-01

34

Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water in Haiti needs a rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be resumed in this manner: The country receives by means 40 milliards cubic meters of water. However, 70% of this water was lost by evapotranspiration and the other part which shows the renewable water is distributed like that: 20% of amount drain along of the surface through the river and go to the sea and 10% filters through the aquifer. In Haiti water is not always on the use place it varies in an area to the other depending of some factors like: precipitation, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, some difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of this resource. Whereas, different needs of utilization sectors, water resources management become a need so as to be able to settle water in quality and in quantity sufficiently for natural preservation, ecosystem and else. In Haiti, we have many plains which contain aquifer. We can name them: Plaine de l'arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives et Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is the most exploited because of geographical position. In fact, since 1980 many studies on isotope hydrology have been realized on these. About Plaine du Cul-de-Sac all studies realized show almost the same result: The exploitation limit of this aquifer. Some recommendations have been done in spite of, they still continue with the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer. Many years have been passed but nothing changed. In 2001, with the cooperation of IAEA, the project aquifer integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac has been started. We have some difficulties but I think it's the one of the best ways in order to solve this problem. (author)

2007-05-21

35

How the U.S. Could Help Haiti - Climate &  

... Could Help Haiti - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives Articles ... Could Help Haiti Posted on February 5, 2010 How the U.S. Could Help Haiti Two measures would immediately help Haitians:... should do to help Haiti, Haitian author Robert Fatton replied: “The international community must shift its priorities and concentrate on helping ... could immediately take that would greatly assist Haitians in Haiti and in the diaspora in this process of sustainable, democratic rebuilding: ...

36

Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow-Induced Vibration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. In tall and narrow silos, the latter is produced by stickslip friction between the wall and the granular material. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence of flow pulsations is determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating motion ofthe granular materia...

2004-01-01

37

Disseminating surgery effectively and efficiently in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for surgical care in Haiti remains vast despite the enormous relief efforts after the earthquake in 2010. As the poorest country in the Western hemisphere, Haiti lacks the necessary infrastructure to provide surgical care to its inhabitants. In light of this, a multidisciplinary approach led by Partners In Health and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center is improving the access to surgical care and offering treatment of a broad spectrum of pathology. This article discusses how postearthquake Haiti partnerships involving academic institutions can alleviate the surgical burden of disease and, in the process, serve as a profound educational experience for the academic community. The lessons learned from Haiti prove applicable in other resource-constrained settings and invaluable for the next generation of surgeons. PMID:23851780

Patel, Anup; Pfaff, Miles; Clune, James E; Mirensky, Tamar; Katona, Lindsay B; Geiling, James; Rosen, Joseph

2013-07-01

38

AIDS in Haiti: a bibliometric analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: In Haiti, AIDS has become the leading cause of death in sexually active adults. Increasingly, AIDS has become a disease of women and children. Previous bibliometric studies have shown the emergence of Haiti as a leading country in the production of AIDS literature in the Latin American and Caribbean regions. No information exists, however, regarding the type of publications produced, the collaboration patterns used, or the subject content analysis of this production. The purpose o...

2000-01-01

39

Haiti, insecurity, and the politics of asylum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I seek to show how states of insecurity provoked by ongoing social, economic, and political ruptures in Haiti can disorder individual subjectivity and generate the flight of individuals seeking asylum within and across borders. Nongovernmental actors working in Haiti and with Haitians in the diaspora frequently managed the long-term psychosocial effects of insecurity. Their interventions can range from repressive to compassionate and influence the formation of identity and th...

James, Erica C.

2011-01-01

40

The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART.

Koenig Serena P; Riviere Cynthia; Leger Paul; Severe Patrice; Atwood Sidney; Fitzgerald Daniel W; Pape Jean W; Schackman Bruce R

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

2010-05-01

42

Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

2010-01-01

43

Haiti. Energy situation 1992/93. Haiti. Energiewirtschaft 1992/93  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Haiti is reviewed on the basis of selected data. This includes statistics on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. (UA)

1994-01-01

44

Securing peace in Haiti :an assessment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on assessing the role of the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH) in providing stability, security and respect for human rights and the rule of law in Haiti. The proposition is that the efforts have been ineffective and goes on to ask the question whether such an outsider-initiative intervention really advances political order and stability. The study also attempts to illustrate Haitian society’s perception of the peace keeping operations in Haiti thus far. Th...

Cei?de, Edwin Luc

2008-01-01

45

Pseudo-slice knots  

CERN Multimedia

For n >1, if the Seifert form of a knotted 2n-1 sphere K in S^{2n+1} has a metabolizer, then the knot is slice. Casson and Gordon proved that this is false in dimension three (n = 1). However, in the three dimensional case it is true that if the metabolizer has a basis represented by a strongly slice link then K is slice. The question has been asked as to whether it is sufficient that each basis element is represented by a slice knot to assure that K is slice. For genus one knots this is of course true; here we present a genus two counterexample.

Livingston, C

2000-01-01

46

Serving in Haiti: Perspective of a Physician  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the wake of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, medical relief organizations and individual practitioners mobilized to provide assistance. Here, an emergency medicine physician who worked with a Louisiana-based team in the mountains in one of the hardest hit areas relates his experiences.

Vinroot, Richard

2011-01-01

47

Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Altered El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, with classical cholera toxin B gene, was isolated from 16 patients with severe diarrhea at St. Mark’s Hospital, Arbonite, Haiti, <3 weeks after onset of the current cholera epidemic. Variable-number tandem-repeat typing of 187 isolates showed minimal diversity, consistent with a point source for the epidemic.

Ali, Afsar; Chen, Yuansha; Johnson, Judith A.; Redden, Edsel; Mayette, Yfto; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Stine, O. Colin; Morris, J. Glenn

2011-01-01

48

An outlook on event rates of induced earth quakes in the Netherlands: a preliminary analysis  

CERN Document Server

The increasing rate in earth quakes in the Netherlands is attributed to the enhanced depletion of Groningen natural gas, currently at a rate of 50 billion m3 per year. Here, we report on an exponential growth in the earth quake event rate, based on a surprisingly accurate fit to publicly available KNMI data. The data show a doubling in the rate every 6.2 years, leading to a rate of one event per day in 2025. A trend in the magnitude of the quakes is indiscernible.

van Putten, Maurice H P M

2013-01-01

49

Haiti Unbound: A Spiralist Challenge to the Postcolonial Canon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Touching on the role and destiny of Haiti in the Americas, Haiti Unbound engages with long-standing issues of imperialism and resistance culture in the transatlantic world. Glover's timely project emphatically articulates Haiti's regional and global centrality, combining vital 'big picture' reflections on the field of postcolonial studies with elegant close-reading-based analyses of the philosophical perspective and creative practice of a distinctively Haitian literary phenomenon. Providing i...

Glover, Kaiama L.

2011-01-01

50

The Virtual Slice Setup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population...

Lytton, William W.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Hines, Michael L.

2008-01-01

51

Slices and Ellipse Geometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the new problems emerging in charged beam transport for SASE FEL dynamics. The optimization of the magnetic transport system for future devices requires new concepts associated with the slice emittance and the slice phase space distribution. We study the problem of electron beam slice matching and guiding in transport devices for SASE FEL emission discussing matching criteria and how the associated design of the electron transport line may affect the FEL output pe...

Dattoli, G.; Sabia, E.; Del Franco, M.; Petralia, A.

2011-01-01

52

ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2006-01-01

53

QuakeML: XML for Seismological Data Exchange and Resource Metadata Description  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange format for seismology that is under development. Current collaborators are from ETH, GFZ, USC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, and ISTI. QuakeML development was motivated by the lack of a widely accepted and well-documented data format that is applicable to a broad range of fields in seismology. The development team brings together expertise from communities dealing with analysis and creation of earthquake catalogs, distribution of seismic bulletins, and real-time processing of seismic data. Efforts to merge QuakeML with existing XML dialects are under way. The first release of QuakeML will cover a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Further extensions are in progress or planned, e.g., for macroseismic information, location probability density functions, slip distributions, and ground motion information. The QuakeML language definition is supplemented by a concept to provide resource metadata and facilitate metadata exchange between distributed data providers. For that purpose, we introduce unique, location-independent identifiers of seismological resources. As an application of QuakeML, ETH Zurich currently develops a Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit as a contribution to CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability). We follow a collaborative and transparent development approach along the lines of the procedures of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). QuakeML currently is in working draft status. The standard description will be subjected to a public Request for Comments (RFC) process and eventually reach the status of a recommendation. QuakeML can be found at http://www.quakeml.org.

Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Kästli, P.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; QuakeML Working Group

2007-12-01

54

The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Conclusion Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

Fitzgerald Daniel W

2008-02-01

55

Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been cause...

Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

2013-01-01

56

Cholera Management and Prevention at Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 2010, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer Haiti treated some of the first patients with cholera in Haiti. Over the following 10 months, a strategic plan was developed and implemented to improve the management of cases at the hospital level and to address the underlying risk factors at the community level.

Ernst, Silvia; Weinrobe, Carolyn; Bien-aime, Charbel; Rawson, Ian

2011-01-01

57

Haiti's Downward Spiral: Causes, Consequences, and the Way Ahead.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the onset of research, this paper set out to explore the causes and consequences of Haiti as a failed state and then discuss initiatives and opportunities for further SOUTHCOM engagement. Upon concluding research, it appears that what Haiti requires is...

J. L. Jarnac

2011-01-01

58

Neuronal avalanches, epileptic quakes and other transient forms of neurodynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Power-law behaviors in brain activity in healthy animals, in the form of neuronal avalanches, potentially benefit the computational activities of the brain, including information storage, transmission and processing. In contrast, power-law behaviors associated with seizures, in the form of epileptic quakes, potentially interfere with the brain's computational activities. This review draws attention to the potential roles played by homeostatic mechanisms and multistable time-delayed recurrent inhibitory loops in the generation of power-law phenomena. Moreover, it is suggested that distinctions between health and disease are scale-dependent. In other words, what is abnormal and defines disease it is not the propagation of neural activity but the propagation of activity in a neural population that is large enough to interfere with the normal activities of the brain. From this point of view, epilepsy is a disease that results from a failure of mechanisms, possibly located in part in the cortex itself or in the deep brain nuclei and brainstem, which truncate or otherwise confine the spatiotemporal scales of these power-law phenomena. PMID:22805061

Milton, John G

2012-07-01

59

QuakeSim and the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing simulation and analysis tools in order to develop a solid Earth Science framework for understanding and studying active tectonic and earthquake processes. The goal of QuakeSim and its extension, the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO), is to study the physics of earthquakes using state-of-the-art modeling, data manipulation, and pattern recognition technologies. We are developing clearly defined accessible data formats and code protocols as inputs to simulations, which are adapted to high-performance computers. The solid Earth system is extremely complex and nonlinear, resulting in computationally intensive problems with millions of unknowns. With these tools it will be possible to construct the more complex models and simulations necessary to develop hazard assessment systems critical for reducing future losses from major earthquakes. We are using Web (Grid) service technology to demonstrate the assimilation of multiple distributed data sources (a typical data grid problem) into a major parallel high-performance computing earthquake forecasting code. Such a linkage of Geoinformatics with Geocomplexity demonstrates the value of the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO) Grid concept, and advances Grid technology by building the first real-time large-scale data assimilation grid.

Donnellan, Andrea; Rundle, John; Fox, Geoffrey; McLeod, Dennis; Grant, Lisa; Tullis, Terry; Pierce, Marlon; Parker, Jay; Lyzenga, Greg; Granat, Robert; Glasscoe, Margaret

2006-12-01

60

QuakeTables: A Federated Ontology-Based Database System for Geoscience  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeTables is an ontology-based infrastructure that supports the diverse data types and federated data sets needed to support large-scale modeling of inter-seismic and tectonic processes using boundary element, finite element and analytic applications. This includes fault, paleoseismic and space-bourn generated data. Some of fault data housed in QuakeTables includes CGS 1996, CGS 2002 and the official UCERF 2 deformation models. Currently, QuakeTables supports two forms of radar data, namely, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Repeat Pass Interferometry (RPI) products in the form of interferograms. All data types are integrated and presented to the end-user with tools to map and visualize the data with the added ability to download it in the desired format for local and/or remote processing. In QuakeTables, each dataset is represented in a self-consistent form as it was originally found in a publication or resource along with its metadata. To support the modelers and scientists need to view different interpretations of the same data, an ontology processor is used to generate such derivations to the desired models and formats while preserving the original dataset and maintaining the metadata for the different models and the links to the original dataset. The QuakeSim team developed a reference model that is used by applications such as Simplex and GeoFest. As a result, this allows the preservation of data and provides a reference for result comparison in the same tool. Through its API and web-services interfaces, QuakeTables delivers data to both the end-users and the QuakeSim portal.

Al-Ghanmi, R.; McLeod, D.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

Joachim Saul

2011-04-01

62

The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting both the increased number of travelers arriving from Haiti and the increased risk of acquiring malaria infection in Haiti. The demographics of travelers and the proportion of severe cases are similar...

Agarwal, Aarti; Mcmorrow, Meredith; Arguin, Paul M.

2012-01-01

63

Slices and Ellipse Geometry  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the new problems emerging in charged beam transport for SASE FEL dynamics. The optimization of the magnetic transport system for future devices requires new concepts associated with the slice emittance and the slice phase space distribution. We study the problem of electron beam slice matching and guiding in transport devices for SASE FEL emission discussing matching criteria and how the associated design of the electron transport line may affect the FEL output performances. We analyze different matching strategies by studying the relevant effect on the FEL output characteristics.

Dattoli, G; Del Franco, M; Petralia, A

2011-01-01

64

Non-Seismology Seismology: Using QuakeCatchers to Analyze the Frequency of Bridge Vibrations  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an experiment to test the feasibility of measuring seismic waves generated by traffic near James Madison University. We used QuakeCatcher seismometers (originally designed for passive seismic measurement) to measure vibrations associated with traffic on a wooden bridge as well as a nearby concrete bridge. This experiment was a signal processing exercise for a student research project and did not draw any conclusions regarding bridge safety or security. The experiment consisted of two temporary measurement stations comprised of a laptop computer and a QuakeCatcher - a small seismometer that plugs directly into the laptop via a USB cable. The QuakeCatcher was taped to the ground at the edge of the bridge to achieve good coupling, and vibrational events were triggered repeatedly with a control vehicle to accumulate a consistent dataset of the bridge response. For the wooden bridge, the resulting 'seismograms' were converted to Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format and analyzed in MATLAB. The concrete bridge did not generate vibrations significant enough to trigger the recording mechanism on the QuakeCatchers. We will present an overview of the experimental design and frequency content of the traffic patterns, as well as a discussion of the instructional benefits of using the QuakeCatcher sensors in this non-traditional setting.

Courtier, A. M.; Constantin, C.; Wilson, C. F.

2013-12-01

65

Influence of Weather Conditions on the Surface Morphology and Wetting Behaviour of Superhydrophobic Quaking Aspen Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different environmental conditions on the wetting properties and surface morphology of surperhydrophobic quaking aspen leaves harvested during the 2011 growth season are examined. During this particular season quaking aspen leaves were not able to retain their superhydrophobic properties and associated surface structure features as they have usually been able to do in other years. Representative scanning electron microscopy images and wetting property measurements of quaking aspen leaf surfaces harvested throughout this season are presented and discussed with the objective of linking weather induced environmental stresses that occurred in 2011 to the sudden and unusual reduction in non-wetting properties and drastic changes in leaf surface structure. Erosion and regeneration rates of leaf wax crystals and the impact that environmental factors can have on these are considered and used to explain the occurrence of these unexpected changes.

J. J. Victor

2013-05-01

66

Estimating the Direct Economic Damage of the Earthquake in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses simple regression techniques to make an initial assessment of the monetary damages caused by the January 12, 2010 earthquake that struck Haiti. Damages are estimated for a disaster with both 200,000 and 250,000 total dead and missing (i.e., the range of mortality that the earthquake is estimated to have caused) using Haiti?s economic and demographic data. The base estimate is US$8.1bn for a death toll of 250,000, but for several reasons this may be a lower- bound estimate...

Cavallo, Eduardo; Powell, Andrew; Becerra, Oscar

2010-01-01

67

Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000$. The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

J. E. Daniell

2013-05-01

68

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six ch...

Nancy Golden; Russell Kempker; Parul Khator; Robert Summerlee; Arthur Fournier

2002-01-01

69

Soil degradation in Haiti causative factors and consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

THE recovery of soil productivity is undoubtedly one the most urgent measures needed for Haiti's continued development. On this basis, we undertook an extensive review of the literature concerning the past history of soil degradation -from the precolumbine era to the present- in an effortto identify the principal factors causing the rampant soil degradation suffered by Haiti. Ourstudy was conducted from the three standpoints: physico-natural, political and socio-economic and de...

Alexis, Stervin; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s

2004-01-01

70

Slicing, skinning, and grafting  

CERN Multimedia

We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

Dumas, David

2007-01-01

71

INCREASED DRINKING WATER SUPPLY THROUGH IMPROVED CISTERN CONSTRUCTION IN BARASA HAITI  

Science.gov (United States)

Barasa, Haiti is an extremely poor, isolated rural community located on the side of a mountain. Cisterns in Barasa, Haiti are the preferred method to collect and store water for household use. Local masons build cisterns in Haiti which provides jobs for local people. The local...

72

The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been installed by other regional seismic networks - all communicating via the common NetQuakes servers.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2012-12-01

73

QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

2008-12-01

74

Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulas for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasiperiodic oscillations of the x-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored by Lorentz force of magnetic field stresses.

2010-11-01

75

Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

CERN Document Server

Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulae for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasi-periodic oscillations of the X-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored b...

Bastrukov, S; Takata, J; Chang, H -K; Xu, R X

2010-01-01

76

Alignment status of J-PARC main ring after the mega quake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In J-PARC, positions of magnets have been measured in every two years for the check of alignment status. The displacements of magnets measured in August 2010 remained still small since the full alignment in autumn 2007. The 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake happened in 11th March shook the ring for two minutes with seismic intensity six. We measured the magnet alignment status after the mega quake. (author)

2011-08-01

77

QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

Danijel Schorlemmer; Fabian Euchner; Philipp Kästli; Joachim Saul

2011-01-01

78

Quaking Regulates Hnrnpa1 Expression through Its 3? UTR in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mice, Quaking (Qk) is required for myelin formation; in humans, it has been associated with psychiatric disease. QK regulates the stability, subcellular localization, and alternative splicing of several myelin-related transcripts, yet little is known about how QK governs these activities. Here, we show that QK enhances Hnrnpa1 mRNA stability by binding a conserved 3? UTR sequence with high affinity and specificity. A single nucleotide mutation in the binding site eliminates QK-dependent ...

Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Clingman, Carina C.; Farley, Brian M.; Mccoig, Lisa M.; Ryder, Sean P.

2011-01-01

79

Hydro-Quebec line crew returns home from Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article recounted the experience of a 14-member Hydro-Quebec line crew and support group that travelled to Haiti in November 2004 to help re-establish essential electricity services. The work was conducted together with Electricite d'Haiti (EDH). The team installed 400 poles, 10 km of conductors and 85 transformers, restoring service to water pumps; La Providence and Raboteau hospitals; a centre housing Doctors without borders; a CARE distribution centre; and several convents and schools. The installation of street lights at strategic points allowed lighting to be restored in several districts of Gonaives. Hydro-Quebec was able to extend their mission to Haiti and purchase more poles and transformers with the help of a $500,000 contribution from the Canadian International Development Agency. Hydro-Quebec was the only company who came to the aid of EDH. The total budget for the project was $4 million. 2 figs.

Horne, D.

2005-04-01

80

A Case Study of the Desertification of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Haiti is one of the largest Caribbean nations only 20% of the land under cultivation is appropriate for agriculture. Once covered by forest, this country has been heavily logged and now mostly deforested. The majority of the arable land is being farmed beyond their carrying capacity.  The total area under agriculture production is 6 times greater than the estimated areas suitable for agriculture resulting in significant deterioration of the land. Both national  and international governments have made several attempts to combat desertification but few initiatives have been successful. This research will (1 review the current literature pertaining to desertification, with special emphasis on Haiti, (2 review the impact of internal and external programs designed to reverse the effects of desertification,  (3 compare the  indicators of desertification that exist on the island of Hispaniola, and (4 discuss the consequences of desertification for Haiti.                                           

Vereda Johnson Williams

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Culture and mental health in Haiti : a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. We searched Medline, Google Scholar and other available databases to gather scholarly literature relevant to mental health in Haiti. This was supplemented by consultation of key books and grey literature relevant to Haiti. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to a basic understanding of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health. PMID:21076788

Pierre, Andrena; Minn, Pierre; Sterlin, Carlo; Annoual, Pascale C; Jaimes, Annie; Raphaël, Frantz; Raikhel, Eugene; Whitley, Rob; Rousseau, Cécile; Kirmayer, Laurence J

2010-01-01

82

Kal-Haiti a Research Database for Risks Management and Sustainable Reconstruction in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the 12th January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche has funded a project named KAL-Haiti which aims at gathering remote sensing imagery as well as in-situ and exogenous data into a knowledge base. This database, seen as a shareable resource, can serve as a basis for helping the reconstruction of the country, but also as a reference for scientific studies devoted to all phases of risk management. The project main outcome will be a geo-referenced database containing a selection of remotely sensed imagery acquired before and after the disastrous event supplemented with all relevant ancillary data, and enriched with in-situ measurements and exogenous data. The resulting reference database is freely available for research and for reconstruction tasks. It is strongly expected that users will also become contributors by sharing their own data production, thus participating to the growth of the initial kernel. The database will also be enriched with new satellite images, monitoring the evolution of the Haitian situation over the next 10 years.

Giros, A.; Fontannaz, D.; Allenbach, B.; Treinsoutrot, D.; De Michele, M.

2012-07-01

83

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sites, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

María del Marquetti Fernández

2012-03-01

84

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sit [...] es, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

Marquetti Fernández, María del; Jean, Yvan Saint; Fuster Callaba, Carlos A; Somarriba López, Lorenzo.

85

Order 2 Algebraically Slice Knots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concordance group of algebraically slice knots is the subgroup of the classical knot concordance group formed by algebraically slice knots. Results of Casson and Gordon and of Jiang showed that this group contains in infinitely generated free (abelian) subgroup. Here it is shown that the concordance group of algebraically slice knots also contain elements of finite order; in fact it contains an infinite subgroup generated by elements of order 2.

Livingston, Charles

1998-01-01

86

Elevated temperature during slicing enhances acute slice preparation quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We demonstrate that brain dissection and slicing using solutions warmed to near-physiological temperature (~ +34?C, greatly enhance slice quality without affecting intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the neurons. Improved slice quality is seen not only when using young (< 1 month, but also mature (>2.5 month mice. This allows easy in vitro patch-clamp experimentation using adult deep cerebellar nuclear slices, which until now have been considered very difficult. As proof of the concept, we compare intrinsic properties of cerebellar nuclear neurons in juvenile (< 1 month and adult (up to 7 months mice, and confirm that no significant developmental changes occur after the fourth postnatal week. The enhanced quality of brain slices from old animals facilitates experimentation on age-related disorders as well as optogenetic studies requiring long transfection periods.

MarylkaYoeUusisaari

2013-04-01

87

Constitution without constitutionalism : Haiti and the vagaries of democratization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the role that constitution and constitutionalism play in the making of polyarchical rule. Author also examines their relationship to class power, political institutions, culture, and leadership. He argues that constitution does not make for an effective form of constitutionalism. Concludes that meaningful democratization in Haiti is difficult if class relations do not change drastically and are equalized.

Robert Fatton Jr.

2000-01-01

88

Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2010-01-01

89

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas / The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que [...] se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti? Abstract in english This article discusses the relations between the educational system and social inequalities in Haiti. A case study of catholic schools helps to understand how the Haitian educational system was built and how socio-educational inequalities can be produced and maintained by this system. At the end, is [...] discussed also how schools can contribute to social change in Haiti.

Joint, Louis Auguste.

90

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti?This article discusses the relations between the educational system and social inequalities in Haiti. A case study of catholic schools helps to understand how the Haitian educational system was built and how socio-educational inequalities can be produced and maintained by this system. At the end, is discussed also how schools can contribute to social change in Haiti.

Louis Auguste Joint

2008-08-01

91

HAITI: MUCH ATTENTION, NO RESULTS. WHY DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DOESN’T WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is an excerpt, with little adaptation, from the master thesis: “Project management’s contribution to international cooperation. How to make things work: ODA in Haiti” wrote under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Horst Brezinski from Technical University Freiberg Bergakademie and Prof. Dr. Eng.. Sabina Irimie from University of Petrosani, while benefiting from an Erasmus study scholarship at the first mentioned institution. It presents the case of Haiti, a small country facing big challenges and enjoying plenty of international attention especially due to the recent earthquake that struck the country at the beginning of 2010. The SWOT analysis inside the paper offers a detailed view of Haiti’s actual situation, identifying in the same time its problems and the variables that should be taken into consideration when designing programmes and projects targeting Haiti’s development.

ANDREEA MARI?

2011-01-01

92

Peace-building in Haiti:An actor-oriented analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti?s conflict is not a civil war in the traditional sense. Nevertheless, extreme poverty, socio-economic inequalities, insecurity due to gang activity and a general state of turbulence and instability has characterised the situation in the country since the fall of the Duvaliers in 1986. The aim of this thesis is to assess the prospects for successful peace-building in Haiti. ?Peace-building? is understood as a process that puts an end to the violent conflict and political ...

Wøien, Anne Kirsti Tobro

2007-01-01

93

Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficien...

Knebel Elisa; Puttkammer Nancy; Demes Adrien; Devirois Ruth; Prismy Mona

2008-01-01

94

Self-sustained oscillator as a model for explosion quakes at Stromboli Volcano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze seismic signals produced by explosion-quakes at Stromboli Volcano. We use standard nonlinear procedures to search a low-order effective dynam-ics. The dimension of the reconstructed phase space depends on the number of samples. Namely larger time lengths cor-respond to dynamical systems of different complexity. If we restrict the analysis to the signal associated directly to the source (Chouet et al., 1997, we obtain a phase space dimen-sion equal to two. We reproduce this part of the signal with a simple single self-sustained oscillator.

S. De Martino

2002-01-01

95

Eigenfrequency of nodeless elastic vibrations locked in the crust of quaking neutron star  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of non-compressional spheroidal and torsional nodeless elastic vibrations in the homogenous crust model of a quaking neutron star is developed and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Particular attention is given to the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into ques...

Bastrukov, S.; Chang, H-k; Chen, G. -t; Molodtsova, I.

2008-01-01

96

Eigenfrequency of nodeless elastic vibrations locked in the crust of quaking neutron star  

CERN Document Server

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of non-compressional spheroidal and torsional nodeless elastic vibrations in the homogenous crust model of a quaking neutron star is developed and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Particular attention is given to the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that unspecified QPOs are due to nodeless dipole torsional and dipole spheroidal elastic shear vibrations.

Bastrukov, S; Chen, G -T; Molodtsova, I

2008-01-01

97

Self-sustained oscillator as a model for explosion quakes at Stromboli Volcano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze seismic signals produced by explosion-quakes at Stromboli Volcano. We use standard nonlinear procedures to search a low-order effective dynam-ics. The dimension of the reconstructed phase space depends on the number of samples. Namely larger time lengths cor-respond to dynamical systems of different complexity. If we restrict the analysis to the signal associated directly to the source (Chouet et al., 1997), we obtain a phase space dimen-sion equal to two. We reproduce this part of...

2002-01-01

98

On the persistency of crater assignment criteria for Stromboli explosion-quakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On the basis of the results of previous works by our group, this paper aims to investigate the correlation between features of a kind of seismic events recorded at Stromboli (the so called explosion-quakes) and the source of such explosions, i.e. the different craters. The purpose is that of finding parameters in order to try an automatic assignment of new events to their crater of origin. These parameters must be searched for both in time and in frequency domain. Afterwards the stability in ...

1996-01-01

99

Impact of solvent pH on buried charge formation and protein quake of photoactive yellow protein  

Science.gov (United States)

Embedding a charge group inside a protein in a low dielectric environment is energetically unfavorable. Therefore, most charged groups are solvent exposed. We have developed a hypothesis that a new buried charge transiently formed in a non-polar environment serves as an electrostatic epicenter that drives protein quake (protein conformational changes). Here we report an experimental study on the effects of solvent pH on the protonation states of buried ionizable groups, and their correlation with protein quakes. Time-resolved Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) difference absorbance spectroscopy is the major experimental technique for simultaneous detection of the proton transfer event (to generate a new buried charge) and the protein quake event. The results are expected to provide insight into the impact of solvent pH on protein structural dynamics in general.

Xie, Aihua; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Kelemen, Lorand; Hoff, Wouter D.; Thubagere, Anupama

2007-03-01

100

Distributed Slicing in Dynamic Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peer to peer (P2P) systems are moving from application specific architectures to a generic service oriented design philosophy. This raises interesting problems in connection with providing useful P2P middleware services that are capable of dealing with resource assignment and management in a large-scale, heterogeneous and unreliable environment. One such service, the slicing service, has been proposed to allow for an automatic partitioning of P2P networks into groups (slices) that represent a...

Ferna?ndez, Antonio; Gramoli, Vincent; Jime?nez, Ernesto; Kermarrec, Anne-marie; Raynal, Michel

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

Streicher, A.

1985-03-28

102

Stories from Haiti: a comparison of three approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two stories from Haiti are considered from three different perspectives. The first story is about a boy named Joseph Alvyns, whose mother died from cholera in 2011. His story is told in a short film titled Baseball in the time of Cholera. The second story is about Mme. Yolande Marie Nazaire, who was the Director of the Haiti National School of Nursing in Port-au-Prince on the morning of January 12, 2010, when an earthquake killed 90 students and faculty. The three perspectives discussed here are: (a) Critical Reflective in health professional education as used by the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine; (b) The Capacities of Stories, which is part of a socio-narratology methodology; and(c) Story Theory with implications for global health nursing. PMID:24740952

Baumann, Steven L; Bellefleur, Carmelle

2014-04-01

103

Epidemiologic Survey of Mansonella ozzardi in Corail, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiologic (cross-sectional study) survey on 462 inhabitants in Corail, Haiti showed that 16.5% were infected with Mansonella ozzardi. This finding was determined from a single 20-?L sample of finger prick blood from each person. Among children, 15 years of age, the prevalence of infection for males and females was 23% and 21%, respectively. In general, the microfilaremias were low and 70% of positive persons had 50 microfilariae. This study shows that persons living near mangrove marshes that are breeding sites for Culicoides furens and C. barbosai biting midges, which are recognized vectors of M. ozzardi in Haiti, are consequently more frequently infected than those living in downtown area of Corail or inland. PMID:24710617

Raccurt, Christian P; Brasseur, Philippe; Cicéron, Micheline; Boncy, Jacques

2014-06-01

104

Cholera in Haiti and other Caribbean regions, 19th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833-1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850-1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865-1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

Jenson, Deborah; Szabo, Victoria

2011-11-01

105

Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using...

Agnamey, P.; Fortes-lopes, E.; Raccurt, C. P.; Boncy, J.; Totet, A.

2012-01-01

106

Predictability of population displacement after the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most severe disasters cause large population movements. These movements make it difficult for relief organizations to efficiently reach people in need. Understanding and predicting the locations of affected people during disasters is key to effective humanitarian relief operations and to long-term societal reconstruction. We collaborated with the largest mobile phone operator in Haiti (Digicel) and analyzed the movements of 1.9 million mobile phone users during the period from 42 d before, ...

Lu, Xin; Bengtsson, Linus; Holme, Petter

2012-01-01

107

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica.Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated with incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Dale Tomich

2009-04-01

108

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sites, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This stu...

María del Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint Jean; Fuster Callaba, Carlos A.; Lorenzo Somarriba López

2012-01-01

109

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti / Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niño [...] s discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país. Abstract in english Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti [...] that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Golden, Nancy; Kempker, Russell; Khator, Parul; Summerlee, Robert; Fournier, Arthur.

110

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste thro...

Meegoda, Jay N.; Hsin-Neng Hsieh; Paul Rodriguez; Jason Jawidzik

2012-01-01

111

On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

2014-05-01

112

Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

2011-12-01

113

Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated chloroquine sensitivity to Plasmodium falciparum in travelers returning to France and Canada from Haiti during a 23-year period. Two of 19 isolates obtained after the 2010 earthquake showed mixed pfcrt 76K+T genotype and high 50% inhibitory concentration. Physicians treating malaria acquired in Haiti should be aware of possible chloroquine resistance.

2012-01-01

114

The NetQuakes Project - Research-quality Seismic Data Transmitted via the Internet from Citizen-hosted Instruments (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS seeks accelerograph spacing of 5-10 km in selected urban areas of the US to obtain spatially un-aliased recordings of strong ground motions during large earthquakes. These dense measurements will improve our ability to make rapid post-earthquake assessments of expected damage and contribute to the continuing development of engineering standards for construction. To achieve this goal the USGS and its university partners are deploying “NetQuakes” seismographs, designed to record moderate to large earthquakes from the near field to about 100 km. The instruments have tri-axial Colibrys 2005SF MEMS sensors, clip at 3g, and have 18-bit resolution. These instruments are uniquely designed for deployment in private homes, businesses, public buildings and schools where there is an existing Broadband connection to the Internet. The NetQuakes instruments connect to a local network using WiFi and then via the Internet to USGS servers to a) upload triggered accelerograms in miniSEED format, P arrival times, and computed peak ground motion parameters immediately after an earthquake; b) download software updates; c) respond to requests for log files, execute UNIX scripts, and upload waveforms from long-term memory for quakes with peak motions below the trigger threshold; d) send state-of-health (SOH) information in XML format every 10 minutes; and e) synchronize instrument clocks to 1ms accuracy using the Network Time Protocol. NetQuakes instruments cost little to operate and save about $600/yr/site compared to instruments that transmit data via leased telemetry. After learning about the project through press releases, thousands of citizens have registered to host an instrument at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/netquakes using a Google Map interface that depicts where we seek instrument sites. The website also provides NetQuakes hosts access to waveform images recorded by instruments installed in their building. Since 3/2009, the NetQuakes project has installed over 100 instruments in the San Francisco Bay area, over 30 in the Seattle region, and 20 elsewhere in the US. Five instruments are also deployed in the San Francisco Bay region on San Pablo Dam, operated by the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). These instruments provide cost-effective monitoring for EBMUD through free Internet telemetry, and because the USGS monitors instrument SOH, performs all data processing and archiving, and transmits recorded shaking levels to the dam operators via ShakeCast. EBMUD allows the strong motion data from their instruments to be freely available for use by the seismological and engineering communities. The NetQuakes project expects to install 350 instruments by the end of 2011.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Hamilton, J.

2010-12-01

115

An international health elective in Haiti: a case for osteopathic medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

As global health education becomes increasingly important, more physicians are participating in international health electives (IHEs). Haiti is a favorable site for an IHE because of its substantial health care needs and rich culture. Although both osteopathic and allopathic physicians can provide effective health care to Haitians, osteopathic physicians may be particularly well suited to serve in Haiti because of their training in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). Because OMT's laying of the hands (high touch) is similar to the touch inherent to Haiti's traditional ethnomedical practices, osteopathic physicians' use of OMT can enhance trust among Haitians and increase Haitians' willingness to work with westernized medical practitioners. In addition, an IHE in a low-resource country such as Haiti can provide osteopathic physicians with a global outlook on medicine and a range of critical communication and clinical skills. The authors advocate for the development of an IHE in Haiti for osteopathic physicians. PMID:23739760

Coupet, Sidney; Howell, Joel D; Ross-Lee, Barbara

2013-06-01

116

Magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

We compute characteristic parameters of magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about axis of dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After brief outlook of general theoretical background of the model of vibration powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as the oscillation frequency, lifetime, luminosity of radiation, and investigate their time dependence upon magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitoring AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by vibration powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I V

2011-01-01

117

Torsional seismic vibrations of solid crust in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

CERN Document Server

We investigate an asteroseismic model of non-rotating paramagnetic neutron star with core-crust stratification of interior pervaded by homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field. Focus is on post-quake vibrational relaxation by torsional shear oscillations of electron-nuclear solid-state plasma in the metal-like crust about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. In accord with basic physics underlying the very notion of a neutron star and indirect observational evidence of the dipole configuration of magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars, the model under consideration presumes that micro-composition of core material is dominated by degenerate neutron matter in the state of Pauli's paramagnetic permanent magnetization caused by polarizations of spin magnetic moments of neutrons along magnetic axis of the star. Particular attention is given to the regime of node-free differentially rotational vibrations of crust against immobile core driven by Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic f...

Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Takata, J

2009-01-01

118

Biological Signaling: the Role of ``Electrostatic Epicenter'' in ``Protein Quake'' and Receptor Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of a receptor protein during biological signaling is often characterized by a two state model: a receptor state (also called ``off state'') for detection of a stimuli, and a signaling state (``on state'') for signal relay. Receptor activation is a process that a receptor protein is structurally transformed from its receptor state to its signaling state through substantial conformational changes that are recognizable by its downstream signal relay partner. What are the structural and energetic origins for receptor activation in biological signaling? We report extensive evidence that further support the role of ``electrostatic epicenter'' in driving ``protein quake'' and receptor activation. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein for the negative phototaxis of a salt loving Halorhodospira halophia, is employed as a model system in this study. We will discuss potential applications of this receptor activation mechanism to other receptor proteins, including B-RAF receptor protein that is associated with many cancers.

Xie, Aihua; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Kang, Zhouyang; Hendriks, Johnny; Hellingwerf, Klaas

2013-03-01

119

Magnitude scale for LP events: a quantification scheme for volcanic quakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The peculiar source characteristics of long-period seismic events (time persistency of the source, low-frequency peaks in the source spectrum, absence of high-frequency radiation) prevent the formation of a definite high-frequency coda in the seismograms. In contrast, this is well formed in volcano-tectonic quakes. For this reason, the widely used duration magnitude scale that is based on the proportionality between the energy and the coda duration cannot be used for long-period estimation. In observatory practice, the long-period magnitude is sometimes estimated using the same duration magnitude scale, leading to confusing results. In this report, we show a new method to estimate the magnitude of long-period events that generally occur for volcanoes, with some application examples from data for Mt Etna (Italy), Colima Volcano (Mexico) and Campi Flegrei (Italy).

Del Pezzo, E.; Bianco, F.; Borgna, I.

2013-08-01

120

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Hepatitis A Prevention Strategies, Haiti Case: Should Rescuers Be Immunized  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a small non-enveloped RNA virus from Picornaviridea family, causes approximately 1.5million cases of acute hepatitis each year, and is still a major world health problem especially in developing countries.As the risk of getting infected by HAV increases at the time of crisis such as earthquakes, we tried to performa brief review on current situation of HAV in Haiti, a country that experienced an earthquake measuring 7.0on the Richter scale recently, and that it might ...

2010-01-01

122

External Interferences and Maintenance of Public Order in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will discuss which characters interfered in internal affairs in Haiti over the history, especially in the 1990's. We will analyze the profile of the military and police forces which established in the country, as an important element to understand that, many times, instead of protecting citizens, the same forces helped to have oppression, instability and insecurity for most of Haitian population. Finally, we will hold the balance of the activities promoted by international organizations in the 1990's.

VANESSA BRAGA MATIJASCIC

2012-01-01

123

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou [...] tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica. Abstract in english Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated wit [...] h incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Tomich, Dale.

124

Some examples related to knot sliceness  

CERN Document Server

It is known that the linking form on the 2-cover of slice knots has a metabolizer. We show that several weaker conditions, or some other conditions related to sliceness, do not imply the existence of a metabolizer. We then show how the Rudolph-Bennequin inequality can be used indirectly to prove that some knots are not slice.

Stoimenow, A

2004-01-01

125

The (Impossibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2010. xx + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 34.95

Landon Yarrington

2012-12-01

126

Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1...

Katz, Lee S.; Petkau, Aaron; Beaulaurier, John; Tyler, Shaun; Antonova, Elena S.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Orata, Fabini; Gladney, Lori M.; Stroika, Steven; Folster, Jason P.; Rowe, Lori; Freeman, Molly M.

2013-01-01

127

Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. chole...

Katz, Lee S.; Petkau, Aaron; Beaulaurier, John; Tyler, Shaun; Antonova, Elena S.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Orata, Fabini; Gladney, Lori M.; Stroika, Steven; Folster, Jason P.; Rowe, Lori; Freeman, Molly M.

2013-01-01

128

Pulsating magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star at the expense of energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

The impact of magnetic field decay on radiative activity of quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is studied. We found that monotonic depletion of internal magnetic field pressure is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Particular attention is given to the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfven vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples of magnetic field decay illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods produced by quaking neutron star are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Yu, J W; Xu, R X

2010-01-01

129

Slice Stretching at the Event Horizon when Geodesically Slicing the Schwarzschild Spacetime with Excision  

CERN Document Server

Slice stretching effects are discussed as they arise at the event horizon when geodesically slicing the extended Schwarzschild black hole spacetime while using singularity excision. In particular, for Novikov and isotropic spatial coordinates the outward-movement of the event horizon (``slice sucking'') and the unbounded growth there of the radial metric component (``slice wrapping'') are analyzed. For the overall slice stretching very similar late time behavior is found when comparing with maximal slicing. Thus, the intuitive argument that attributes slice stretching to singularity avoidance is incorrect.

Reimann, B

2004-01-01

130

Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010 / Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sinto [...] mas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the developm [...] ent of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Lacerda, Shirley Silva.

131

On Multiple Slice Turbo Code  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main problem with the hardware implementation of turbo codes is the lack of parallelism in the MAP-based decoding algorithm. This paper proposes to overcome this problem with a new family of turbo codes, called Slice Turbo Codes. This family is based on two ideas: the encoding of each dimension with P independent tail-biting codes and a constrained interleaver structure that allows parallel decoding of the P independent codewords in each dimension. The optimization of the interleaver is d...

Gnaedig, David; Boutillon, Emmanuel; Jezequel, Michel; Gaudet, Vincent; Glenn Gulak, P.

2003-01-01

132

On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local "when" for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic "quakes" and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia re...

2004-01-01

133

On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region...

2004-01-01

134

Viscous fingering of miscible slices  

Science.gov (United States)

Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem, i.e., the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Péclet number Pe, and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients ?. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of viscous samples in chromatographic columns and propagation of contaminants in porous media.

de Wit, A.; Bertho, Y.; Martin, M.

2005-05-01

135

Viscous fingering of miscible slices  

CERN Document Server

Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

2005-01-01

136

Study of outgoing longwave radiation anomalies associated with Haiti earthquake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis by using the methods of Eddy field calculation mean and wavelet maxima to detect seismic anomalies within the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data based on time and space. The distinguishing feature of the method of Eddy field calculation mean is that we can calculate "the total sum of the difference value" of "the measured value" between adjacent points, which could highlight the singularity within data. The identified singularities are further validated by wavelet maxima, which using wavelet transformations as data mining tools by computing the maxima that can be used to identify obvious anomalies within OLR data. The two methods has been applied to carry out a comparative analysis of OLR data associated with the earthquake recently occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010. Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena, the analyzed results have indicated a number of singularities associated with the possible seismic anomalies of the earthquake and from the comparative experiments and analyses by using the two methods, which follow the same time and space, we conclude that the singularities observed from 19 to 24 December 2009 could be the earthquake precursor of Haiti earthquake.

P. Xiong

2010-10-01

137

Program slicing techniques and its applications  

CERN Document Server

Program understanding is an important aspect in Software Maintenance and Reengineering. Understanding the program is related to execution behaviour and relationship of variable involved in the program. The task of finding all statements in a program that directly or indirectly influence the value for an occurrence of a variable gives the set of statements that can affect the value of a variable at some point in a program is called a program slice. Program slicing is a technique for extracting parts of computer programs by tracing the programs' control and data flow related to some data item. This technique is applicable in various areas such as debugging, program comprehension and understanding, program integration, cohesion measurement, re-engineering, maintenance, testing where it is useful to be able to focus on relevant parts of large programs. This paper focuses on the various slicing techniques (not limited to) like static slicing, quasi static slicing, dynamic slicing and conditional slicing. This pape...

Sasirekha, N; Hemalatha, Dr M

2011-01-01

138

Lexical Link Analysis for the Haiti Earthquake Relief Operation Using Open Data Sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the wake of the Haiti earthquake disaster, civil and military organizations engaged in vigorous relief operations to achieve rapid deployment of logistics, transport, security and medical supplies. Organizations involved in the operation collaborated w...

D. J. MacKinnon S. P. Gallup Y. Zhao

2011-01-01

139

Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Syphilis Screening in Prenatal HIV Testing Programs in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyzing data from Haiti, Bruce Schackman and colleagues report that scale-up of prenatal HIV testing programs provides a cost-effective opportunity to prevent congenital syphilis through rapid testing.

2007-01-01

140

Zoneless and Mixture techniques applied to the Integrated Brazilian PSHA using GEM-OpenQuake  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work is to propose some variations to the classic Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) calculations, on one hand, applying the zoneless methodology to seismic source activity characterization and, on the other hand, using the gaussian mixture models to mix Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) models onto a mixed model. Our actual knowledge of the Brazilian intraplate seismicity does not allow us to identify the causative neotectonic active faults with confidence. This issue makes difficult the characterization of main seismic sources and the computation of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Indeed seismic zonings made by different specialist could have big differences, while the zone less approach imposes a quantitative method to seismic source characterization, avoiding the subjective source zone definition. In addition, the low seismicity rate and the limited coverage in space and time of the seismic networks, do not offer enough observations to fit a confident GMPE to this region. In this case, our purpose was use a Gaussian Mixture Model to estimate a composed model from pre-existents well-fitted GMPE models which better describes the observed peak ground motion data. The other methodological evaluation is to use the OpenQuake engine (a Global Earthquake Model's initiative) for the hazard calculation. The logic tree input will allow us, in near future, to combine with weights, other hazard models from different specialists. We expect that these results will offer a new and solid basis to upgrade the brazilian civil engineering seismic rules.

Pirchiner, M.; Drouet, S.; Assumpcao, M.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Improving the resolution of the 2010 Haiti earthquake fault geometry using temporary seismometer deployments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent January 12, 2010, Mw 7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M7 or larger earthquakes. However, GPS and InSAR da...

2012-01-01

142

An evaluation of seismic hazard in La Hispaniola, after the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An evaluation of the seismic hazard in La Hispaniola Island has been carried out, as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and developed by several Spanish Universities, the National Observatory of Environment and Vulnerability) ONEV of Haiti, and with contributions from the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) and University Seismological Institute of Dominican Republic (ISU). The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for sei...

Benito Oterino, Belen; Belizaire, Dwinel; Torres Ferna?ndez, Yolanda; Marti?nez Di?az, Jose? Jesu?s; Hue?rfano, Vi?ctor; Polanco, Eugenio; Garcia, R.; Gonza?lez?crende, Pilar; Serna Marti?nez, Ana Rita; Zevallos, F.

2012-01-01

143

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hur...

Mainka, Susan A.; Jeffrey McNeely

2011-01-01

144

International migration, remittances and labour supply: The case of the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Republic of Haiti is a prime international remittance-recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region, relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this fact may be that Haiti, based on population size, is also the largest exporter of skilled workers in the world. The present research uses a zero-altered negative binomial (with logit inflation) to model the international migration decision-process of households, and endogenous regressors' Amemiya genera...

Jadotte, Evans

2009-01-01

145

Vulnerability to poverty : A microeconometric approach and application to the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates vulnerability to poverty in Haiti. Research in vulnerability in developing countries has been scarce due to the high data requirements of vulnerability studies (e.g. panel or long series of cross-sections). The methodology adopted here allows the assessment of vulnerability to poverty by exploiting the short panel structure of nested data at different levels. The decomposition method reveals that vulnerability in Haiti is largely a rural phenomenon and that schooling c...

Jadotte, Evans

2010-01-01

146

When the earth trembles in the Americas: the experience of Haiti and Chile 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The response of the nephrological community to the Haiti and Chile earthquakes which occurred in the first months of 2010 is described. In Haiti, renal support was organized by the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) in close collaboration with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), and covered both patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The majority of AKI patients (19/27) suffered from crush sy...

Vanholder, Raymond; Borniche, D.; Claus, Stefaan; Correa-rotter, R.; Crestani, R.; Ferir, Mc; Gibney, N.; Hurtado, A.; Luyckx, Va; Portilla, D.; Rodriguez, S.; Sever, Ms; Vanmassenhove, Jill; Wainstein, R.

2011-01-01

147

The Cholera Outbreak in Haiti: Where and How did it begin?  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2010, cholera appeared in Haiti for the first time in nearly a century. The Secretary-General of the United Nations formed an Independent Panel to "investigate and seek to determine the source of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti". To fulfill this mandate, the Panel conducted concurrent epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analysis investigations. Our May 2011 findings indicated that the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak was caused by bacteria introduced into Haiti as a result of human activity; more specifically by the contamination of the Meye Tributary System of the Artibonite River with a pathogenic strain of the current South Asian type Vibrio cholerae. Recommendations were presented to assist in preventing the future introduction and spread of cholera in Haiti and worldwide. In this chapter, we discuss both the results of the Independent Panel's investigation and the context the report sat within; including background information, responses to the report's release, additional research subsequent to our report, and the public health implications of the Haiti cholera epidemic. PMID:23695726

Lantagne, Daniele; Balakrish Nair, G; Lanata, Claudio F; Cravioto, Alejandro

2014-01-01

148

The substitution of charcoal and firewood in Haiti - strategy and policy; La substitution du charbon de bois et du bois de feu en Haiti - strategie et politique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charcoal and firewood play an important role in Haitian society and economics. In 1993, charcoal and firewood comprised 83 per cent of the total energy consumption in Haiti, an amount estimated to be equivalent to 1,607,000 tonnes of crude oil. The government of Haiti is making great efforts to encourage the substitution of charcoal and firewood as an energy source for both environmental and economic reasons. Despite all efforts, their project so far has failed. One of the reasons for this failure is the lack of government policy in which public institutions would be required to substitute charcoal and firewood.

Saint-Jean, W. [Ministere de l`environnement de Haiti (Haiti)

1997-06-01

149

Solar distillation as an appropriate technology tool in Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Source Philippe (on the island of La Govave, near Haiti) is described in terms of climatic, sociological, agricultural and technical background. Because of drought conditions, it became necessary to develop a solar still to provide the town with sufficient fresh water. The still, which has been in operation since 1969, is described in some detail as is the construction process. Brackish and sea water are used to produce more than 1250 liters of fresh water each day. A windmill is used to pump the brackish water from a well to an elevated storage tank; it flows by gravity to solar still basins where it is vaporized, then condensed on a sloping glass surface and collected. Benefits of the solar still to the town's economy and health are discussed. Cost of the project was $17,000. 10 references. (MJJ)

1980-06-01

150

MRI slice selction with scaling functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new family of amplitude-only radiofrequency modulation waveforms for slice selection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is presented. Based on the scaling functions associated to different wavelet families, these new envelope waves provide higher slice selectivity than gaussian or sinc functions. They are also more compact on the time domain, since no truncation is needed, allowing to reduce the time required for the slice selection process. This feature is valuable...

Vaquero, Juan Jose?; Santos, Andre?s; Pozo, Francisco Del

1996-01-01

151

Synchronized slice viewing of similar image series  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing several series of images is not always easy as the corresponding slices often need to be selected manually. In times where series contain an ever-increasing number of slices this can mean manual work when moving several series to the corresponding slice. Particularly two situations were identified in this context: (1) patients with a large number of image series over time (such as patients with cancers that are monitored) frequently need to compare the series, for example to compare tumor growth over time. Manually adapting two series is possible but with four or more series this can mean loosing time. Having automatically the closest slice by comparing visual similarity also in older series with differing slice thickness and inter slice distance can save time and synchronize the viewing instantly. (2) analyzing visually similar image series of several patients can profit from being viewed in a synchronized way to compare the cases, so when sliding through the slices in one volume, the corresponding slices in the other volumes are shown. This application could be employed after content-based 3D image retrieval has found similar series, for example. Synchronized viewing can help finding or confirming the most relevant cases quickly. To allow for synchronized viewing of several image volumes, the test image series are first registered applying affine transformation for the global registration of images followed by diffeomorphic image registration. Then corresponding slices in the two volumes are estimated based on a visual similarity. Once the registration is finished, the user can subsequently move inside the slices of one volume (reference volume) and can view the corresponding slices in the other volumes. These corresponding slices are obtained after a correspondence match in the registration procedure. These volumes are synchronized in that the slice closest to the original reference volume is shown even when the slice thicknesses or inter slice distances differ, and this is automatically done by comparing the visual image content of the slices. The tool has the potential to help in a variety of situations and it is currently being made available as a plugin for the popular Osirix image viewer.

Ali, Sharib; Foncubierta, Antonio; Depeursinge, Adrien; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Ratib, Osman; Müller, Henning

2012-02-01

152

Testing the Rapid Detection Capabilities of the Quake-Catcher Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a versatile network of MEMS accelerometers that are used in combination with distributed volunteer computing to detect earthquakes around the world. Using a dense network of QCN stations installed in Christchurch, New Zealand after the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake, hundreds of events in the Christchurch area were detected and rapidly characterized. When the M6.3 Christchurch event occurred on 21 February 2011, QCN sensors recorded the event and calculated its magnitude, location, and created a map of estimated shaking intensity within 7 seconds of the earthquake origin time. Successive iterations improved the calculations and, within 24 seconds of the earthquake, magnitude and location values were calculated that were comparable to those provided by GeoNet. We have rigorously tested numerous methods to create a working magnitude scaling relationship. In this presentation, we show a drastic improvement in the magnitude estimates using the maximum acceleration at the time of the first trigger and updated ground accelerations from one to three seconds after the initial trigger. 75% of the events rapidly detected and characterized by QCN are within 0.5 magnitude units of the official GeoNet reported magnitude values, with 95% of the events within 1 magnitude unit. We also test the QCN detection algorithms using higher quality data from the SCSN network in Southern California. We examine a dataset of M5 and larger earthquakes that occurred since 1995. We present the performance of the QCN algorithms for this dataset, including time to detection as well as location and magnitude accuracy.

Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.; Yildirim, B.; Christensen, C. M.; Kaiser, A. E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

153

Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales. PMID:20931234

Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

2011-04-01

154

Wòch nan Soley: the denial of the right to water in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article combines health and water research results, evidence from confidential documents released under the Freedom of Information Act, legal analysis, and discussion of historical context to demonstrate that actions taken by the international community through the Inter-American Development Bank are directly related to a lack of access to clean water in Haiti. The article demonstrates that these actions constitute a clear violation of Haitians' right to water under both domestic and international law. The article exposes the United States governments role in blocking the disbursal of millions of dollars in international bank loans that would have had life-saving consequences for the Haitian people. The loans were derailed in 2001 by politically-motivated interventions on behalf of the US and other members of the international community in direct violation of the Inter-American Development Bank charter. To demonstrate the impact of these interventions, the article presents data gathered in a study that employed human rights and public health methodologies to assess the right to water in Haiti. The data reveal that Haitians experience obstacles concerning every aspect of the right to water: diffculties with water availability, limited physical and economic accessibility, and poor water quality. The article provides a framework of concrete duties and obligations that should be followed by all actors involved in Haiti in order to realize Haitians' human right to water. In response to the undeniable link between the international community's political interference and the intolerably poor state of potable water in Haiti, the article concludes with a recommendation that all actors in Haiti follow a rights-based approach to the development and implementation of water projects in Haiti. The full report of Wòch nan Soley: The Denial of the Right to Water in Haiti is available online at http://www.pih.org/inforesources/Reports/Hait_Report_FINAL.pdf. PMID:20845860

Varma, Monika Kalra; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Klasing, Amanda M; Shoranick, Tammy; Jean, Jude; Barry, Donna; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; McKeever, James; Lyon, Evan

2008-01-01

155

Gaussian Regularized Sliced Inverse Regression  

CERN Multimedia

Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) is an effective method for dimension reduction in high-dimensional regression problems. The original method, however, requires the inversion of the predictors covariance matrix. In case of collinearity between these predictors or small sample sizes compared to the dimension, the inversion is not possible and a regularization technique has to be used. Our approach is based on a Fisher Lecture given by R.D. Cook where it is shown that SIR axes can be interpreted as solutions of an inverse regression problem. In this paper, a Gaussian prior distribution is introduced on the unknown parameters of the inverse regression problem in order to regularize their estimation. We show that some existing SIR regularizations can enter our framework, which permits a global understanding of these methods. Three new priors are proposed leading to new regularizations of the SIR method. A comparison on simulated data is provided.

Bernard-Michel, C; Girard, S

2011-01-01

156

Eigenmodes of elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional of elastic seismic vibrations trapped in the crust of a quaking neutron star is outlined and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis relies heavily on the Samuelsson-Andersson identification of the QPOs frequency from the range 30-200 Hz with those for torsi...

Bastrukov, Sergey; Chang, Hsiang-kuang; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-ting

2007-01-01

157

Earthquake-induced Landslides and Quake Lakes during the great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008 (Sichuan, China)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mw 8.0 R earthquake on the 12th of May 2008 that stroke the Sichuan Prefecture of the People's Republic of China caused tenths of thousands of casualties and significant social and economic consequences. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault approximately 100 km in length, of NE-SW strike, dipping towards the NW with a reverse-lateral slip character and focal depth of 18 Km. Due to the great height and steepness of the slopes and their loose geotechnical characteristics in the mountainous terrain, thousands of landslides and collapses occurred in the Longmenshan fault zone during the earthquake, resulting in a large amount of geotechnical damages, such as the destruction the roads, villages, towns and bridges. A total of more than 9000 geological disasters occurred, among which there were approximately 4000 landslides, 2300 slop collapses, 800 debris flows, 1700 unstable slopes and more than 80 locations with hidden danger of geological hazard. Approximately 1.000.000 people and their properties in the affected area were under a directly serious threat. Landslides mobilized millions of cubic meters of rock and soil that slid across adjacent rivers, creating large landslide dams. The blockage of rivers was accompanied by the formation of quake lakes that were flooding the upstream river valleys. As water rises, there is potential of overtopping and downstream flooding. In the affected area 32 quake lakes were formed of various scales. ?he largest one , and most dangerous, is located in Beichuan County. The lake was formed because massive landslide partially blocked Qianjiang River upstream of the devastated Beichuan County seat. It is 40 m deep and contains about 30-40 million m3 of water. The landslide dam had a height of 60 m, the quake lake in the Shitingjiang River direction is more than 900 m long, its largest width is more than 600 m, and its area at the dam crest level is about 300.000 m2. As of June 7, 2008 the reservoir capacity of the quake lake was 240 million cubic meters, which posed a threat to a significantly large area of the down-stream zone, however the hidden danger was relieved by dredging and water drainage.

Lekkas, E.

2009-04-01

158

Exploring Unintended Social Side Effects of Tent Distribution Practices in Post-Earthquake Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s social, economic and health infrastructure, leaving 2 million persons—one-fifth of Haiti’s population—homeless. Internally displaced persons relocated to camps, where human rights remain compromised due to increased poverty, reduced security, and limited access to sanitation and clean water. This article draws on findings from 3 focus groups conducted with internally displaced young women and 3 focus groups with internally displaced young men (aged 18–24 in Leogane, Haiti to explore post-earthquake tent distribution practices. Focus group findings highlighted that community members were not engaged in developing tent distribution strategies. Practices that distributed tents to both children and parents, and linked food and tent distribution, inadvertently contributed to “chaos”, vulnerability to violence and family network breakdown. Moving forward we recommend tent distribution strategies in disaster contexts engage with community members, separate food and tent distribution, and support agency and strategies of self-protection among displaced persons.

Carmen Helen Logie

2013-09-01

159

Characterization of inequality and poverty in the Republic of Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Después de aproximadamente veinte años de estancamiento económico acompañado de disturbios políticos, la república de Haití, exhibiendo un PIB per capita en paridad de poder de compra de 1,470 dólares estadounidenses, es actualmente el país más pobre del hemisferio occidental y uno de los más pobres [...] del mundo. El presente trabajo de investigación también revela que es el país más desigual en la región más desigual del mundo, a saber, América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Amén del carácter endémico de la pobreza en este país, el problema de la distribución de la renta puede representar un verdadero escollo a las perspectivas de crecimiento y, por ende, debería constituir una de las principales preocupaciones de los responsables políticos en sus programas de lucha contra este flagelo. Para trabajo se utiliza la Encuesta sobre las Condiciones de Vida en Haití para estimar el estado de la pobreza y la desigualdad para el periodo 2000/2001. Los primeros resultados destacan, sin sorpresa, que la pobreza es más generalizada en la zona rural mientras la zona metropolitana de Puerto Príncipe acusa las tasas más bajas. El acceso a ciertos factores de producción, tales como la tierra agrícola, no constituye una vía de escape a la pobreza. También se propone una descomposición de la desigualdad en varios ámbitos vía la estimación de mínimos cuadrados ponderados para encuestas complejas. Finalmente, se estima un logit policotómico ordenado para investigar la probabilidad de un hogar de ser pobre o indigente. Abstract in english After nearly twenty years of stagnation and economic decline coupled with political upheavals, the Republic of Haiti, with a GDP per capita of approximately 1,470 USD (expressed in Purchasing Power Parity) in the year 2000, is at this date the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere and one of the [...] poorest of the world. The present research reveals that this country is also where income is worst distributed in the most unequal region of the world, viz., Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Thus, besides the pervasive nature of poverty, income distribution also emerges as a potential stumbling block to growth prospects and should be of high concern for policy makers, let alone be part of a global policy to tackle the poverty scourge. The present research uses the 2001 Haiti Living Conditions Survey, the most recent multi-topic survey for the Republic of Haiti, for distributive analysis and absolute poverty assessment. Preliminary results show that poverty, as expected, is more widespread in the rural area while the Metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince is where the incidence of poverty is the lowest. Surprisingly, access to physical productive asset, such as land, does not help the peasant escape poverty. In addition to the derivation of inequality and poverty profiles, a weighted least square with proper design based for stratified, multistage, and probability cluster sampling is used to additively decompose inequality by multiple factor components. Also, a polychotomous ordered logit is estimated to investigate the risk of being indigent or poor.

Evans, Jadotte.

160

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do século XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais.THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo. James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a consequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Jacob Gorender

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do sécu [...] lo XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais. Abstract in english THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo). James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a con [...] sequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Gorender, Jacob.

162

Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo

Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

2013-12-01

163

Slice filtering for fast craniofacial surface reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an algorithm to reduce the number of slices from 2D contour cross sections. The main aim of the algorithm is to filter less significant slices while preserving an acceptable level of output quality and keeping the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s at a minimal level. This research is motivated mainly by two factors; first 2D cross sections data is often huge in size and high in precisions – the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s from them is closely related to the size and complexity of this data. Second, we can trades visual fidelity with speed of computations if we can remove visually insignificant data from the original dataset which may contains redundant information. In our algorithm we use the number of contour points on a pair of slices to calculate the distance between them. Selection to retain/reject a slice is based on the value of distance compared against a threshold value. Optimal threshold value is derived to produce set of slices that collectively represent the feature of the dataset. We tested our algorithm over six different set of data, varying in complexities and sizes. The results show slice reduction rate depends on the complexity of the dataset, where highest reduction percentage is achieved for objects with lots of constant local variations. Our derived optimal thresholds seem to be able to produce the right set of slices with the potential of creating surface(s that traded off the accuracy and speed requirements.

Z.A. Rajion

2006-09-01

164

Use of oral cholera vaccine in Haiti: a rural demonstration project.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cholera epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 8,000 Haitians and sickened 650,000 since the outbreak began in October 2010. Early intervention in the epidemic focused on case-finding, treatment, and water and sanitation interventions for prevention of transmission. Use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as part of a complementary set of control activities was considered but initially rejected by policymakers. In December 2011, the Minister of Health of Haiti called for a demonstration of the acceptability and feasibility of the use of OCV in urban and rural Haiti. This paper describes the collaborative activity that offered OCV to one region of the Artibonite Department of rural Haiti in addition to other ongoing treatment and control measures. Despite logistics and cold chain challenges, 45,417 persons were successfully vaccinated with OCV in the region, and 90.8% of these persons completed their second dose. PMID:24106187

Ivers, Louise C; Teng, Jessica E; Lascher, Jonathan; Raymond, Max; Weigel, Jonathan; Victor, Nadia; Jerome, J Gregory; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Almazor, Charles P; Ternier, Ralph; Cadet, Jean; Francois, Jeannot; Guillaume, Florence D; Farmer, Paul E

2013-10-01

165

The ATLAS Muon Trigger ``Slice''  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC will face the challenge of selecting interesting candidate events in pp collisions at 14 TeV center of mass energy, while rejecting the enormous number of background events. The trigger system architecture is organized in three levels. From an interaction rate of 1 GHz the First Level trigger, hardware implemented, will reduce this rate to around ~100 kHz. Then the software based High Level Trigger (HLT), composed by the Second Level and the Event Filter reduces the rate to ~ 200 Hz. HLT is implemented on commercial CPUs using a framework built on the common ATLAS object oriented software architecture. Inclusive trigger selections are used to collect events for the ATLAS physics programme; final states with muons are crucial for Electroweak precision measurements as well as Higgs and SUSY searches. In this paper we will present the implementation of the muon slice, signal efficiencies, background rejection rates and system performances (execution time,...) for online muon selec...

Sidoti, A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; De Cecco, S; Di Mattia, A; Dionisi, C; Falciano, S; Giagu, S; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, S; Inada, M; Kanaya, N; Kohno, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Kiyamura, H; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Marzano, F; Migliaccio, A; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Omachi, C; Panikashvili, N; Pasqualucci, E; Primavera, M; Rescigno, M; Riu, I; Ryan, P; Scannicchio, D A; Siragusa, G; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Tokushuku, K; Usai, G; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Yamazaki, Y

2007-01-01

166

Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses supported the hypothesis that all isolates in the sample set diverged from a common ancestor within a time frame that is consistent with epidemiological observations. A pangenome analysis showed nearly homogeneous genomic content, with no evidence of gene acquisition among Haiti isolates. Nine nearly closed genomes assembled from continuous-long-read data showed evidence of genome rearrangements and supported the observation of no gene acquisition among isolates. Thus, intrinsic mutational processes can account for virtually all of the observed genetic polymorphism, with no demonstrable contribution from horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Consistent with this, the 12 Haiti isolates tested by laboratory HGT assays were severely impaired for transformation, although unlike previously characterized noncompetent V. cholerae isolates, each expressed hapR and possessed a functional quorum-sensing system. Continued monitoring of V. cholerae in Haiti will illuminate the processes influencing the origin and fate of genome variants, which will facilitate interpretation of genetic variation in future epidemics.

Katz, Lee S.; Petkau, Aaron; Beaulaurier, John; Tyler, Shaun; Antonova, Elena S.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Orata, Fabini; Gladney, Lori M.; Stroika, Steven; Folster, Jason P.; Rowe, Lori; Freeman, Molly M.; Knox, Natalie; Frace, Mike; Boncy, Jacques; Graham, Morag; Hammer, Brian K.; Boucher, Yan; Bashir, Ali; Hanage, William P.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Tarr, Cheryl L.

2013-01-01

167

A slice bar for a clearing hammer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A slice bar is proposed for a clearing hammer, which contains a cylindrical shaft, a collar, an operational part and a point with facets. To increase the reliability and to reduce wear, the point facets are made convex with a curvature radius which meets the relation 3 is less than R/d is less than r, where R is the curvature radius; d is the diameter of the slice bar stem. A longitudinal, circular groove is made on each facet with a radius of the generatrix of the circumference which is less than half the diameter of the slice bar stem.

Fitingof, Yu.P.; Gudkov, G.D.; Kardashov, D.M.; Korol, L.B.

1982-01-01

168

Coal briquetting in Haiti: A market and business assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The investigation evaluated potential market size, financial viability, consumer acceptance, and the government policy role in promoting the manufacture and sale of briquettes in Haiti. Our results show a large and growing charcoal market in Port-au-Prince of 100,000 to 120,000 tonnes per year in 1985, much larger than previous estimates. This would support a 50,000 tonne per year coal briquetting plant. Wood users buying in lots of 100 pieces or less would provide a smaller, secondary market of about 6000 tonnes of charcoal equivalent per year. The size and competitive nature of the current charcoal transportation, wholesale, and retail distribution chain make it easily capable of distributing the coal briquettes. We investigated three coal briquetting options, each based on a different coal source: (1) Maissade lignite, (2) L'Azile lignite, and (3) imported coal. Financial analyses compare capital and operating costs with potential returns. Results indicate that the Maissade lignite is not economically viable in competition with charcoal at current charcoal prices. Both the L'Azile and imported coal options hold more promise. The investment incentives provided by Haitian government are very favorable to a coal briquetting venture. An increased tax on charcoal, currently priced below its social cost, is recommended.

Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.; Jean-Poix, C.; Medina, N.

1987-06-01

169

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

Jeffrey McNeely

2011-03-01

170

Snapshots of Haiti: A Physician’s Relief Work in a Country in Crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. All told, more than 240,000 perished; another 200,000 were injured; and one-half of the city’s 2,000,000 residents were left homeless. In March I volunteered with Medishare to help with the relief effort. Being a family physician, broadly trained in all aspects of medicine, I knew many of my skills would be needed. In the 7 days I was in Haiti, I worked excruciatingly long hours, witnessed the sorrow of death and joy of birth, an...

Mckersie, Robert C.

2010-01-01

171

Haiti:- International Engagement in Fragile States: Can't we do better? - OECD  

...do no harm,eberlein,missika,FSP,WDR,tamine Haiti:- International Engagement in Fragile States: Can't we do better? - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Haiti › International Engagement in Fragile States: Can't we do better? International Engagement in Fragile States: Can't we do better? Send Print Tweet     Now available: 2011 Monitoring Survey on the Fragile States Principles   Four years after ministers of the OECD Development Assistance Committee endorsed the Principles for Good International ...

172

Outline and handling manual of experimental data time slice monitoring software 'SLICE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a software 'SLICE' which maps various kinds of plasma experimental data measured at the different geometrical position of JT-60U and JFT-2M onto the equilibrium magnetic configuration and treats them as a function of volume averaged minor radius ?. Experimental data can be handled uniformly by using 'SLICE'. Plenty of commands of 'SLICE' make it easy to process the mapped data. The experimental data measured as line integrated values are also transformed by Abel inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the database 'MAPDB'. 'SLICE' can read the data from 'MAPDB' and re-display and transform them. Still more 'SLICE' creates run data of orbit following Monte-Carlo code 'OFMC' and tokamak predictive and interpretation code system 'TOPICS'. This report summarizes an outline and the usage of 'SLICE'. (author)

1993-01-01

173

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

Science.gov (United States)

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research.

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

174

Program Slicing Based Buffer Overflow Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of the information technology has brought threats to human society when it has influenced seriously the global politics, economics and military etc. But among the security of information system, buffer overrun vulnerability is undoubtedly one of the most important and common vulnerabilities. This paper describes a new technology, named program slicing, to detect the buffer overflow leak in security-critical C code. First, we use slicing technology to analyze the variables whic...

2010-01-01

175

Comparison between the performance of multi-slice CT and single-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a conventional single-slice helical CT apparatus was compared with a newly developed multi-slice helical CT apparatus. The SSPz (slice-sensitive profile) and image noise of single-slice CT and multi-slice CT were compared in non-helical scan. Sufficiently thin and satisfactorily rectangular SSPz were acquired without making an effort to stop down the beam in the multi-slice helical CT apparatus. This means that it is a satisfactorily effective apparatus that allows the high resolution with low exposure doses. Comparison of the SSPz showed that the multi-slice helical CT provided slightly poorer resolution than the single-slice helical CT, but according to the results of this study the former would be superior to the latter if the optimal the helical pitch were selected. Multi-slice CT reduced the image noise and provided better noise quality. Additionally, multi-slice CT had better resolution at low contrast. It is important to understand that the low contrast resolution is greatly influenced by the reconstruction method, X-ray detection capacity of the detectors, and differences in the apparatus itself. Under the same X-ray conditions (tube voltage and the tube current), the exposure dose increased, but by changing the analysis conditions, it was possible to reduce the dose. In clinical practice, multi-slice helical CT provides good resolution, but there were some problems with scanning. In conclusion, multi-slice CT can detect 3-D images of vessels in a short time, however, the short scanning time makes the contrast medium injection technique more difficult. Automated methods of timing the injections are needed. (K.H.)

2000-01-01

176

Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsitus Green, in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsitus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), very likely originated from Asia and was first observed in the Western Hemisphere in 1994 on the island of Grenada. Since then, the insect has spread to over 31 Caribbean Islands, plus countries in South America, Central America and North America. The PHM is very polyphagous and associated with some 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and trees, and very prolific with up to 500-600 eggs/female. This mealybug was introduced into the American continent without its natural enemies and has the potential of rapidly becoming a very serious threat to the agricultural industry and the environment of the region. In Haiti, the PHM was observed for the first time in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the capital, in May 2002. In July 2002, in a cooperative effort between the Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, and International Services (USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS), the International Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a biological control programme was developed for Haiti. The first action for the management of the PHM in Haiti was to initiate a public awareness campaign and train local technicians. The PHM biological control programme started with the technical assistance of the USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS, and the support of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture (PRDA), which managed the insectary operation and provided two exotic parasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). From July 2002 to January 2004 Haiti received 180,000 parasitoids from PRDA. In April 2003 the National Association of Mango Exporters of Haiti (ANEM) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) representative in Haiti collectively developed support through the Haiti Ministry of Agriculture in order to establish an insectary to mass-produce locally the exotic parasitoids A. kamali and G. indica. From October 2003 to November 2004, 265,000 parasitoids were mass-produced at the Haiti insectary. These parasitoids were released in Haiti in PHM infested areas at the rate of 200 to 400 individuals per species per site and a distance of about one mile between releases. Six study sites were selected using infested hibiscus plants as field hosts and sampled for about one year in order to monitor the impact of the parasitoids on the population density of PHM. The results of the study indicated a 98% reduction in the PHM population density by the parasitoids, which maintained an average of 14% parasitisation following the mealybug population decline. The PHM has the capability of spreading across the country, but at a reduced rate of distribution since the implementation of this successful biological control programme. The Haiti Ministry of Agriculture continues to survey for new PHM infested areas and is prepared to release parasitoids as necessary to ensure the continued success of the PHM biological control programme. (author)

2005-05-09

177

CONTESTED STATEHOOD AND STATE-BUILDING IN HAITI Estatalidad en disputa y construcción del Estado en Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article bridges global and Haiti-specific debates on statehood, the political economy of state and state (de)formation, as well as the conceptualization and measurement of those phenomena. Drawing on data sets and secondary literatures from Haiti and beyond, it argues that despite the unique features of the extremely weak state in Haiti, that case can usefully be compared to the range of weak to fairly strong states in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the process, the article makes a ...

STEPHEN BARANYI

2012-01-01

178

Pulsating magneto-dipole radiation of a quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the characteristic parameters of the magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about an axis of a dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After a brief outline of the general theoretical background of the model of a vibration-powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as frequency, lifetime and luminosity, and investigate their time dependence on magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that a gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitored AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by the vibration-powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

2011-09-01

179

Torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking neutron star restored by combined forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses  

CERN Document Server

Within the framework of Newtonian magneto-solid-mechanics, relied on equations appropriate for a perfectly conducting elastic continuous medium threaded by a uniform magnetic field, an asteroseismic model of a neutron star undergoing global differentially rotational, torsional, nodeless vibrations under the combined action of Hooke's elastic and Lorentz magnetic forces is considered with emphasis on toroidal Alfven mode. The obtained spectral equation for frequency is applied to l-pole identification of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux during flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Our calculations suggest that detected QPOs can be consistently interpreted as produced by global torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking magnetar if they are considered to be restored by joint action of bulk forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses.

Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Molodtsova, I V; Podgainy, D V

2008-01-01

180

Quaking neutron star deriving radiative power of oscillating magneto-dipole emission from energy of Alfv\\'en seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that depletion of the magnetic field pressure in a quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Highlighted is the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfv\\'en vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods due to magnetic field decay are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Yu, J W

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local 'when, where' earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth's surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information, as well as other precursory information, is essential.

S. Cht. Mavrodiev

2004-01-01

182

On the Reliability of the Geomagnetic Quake as Short Time Earthquake Precursor for Sofia Region- 2002, 2003  

CERN Document Server

The local when earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic quakes and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately +/-1 day and for the maximum- +/-2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2003 for Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local when, where earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information as well as other precursory information is essential.

Mavrodiev, S C

2004-01-01

183

Model for a national radiation protection infrastructure in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation controls took an increasing trend in Haiti. The corresponding trend is in the making of a national authority that will oversee all private and public establishments where ionizing radiation sources are being used on a diagnostic basis or for therapeutic purposes. The primary purpose of this authority is to improve regulatory framework for radiation protection but also to layout mechanisms for controlling sources. With IAEA helps and expertise a national programme is being implemented that will reflect priorities of the international Basic Safety Standard. Our goal in this paper was to provide a model authority based on the legal culture of the country and mindset of healthcare worker. The unique feature of this proposed model is that it places greater emphasis on responding to a health priority, and greater government willingness to have and independent body to regulate every single user of ionizing radiations and this flexible model can be implemented with minimal expenditures for our national budget. The following key services have been identified to provide the needed control mechanism for the Authority: Administrative Affairs Services; Personal Dosimetry Services; Nuclear and Radiological Safety Services; Legal Affairs Services. The possibility to achieve reduction of the exposed x ray workers and to establish a greater discipline in the use nuclear and radiological technology and availability of state of the art technology can be reached only if such a national body is effectively implemented by mean of a national decree therefore abiding all citizens. A basic inventory model is annexed for the purposes of assessing current needs in radiation protection. (author)

2003-07-01

184

Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

With increasing population displacement and worsening water insecurity after the 2010 earthquake, Haiti experienced a large cholera outbreak. Our goal was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of seven community health facilities' ability to respond to a surge in cholera cases. Since 2010, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with a number of public and private donors has been working with seven health facilities in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cholera infection. In November 2012, CRS through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s support, asked the Johns Hopkins Center for Refugee and Disaster Response to conduct a cholera surge simulation tabletop exercise at these health facilities to improve each facility's response in the event of a cholera surge. Using simulation development guidelines from the Pan American Health Organization and others, a simulation scenario script was produced that included situations of differing severity, supply chain, as well as a surge of patients. A total of 119 hospital staff from seven sites participated in the simulation exercise including community health workers, clinicians, managers, pharmacists, cleaners, and security guards. Clinics that had challenges during the simulated clinical care of patients were those that did not appropriately treat all cholera patients according to protocol, particularly those that were vulnerable, those that would need additional staff to properly treat patients during a surge of cholera, and those that required a better inventory of supplies. Simulation-based activities have the potential to identify healthcare delivery system vulnerabilities that are amenable to intervention prior to a cholera surge. PMID:24481887

Mobula, Linda Meta; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Weinhauer, Kristin; Alcidas, Gladys; Thomas, Hans-Muller; Burnham, Gilbert

2013-01-01

185

US Foreign Policy towards Haiti 1994: A Data-Driven Learning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this exercise is to explore US foreign policy and the way US citizens view these policies and their implementation. In this exercise, we will explore foreign policy towards Haiti in 1994. Frequency tables and crosstabs will be used.

Icpsr

186

Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (Haiti). A Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital.

Molina Palacios, Sergio; Torres Ferna?ndez, Yolanda; Moise, Junie; Benito Oterino, Belen

2011-01-01

187

Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling), we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and ...

Jacquet Vary; Morose Willy; Schwartzman Kevin; Oxlade Olivia; Barr Graham; Grimard Franque; Menzies Dick

2006-01-01

188

Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

Elizabeth Wickstrom

2007-10-01

189

Cholera Prevention Training Materials for Community Health Workers, Haiti, 2010–2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stopping the spread of the cholera epidemic in Haiti required engaging community health workers (CHWs) in prevention and treatment activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population to develop CHW educational materials, train >1,100 CHWs, and evaluate training efforts.

Rajasingham, Anu; Bowen, Anna; O’reilly, Ciara; Sholtes, Kari; Schilling, Katie; Hough, Catherine; Brunkard, Joan; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Lerebours, Gerald; Cadet, Jean; Quick, Robert; Person, Bobbie

2011-01-01

190

Cholera prevention training materials for community health workers, Haiti, 2010–2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stopping the spread of the cholera epidemic in Haiti required engaging community health workers (CHWs) in prevention and treatment activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population to develop CHW educational materials, train >1,100 CHWs, and evaluate training efforts. PMID:22204034

Rajasingham, Anu; Bowen, Anna; O'Reilly, Ciara; Sholtes, Kari; Schilling, Katie; Hough, Catherine; Brunkard, Joan; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Lerebours, Gerald; Cadet, Jean; Quick, Robert; Person, Bobbie

2011-11-01

191

Cholera Prevention Training Materials for Community Health Workers, Haiti, 2010-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Stopping the spread of the cholera epidemic in Haiti required engaging community health workers (CHWs) in prevention and treatment activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population to develop CHW educational materials, train >1,100 CHWs, and evaluate training efforts.

Bowen, Anna; O'Reilly, Ciara; Sholtes, Kari; Schilling, Katie; Hough, Catherine; Brunkard, Joan; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Lerebours, Gerald; Cadet, Jean; Quick, Robert; Person, Bobbie

2011-01-01

192

Spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg Event Bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

LA-ICP-MS analyses (Ø 90 µm) of "black glass" spherules and secondary clay minerals from Beloc, Haiti, show that alteration causes a drastic loss of most trace elements, a significant change in the REE distribution pattern and the Nb/Ta ratio.

Ritter, X.; Deutsch, A.; Berndt, J.; Robin, E.

2012-09-01

193

Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

194

Wafer Manufacturing and Slicing Using Wiresaw  

Science.gov (United States)

Wafer manufacturing (or wafer production) refers to a series of modern manufacturing processes of producing single-crystalline or poly-crystalline wafers from crystal ingot (or boule) of different sizes and materials. The majority of wafers are single-crystalline silicon wafers used in microelectronics fabrication although there is increasing importance in slicing poly-crystalline photovoltaic (PV) silicon wafers as well as wafers of different materials such as aluminum oxide, lithium niobate, quartz, sapphire, III-V and II-VI compounds, and others. Slicing is the first major post crystal growth manufacturing process toward wafer production. The modern wiresaw has emerged as the technology for slicing various types of wafers, especially for large silicon wafers, gradually replacing the ID saw which has been the technology for wafer slicing in the last 30 years of the 20th century. Modern slurry wiresaw has been deployed to slice wafers from small to large diameters with varying wafer thickness characterized by minimum kerf loss and high surface quality. The needs for slicing large crystal ingots (300 mm in diameter or larger) effectively with minimum kerf losses and high surface quality have made it indispensable to employ the modern slurry wiresaw as the preferred tool for slicing. In this chapter, advances in technology and research on the modern slurry wiresaw manufacturing machines and technology are reviewed. Fundamental research in modeling and control of modern wiresaw manufacturing process are required in order to understand the cutting mechanism and to make it relevant for improving industrial processes. To this end, investigation and research have been conducted for the modeling, characterization, metrology, and control of the modern wiresaw manufacturing processes to meet the stringent precision requirements of the semiconductor industry. Research results in mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experiments, and composition of slurry versus wafer quality are presented. Summary and further reading are also provided.

Kao, Imin; Chung, Chunhui; Moreno Rodriguez, Roosevelt

195

Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling, we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion.

Barr Graham

2006-08-01

196

Privacy Impact Assessment for the Office of Operations Coordination and Planning Haiti Social Media Disaster Monitoring Initiative, January 21, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Office of Operations Coordination and Planning (OPS), National Operations Center (NOC), has launched a Haiti Social Media Disaster Monitoring Initiative (Initiative) to assist the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and its components involved in t...

2010-01-01

197

A variational formulation of vertical slice models  

CERN Multimedia

A variational framework is defined for vertical slice models with three dimensional velocity depending only on x and z. The models that result from this framework are Hamiltonian, and have a Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem that results in a conserved potential vorticity in the slice geometry. These results are demonstrated for the incompressible Euler--Boussinesq equations with a constant temperature gradient in the $y$-direction (the Eady--Boussinesq model), which is an idealised problem used to study the formation and subsequent evolution of weather fronts. We then introduce a new compressible extension of this model. Unlike the incompressible model, the compressible model does not produce solutions that are also solutions of the three-dimensional equations, but it does reduce to the Eady--Boussinesq model in the low Mach number limit. This means that this new model can be used in asymptotic limit error testing for compressible weather models running in a vertical slice configuration.

Cotter, C J

2012-01-01

198

Dynamic Backward Slicing of Rewriting Logic Computations  

CERN Multimedia

Trace slicing is a widely used technique for execution trace analysis that is effectively used in program debugging, analysis and comprehension. In this paper, we present a backward trace slicing technique that can be used for the analysis of Rewriting Logic theories. Our trace slicing technique allows us to systematically trace back rewrite sequences modulo equational axioms (such as associativity and commutativity) by means of an algorithm that dynamically simplifies the traces by detecting control and data dependencies, and dropping useless data that do not influence the final result. Our methodology is particularly suitable for analyzing complex, textually-large system computations such as those delivered as counter-example traces by Maude model-checkers.

Alpuente, María; Espert, Javier; Romero, Daniel

2011-01-01

199

Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

1981-03-12

200

Texture feature analysis of coke slice image  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The micro optical texture structure is one of the most relevant characteristics of coke. In this paper, the texture features, especially the fractal feature, of coke slice image is analysed, and a box-counting algorithm is implemented to calculate the fractal dimension of coke slice image. At the same time, some co-occurrence matrix-based statistical texture features are also analysed. From the experimental results, the relationships between fractal dimension statistical texture parameters and the porosity of coke are developed, which provide an important basis for the auto analysis of coke quality.

Wang Peizhen; Wang Qinfang; Gao Shangyi

2008-03-15

 
 
 
 
201

“Echo-Planar Imaging with Prospective Slice-by-Slice Motion Correction using Active Markers”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Head motion is a fundamental problem in functional MRI, and is often a limiting factor in its clinical implementation. This work presents a rigid-body motion correction strategy for echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences that uses micro radio-frequency coil “active markers” for real-time, slice-by-slice prospective correction. Before the acquisition of each EPI-slice, a short tracking pulse-sequence measures the positions of three active markers integrated into a headband worn by the subject...

2011-01-01

202

Models for the distribution of quaking aspen in geographic and potential evapotranspiration spaces relevant to the Book Cliffs (Utah), 2000-2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and an asset to sociological, ecological, and hydrological land values in the western United States. In recognition of these values, land managers seek means to oppose a regional decline of aspen in the Intermountain West—a decline apparently in progress since the close of the Pleistocene and driven by climate change, fire suppression, and increasing ungulate densities. One location of special relevance to this decli...

2003-01-01

203

Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

204

[A simple vibratome for brain slice].  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple vibratome was fabricated using double-function electric shaver and microscopic platform. Spontaneous discharge of neurons in hippocampal and hypothalamic brain slices (in 300-400 microns thick) prepared by the vibratome could kept above 12 hours in artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. PMID:2697084

Xia, J H; Xing, B R; Gu, Q; Hua, S Y

1989-12-01

205

Elastic theory of a confocal slice  

CERN Document Server

Recent confocal experiments on colloidal solids, as well as jammed and disordered materials, motivate a fuller study of the projection of three-dimensional fluctuations onto a two-dimensional confocal slice. We show that the effective theory of a projected crystal displays several exceptional features, and we give analytic expressions relating three-dimensional elastic constants to observed two-dimensional properties.

Lemarchand, Claire A; Schindler, Michael

2011-01-01

206

Neural network activity in the neonatal acute slice, slice culture and cell culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information processing and storage in the brain may be presented by the oscillations and cell assemblies. Here we address the question of how individual neurons associate together to assemble neural networks and present spontaneous electrical activity. Therefore, we dissected the neonatal brain at three different levels: acute 1-mm thick brain slice, cultured organotypic 350-µm thick brain slice and dissociated neuronal cultures. The spatio-temporal properties of neural activity were invest...

Sun, Jyh-jang

2009-01-01

207

The Characteristics of LTP Induced in Hippocampal Slices Are Dependent on Slice-Recovery Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

In area CA1 of hippocampal slices which are allowed to recover from slicing "in interface" and where recordings are carried out in interface, a single 1-sec train of 100-Hz stimulation triggers a short-lasting long-term potentiation (S-LTP), which lasts 1-2 h, whereas multiple 1-sec trains induce a long-lasting LTP (L-LTP), which lasts several…

Godaux, Emile; Ris, Laurence; Capron, Brigitte; Sindic, Christian

2006-01-01

208

Dengue among United Nations mission in Haiti personnel, 1995: implications for preventive medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of dengue infections has been increasing in the Caribbean, and cases have been identified among successive deployments of multinational peacekeepers to Haiti (1994-1997). In the absence of an effective vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to prevent dengue fever, vector-control operations and use of personal protection measures to prevent arthropod bites are the most effective means of limiting disease transmission. During our 5-month deployment as part of the United Nations Mission in Haiti, 79 cases of recent dengue fever were identified among 249 patients (32%) presenting with febrile illness to the 86th Combat Support Hospital. Further investigation revealed low unit readiness to perform standard vector-control activities and poor individual adherence to measures to prevent arthropod bites. Command enforcement of existing field preventive medicine doctrine is essential to prevent casualties caused by dengue, other arthropod-borne infections, and nuisance arthropod bites during military deployments. PMID:10226460

Gambel, J M; Drabick, J J; Swalko, M A; Henchal, E A; Rossi, C A; Martinez-Lopez, L

1999-04-01

209

Complementary nature of surface and atmospheric parameters associated with Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper describes surface (surface air temperature and atmospheric parameters (relative humidity, surface latent heat flux over the epicenter (18°27´25´´ N 72°31´59´´ W of Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010. Our analysis shows pronounced changes in surface and atmospheric parameters few days prior to the main earthquake event. Changes in relative humidity are found from the surface up to an altitude of 500 hPa clearly show atmospheric perturbations associated with the earthquake event. The purpose of this paper is to show complementary nature of the changes observed in surface, atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The total ozone concentration is found to be lowest on the day of earthquake and afterwards found to be increased within a week of earthquake. The present results show existence of coupling between lithosphere-atmosphere associated with the deadly Haiti earthquake.

Ramesh P. Singh

2010-06-01

210

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeiros dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia.The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that followed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Omar Ribeiro Thomaz

2010-03-01

211

The impact of the Haiti earthquake on Haitian immigration to the Dominican Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the earthquake of 7.0 on the Richter scale struck Haiti on January 12, 2010, the forcibly displaced on and off the island were the object of emergency planning, but so too were the host populations in Haiti and the neighbouring Dominican Republic. This article seeks to examine the emergency response to the earthquake and ongoing challenges through the lens of critical mobilities, with special reference to forced migration island-wide. Who (men, women, boys and girls is able to move, how, where, for how long and through which networks? What is the legal framework, if any, governing these movements? Who wants visibility and who prefers to move without drawing the attention of the Dominican authorities, in the context, for example, of ambiguous migration policies in the Dominican Republic towards impoverished Haitian immigrants?

Bridget WOODING

2011-03-01

212

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeir [...] os dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia. Abstract in english The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that f [...] ollowed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Thomaz, Omar Ribeiro.

213

Labor supply response to international migration and remittances in the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Republic of Haiti is the prime international remittances recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this observation may be that this country is also the first exporter of skilled workers in the world by population size. The present research uses a zero-altered negative binomial (with logit inflation) to model households' international migration decision process, and endogenous regressors' Amemiya Genera...

2008-01-01

214

The Cluster Approach for Organizing Emergency Response:A case study of Myanmar and Haiti (2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the formal organization of the cluster approach and how it is in practice in the after math of natural disasters. The cyclone Nargis that hit Myanmar in 2008 and the tropical storms and hurricane season in Haiti in 2008 are used as examples for how the cluster approach has been applied in practice. The empirical data is described and structured through four key variables: specialization, coordination, leadership and accountability. To understand and describe the cluster ap...

Ulleland, Trude Kvam

2013-01-01

215

Virologic, clinical and immunologic responses following failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Since HIV-1 RNA (viral load) testing is not routinely available in Haiti, HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are monitored using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical and/or immunologic criteria. Data on survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-1 infected patients who meet criteria for ART failure are limited. We conducted a retrospective study to compare survival rates for patients who experienced failure on first-line ART by clinical and/or immuno...

Macarthur Charles; Leger, Paul D.; Patrice Severe; Colette Guiteau; Alexandra Apollon; Gulick, Roy M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

2012-01-01

216

Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 3...

Jc, Jackson; Al, Farone; Mb, Farone

2011-01-01

217

Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10?days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were mor...

Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

2010-01-01

218

The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake, we deployed a mainly offshore temporary network of seismologic stations around the damaged area. The distribution of the recorded aftershocks, together with morphotectonic observations and mainshock analysis, allow us to constrain a complex fault pattern in the area. Almost all of the aftershocks have a N-S compressive mechanism, and not the expected left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. A first-order slip model of the mainshock shows a N264 degrees...

2011-01-01

219

Design of Public-Private Partnership for Waste Management in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste management is a growing concern in rapidly urbanizing developing countries and Haiti is noexception. Excessive amounts of improperly discharged waste endangers unique tropical environment, appears to bea reason of fast spread of epidemic diseases, increases risk of floods during the hurricane season and contributes toclimate change. Due to various historical, economic, natural and socio-political reasons, public sector of Haitianstate is not able to provide decent waste management servi...

Bessonova, Ekaterina

2012-01-01

220

Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analys...

Lomotey, Chaylah J.; Judy Lewis; Bette Gebrian; Royneld Bourdeau; Kevin Dieckhaus; Salazar, Juan C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care...

Ponsar Frédérique; Ford Nathan; van Herp Michel; Mancini Silvia; Bachy Catherine

2009-01-01

222

The Army of Sufferers : peasant democracy in the early Republic of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focuses on Haitian debates concerning popular political participation in the context of the Liberal Revolution of 1843 and the Piquet Rebellion of 1844. The liberal challenge to the regime of President Boyer gave room to a peasant movement, the 'Army of Sufferers' or the Piquets, calling for black civil and political rights. Author traces 3 phases of the revolutionary situation of 1843-44 to show how political actors within Haiti debated various institutional and constitutional arrangements.

Mimi Sheller

2000-01-01

223

Food Security in Haiti After the 2010 Earthquake: Analysis and Evaluation of NGO Relief Efforts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti suffered an earthquake in January of 2010, bringing instability and widespread hunger. Even after two years, many Haitians lack food security, and one must look at the failings of the Haitian government and those who attempted to provide aid. Major aid organizations such as the Red Cross, World Food Program, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization stepped in to provide disaster assistance. Unfortunately, these organizations failed to effectively coor...

Mcgaughey, Katie

2012-01-01

224

Modeling the Influence of Environment and Intervention on Cholera in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a simple model with two infective classes in order to model the cholera epidemic in Haiti. We include the impact of environmental events (rainfall, temperature and tidal range) on the epidemic in the Artibonite and Ouest regions. We used this model to obtain epidemic projections, and then modified these projections incorporating the vaccination programs that were recently to compare with actual cases. Using daily rainfall we found lag times between precipitation a...

Tennenbaum, Stephen; Freitag, Caroline; Roudenko, Svetlana

2013-01-01

225

The Cluster Approach for Organizing Emergency Response: A case study of Myanmar and Haiti (2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the formal organization of the cluster approach and how it is in practice in the after math of natural disasters. The cyclone Nargis that hit Myanmar in 2008 and the tropical storms and hurricane season in Haiti in 2008 are used as examples for how the cluster approach has been applied in practice. The empirical data is described and structured through four key variables: specialization, coordination, leadership and accountability. To understand ...

Ulleland, Trude Kvam

2013-01-01

226

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30

227

Idioms of distress, ethnopsychology, and the clinical encounter in Haiti's Central Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti's 2010 earthquake mobilized mental health and psychosocial interventions from across the globe. However, failure to understand how psychological distress is communicated between lay persons and health workers in rural clinics, where most Haitians access care, has been a major limitation in providing mental health services. The goal of this study was to map idioms of distress onto Haitian ethnopsychologies in a way that promotes improved communication between lay persons and clinicians in rural Haiti. In Haiti's Central Plateau, an ethnographic study was conducted in May and June 2010, utilizing participant observation in rural clinics, 31 key informant interviews, 11 focus groups, and four case studies. Key informants included biomedical practitioners, traditional healers, community leaders, and municipal and religious figures. Deductive and inductive themes were coded using content analysis (inter-rater reliability > 0.70). Forty-four terms for psychological distress were identified. Head (tèt) or heart (kè) terms comprise 55% of all qualitative text segments coded for idioms of distress. Twenty-eight of 142 observed patient-clinician contacts involved persons presenting with tèt terms, while 29 of the 142 contacts were presentations with kè terms. Thus, 40% of chief complaints were conveyed in either head or heart terms. Interpretations of these terms differed between lay and clinical groups. Lay respondents had broad and heterogeneous interpretations, whereas clinicians focused on biomedical concepts and excluded discussion of mental health concerns. This paper outlines preliminary evidence regarding the psychosocial dimensions of tèt and kè-based idioms of distress and calls for further exploration. Holistic approaches to mental healthcare in Haiti's Central Plateau should incorporate local ethnopsychological frameworks alongside biomedical models of healthcare. PMID:22595073

Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

2012-08-01

228

Organotypic slice culture of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rat  

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Organotypic slice cultures have been developed as an alternative to acute brain slices because the neuronal viability and synaptic connectivity in these cultures can be preserved well for a prolonged period of time. This study evaluated a stationary organotypic slice culture developed for the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rat. The results showed that the slice cultures maintain the typical shape of the nucleus, the immunocytochemical signals for oxytocin, vasopressin, and cort...

Cho, Eun Seong; Lee, So Yeong; Park, Jae-yong; Hong, Seong-geun; Ryu, Pan Dong

2007-01-01

229

A Simple Method for Measuring Organotypic Tissue Slice Culture Thickness  

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This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when ...

Guy, Yifat; Rupert, Amy; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

230

CMC-Slicings of Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter Cosmologies  

Science.gov (United States)

There is constructed, for each member of a one-parameter family of cosmological models, which is obtained from the Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by identification under discrete isometries, a slicing by spherically symmetric Cauchy hypersurfaces of constant mean curvature. These slicings are unique up to the action of the static Killing vector. Analytical and numerical results are found as to when different leaves of these slicings do not intersect, i.e. when the slicings form foliations.

Beig, Robert; Heinzle, J. Mark

2005-12-01

231

Nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking neutron star  

CERN Document Server

The two-component, core-crust, model of a neutron star with homogenous internal and dipolar external magnetic field is studied responding to quake-induced perturbation by substantially nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of the perfectly conducting crustal matter about axis of fossil magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. The energy variational method of the magneto-solid-mechanical theory of a viscoelastic perfectly conducting medium pervaded by magnetic field is utilized to compute the frequency and lifetime of nodeless torsional vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma about the dipole magnetic-moment axis of the star. It is found that obtained two-parametric spectral formula for the frequency of this toroidal Alfven mode provides fairly accurate account of rapid oscillations of the X-ray flux during the flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14, supporting the investigated conjecture that these quasi-periodic oscillations owe its origin to axisymmetric torsional oscillations predomina...

Bastrukov, S I; Molodtsova, I V; Takata, J

2008-01-01

232

Eigenmodes of seismic elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares  

CERN Document Server

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional seismic elastic vibrations trapped in the crust of quaking neutron star is outlined. The spectral equations for the frequency of these modes are obtained and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis is heavily relied on the currently accepted identification of the QPOs frequency from the range [30-200] Hz with those for torsional nodeless vibrations. Based on this identification, which is used to fix the input parameters entering the obtained spectral formulae, we compute frequency spectrum of nodeless spheroidal elastic vibrations. Focus is placed on the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that QPOs with frequencies 18 Hz and 26 Hz are due to dipole spheroidal and dipole torsional shear vibrations of the crust a...

Bastrukov, Sergey; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-Ting

2007-01-01

233

A cluster of dengue cases in American missionaries returning from Haiti, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4) that are endemic throughout the tropics. After returning from a 1-week missionary trip to Haiti in October of 2010, 5 of 28 (18%) travelers were hospitalized for dengue-like illness. All travelers were invited to submit serum specimens and complete questionnaires on pre-travel preparations, mosquito avoidance practices, and activities during travel. DENV infection was confirmed in seven (25%) travelers, including all travelers that were hospitalized. Viral sequencing revealed closest homology to a 2007 DENV-1 isolate from the Dominican Republic. Although most (88%) travelers had a pre-travel healthcare visit, only one-quarter knew that dengue is a risk in Haiti, and one-quarter regularly used insect repellent. This report confirms recent DENV transmission in Haiti. Travelers to DENV-endemic areas should receive dengue education during pre-travel health consultations, follow mosquito avoidance recommendations, and seek medical care for febrile illness during or after travel. PMID:22232444

Sharp, Tyler M; Pillai, Parvathy; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Santiago, Gilberto A; Anderson, Teresa; Vap, Trina; Collinson, Jeremy; Buss, Bryan F; Safranek, Thomas J; Sotir, Mark J; Jentes, Emily S; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Arguello, D Fermin

2012-01-01

234

Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

1986-03-20

235

Techniques and Applications of Computation Slicing  

CERN Multimedia

Writing correct distributed programs is hard. In spite of extensive testing and debugging, software faults persist even in commercial grade software. Many distributed systems, especially those employed in safety-critical environments, should be able to operate properly even in the presence of software faults. Monitoring the execution of a distributed system, and, on detecting a fault, initiating the appropriate corrective action is an important way to tolerate such faults. This gives rise to the predicate detection problem which requires finding a consistent cut of a given computation that satisfies a given global predicate, if it exists. Detecting a predicate in a computation is, however, an NP-complete problem. To ameliorate the associated combinatorial explosion problem, we introduce the notion of computation slice. Formally, the slice of a computation with respect to a predicate is a (sub)computation with the least number of consistent cuts that contains all consistent cuts of the computation satisfying t...

Mittal, N; Mittal, Neeraj; Garg, Vijay K.

2003-01-01

236

Thin Sectioning of Slice Preparations for Immunohistochemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many investigations in neuroscience, as well as other disciplines, involve studying small, yet macroscopic pieces or sections of tissue that have been preserved, freshly removed, or excised but kept viable, as in slice preparations of brain tissue. Subsequent microscopic studies of this material can be challenging, as the tissue samples may be difficult to handle. Demonstrated here is a method for obtaining thin cryostat sections of tissue with a thickness that may range from 0.2-5.0 mm. W...

Park, Jae-joon; Cunningham, Miles G.

2007-01-01

237

Thin Sectioning of Slice Preparations for Immunohistochemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many investigations in neuroscience, as well as other disciplines, involve studying small, yet macroscopic pieces or sections of tissue that have been preserved, freshly removed, or excised but kept viable, as in slice preparations of brain tissue. Subsequent microscopic studies of this material can be challenging, as the tissue samples may be difficult to handle. Demonstrated here is a method for obtaining thin cryostat sections of tissue with a thickness that may range from 0.2-5.0 mm. We r...

Park, Jae-joon; Cunningham, Miles Gregory

2007-01-01

238

Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficient training at the pre-service level to carry out this important work. Methods To address this issue, the Ministry of Health and Population collaborated with the International Training and Education Center on HIV over a period of 12 months to create a competency-based HIV/AIDS curriculum to be integrated into the 4-year baccalaureate programme of the four national schools of nursing. Results Using a review of the international health and education literature on HIV/AIDS competencies and various models of curriculum development, a Haiti-based curriculum committee developed expected HIV/AIDS competencies for graduating nurses and then drafted related learning objectives. The committee then mapped these learning objectives to current courses in the nursing curriculum and created an 'HIV/AIDS Teaching Guide' for faculty on how to integrate and achieve these objectives within their current courses. The curriculum committee also created an 'HIV/AIDS Reference Manual' that detailed the relevant HIV/AIDS content that should be taught for each course. Conclusion All nursing students will now need to demonstrate competency in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, skills and attitudes during periodic assessment with direct observation of the student performing authentic tasks. Faculty will have the responsibility of developing exercises to address the required objectives and creating assessment tools to demonstrate that their graduates have met the objectives. This activity brought different administrators, nurse leaders and faculty from four geographically dispersed nursing schools to collaborate on a shared goal using a process that could be easily replicated to integrate any new topic in a resource-constrained pre-service institution. It is hoped that this experience provided stakeholders with the experience, skills and motivation to strengthen other domains of the pre-service nursing curriculum, improve the synchronization of didactic and practical training and develop standardized, competency-based examinations for nursing licensure in Haiti.

Knebel Elisa

2008-08-01

239

Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2009-12-25

240

Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions.

Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program  

CERN Document Server

Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a method to dynamically slice object-oriented (00) programs based on dependence analysis. It uses the Control Dependency Graph for object program and other static information to reduce the information to be traced during program execution. In this paper we present a method to find the dynamic Slice of object oriented programs where we are finding the slices for object and in case of function overloading.

Pani, Santosh Kumar

2010-01-01

242

Water-resources reconnaissance of Île de la Gonâve, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Île de la Gonâve is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day. L'Île de la Gonâve est une île de 750 km2 au large de la côte d'Haïti. La profondeur de la nappe varie entre moins de 30 m dans les calcaires de l'Éocène et du Miocène supérieur à plus de 60 m dans les calcaires quaternaires épais de 300 m. Les précipitations annuelles sont comprises entre 800-1.400 mm. La plus grande partie des précipitations est perdue par évapotranspiration et il n'y a pratiquement pas d'eau de surface. Le bilan de masse des chlorures permet d'estimer à 4% des précipitations le montant de la recharge de l'aquifère karstique. Des bassins dans les grottes et des sources sont la source d'eau courante. Des puits creusés à la main fournissent de l'eau dans les zones côtières. Quelques puits productifs ont été forés dépassant 60 m de profondeur. L'analyse des reconnaissances de terrain indique que les eaux souterraines à l'intérieur de l'île sont de faciès bicarbonaté calcique, tandis que l'eau près de la côte a un faciès chloruré sodique dépassant les valeurs recommandées par l'OMS pour le sodium et les chlorures. Des tests pour la présence de bactéries productrices d'hydrogène sulfuré se sont révélés négatifs dans la plupart des forages, mais positifs dans la plupart des sources captées et tous les autres sources, bassins de grottes et puits creusés à la main, ce qui indique une contamination bactérienne de la plupart des sources d'eau. Du fait des difficultés pour s'approvisionner en eau douce, les 110.000 habitants utilisent en moyenne seulement 7 L par personne et par jour. La Isla de la Gonavê, cercana a la costa de Haití, tiene 750 km2. La profundidad al nivel freático está comprendida entre menos de 30 m para las calcitas del Eoceno y Mioceno Superior y más de 60 m en el acuífero de calcitas cuaternarias, el cual posee 300 m de espesor. La precipitación anual varía entre 800-1.400 mm, si bien la mayor parte se pierde por evapotranspiración y prácticamente no hay aguas superficiales. Según un balance de masas de cloruros, alrededor del 4% de la precipitación recarga el acuífero kárstico. Las cavidades y manantiales son una fuente habitual de agua. Los pozos excavados proporcionan agua en las áreas costeras. Pocos pozos productivos se han perforado a más de 60 m. El reconocimiento de los análisis de campo indica que las aguas subterráneas son de tipo bicarbonatado-cálcico en el interior, mientras que es de tipo clorurado-sódico en la costa, donde se sobrepasan las concentraciones recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud para sodio y cloruro. Los ensayos efectuados para detectar la presencia de bacterias productoras de sulfuro de hidrógeno resultaron negativos en la mayoría de los pozos perforados, pero fueron positivos en la muchos manantiales explotados y en todos los manantiales, cavidades y pozos excavados, hecho que indica la contamina

Troester, Joseph W.; Turvey, Michael D.

243

Induction of phenolic glycosides by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves in relation to extrafloral nectaries and epidermal leaf mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of epidermal leaf mining on the leaf chemistry of quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides, during an outbreak of the aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Phyllocnistis populiella feeds on the epidermal cells of P. tremuloides leaves. Eleven days after the onset of leaf mining, concentrations of the phenolic glycosides tremulacin and salicortin were significantly higher in aspen leaves that had received natural levels of leaf mining than in leaves sprayed with insecticide to reduce mining damage. In a second experiment, we examined the time course of induction in more detail. The levels of foliar phenolic glycosides in naturally mined ramets increased relative to the levels in insecticide-treated ramets on the ninth day following the onset of leaf mining. Induction occurred while some leaf miner larvae were still feeding and when leaves had sustained mining over 5% of the leaf surface. Leaves with extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) had significantly higher constitutive and induced levels of phenolic glycosides than leaves lacking EFNs, but there was no difference in the ability of leaves with and without EFNs to induce phenolic glycosides in response to mining. Previous work showed that the extent of leaf mining damage was negatively related to the total foliar phenolic glycoside concentration, suggesting that phenolic glycosides deter or reduce mining damage. The results presented here demonstrate that induction of phenolic glycosides can be triggered by relatively small amounts of mining damage confined to the epidermal tissue, and that these changes in leaf chemistry occur while a subset of leaf miners are still feeding within the leaf. PMID:20354896

Young, Brian; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia; Clausen, Thomas

2010-04-01

244

Optimal quantization applied to Sliced Inverse Regression  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we consider a semiparametric regression model involving a $d$-dimensional quantitative explanatory variable $X$ and including a dimension reduction of $X$ via an index $\\beta'X$. In this model, the main goal is to estimate the euclidean parameter $\\beta$ and to predict the real response variable $Y$ conditionally to $X$. Our approach is based on sliced inverse regression (SIR) method and optimal quantization in $\\mathbf{L}^p$-norm. We obtain the convergence of the proposed estimators of $\\beta$ and of the conditional distribution. Simulation studies show the good numerical behavior of the proposed estimators for finite sample size.

Romain, Aza\\"\\is; Jérôme, Saracco

2011-01-01

245

TRANSFORM DOMAIN SLICE BASED DISTRIBUTED VIDEO CODING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed video coding depends heavily on the virtual channel model. Due to the limitations of the side information estimation one stationary model does not properly describe the virtual channel. In this work the correlation noise is modelled per slice to obtain location-specific correlation noise model. The resulting delay from the lengthy Slepian-Wolf (SW codec input is also reduced by reducing the length of SW codec input. The proposed solution does not impose any extra complexity, it utilizes the existing resources. The results presented here support the proposed algorithm.

SAMIR BELHOUARI

2011-10-01

246

A remark on the slicing problem  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this article is to describe a reduction of the slicing problem to the study of the parameter I_1(K,Z_q^o(K))=\\int_K || ||_{L_q(K)}dx. We show that an upper bound of the form I_1(K,Z_q^o(K))\\leq C_1q^s\\sqrt{n}L_K^2, with 1/2\\leq s\\leq 1, leads to the estimate L_n\\leq \\frac{C_2\\sqrt[4]{n}log(n)} {q^{(1-s)/2}}, where L_n:= max {L_K : K is an isotropic convex body in R^n}.

Giannopoulos, Apostolos; Vritsiou, Beatrice-Helen

2011-01-01

247

Sensitive and specific detection of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain prion protein using real-time quaking-induced conversion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is an assay in which disease-associated prion protein (PrP) initiates a rapid conformational transition in recombinant PrP (recPrP), resulting in the formation of amyloid that can be monitored in real time using the dye thioflavin T. It therefore has potential advantages over analogous cell-free PrP conversion assays such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The QuIC assay and the related amyloid seeding assay have been developed la...

Peden, Alexander H.; Mcguire, Lynne I.; Appleford, Nigel E. J.; Mallinson, Gary; Wilham, Jason M.; Orru?, Christina D.; Caughey, Byron; Ironside, James W.; Knight, Richard S.; Will, Robert G.; Green, Alison J. E.; Head, Mark W.

2012-01-01

248

Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants: detailed determination of safety margins and their scattering for buildings in case of earth quakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants studies and evaluations of earth quake events have to be performed. The methodology is aimed to quantify the actual safety margins of the existing structures and their scattering. These data are essentially based on empirical values and results from US power plants. The authors discuss the accuracy and applicability of the simplified methodologies. It turns out that the simplified models can only roughly describe the complex non-linear behavior of buildings. Additional system engineering based effects on the safety reserves cannot be taken into account by the simplified modeling.

2009-01-01

249

Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues. PMID:24267876

Eisenberg, Marisa C; Kujbida, Gregory; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N; Tien, Joseph H

2013-12-01

250

Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado / Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado [...] algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH) que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional. Abstract in english This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the countr [...] y. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

FELDMANN, ANDREAS; MONTES, JUAN ESTEBAN.

251

Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors among an urban population in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The seroprevalence of hepatitis C varies substantially between countries and geographic regions. A better understanding of the seroprevalence of this disease, and the risk factors associated with seropositive status, supply data for the development of screening programs and provide insight into the transmission of the disease. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in an urban population in Haiti. Methods A prospective survey for hepatitis C antibodies was conducted among an urban outpatient population in Cap-Haïtien, Haiti, with a sample size of 500 subjects. An anonymous 12 question survey, with inquiries related to demographic characteristics and risk factors for HCV acquisition, was concomitantly administered with testing. These demographic and behavioral risk factors were correlated with HCV antibody status using univariate and multivariate tests. Results The prevalence of positive HCV antibody was 22/500 (4.4%. Subjects that were anti-HCV positive had an average of 7 ± 8.6 lifetime sexual partners, compared to average of 2.5 ± 3.5 lifetime sexual partners among HCV-negative subjects (p = 0.02. In a multiple logistic regression model, intravenous drug use (OR 3.7, 1.52–9.03 95% CI and number of sexual partners (OR 1.1, 1.04–1.20 95% CI were independently associated with a positive HCV antibody result. Conclusions A substantial number of subjects with HCV antibodies were detected in this population in Haiti. Further investigation into the correlation between the number of sexual partners and testing positive for hepatitis C antibodies is indicated.

Hepburn Matthew J

2004-12-01

252

Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional.This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the country. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH, which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

ANDREAS FELDMANN

2008-01-01

253

Stark effect on a geometry defined by a cake' slice  

CERN Document Server

By using a variational calculation, we study the effect of an external applied electric field on the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum box with a geometry defined by a slice of a cake. This geometry is a first approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). By modeling the tip with the slice, we calculate the electronic ground state energy as function of the slice's diameter, its angular aperture, its thickness and the intensity of the external electric field applied along the slice. For the applied field pointing to the wider part of the slice, a confining electronic effect in the opposite side is clearly observed. This effect is sharper as the angular slice's aperture is smaller and there is more radial space to manifest itself.

Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

2005-01-01

254

Human security after state collapse: global governance in post-earthquake Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 12 January 2010, Haiti suffered literal state collapse, as thousands of buildings crumbled in the 21st century’s deadliest earthquake. Over 200,000 were killed, 300,000 injured and 1.5 million displaced. Almost 20% of federal government employees were killed. The Presidential Palace lay in ruins and 27 of 28 federal government buildings were destroyed. An estimated 4,000 prisoners escaped from incarceration. In a remaining government building a couple months after the earthquake, one cou...

Bolton, Matthew B.

2011-01-01

255

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that have been recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12/1/2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46o and Longitude 287.47o, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In or...

Athanasiou, M.; Anagnostopoulos, G.; Iliopoulos, A.; Pavlos, G.; David, K.

2010-01-01

256

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In...

Athanasiou, M.; Anagnostopoulos, G.; Iliopoulos, A.; Pavlos, G.; David, K.

2011-01-01

257

Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

2012-01-01

258

Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction with Noise Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants is often hampered by severe metal artifacts. To obtain distortion-free MR images near metallic implants, SEMAC (Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction) corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of excited slices against metal-induced field inhomogeneities, followed by combining the data resolved from multiple SEMAC-encoded slices. However, as many of the resolved data elements only contain noise, SEMAC-corrected images can suffe...

Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim B.; Gold, Garry E.; Pauly, John M.; Hargreaves, Brian A.

2011-01-01

259

SEMAC: Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction in MRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants remains an unmet need due to severe artifacts, which mainly stem from large metal-induced field inhomogeneities. This work addresses MRI near metallic implants with an innovative imaging technique called “Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction” (SEMAC). The SEMAC technique corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of each excited slice against metal-induced field inhomogeneities. The robust slice encoding is achieved by exte...

Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim Butts; Gold, Garry E.; Pauly, John M.; Hargreaves, Brian A.

2009-01-01

260

Organotypic Slice Culture of E18 Rat Brains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organotypic slice cultures from embryonic rodent brains are widely used to study brain development. While there are often advantages to an in-vivo system, organotypic slice cultures allow one to perform a number of manipulations that are not presently feasible in-vivo. To date, organtotypic embryonic brain slice cultures have been used to follow individual cells using time-lapse microscopy, manipulate the expression of genes in the ganglionic emanances (a region that is hard to target by in-u...

Elias, Laura; Kriegstein, Arnold

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Regular maximal slicings in asymptotically flat space-times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An estimate is provided for the lapse function defining asymptotically Euclidean maximal slicings in asymptotically flat space-times. This estimate is found to be in agreement with a similar estimate suggested, on heuristic grounds, by Smarr and York. It is also shown that in vacuum space-times the scalar curvature of maximal slices remains uniformly bounded in time provided that suitable conditions on the rate of growth of the (negative) lower bound of the Ricci curvature of the slices are satisfied

1985-01-01

262

Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

2013-09-01

263

CMC-Slicings of Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter Cosmologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is constructed, for each member of a one-parameter family of cosmological models, which is obtained from the Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by identification under discrete isometries, a slicing by spherically symmetric Cauchy hypersurfaces of constant mean curvature. These slicings are unique up to the action of the static Killing vector. Analytical and numerical results are found as to when different leaves of these slicings do not intersect, i.e. when the...

Beig, Robert; Heinzle, J. Mark

2005-01-01

264

Volume Cauchy formulas for slice functions on real associative *-algebras  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a family of Cauchy integral formulas for slice and slice regular functions on a real associative *-algebra. For each suitable choice of a real vector subspace of the algebra, a different formula is given, in which the domains of integration are subsets of the subspace. In particular, in the quaternionic case, we get a volume Cauchy formula. In the Clifford algebra case, the choice of the paravector subspace R^(n+1) gives a volume Cauchy formula for slice monogenic functions.

Ghiloni, Riccardo

2012-01-01

265

Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

Heinzle, J Mark

2011-01-01

266

Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

2011-04-15

267

Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

Heinzle, J. Mark

2011-04-01

268

Multilayer PDMS microfluidic chamber for controlling brain slice microenvironment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel three-layer microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device was constructed with two fluid chambers that holds a brain slice in place with microposts while maintaining laminar perfusate flow above and below the slice. Our fabrication technique permits rapid production of PDMS layers that can be applied to brain slices of different shapes and sizes. In this study, the device was designed to fit the shape and thickness (530-700 ?m) of a medullary brain slice taken from P0-P4 neonatal r...

Blake, A. J.; Pearce, T. M.; Rao, N. S.; Johnson, S. M.; Williams, J. C.

2007-01-01

269

Principles and applications of multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review the technical principles and applications of multi-slice CT are discussed. Multi-slice CT systems allow simultaneous acquisition of up to 4 slices by using multirow detector systems. Intuitive geometrical arguments are used to establish the limitation to a maximum of 4 slices which is kept by all currently existing multi-slice CT systems. Two different construction principles of the detector are discussed, the 'Fixed Array' detector and the 'Adaptive Array' detector. The extension of conventional 360 LI and 180 LI spiral interpolation techniques to multi-slice spiral CT is explained as well as a new generalized multi-slice spiral weighting concept, the so-called 'Adaptive Axial Interpolation'. Several techniques to improve multi-slice spiral image quality are discussed. Finally, some examples for clinical applications are given, and the principle of ECG triggered and ECG gated cardiac examinations with optimized temporal resolution is presented. Multi-slice CT systems are a milestone with respect to increased volume coverage, shorter scan times, improved axial (longitudinal) resolution and better use of the X-ray tube output. Additionaly, new clinical applications are possible such as Cardiac CT. (orig.)

1999-11-01

270

Quadrature multiplexed RF excitation in NMR imaging. Application to slice by slice and chunk 3-D techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous RF pulse excitation with a quadrature multiplexing technique has been proposed to double the magnetic resonance signal information in a given imaging time. This method uses two selective RF pulses with 900 phase difference to excite two slice spins to real and imaginary domains. With a proper phase correction, this scheme doubles the number of slices or the imaging region in a given data acquisition time as the conventional case. An implementation of this technique to slice by slice and chunk 3-D imaging methods is done for human head using the 1.5 T superconducting magnet imaging system

1986-02-01

271

Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

Clover, A James P

2011-06-01

272

Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Introduction to Volume 1: Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, & U.S. Virgin Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this project, now in its first volume, is to identify and list all available information on the art-music tradition of the Caribbean region - starting with the countries of Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica and the US Virgin Islands. It will, ultimately, form a comprehensive document of value to musicians, ethnomusicologists, historians, researchers, educators and students.

Gangelhoff, Christine

2011-10-01

273

Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR and sulphadoxine (SDX treatment combination (SP, have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61 of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540 examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59. Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

Carter Tamar E

2012-08-01

274

Reality, No Matter How You Slice It  

CERN Document Server

In order to reject the notion that information is always about something, the "It from Bit" idea relies on the nonexistence of a realistic framework that might underly quantum theory. This essay develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical statistical mechanics). The "It from Bit" argument against a spacetime-based reality must then somehow defend the importance of dynamical laws, even as it denies a reality on which such fundamental laws could operate.

Wharton, Ken

2013-01-01

275

Originator usage control with business process slicing  

CERN Document Server

Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

Su, Ziyi

2012-01-01

276

Haití: huracanes en un año de calma Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental.Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabilization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

JUAN ESTEBAN MONTES

2009-01-01

277

Haití: huracanes en un año de calma / Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH) y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de [...] estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental. Abstract in english Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabi [...] lization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

MONTES, JUAN ESTEBAN; FELDMANN, ANDREAS; PIRACÉS, SANDRA.

278

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and accuracy of microscopic diagnosis in Haiti, October 1995  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In October 1995 the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Haiti surveyed 42 health facilities for the prevalence and distribution of malaria infection. They examined 1 803 peripheral blood smears from patients with suspected malaria; the overall slide positivity rate was 4.0% (range, 0.0% to 14.3%. The rate was lowest among 1- to 4-year-old children (1.6% and highest among persons aged 15 and older (5.5%. Clinical and microscopic diagnoses of malaria were unreliable; the overall sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis was 83.6%, specificity was 88.6%, and the predictive value of a positive slide was 22.2%. Microscopic diagnoses need to be improved, and adequate surveillance must be reestablished to identify areas where transmission is most intense. The generally low level of malaria is encouraging and suggests that intensified control efforts targeted to the areas of highest prevalence could further diminish the effect of malaria in Haiti.

Patrick Kachur S.

1998-01-01

279

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

M. A. Athanasiou

2011-04-01

280

Slices of Brownian Sheet: New Results, and Open Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We can view Brownian sheet as a sequence of interacting Brownian motions or slices. Here we present a number of results about the slices of the sheet. A common feature of our results is that they exhibit phase transition. In addition, a number of open problems are presented.

Khoshnevisan, Davar

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen; Awagu E. F.

2012-01-01

282

Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen

2012-11-01

283

Quaking Neutron Stars  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

1999-01-01

284

HIV-free survival and morbidity among formula-fed infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in rural Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Partners In Health (PIH) works with the Ministry of Health to provide comprehensive health services in Haiti. Between 1994 and 2009, PIH recommended exclusive formula feeding in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program and provided support to implement this strategy. We conducted this study to assess HIV-free survival and prevalence of diarrhea and malnutrition among infants in our PMTCT program in rural Haiti where exclusive f...

Ivers Louise C; Appleton Sasha C; Wang Bingxia; Gregory, Jerome J.; Cullen Kimberly A; Smith Fawzi Mary C

2011-01-01

285

Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ) as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly...

2012-01-01

286

The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first two pairs of horizontal vibrational frequencies, which are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. The approach has been applied to a CSN-instrumented 12-story reinforced concrete building near downtown Los Angeles. The frequencies were identified directly from spectra of the 8 August 2012 M4.5 Yorba Linda, California earthquake acceleration time series. When the basic dimensions and the first two frequencies are input into a prismatic Timoshenko beam model of the building, the model yields mode shapes that have been shown to match well with densely recorded data. For the instrumented 12-story building, comparisons of the predictions of responses on other floors using only the record from the 9th floor with actual data from the other floors shows this method to approximate the true response remarkably well.

Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

287

CT slice localization via instance-based regression  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatically determining the relative position of a single CT slice within a full body scan provides several useful functionalities. For example, it is possible to validate DICOM meta-data information. Furthermore, knowing the relative position in a scan allows the efficient retrieval of similar slices from the same body region in other volume scans. Finally, the relative position is often an important information for a non-expert user having only access to a single CT slice of a scan. In this paper, we determine the relative position of single CT slices via instance-based regression without using any meta data. Each slice of a volume set is represented by several types of feature information that is computed from a sequence of image conversions and edge detection routines on rectangular subregions of the slices. Our new method is independent from the settings of the CT scanner and provides an average localization error of less than 4.5 cm using leave-one-out validation on a dataset of 34 annotated volume scans. Thus, we demonstrate that instance-based regression is a suitable tool for mapping single slices to a standardized coordinate system and that our algorithm is competitive to other volume-based approaches with respect to runtime and prediction quality, even though only a fraction of the input information is required in comparison to other approaches.

Emrich, Tobias; Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Thoma, Marisa; Cavallaro, Alexander

2010-03-01

288

Biosensor imaging in brain slice preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) is present in most branches of the animal kingdom, and is an example in the nervous system where a kinase effector integrates the cellular effects of various neuromodulators. The recent development of FRET-based biosensors, such as AKAR, now allows the direct measurement of PKA activation in living cells by simply measuring the ratio between the fluorescence emission at the CFP and YFP wavelengths upon CFP excitation. This novel approach provides data with a temporal resolution of a few seconds at the cellular and even subcellular level, opening a new avenue of understanding the integration processes in space and time. Our protocol has been optimized to study morphologically intact mature neurons and we describe how simple and cheap wide-field imaging, as well as more elaborate two-photon imaging, allows real-time monitoring of PKA activation in pyramidal cortical neurons in neonate rodent brain slices. In addition, many practical details presented here also pertain to image analysis in other cellular preparations, such as cultured cells. Finally, this protocol can also be applied to the various other CFP-YFP-based FRET biosensors that are available for other kinases or other intracellular signals. It is likely that this kind of approach will be generally applicable to a broad range of assays in the near future. PMID:24052389

Polito, Marina; Vincent, Pierre; Guiot, Elvire

2014-01-01

289

Spacetime Slices and Surfaces of Revolution  

CERN Document Server

Under certain conditions, a $(1+1)$-dimensional slice $\\hat{g}$ of a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime can be equivariantly embedded in $(2+1)$-dimensional Minkowski space. The embedding depends on a real parameter that corresponds physically to the surface gravity $\\kappa$ of the black hole horizon. Under conditions that turn out to be closely related, a real surface that possesses rotational symmetry can be equivariantly embedded in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The embedding does not obviously depend on a parameter. However, the Gaussian curvature is given by a simple formula: If the metric is written $g = \\phi(r)^{-1} dr^2 + \\phi(r) d\\theta^2$, then $\\K_g=-{1/2}\\phi''(r)$. This note shows that metrics $g$ and $\\hat{g}$ occur in dual pairs, and that the embeddings described above are orthogonal facets of a single phenomenon. In particular, the metrics and their respective embeddings differ by a Wick rotation that preserves the ambient symmetry. Consequently, the embedding of $g$ depends on a real...

Giblin, J T; Jr, John T. Giblin; Hwang, Andrew D.

2004-01-01

290

Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain slices from 8-day old (P8) mouse pups. Fluorescence microscopic monitoring of GFP was utilized as an indicator of tissue viability. The final format of the developed system, featuring �plug-and-play� technolgy with a reusable fluidic connection board and easily changeable microfluidic chips, facilitated brain slice culturing for 16 days.

Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.

2011-01-01

291

A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

Taylor, George C., Jr.

1949-01-01

292

A ground-water reconnaissance in the Pine Forest region, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pine Forest region is located in southeastern Haiti. The SHADA Forest Division headquarters near the eastern end of the region is about 98 kilometers by road from Port-au-Prince. In early February 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study of the region to determine the feasibility of drilling wells to obtain water for domestic, stock and small-scale industrial use. Existing water supplies are very scanty and undependable. There are no wells in the region, and springs are notably scarce and widely separated. Water supplies are now obtained principally from rain-water catchments or from roof-tops. These supplies frequently fail during prolonged dry periods and water must be hauled from great distances.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

1949-01-01

293

Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

2001-03-01

294

Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

1993-01-01

295

Predictors of disease severity in patients admitted to a cholera treatment center in urban Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera, previously unrecognized in Haiti, spread through the country in the fall of 2010. An analysis was performed to understand the epidemiological characteristics, clinical management, and risk factors for disease severity in a population seen at the GHESKIO Cholera Treatment Center in Port-au-Prince. A comprehensive review of the medical records of patients admitted during the period of October 28, 2010-July 10, 2011 was conducted. Disease severity on admission was directly correlated with older age, more prolonged length of stay, and presentation during the two epidemic waves seen in the observation period. Although there was a high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severity of cholera was not greater with HIV infection. This study documents the correlation of cholera waves with rainfall and its reduction in settings with improved sanitary conditions and potable water when newly introduced cholera affects all ages equally so that interventions must be directed throughout the population. PMID:24106188

Valcin, Claude-Lyne; Severe, Karine; Riche, Claudia T; Anglade, Benedict S; Moise, Colette Guiteau; Woodworth, Michael; Charles, Macarthur; Li, Zhongze; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Wright, Peter F

2013-10-01

296

Formal and informal material aid following the 2010 Haiti earthquake as reported by camp dwellers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, more than two million people moved to temporary camps, most of which arose spontaneously in the days after the earthquake. This study focuses on the material assistance people in five Port-au-Prince camps reported receiving, noting the differences between assistance from formal aid agencies and from 'informal' sources such as family. Seven weeks after the earthquake, 32% of camp dwellers reported receiving no assistance whatsoever; 55% had received formal aid, typically a tent or tarpaulins; and 40% had received informal aid, usually in the form of cash transfers from family living abroad. While people were grateful for any material aid, cash was more frequently considered timely and more effective than aid-in-kind. Should this study be indicative of the greater displaced population, aid agencies should consider how they might make better use of cash transfers as an aid modality. PMID:24601934

Versluis, Anna

2014-04-01

297

Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

2010-06-01

298

Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers. PMID:20163948

Noel, Claudel

2010-06-01

299

The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

Applegate, D.

2010-12-01

300

Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Application of smokeless briquettes in developing countries: the cases of Haiti and Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional energy sources are a significant fraction of energy demand in developing countries. These sources have become increasingly scarce because of clearing of land for agriculture, charcoal production, and excessive timber harvesting. One option for mitigating one aspect of this multidimensional problem is the use of smokeless coal briquettes. Resource and market conditions are excellent in some developing countries for the substitution of smokeless briquettes for fuelwood (which includes firewood and charcoal). US Agency for International Development (USAID) has developed a five-step procedure for determining the potential substitution of smokeless briquettes for fuelwood: resource evaluation, market assessment, technological assessment, government policy and institutional assessment (including environmental and health assessments), and business and market assessment. Through recent assessment activities in Haiti, we have gained knowledge and understanding of the market mechanisms for fuelwood substitution which we intend to apply in Pakistan. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Sabadell, A.; Shelton, R.B.; Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.G.

1986-01-01

302

Use of bagasse for the production of electrical energy: applications in Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar cane provides for 62% of the world's consumption of sugar. By the use of its ligneous matter (bagasse), this plant furnishes the necessary energy for the extraction of the sugar it contains. If the sugar factory has high performances on the thermodynamic level, a ton of sugar cane can provide from 50 to 90 kWh for external uses in addition to its own needs. It should be noted that more than 600 million tons of cane are annually processed in the world. Sugar factories therefore have a considerable unused renewable energy potential. The use of this potential and earlier of sugar factories and decrease the export of foreign currencies for the concerned countries. HAITI has understood the fundamental/energy interest of the ligneous matter of the sugar cane it produces and is trying to organize its use in the best possible way.

Olivier, J.

1986-01-01

303

A mixed-methods assessment of the experiences of lay mental health workers in postearthquake Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixed-methodological study conducted in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake assessed experiences of 8 lay mental health workers (earthquake survivors themselves) implementing a psychosocial intervention for residents of camps for displaced people in Port-au-Prince. Quantitative results revealed decreased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, consistently high compassion satisfaction, low burnout, moderate secondary trauma, and high levels of posttraumatic growth measured over 18 months. Qualitative accounts from lay mental health workers revealed enhanced sense of self-worth, purpose, social connection, and satisfaction associated with helping others. Results support the viability of utilizing local lay disaster survivors as implementers of psychosocial intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826931

James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger; Roche Jean Pierre, Yves Merry

2014-03-01

304

Taxonomic remarks on the genus Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) and description of C. vodou sp. nov. from Haiti / Notas taxonômicas sobre o gênero Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) e descrição de C. vodou sp. nov. do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, é removido da sinonímia de Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) e transferido para o gênero Cupiennius Simon, 1891, no qual é considerado sinônimo sênior de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. São apresentados novos registros para C. bimaculatus (Taczanowski, 1874 [...] ) e uma nova espécie, C. vodou, é descrita para o Haiti. Abstract in english Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, is removed from the synonymy of Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) and transferred to the genus Cupiennius Simon, 1891, in which it is placed as a senior synonym of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. New records are presented for C. bimaculatus (TACZANOWSKI 187 [...] 4) and a new species, C. vodou, is described from Haiti.

Brescovit, Antonio D.; Polotow, Daniele.

305

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira.The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its foreign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan Bracey

2011-12-01

306

Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction During disaster relief, personnel's safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18. PMID:22953241

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

2012-01-01

307

Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

2013-04-01

308

Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser

2014-05-01

309

HUMAN RIGHTS ASSESSMENT IN PARC JEAN MARIE VINCENT, PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI  

Science.gov (United States)

Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October.

Cullen, Kimberly A.; Ivers, Louise C.

2014-01-01

310

Psychological work in humanitarian emergencies in Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo: some considerations based on two work experiences Intervenção psicológica em emergências humanitárias no Haiti e na República Democrática do Congo: considerações baseadas em duas experiências de trabalho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the description of two examples of psychological interventions in humanitarian emergencies, this article aims to problematize the work of the psychologist in those situations. The concepts of "humanitarianism" and "emergency" are discussed based on two interventions made in Haiti and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In both countries the mental health interventions happened inside a humanitarian organization and the objective of those interventions was to offer psychosocial suppor...

Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub

2011-01-01

311

Splitting the concordance group of algebraically slice knots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a corollary of work of Ozsvath and Szabo [math.GT/0301149], it is shown that the classical concordance group of algebraically slice knots has an infinite cyclic summand and in particular is not a divisible group.

Livingston, Charles

2003-01-01

312

Investigation of slice characteristics in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of images and the accuracy of extracted relaxation time (T_1 and T_2) values in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is dependent on the characteristics of the slice. It is therefore important that the slice profile can be measured and to know how it behaves under different experimental conditions. Slice shape is determined in conventional selective excitation systems by the spectrum of the radiofrequency pulse used and the nature of the magnetic field gradient which is applied simultaneously. The effectiveness of the selection is also influenced by the subsequent rephasing gradient. Various methods have been used to investigate the slice shape in a practical situation using a 0.1 T resistive magnet NMR scanner and comparisons drawn with the predictions of theory. (author)

1986-01-01

313

Architectural Slicing : Towards Automatic Harvesting of Architectural Prototypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

2013-01-01

314

Birational Motivic Homotopy Theories and the Slice Filtration  

CERN Document Server

This paper is part of an endeavor to define an analogue of the slice filtration in the unstable motivic homotopy category. Our approach was inspired by the fact that the triangulated structures do not play a relevant role for the construction of birational homotopy categories as well as by the work of Kahn-Sujatha \\cite{K-theory/0596} on birational motives, where the existence of a connection between the layers of the slice filtration and birational invariants is explicitly suggested. Our main result, shows that there is an equivalence of categories between the orthogonal components for the slice filtration and the birational motivic stable homotopy categories which are constructed in this paper. Relying on this equivalence, we are able to describe the slices for projective spaces (including $\\mathbb P ^{\\infty}$), Thom spaces and blow ups.

Pelaez, Pablo

2011-01-01

315

On surgery curves for genus one slice knots  

CERN Multimedia

If a knot K bounds a genus one Seifert surface F in the 3-sphere and F contains an essential simple closed curve alpha that has induced framing 0 and is smoothly slice, then K is smoothly slice. Conjecturally, the converse holds. It is known that if K is slice, then there are strong constraints on the algebraic concordance class of such alpha, and it was thought that these constraints might imply that alpha is at least algebraically slice. We present a counterexample; in the process we answer negatively a question of Cooper and relate the result to a problem of Kauffman. Results of this paper depend on the interplay between the Casson-Gordon invariants of K and algebraic invariants of alpha.

Gilmer, Patrick M

2011-01-01

316

Recovering Missing Slices of the Discrete Fourier Transform using Ghosts  

CERN Document Server

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) underpins the solution to many inverse problems commonly possessing missing or un-measured frequency information. This incomplete coverage of Fourier space always produces systematic artefacts called Ghosts. In this paper, a fast and exact method for de-convolving cyclic artefacts caused by missing slices of the DFT is presented. The slices discussed here originate from the exact partitioning of DFT space, under the projective Discrete Radon Transform, called the Discrete Fourier Slice Theorem. The method has a computational complexity of O(n log2 n) (where n = N^2) and is constructed from a new Finite Ghost theory. This theory is also shown to unify several aspects of work done on Ghosts over the past three decades. The paper concludes with a significant application to fast, exact, non-iterative image reconstruction from sets of discrete slices obtained for a limited range of projection angles.

Chandra, Shekhar; Guedon, Jeanpierre; Kingston, Andrew; Normand, Nicolas

2011-01-01

317

Slice-timing effects and their correction in functional MRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exact timing is essential for functional MRI data analysis. Datasets are commonly measured using repeated 2D imaging methods, resulting in a temporal offset between slices. To compensate for this timing difference, slice-timing correction (i.e. temporal data interpolation) has been used as an fMRI pre-processing step for more than fifteen years. However, there has been an ongoing debate about the effectiveness and applicability of this method. This paper presents the first elaborated analysis...

Sladky, Ronald; Friston, Karl J.; Tro?stl, Jasmin; Cunnington, Ross; Moser, Ewald; Windischberger, Christian

2011-01-01

318

A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 microM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and ...

1990-01-01

319

A versatile prion replication assay in organotypic brain slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods enabling prion replication ex vivo are important for advancing prion studies. However, few such technologies exist, and many prion strains are not amenable to them. Here we describe a prion organotypic slice culture assay (POSCA) that allows prion amplification and titration ex vivo under conditions that closely resemble intracerebral infection. Thirty-five days after contact with prions, mouse cerebellar slices had amplified the abnormal isoform of prion protein, PrPSc, >105-fold. Th...

Falsig, Jeppe; Julius, Christian; Margalith, Ilan; Schwarz, Petra; Heppner, Frank L.; Aguzzi, Adriano

2008-01-01

320

PRECISION-CUT SLICE CULTURE METHOD FOR RAT PLACENTA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary trophoblasts, placental explants, and cell line cultures are commonly used to investigate placental development, physiology, and pathology, particularly in relation to pregnancy outcomes. Organotypic slice cultures are increasingly used in other systems because they maintain the normal three-dimensional tissue architecture and have all cell types represented. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the precision-cut placental slice culture model for studying trophoblastic diseases.

Gilligan, Jeffrey; Tong, Ming; Longato, Lisa; La Monte, Suzanne M.; Gundogan, Fusun

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Organotypic heart slices for cell transplantation and physiological studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have significantly improved our ability to investigate cell transplantation and study the physiology of transplanted cells in cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have shown that fully-immersed heart slices can be used for electrophysiological investigations. Additionally, ischemic heart slices induced by glucose and oxygen deprivation offer a useful tool to investigate mechanical integration and to measure forces of contraction of engrafted cells, at least for short term a...

Habeler, Walter; Peschanski, Marc; Monville, Christelle

2009-01-01

322

A versatile prion replication assay in organotypic brain slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods enabling prion replication ex vivo are important for advancing prion studies. However, few such technologies exist, and many prion strains are not amenable to them. Here we describe a prion organotypic slice culture assay (POSCA) that allows prion amplification and titration ex vivo under conditions that closely resemble intracerebral infection. Thirty-five days after contact with prions, mouse cerebellar slices had amplified the abnormal isoform of prion protein, PrP(Sc), >10(5)-fold...

Falsig, J.; Julius, C.; Margalith, I.; Schwarz, P.; Heppner, F. L.; Aguzzi, A.

2008-01-01

323

Whole Cell Recording from an Organotypic Slice Preparation of Neocortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have been studying the expression and functional roles of voltage-gated potassium channels in pyramidal neurons from rat neocortex. Because of the lack of specific pharmacological agents for these channels, we have taken a genetic approach to manipulating channel expression. We use an organotypic culture preparation (16) in order to maintain cell morphology and the laminar pattern of cortex. We typically isolate acute neocortical slices at postnatal days 8-10 and maintain the slices in ...

Foehring, Robert C.; Guan, Dongxu; Toleman, Tara; Cantrell, Angela R.

2011-01-01

324

CT Coronary Angiography: 256-Slice and 320-Detector Row Scanners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners, has enabled volumetric imaging of the entire heart free of stair-step artifac...

Hsiao, Edward M.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Steigner, Michael

2010-01-01

325

Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

Xin Chen

2012-11-01

326

Birational Motivic Homotopy Theories and the Slice Filtration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is part of an endeavor to define an analogue of the slice filtration in the unstable motivic homotopy category. Our approach was inspired by the fact that the triangulated structures do not play a relevant role for the construction of birational homotopy categories as well as by the work of Kahn-Sujatha \\cite{K-theory/0596} on birational motives, where the existence of a connection between the layers of the slice filtration and birational invariants is explicitly ...

Pelaez, Pablo

2011-01-01

327

Exploring lung physiology in health and disease with lung slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of therapeutic approaches to treat lung disease requires an understanding of both the normal and disease physiology of the lung. Although traditional experimental approaches only address either organ or cellular physiology, the use of lung slice preparations provides a unique approach to investigate integrated physiology that links the cellular and organ responses. Living lung slices are robust and can be prepared from a variety of species, including humans, and they retain ma...

Sanderson, Michael J.

2011-01-01

328

Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1989-01-01

329

NMR surprizes with thin slices and strong gradients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of our work on diffusion-relaxation-coupling in thin excited slices, we perform NMR experiments in static magnetic field gradients up to 200 T/m. For slice thicknesses in the range of 10{mu}m, the frequency bandwidth of the excited slices becomes sufficiently narrow that free induction decays (FIDs) become observable despite the presence of the strong static gradient. The observed FIDs were also simulated using standard methods from MRI physics. Possible effects of diffusion during the FID duration are still minor at this slice thickness in water but might become dominant for smaller slices or more diffusive media. Furthermore, the detailed excitation structure of the RF pulses was studied in profiling experiments over the edge of a plane liquid cell. Side lobe effects to the slices will be discussed along with approaches to control them. The spatial resolution achieved in the profiling experiments furthermore allows the identification of thermal expansion phenomena in the NMR magnet. Measures to reduce the temperature drift problems are presented.

Gaedke, Achim; Kresse, Benjamin [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Nestle, Nikolaus

2008-07-01

330

Perceived discrimination and stigma toward children affected by HIV/AIDS and their HIV-positive caregivers in central Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many settings worldwide, HIV-positive individuals have experienced a significant level of stigma and discrimination. This discrimination may also impact other family members affected by the disease, including children. The aim of our study was to identify factors associated with stigma and/or discrimination among HIV-affected youth and their HIV-positive caregivers in central Haiti. Recruitment of HIV-positive patients with children aged 10–17 years was conducted in 2006–2007. Data on ...

2010-01-01

331

A new species of Urocopitid land snail from Haiti and a discussion of the genus Autocoptis (Gastropoda: Urocoptidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autocoptis paulsoni n. sp. is described from Haiti. it is characterized by its large size, its cylindricaltapered shape, its fine costate sculpture on the teleoconch, a distinct but weak circum basal keel and its abbreviate conical juvenile shell. it is most similar to Autocoptis gruneri (Dunker 1844), which is redescribed, and its distribution is reviewed. The taxonomic status of the genus Autocoptis Pilsbry 1902 and its subgenus Urocoptola Clench, 1 935 are reviewed. The genus is endemic to...

Thompson, Fred G.

2012-01-01

332

Organ doses in CT of thorax: Sequential slices versus helical slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helical scanning introduces additional choices in technical parameters and has an impact on how much radiation dose a patient receives. Helical scanning allows the entire thorax to be scanned within a single breathold, reducing slice registration due to breathing artifacts. Organ doses from thoracic computed tomography have been estimated in an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters. With very similar radiological techniques in helical and axial scanning, the absorbed organ dose measured were more relevant in lung 12,0 ± 2,0 mGy and 11,0 ± 2,0 mGy respectively; and in heart 9,0 ± 4,0 mGy and 9,0 ± 5,0 mGy. Our results show that contiguous helical CT scans acquired with the same technical factors as contiguous axial scans, imply approximately the same radiation dose. (author)

2001-09-01

333

Silicon ingot casting: Heat exchanger method. Multi-wire slicing: Fixed abrasine slicing technique, phase 3  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingot casting was scaled up to 16 cm by 16 cm square cross section size and ingots weighing up to 8.1 kg were cast. The high degree of crystallinity was maintained in the large ingot. For large sizes, the nonuniformity of heat treatment causes chipping of the surface of the ingot. Progress was made in the development of a uniform graded structure in the silica crucibles. The high speed slicer blade-head weight was reduced to 37 pounds, allowing surface speeds of up to 500 feet per minute. Slicing of 10 cm diameter workpieces at these speeds increased the through-put of the machine to 0.145 mm/min.

Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

1979-01-01

334

Geological Deformations and Potential Hazards Triggered by the 01-12-2010 Haiti Earthquake: Insights from Google Earth Imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we compare the different Google Earth imagery (GEI) available before and after the 01-12-2010 earthquake of Haiti and carry out a detailed analysis of the superficial seismic-related geological deformations in the following sites: 1) the capital Port-Au-Prince and other cities (Carrefour and Gresslier); 2) the mountainous area of the Massif de la Selle which is transected by the "Enriquillo-Plaintain-Garden" (EPG) interplate boundary-fault (that supposedly triggered the seism); 3) some of the most important river channels and their corresponding deltas (Momanche, Grise and Frorse). The initial results of our researches were published in March 2010 in a special web page created by the scientific community to try to mitigate the devastating effects of this catastrophe (http://supersites.earthobservations.org/haiti.php). Six types of superficial geological deformations triggered by the seismic event have been identified with the GEI: liquefaction structures, chaotic rupture zones, coastal and domal uplifts, river-delta turnovers, faults/ruptures and landslides. Potential geological hazards triggered by the Haiti earthquake include landslides, inundations, reactivation of active tectonic elements (e.g., fractures), river-delta turnovers, etc. We analyzed again the GEI after the rain period and, as expected, most of the geological deformations that we initially identified had been erased and/or modified by the water washout or buried by the sediments. In this sense the GEI constitutes an invaluable instrument in the analysis of seismic geological hazards: we still have the possibility to compare all the images before and after the seism that are recorded in its useful "time tool". These are in fact the only witnesses of most of the geological deformations triggered by the Haiti earthquake that remain stored in the virtual archives of the GEI. In fact a field trip to the area today would be useless as most of these structures have disappeared. We will show that this type of seismic-related geological deformations may be useful in hazard-planning strategies aiming at the urbanistic reconstruction of Port-Au-Prince. Some inferences will be make regarding the spectacular scarp of the EPG fault zone dipping as a nearly perfect plane to the S, probably reflecting extensional paleo-movements (even if this major interplate fault is essentially sinistral). Finally, we will analyze the results published in Nature Geosciences (November 2010) that question the role of the EPG fault in the Haiti seism, and that highlight the fact that seismology is still unable to unravel most of the keys of this major earthquake.

Doblas, M.; Benito, B.; Torres, Y.; Belizaire, D.; Dorfeuille, J.; Aretxabala, A.

2013-05-01

335

The Future of Effective Nuclear Regulatory Control in Third World Countries. The case of Haiti: Thoughts and Ideas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Haiti is the poorest country in America with 75% of the population living under the poverty line and 56% in an extreme situation. Under UN classification, the country ranked 154 on a total of 193. Haiti is an IAEA member since 1958, after a few years of non active participation in agency's activities for nations members , except for signing one agreement on physical protection, the country had become involved at various level of technical cooperation. In 2003 Haiti paid in full its arrears in membership contributions to IAEA sending a clear signal to its good to renew with technical cooperation. At the same time Agency renewed its technical cooperation with the country at various level mainly in : 1. Isotopes hydrology Applications of isotopes radiation in Industry 2. Radiation medicine and Health 3. Nuclear radiation safety and nuclear Security 4. General Atomic Development. As a third country, Haiti is clearly dependent on international cooperation resources. A fundamental challenge for its National Regulatory board is to insure availability of optimum quantities of resources with national and foreign partners, to establish the culture of regular control regulatory activities, safety culture and improve the quality of human and training assistance for its technical entities. National Regulatory authority faces a range of important challenges in all sectors, just to mention some of them: Improve coordination with technical ministries and other technical entities in related nuclear field within a clear plan of action; Advocate introduction of teaching safety and security culture and radiological protection at university level and in secondary education; Strengthen the training of the personnel in the field of radioprotection along with customs and border officers; Scale up the number of trained people in physics and nuclear techniques in medicine and industry; Scale up the use of new and reliable detectors to better detect sources and include all in - country sources a national database as recommended by Agency; Scale up participation of participation of dosimetric unit of the national authority in various regional inter-comparative studies; Advocate full use scrap metal control to prevent malicious activities, develop regulation regarding the disposal of unused sealed sources; Promote cooperation with other advanced National Regulatory authority at regional and Caribbean levels; Consolidate the legal and regulatory framework by providing Haiti with the necessary technical legal assistance. While it remains to be seen if the Regulatory Board will become a full independent entity with its own budget, human resources development in radioprotection will continue to be one the pillars of Board activity. In this regard, NRB and its technical unit must continue to work with regional board to acquire more training and collaborate with the Ministry of Finance and lawmakers to address its adequate financial and material resources. (author)

2010-09-01

336

Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change might result in worsening tropical storms that impede access due to the poor condition of footpaths and thus adversely affect maternal mortality. Additional factors such as deforestation and associated accelerated rainwater runoff may further worsen conditions. The linkage between maternal mortality and climate change will not be detected unless more robust methods are used. We propose using a mixed methods approach that combines use of secondary climate and health data (e.g. Landsat, stream flow, precipitation) with a stratified spatial sampling strategy across this complex land mass coupled with direct observation and qualitative methods using key informant interviews to probe for root causes of changes in health outcomes such as weather, deforestation, food and economic security. This mixed methods approach can be used for cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies linking the impact of climatological factors and important determinants of health such as economic activity. We propose that the impact of climate change on health will be best studied by mixed method approaches and that reliance on secondary data alone risks missing important associations between changes in climate and health.

Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

2013-12-01

337

Intervención internacional. Haití: receta rápida, fracaso anticipado | International intervention. Haiti: repeated recipe, failure ahead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el momento de autorizar la intervención militar y la posterior creación de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz, de enero a junio del 2004, el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU carecía de un diagnóstico preciso sobre el carácter del Estado haitiano y su historia, el tipo de conflicto y la naturaleza de la violencia en el país, lo que explica, a casi cuatro años de esa intervención, la recurrente inestabilidad y la persistencia de la violencia en la nación caribeña. El tipo de intervención y las estrategias de pacificación utilizadas por la comunidad internacional fueron inapropiadas y se mostraron ineficaces para atender casos como el haitiano. La misión de imposición de la paz desplegada en el país utilizó la disuasión militar para contener las manifestaciones externas de la violencia “congelando” así el conflicto y garantizando la realización de elecciones masivas y transparentes el 6 de Febrero de 2006. Sin embargo, las causas presentes e históricas que generan y reproducen esta violencia siguen intactas. La democracia no puede prosperar en ausencia de un estado que garantice un orden político con un mínimo de institucionalidad, particularmente, cuando el desorden se ha convertido en el instrumento político por excelencia de algunos actores, para mantener el statu quo. Los beneficios del proceso de normalización democrática, en un contexto de ausencia estatal, no son sostenibles en el tiempo.When the UN Security Council authorized the military intervention in Haiti and passed a resolution creating a peacekeeping force in the country, it lacked a precise diagnosis on the character of the Haitian state, its history, the essential qualities of the ongoing conflict, as well as the nature of the violence the country was experiencing. This explains why, after almost five years of UN presence in Haiti, recurrent instability and persistent violence are still common features in the Caribbean nation. The kind of intervention and the strategies implemented by the international community to pacify the country were inappropriate and they proved to be ineffective in tackling cases such as the Haitian one. The peace enforcement mission deployed to the country used military deterrence to contain external manifestations of the violence, thereby “freezing” the conflict and pursuing the organization of massive and transparent elections that were held on 6 February 2006. However, the present and historical causes provoking and reproducing the violence in Haiti violence are still in place. Democracy cannot thrive in the absence of a state structure able to guarantee a political order with a minimum of institutional development, particularly, when “disorder” has become the preferred political tool for some local actors in order to maintain the status quo. The benefits of a normalized institutional life, in a context of state absence, are not sustainable for the long term.

Gastón AÍN

2009-02-01

338

Conformal Parameterizations of Slices of Flat Kasner Spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

The Kasner metrics are among the simplest solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, and we use them here to examine the conformal method of finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. After describing the conformal method's construction of constant mean curvature (CMC) slices of Kasner spacetimes, we turn our attention to non-CMC slices of the smaller family of flat Kasner spacetimes. In this restricted setting we obtain a full description of the construction of certain $U^{n-1}$ symmetric slices, even in the far-from-CMC regime. Among the conformal data sets generating these slices we find that most data sets construct a single flat Kasner spacetime, but that there are also far-from-CMC data sets that construct one-parameter families of slices. Although these non-CMC families are analogues of well-known CMC one-parameter families, they differ in important ways. Most significantly, unlike the CMC case, the condition signaling the appearance of these non-CMC families is not naturally detected fro...

Maxwell, David

2014-01-01

339

Notes on maximal slices of five-dimensional black holes  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider maximal slices of the Myers-Perry black hole, the doubly spinning black ring, and the Black Saturn solution. These slices are complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with inner boundaries corresponding to black hole horizons. Although these spaces are simply connected as a consequence of topological censorship, they have non-trivial topology. In this paper we investigate the question of whether the topology of spatial sections of the horizon uniquely determines the topology of the maximal slices. We show that the horizon determines the homological invariants of the slice under certain conditions. The homological analysis is extended to black holes for which explicit geometries are not yet known. We believe that these results could provide insights in the context of proving existence of deformations of this initial data. For the topological slices of the doubly spinning black ring and the Black Saturn we compute the homotopy groups up to dimension 3 and show that their four-dimensional homotopy group is not trivial.

Alaee, Aghil; Kunduri, Hari K.; Martínez Pedroza, Eduardo

2014-03-01

340

Slice emittance measurements at the SLAC gun test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A goal of the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC is to investigate the production of high-brightness electron beams for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray FEL. High brightness in the RF photocathode gun occurs when the time-sliced emittance is nearly the same as the cathode thermal emittance and when the slices are all lined up, i.e., their Twiss parameters are nearly identical. In collaboration with the BNL Source Development Lab (SDL), we have begun a systematic study of the slice emittance at GTF. The technique involves giving the bunch a near linear energy chirp using the booster linac and dispersing it with a magnetic spectrometer. Combined with knowledge of the longitudinal phase space, this establishes the energy-time correlation on the spectrometer screen. The slice emittances are determined by varying the strengths of the quadrupoles in front of the spectrometer. Spectrometer images for a range of quadrupole settings are then binned into small energy/time windows and analysed for the slice emittance and Twiss parameters. Results for various gun parameters are presented

2003-07-11

 
 
 
 
341

Constant mean curvature slices in the Kerr space-time  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, there have been efforts to solve Einstein's equation in the context of a conformal compactification of space-time. Of particular importance in this regard are the so called CMC-foliations, characterized by spatial hyperboloidal hypersurfaces with a constant extrinsic mean curvature K. However, although of interest for general space-times, CMC-slices are known explicitly only for the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild metric. This work is devoted to numerically determining CMC-slices within the Kerr solution. We construct such slices outside the black hole horizon through an appropriate coordinate transformation in which an unknown auxiliary function A is involved. The condition K=const throughout the slice leads to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the function A, which is solved with a pseudo-spectral method. The results exhibit exponential convergence, as is to be expected in a pseudo-spectral scheme for analytic solutions. As a by-product, we identify CMC-slices of the Schwarzschild ...

Schinkel, David; Ansorg, Marcus

2013-01-01

342

Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

2011-03-28

343

Virologic, clinical and immunologic responses following failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Since HIV-1 RNA (viral load testing is not routinely available in Haiti, HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART are monitored using the World Health Organization (WHO clinical and/or immunologic criteria. Data on survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-1 infected patients who meet criteria for ART failure are limited. We conducted a retrospective study to compare survival rates for patients who experienced failure on first-line ART by clinical and/or immunologic criteria and switched to second-line ART vs. those who failed but did not switch. Methods: Patients receiving first-line ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, who met WHO clinical and immunologic criteria for failure were identified. Survival and treatment outcomes were compared in patients who switched their ART regimen and those who did not. Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of mortality after failure of first-line ART. Results: Of 3126 patients who initiated ART at the GHESKIO Center between 1 March 2003 and 31 July 2008, 482 (15% met WHO immunologic and/or clinical criteria for failure. Among those, 195 (41% switched to second-line ART and 287 (59% did not. According to Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, the probability of survival to 12 months after failure of first-line ART was 93% for patients who switched to second-line ART after failure and 88% for patients who did not switch. Predictors of mortality after failure of first-line ART were weight in the lowest quartile for sex, CD4 T cell count?100, adherence<90% at the time of failure and not switching to second-line ART. Conclusions: Patients who failed first-line ART based on clinical and/or immunologic criteria and did not switch to second-line therapy faced a higher mortality than those who switched after failure. To decrease mortality, interventions to identify patients in whom ART may be failing earlier are needed urgently. In addition, there is a major need to optimize second-line antiretroviral regimens for improved potency, lower toxicity and greater convenience for patients.

Jean W Pape

2012-06-01

344

Thin-slice judgments in the clinical context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinicians make a variety of assessments about their clients, from judging personality traits to making diagnoses, and a variety of methods are available to do so, ranging from observations to structured interviews. A large body of work demonstrates that from a brief glimpse of another's nonverbal behavior, a variety of traits and inner states can be accurately perceived. Additionally, from these "thin slices" of behavior, even future outcomes can be predicted with some accuracy. Certain clinical disorders such as Parkinson's disease and facial paralysis disrupt nonverbal behavior and may impair clinicians' ability to make accurate judgments. In certain contexts, personality disorders, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts and outcomes can be detected from others' nonverbal behavior. Additionally, thin slices can predict psychological adjustment to divorce, bereavement, sexual abuse, and well-being throughout life. Thus, for certain traits and disorders, judgments from a thin slice could provide a complementary tool for the clinician's toolbox. PMID:24423788

Slepian, Michael L; Bogart, Kathleen R; Ambady, Nalini

2014-01-01

345

40-slice coronary CTA: initial experience and establishing a practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of 4-slice scanners with subsecond gantry rotation times paved way for such demanding applications as cardiac imaging. However, challenges remained. For example, the breath hold times of 40 seconds caused many patient groups to be excluded. Some of these issues were addressed by the introduction of 16-slice CT scanners with submillimeter spatial resolution and faster gantry rotation times, resulting in a significant decrease in the coverage time (less than 20 s). Further developments in scanner technology were brought about by the introduction of 40- and 64-slice scanners, such as the Philips' Brilliance, with a z-axis coverage of 40 mm, making it possible to cover the entire cardiac anatomy in less than 15 seconds [1]. Additionally, the COBRA trademark adaptive multi-cycle reconstruction approach can result in further improvement in temporal resolution by using projection data from two or more cardiac cycles [2-5]. (orig.)

2005-01-01

346

Design of Three-Dimensional Multiple Slice Turbo Codes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new approach to designing low-complexity high-speed turbo codes for very low frame error rate applications. The key idea is to adapt and optimize the technique of multiple turbo codes to obtain the required frame error rate combined with a family of turbo codes, called multiple slice turbo codes (MSTCs), which allows high throughput at low hardware complexity. The proposed coding scheme is based on a versatile three-dimensional multiple slice turbo code (3D-MSTC) using d...

David Gnaedig; Emmanuel Boutillon; Quel, Michel J. Z.

2005-01-01

347

Rapid prototyping using robot welding : slicing system developmens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With direct deposition of metal a new Rapid Prototyping process had been developed at Cranfield University in the last couple of years. The process entails the use of a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. First, a solid model is drawn using a CAD system, then data indicating the kind of layers and dimension is incorporated and the solid is automatically sliced. This slicing routine also generates reports ...

Ribeiro, Anto?nio Fernando; Norrish, John

1996-01-01

348

Design of Three-Dimensional Multiple Slice Turbo Codes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new approach to designing low-complexity high-speed turbo codes for very low frame error rate applications. The key idea is to adapt and optimize the technique of multiple turbo codes to obtain the required frame error rate combined with a family of turbo codes, called multiple slice turbo codes (MSTCs), which allows high throughput at low hardware complexity. The proposed coding scheme is based on a versatile three-dimensional multiple slice turbo code (3D-MSTC)...

2005-01-01

349

Notes on maximal slices of five-dimensional black holes  

CERN Document Server

In this note we study the geometry and topology of maximal slices of certain stationary black hole solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations in five dimensions. These slices are complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with inner boundaries corresponding to black hole horizons. Although these spaces are simply connected as a consequence of topological censorship, they may have non-trivial topology. As much of the investigation is at the topological level, we can also extend this analysis to solutions for which explicit geometries are not yet known.

Alaee, Aghil; Martínez-Pedroza, Eduardo

2013-01-01

350

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that have been recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12/1/2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46o and Longitude 287.47o, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal keeping only the very low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the strong earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory e...

Athanasiou, M; Iliopoulos, A; Pavlos, G; David, K

2010-01-01

351

Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care. Household heads from 945 households (corresponding to 4,763 people in Cité Soleil and 1,800 household (9,539 people in Martissant provided information on household members. The average recall period was 579 days for Cité Soleil and 601 days for Martissant. Results In Cité Soleil 120 deaths (21 children were reported (CMR 0.4 deaths/10,000 people/day; Discussion Extrapolating to the total population of these two districts some 2,000 violent deaths occurred over the recall period. Among the survivors, violence had lasting effects in terms of physical and mental health and loss of property and possessions.

Van Herp Michel

2009-03-01

352

Subsistence Songs: Haitian téat Performances, Gendered Capital, and Livelihood Strategies in Jean Makout, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines how sexual and gender values in rural Haiti are expressed through 'téat', theatrical, songs and performances among girls from 10 to 20 years. Author describes how these sexual values relate to a concept of gendered capital, or what he calls a "sexual-moral economy", whereby men who want sex with women need to provide material rewards for this sexual access. He explains how this combines with certain gender socializations and views of men, unlike women, really needing sex, and socialized toward this, also by women, and thus from an early age to aggressively pursue women, and women on the other hand toward restraint, and to require material rewards. Author illustrates, through examples, how téat songs reflect and refer to these values, often through sexual metaphors. In addition, he shows how they relate to the wider social and gender context of matrifocality and subsistence strategies, notably the household, wherein women tend to be dominant over men, who supplied the house as expected price for her sex, manages production and reproduction of her daughters in it, instilling them also with the said sexual values, and with children seen as necessary for household work, as the women also engage in market activities outside of the house.

Timothy T. Schwartz

2008-12-01

353

Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

Adelheid Pichler

2013-09-01

354

The 12 Jan 2010, Haiti earthquake affected by aseismic fault creep  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12 2010, a destructive strike-slip earthquake (Mw 7.1) occurred in the oblique convergence zone of Hispaniola. Over 222,000 people were killed, most in the capital city of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, which lies about 80 km east of the mainshock. The earthquake ruptured a 50-km fault trace along (or sub-parallel to) the much larger Enriquillo Fault Zone (EFZ) that last broke in 1751 along a ~150-km zone. Assuming an average slip rate of 5-9 mm/yr, the amount of slip deficit accumulated on the entire EFZ is estimated to be on the order of 1.5 - 2.5 meters. Here, we present results of a deformation field investigation using ScanSAR data over the period from 2004-2009, prior to the 2010 earthquake. Both the data and the models reveal that the fault segment of EFZ to the west of the 2010 earthquake has been aseismically slipping for years, at a rate similar to the interseismic long-term interseismic slip rate of EFZ. Therefore, this study shows that the accumulating stress was partly released by aseismic slip. Moreover, Coulomb stress calculations suggest that the creep at EFZ segment may have enhanced the occurrence of the 2010 earthquake disaster. The relation observed between EFZ aseismic slip and the 2010 earthquake confirmed the importance of aseismic slip to better understanding of earthquake processes and for seismic hazard mitigation.

Shirzaei, M.; Walter, T. R.

2010-12-01

355

HAITÍ: CUANDO EL PASADO ES DEMASIADO PESADO / Haiti: When the Past Becomes too Heavy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Roces constantes entre el presidente y la oposición, escándalos políticos a repetición, sucesivos cambios ministeriales, un crecimiento económico mediocre y continuos lanzamientos de nuevos programas sociales por parte del gobierno de Michel Joseph Martelly han marcado el año 2012 en Haití. La princ [...] ipal muestra de las vicisitudes políticas experimentadas durante el año se materializa en la incapacidad del presidente para conformar el organismo electoral, que debe organizar las elecciones intermedias para reemplazar a los senadores cuyo mandato llegó a término en 2012. Abstract in english Constant frictions between the President and the Opposition, repetitive political scandals, frequent changes in the Cabinet, a mediocre economic growth and continuous launch of new Social Programs have marked the year of 2012 in Haiti. A good example of the political problems that the country faced [...] during 2012 is the incapacity of the president to form the Electoral Council that has to organize midterm elections for the replacement of senators whose mandate has ended in 2012.

RESERVE, ROODY.

356

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01

357

Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

358

Perspective: postearthquake haiti renews the call for global health training in medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced one of the worst disasters in human history, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake, resulting in the deaths of approximately 222,000 Haitians and grievous injury to hundreds of thousands more. International agencies, academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and associations responded by sending thousands of medical professionals, including nurses, doctors, medics, and physical therapists, to support the underresourced Haitian health system. The volunteers who came to provide medical care to disaster victims worked tirelessly under extremely challenging conditions, but in many cases they had no previous work experience in resource-limited settings, minimal training in tropical disease, and no knowledge of the historical background that contributed to the catastrophe. Often, this lack of preparedness hindered their ability to care adequately for their patients. The authors of this perspective argue that the academic medicine community must prepare medical trainees not only to treat the illnesses of patients in resource-limited settings but also to fight the injustice that fosters disease and allows such catastrophes to unfold. The authors advocate purposeful attention to building global health curricula; providing adequate time, funding, and opportunity to work in resource-limited international settings; and ensuring sufficient supervision for trainees to work safely. They also call for an interdisciplinary approach to global health that both affirms health care as a fundamental human right and explores the historical, economic, and political causes of inequitable health care. PMID:21494116

Archer, Natasha; Moschovis, Peter P; Le, Phuoc V; Farmer, Paul

2011-07-01

359

Strategies for assessing mental health in Haiti: local instrument development and transcultural translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of culturally appropriate mental health assessment instruments is a major barrier to screening and evaluating efficacy of interventions. Simple translation of questionnaires produces misleading and inaccurate conclusions. Multiple alternate approaches have been proposed, and this study compared two approaches tested in rural Haiti. First, an established transcultural translation process was used to develop Haitian Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This entailed focus group discussions evaluating comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Second, qualitative data collection was employed to develop new instruments: the Kreyòl Distress Idioms (KDI) and Kreyòl Function Assessment (KFA) scales. For the BDI and BAI, some items were found to be nonequivalent due to lack of specificity, interpersonal interpretation, or conceptual nonequivalence. For all screening tools, items were adjusted if they were difficult to endorse or severely stigmatizing, represented somatic experiences of physical illness, or were difficult to understand. After the qualitative development phases, the BDI and BAI were piloted with 31 and 27 adults, respectively, and achieved good reliability. Without these efforts to develop appropriate tools, attempts at screening would have captured a combination of atypical suffering, everyday phenomena, and potential psychotic symptoms. Ultimately, a combination of transculturally adapted and locally developed instruments appropriately identified those in need of care through accounting for locally salient symptoms of distress and their negative sequelae. PMID:24067540

Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Keys, Hunter M; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

2013-08-01

360

Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves. PMID:18523809

Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Status of post-quake reconstruction project and scheduled introduction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at the multi tandem accelerator facility, the University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. We have mapped out a strategy for the post-quake reconstruction project. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator at the 2nd experimental room instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. A new accelerator system will consist of a horizontal type 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources and the polarized ion source which will be moved from the 9th floor to a new experimental booth on the ground, an accelerator mass spectrometry system and an ion beam analysis system. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the 2nd experimental room to the present experimental facilities at the 1st experimental room. The new AMS system will be capable of measuring environmental levels for long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I. The new IBA system will be equipped with a high-precision five-axis goniometer. The 6 MV tandem accelerator will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The beam delivery will start on September 2014. (author)

2012-08-08

362

A Look at the Past History of Hepatitis E in Haiti: Should it be a Warning Sign during the Current Crisis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nobody can forget the devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck poverty-stricken Haiti, Port-au-Prince recently on 12 January 2010. At least 75,000 people were killed and hundreds of thousands became homeless; authorities are worried about sanitation and outbreaks of disease in the region. The camps are full of people and there are not even the most basic facilities for any others. Humanity obliges us to help them in any possible way. I reviewed the literature about the hepatitis E virus infection in Haiti and I would like to draw the scientists' attention to this important topic in this time of crisis.

Seyed Moayed Alavian

2010-01-01

363

Climate variability around the first Pliocene time slice  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing data/model comparisons for the mid-Pliocene (Dowsett et al., 2013) have identified specific regions of concordance and discord between climate models and proxy data. One reason for site-specific disagreement is likely related to the time (warm peak) averaged nature of the mid-Pliocene ocean temperatures provided within existing proxy syntheses. To facilitate improved data/model comparisons in the future new proxy sea surface temperature reconstructions will focus on specific time slices within the Pliocene epoch. Haywood et al. (2013) identified an initial time slice for environmental reconstruction and climate modelling centred on an interglacial event at Marine Isotope Stage KM5c (3.205 Ma). Critically, this interval displays a very near to modern orbital configuration simplifying the interpretation of proxy data and the experimental design for climate models. Nevertheless, current limitations of chronology and correlation make it likely that new proxy records will be attributable to a time range around the time slice, and may not always represent the time slice specifically. This introduces an element of uncertainty through orbital forcing around the time slice which can be investigated and quantified within a numerical climate modelling framework. The Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model Version 3 (HadCM3) has been used to perform a series of orbital forcing sensitivity tests around the identified time slice at MIS KM5c. Simulations every 2 kyr either side of the time slice to a range +/- 20 kyr have been completed. The model results indicate that +/- 20 kyr either side of the time slice, orbital forcing generates a less than 1°C change on global MAT. One exception to this relative stability in climate is seen in the North Atlantic (a region noted for disagreement in existing Pliocene data/model comparisons). Here, ocean surface temperature variations of up to 6°C are predicted. These model responses appear to be linked to changes in ocean circulation and the mode of deep water formation and thus the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over relatively short timescales (geologically). To place this predicted climate variability around MIS KM5c into context we have completed simulations 20 kyr either side of the 3.060 kyr PlioMAX peak, which is characterised by one of the lightest benthic oxygen isotope excursions evident in the entire PRISM time slab (Marine Isotope Stage K1; Raymo et al. 2004), and displays a radically different orbital forcing compared to present-day. The results show a 5°C change on global MAT, with some terrestrial areas showing changes of 10°C. Therefore, this larger climate variability at K1 would cause imperfect correlation to be much more harmful to data model comparisons than around the KM5c time slice. The results from this suite of simulations suggest that proxies producing MAT with imperfect correlation to the time slice up to 20,000 years before or after may still be representative of the conditions at the MIS KM5c time slice itself due to the subdued nature of orbital forcing at this time.

Prescott, C.; Haywood, A.; Dolan, A. M.; Hunter, S. J.; Tindall, J.; Pope, J. O.; Pickering, S.

2013-12-01

364

Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti. PMID:24681219

von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

2014-07-01

365

A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

1990-04-01

366

Quantitative multi-slice imaging of perfusion of the brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To develop an MR pulse sequence that allows the determination of the quantitative perfusion of the brain by imaging the passage of a contrast agent bolus with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: An EPI sequence, EPIDET (Echo Planar Imaging using Different Echo Times), was developed that allows the acquisition of different slices at different echo times. The passage of a contrast agent bolus was recorded in a slice through the large brain feeding arteries at a short echo time (TE1=17 ms), while brain parenchyma was imaged in up to nine additional slices at a long echo time (TE2=34 ms). Results: The different echo times allowed the determination of the arterial input function (signal decrease to 32%-59% of baseline intensity) and gave a sufficient signal reduction (14-22%) for reliable quantification of perfusion in brain parenchyma. Conclusion: The combination of different echo times of the DUAL-FLASH sequence and the multislice capability of EPI sequences in the EPIDET sequence enables the quantification of multi-slice perfusion examinations. Compared to the DUAL-FLASH sequence EPIDET improves spatial and temporal resolution. (orig.)

2001-01-01

367

Slice encoding for metal artifact correction with noise reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants is often hampered by severe metal artifacts. To obtain distortion-free MR images near metallic implants, SEMAC (Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction) corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of excited slices against metal-induced field inhomogeneities, followed by combining the data resolved from multiple SEMAC-encoded slices. However, as many of the resolved data elements only contain noise, SEMAC-corrected images can suffer from relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of SEMAC-corrected images is essential to enable SEMAC in routine clinical studies. In this work, a new reconstruction procedure is proposed to reduce noise in SEMAC-corrected images. A singular value decomposition denoising step is first applied to suppress quadrature noise in multi-coil SEMAC-encoded slices. Subsequently, the singular value decomposition-denoised data are selectively included in the correction of through-plane distortions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction procedure significantly improves the SNR without compromising the correction of metal artifacts. PMID:21287596

Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim B; Gold, Garry E; Pauly, John M; Hargreaves, Brian A

2011-05-01

368

Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [3H]norepinephrine or [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

1988-01-01

369

Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

2005-01-01

370

Multi-temporal interferometric monitoring of ground deformations in Haiti with COSMO/SkyMed HIMAGE data  

Science.gov (United States)

The catastrophic Mw=7.0 shallow earthquake of 12 January 2010 that struck Haiti have led to numerous studies focused on the geodynamics of the region. In particular, the co-seismic fault mechanism of the 2010 Haiti earthquake as well as post-seismic deformations have been investigated through SAR interferometry (InSAR) techniques, thanks to the availability of satellite SAR sensors operating in different radar bands (ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO/SkyMed). Moreover, advanced multitemporal SAR interferometry (MTI) based on COSMO/SkyMED (CSK) data is well suited for the detection and monitoring of post-seismic ground or structural instabilities. Indeed, with its short revisit time (up to 4 days) CSK allows building interferometric stacks much faster than previous satellite missions, like ERS/ENVISAT. Here we report the first outcomes of the MTI investigation based on high resolution (3 m) CSK data, conducted in the framework of a scientific collaboration between the Centre National de l'Information Géo-Spatiale (CNIGS) of Haiti and the Department of Physics (DIF) of the University of Bari, Italy. We rely on a stack of 89 CSK data (image mode: HIMAGE; polarization: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-0A) acquired by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the Port-au-Prince (PaP) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the 2010 earthquake. CSK acquisitions span the period June 2011 ÷ February 2013, which is sufficient for detecting and monitoring significant ground instabilities. The MTI results were obtained through the application of the SPINUA processing chain, a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI)-like technique. In particular, we detected significant subsidence phenomena affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the PaP and Carrefour region. The maximum rate of subsidence movements exceed few cm/yr and this implies increasing flooding (or tsunami) hazard. Furthermore, maximum subsidence rates were encountered in areas with high population density and this translates into high potential risk. The MTI results also revealed the presence of very slow slope movements and local ground / structure instabilities. Some of these may have been initially triggered by the 2010 event. Elsewhere the MTI-detected displacements can be related to the presence of poorly constructed buildings. This case study demonstrates that MTI represents a very good option for the assessments of ground / structure instability in regions that lack in situ monitoring data. In view of this the results of this study will be transferred to the Civil Protection of Haiti.

Nutricato, R.; Wasowski, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Piard, B. E.; Généa, S.

2013-12-01

371

Deep Tectonic Tremor in Haiti triggered by the 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonic tremors have been observed along major plate-boundary faults around the world. In most of these regions, tremors occur spontaneously (i.e. ambient) or as a result of small stress perturbations from passing surface waves (i.e. triggered). Because tremors are located below the seismogenic zone, a detailed study of their behavior could help to better understand how tectonic movement is accommodated in the deep root of major faults, and the relationship with large earthquakes. Here, we present evidence of triggered tremor in southern Haiti around the aftershock zone of the 2010/01/12 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake. Following the January mainshock, several groups have installed land and ocean bottom seismometers to record aftershock activity (e.g., De Lepinay et al., 2011). In the following month, the 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake occurred and was recorded in the southern Haiti region by these seismic stations. We apply a 5-15 Hz band-pass filter to all seismograms to identify local high-frequency signals during the Chile teleseismic waves. Tremor is identified as non-impulsive bursts with 10-20 s durations that is coherent among different stations and is modulated by surface waves. We also convert the seismic data into audible sounds and use them to distinguish between local aftershocks and deep tremor. We locate the source of the tremor bursts using an envelope cross-correlation method based on travel time differences. Because tremor depth is not well constrained with this method, we set it to 20 km, close to the recent estimate of Moho depth in this region (McNamara et al., 2012). Most tremors are located south of the surface expression of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), a high-angle southward dipping left-lateral strike-slip fault that marks the boundary between the Gonave microplate and the Caribbean plate, although the location errors are large. Tremor peaks are mostly modulated by Love wave velocity, which is consistent with left-lateral shear motion induced by the normal incidence of Love wave on a near-vertical strike-slip fault. Our ongoing efforts include comparing tremor and aftershock locations with the same envelope techniques, and identifying tremor at other times. If the tremor locations are reliable, the results pose interesting questions about stress changes following the Haiti mainshock that lead to triggered seismicity on the shallow south dipping Trois Baies fault (De Lepinay et al., 2011, Douilly et al, 2013), and triggered tremor on the EPGF, where no aftershocks were recorded.

Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Douilly, R.; Calais, E.; Deschamps, A.; Haase, J. S.

2013-05-01

372

The International Community and Haiti: a story of mischief. The role of international cooperation 1990-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the actions of international cooperation, bi and multilateral, received by Haiti since the 1990s, and how this defines the (impossibilities of sustainable development, considering the upsurge of South-South cooperation since 2004. Given that conditions show that North-South cooperation hasn’t been able to achieve its goals, an analysis of the available funds and its allocation will be made, based on author’s elaboration data regarding sectorial allocation of funds for the 1990-2004 period. The conclusions will consider the lessons learned from the studied period, which gain new meaning in the context of the post-earthquake reconstruction.

HERBST, Natalia

2013-06-01

373

Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch test...

2013-01-01

374

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti / Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping) das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as [...] contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira. Abstract in english The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its fo [...] reign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan, Bracey.

375

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti / Tuberculosis multirresistente en Puerto Príncipe, Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de tuberculosis (TB) multirresistente en pacientes con TB pulmonar nueva con baciloscopia positiva en Puerto Príncipe, Haití. MÉTODOS: Se cultivaron muestras de esputo de 1 006 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de tuberculosis efectuado durante el 2008. Se secuen [...] ció la región nuclear del gen rpoB, que se asocia con la resistencia a la rifampicina. Todos los aislados con mutaciones de rpoB se enviaron al laboratorio de referencia del estado de Nueva York para llevar a cabo un antibiograma convencional. Todos los aislados se estudiaron también con el ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTADOS: Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis de 906 pacientes. Veintiséis (2,9%) de los aislados presentaban mutaciones de sentido erróneo o deleciones en rpoB y fueron resistentes a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. Los 26 aislados fueron resistentes también a la isoniacida y se clasificaron como TB multirresistente. Cuarenta y seis aislados de control sin mutaciones de rpoB resultaron sensibles a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. El ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus identificó correctamente a las 26 cepas de TB multirresistente y clasificó de manera errónea un aislado sensible a múltiples fármacos como resistente a la rifampicina. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio revela una prevalencia de TB multirresistente de 2,9% en los pacientes con TB recién diagnosticada en Haití e indica que los ensayos de secuenciación e hibridación de rpoB son estudios de detección sistemática adecuados para la detección temprana de la TB multirresistente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associ [...] ated with resistance to rifampin was sequenced. All isolates with rpoB mutations were sent to the New York State reference laboratory for conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). All isolates were also tested with the GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay. RESULTS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 906 patients. Twenty-six (2.9%) of the isolates had missense mutations or deletions in rpoB and were resistant to rifampin by DST. All 26 were also resistant to isoniazid and classified as MDR-TB. Forty-six control isolates without rpoB mutations were found to be rifampin sensitive by DST. The GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay correctly identified 26 MDR-TB strains. It misclassified one pansusceptible isolate as rifampin resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an MDR-TB prevalence of 2.9% in newly diagnosed TB patients in Haiti and suggests that rpoB sequencing and hybridization assays are good screening tools for early detection of MDR-TB.

Oksana, Ocheretina; Willy, Morose; Marie, Gauthier; Patrice, Joseph; Richard, D' Meza; Vincent E., Escuyer; Nalin, Rastogi; Guy, Vernet; Jean W., Pape; Daniel W., Fitzgerald.

376

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Tuberculosis multirresistente en Puerto Príncipe, Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associated with resistance to rifampin was sequenced. All isolates with rpoB mutations were sent to the New York State reference laboratory for conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST. All isolates were also tested with the GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay. RESULTS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 906 patients. Twenty-six (2.9% of the isolates had missense mutations or deletions in rpoB and were resistant to rifampin by DST. All 26 were also resistant to isoniazid and classified as MDR-TB. Forty-six control isolates without rpoB mutations were found to be rifampin sensitive by DST. The GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay correctly identified 26 MDR-TB strains. It misclassified one pansusceptible isolate as rifampin resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an MDR-TB prevalence of 2.9% in newly diagnosed TB patients in Haiti and suggests that rpoB sequencing and hybridization assays are good screening tools for early detection of MDR-TB.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de tuberculosis (TB multirresistente en pacientes con TB pulmonar nueva con baciloscopia positiva en Puerto Príncipe, Haití. MÉTODOS: Se cultivaron muestras de esputo de 1 006 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de tuberculosis efectuado durante el 2008. Se secuenció la región nuclear del gen rpoB, que se asocia con la resistencia a la rifampicina. Todos los aislados con mutaciones de rpoB se enviaron al laboratorio de referencia del estado de Nueva York para llevar a cabo un antibiograma convencional. Todos los aislados se estudiaron también con el ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTADOS: Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis de 906 pacientes. Veintiséis (2,9% de los aislados presentaban mutaciones de sentido erróneo o deleciones en rpoB y fueron resistentes a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. Los 26 aislados fueron resistentes también a la isoniacida y se clasificaron como TB multirresistente. Cuarenta y seis aislados de control sin mutaciones de rpoB resultaron sensibles a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. El ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus identificó correctamente a las 26 cepas de TB multirresistente y clasificó de manera errónea un aislado sensible a múltiples fármacos como resistente a la rifampicina. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio revela una prevalencia de TB multirresistente de 2,9% en los pacientes con TB recién diagnosticada en Haití e indica que los ensayos de secuenciación e hibridación de rpoB son estudios de detección sistemática adecuados para la detección temprana de la TB multirresistente.

Oksana Ocheretina

2012-03-01

377

Earthquake behavior of the Enriquillo fault zone, Haiti revealed by interactive terrain visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mw 7.0 January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake ended 240 years of relative quiescence following earthquakes that destroyed Port-au-Prince in 1751 and 1770. We place the 2010 rupture in the context of past earthquakes and future hazards by using remote analysis of airborne LiDAR to observe the topographic expression of active faulting and develop a new conceptual model for the earthquake behavior of the eastern Enriquillo fault zone (EFZ). In this model, the 2010 event occupies a long-lived segment boundary at a stepover within the EFZ separating fault segments that likely ruptured in 1751 and 1770, explaining both past clustering and the lack of 2010 surface rupture. Immediately following the 2010 earthquake, an airborne LiDAR point cloud containing over 2.7 billion point measurements of surface features was collected by the Rochester Inst. of Technology. To analyze these data, we capitalize on the human capacity to visually identify meaningful patterns embedded in noisy data by conducting interactive visual analysis of the entire 66.8 GB Haiti terrain data in a 4-sided, 800 ft3 immersive virtual-reality environment at the UC Davis KeckCAVES using the software tools LiDAR Viewer (to analyze point cloud data) and Crusta (for 3D surficial geologic mapping on DEM data). We discovered and measured landforms displaced by past surface-rupturing earthquakes and remotely characterized the regional fault geometry. Our analysis of the ~50 km long reach of EFZ spanning the 2010 epicenter indicates that geomorphic evidence of active faulting is clearer east of the epicenter than to the west. West of the epicenter, and in the region of the 2010 rupture, the fault is poorly defined along an embayed, low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. In contrast, landform offsets of 6 to 50 m along the reach of the EFZ east of the epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes here. Specifically, we found and documented offset landforms including fluvial terrace risers near Dumay (6.3 +0.9/-1.3 m) and Chauffard/Jameau (32.2 +1.8/-3.1 m), a channel (52 +18/-13 m) ~500 m east of the Chauffard/Jameau site, and an alluvial fan near Fayette (8.6 +2.8/-2.5 m). Based on the fault-trace morphology and distribution of sites where we see 6-8 m offsets, we estimate the probable along-strike extent of past surface rupture was 40 to 60 km along this fault reach. Application of moment-rupture area relationships to these observations suggest that an earthquake similar to, or larger than the Mw 7.0 2010 event is possible along the Enriquillo fault near Port-au-Prince. We deduce that the 2010 earthquake was a relatively small event on a boundary between fault segments that ruptured in 1751 and 1770, based on new analysis of historical damage reports and the gap of well-defined fault-zone morphology where the 2010 earthquake occurred.

Cowgill, E.; Bernardin, T. S.; Oskin, M. E.; Bowles, C. J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kreylos, O.; Elliott, A. J.; Bishop, M. S.; Gold, R. D.; Morelan, A.; Bawden, G. W.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

2010-12-01

378

Slip partitioning on the Enriquillo and Lamentin faults during the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

A general consensus has emerged from the study of the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake: the coseismic rupture was complex, portraying both reverse and strike-slip motion, but lacking unambiguous surface break. Based on seismological, geodetic and geologic data, numerous slip models have been proposed for that event. However, using an incomplete fault map, the latter models were preliminary, proposing a rupture on unmapped buried faults. Here, using bathymetric data offshore Port-au-Prince along with a digital elevation model derived from LiDAR on-land, we identified the south-dipping Lamentin thrust in the Bay of Port-au-Prince. The fault prolongs on-land where it deforms active alluvial fans in the city of Carrefour. The geometry and distribution of the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake and the analysis of the regional geology allow us to place constraints on the connection at depth between the Lamentin thrust and the sinistral strike-slip Enriquillo -Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Inversion of geodetic data suggests that both faults may have broken in 2010, consistently with the regional geodynamical setting. The rupture initiated along the Lamentin thrust and further propagated along the EPGF due to instantaneous unclamping at depth. The corals uplifted around the Léogâne Delta Fan, contributing to the build-up of long-term topography between the Lamentin thrust and the EPGF. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on unruptured EPGF segments as well as on the thrust fault sitting in the middle of the city of Carrefour, in the direct vicinity of Port-au-Prince, thereby increasing the seismic hazard in these areas.

Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël; Jacques, Éric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann

2014-05-01

379

Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 34 patients with signs and symptoms of diarrhea and stored in BBLTM Cary-Blair transport medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD until transit to the USA. Swab material was inoculated on to different enrichment and selective agars for incubation. Fermenting and nonfermenting bacteria that grew on the enteric selection media were identified by the BBLTM CrystalTM Enteric/Nonferementing Identification system (Becton, Dickinson and Company. Organisms identified as Escherichia coli were further screened for the presence of virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 34 patients, no Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Vibrio spp. were isolated from swabs transported to the USA for culture. Of 73 E. coli isolates cultured from the swabs, one enteropathogenic strain of E. coli was identified by multiplex PCR. Escherichia fergusonii and Cronobacter sakazakii, both potential gastrointestinal pathogens, were also isolated from patient stools. Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine if bacterial enteropathogens could be detected in the stools of patients suffering from diarrhea or dysentery and, in the absence of sufficient facilities, rectal swabs could be transported to the USA for culture. Although several genera of overt enteropathogens were not detected, one enteropathogenic E. coli and other pathogenic enterobacteriaceae were successfully cultured and identified. Keywords: Escherichia, Cronobacter, diarrheagenic, stool

Jackson JC

2011-09-01

380

Education for Citizenship in the Caribbean: A Study on Curricular Policy and Teacher Training in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes primary, secondary and teacher training curricular policy relating to education for citizenship in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic in order to make practical recommendations for improved design, quality and implementation of these initiatives in the three countries selected. The first chapter describes the Caribbean…

Acosta, Cheila Valera

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Von bösen Schulden und globaler Verantwortung. Das Beispiel Haiti zeigt, wie das System der Auslandsschulden die Menschen schutzlos einer Katastrophe ausliefert  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Von bösen Schulden und globaler Verantwortung. Das Beispiel Haiti zeigt, wie das System der Auslandsschulden die Menschen schutzlos einer Katastrophe ausliefert This commentary was originally published in the Medico Rundschreiben January 2010 and is reprinted here in the original German with the kind permission of the author.

Thomas Gebauer

2010-12-01

382

Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens  

Science.gov (United States)

Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports…

Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

2014-01-01

383

Sensitive and specific detection of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain prion protein using real-time quaking-induced conversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is an assay in which disease-associated prion protein (PrP) initiates a rapid conformational transition in recombinant PrP (recPrP), resulting in the formation of amyloid that can be monitored in real time using the dye thioflavin T. It therefore has potential advantages over analogous cell-free PrP conversion assays such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The QuIC assay and the related amyloid seeding assay have been developed largely using rodent-passaged sheep scrapie strains. Given the potential RT-QuIC has for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) research and human prion test development, this study characterized the behaviour of a range of CJD brain specimens with hamster and human recPrP in the RT-QuIC assay. The results showed that RT-QuIC is a rapid, sensitive and specific test for the form of abnormal PrP found in the most commonly occurring forms of sporadic CJD. The assay appeared to be largely independent of species-related sequence differences between human and hamster recPrP and of the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the human PrP gene. However, with the same conditions and substrate, the assay was less efficient in detecting the abnormal PrP that characterizes variant CJD brain. Comparison of these QuIC results with those previously obtained using PMCA suggested that these two seemingly similar assays differ in important respects. PMID:22031526

Peden, Alexander H; McGuire, Lynne I; Appleford, Nigel E J; Mallinson, Gary; Wilham, Jason M; Orrú, Christina D; Caughey, Byron; Ironside, James W; Knight, Richard S; Will, Robert G; Green, Alison J E; Head, Mark W

2012-02-01

384

RNA-binding protein GLD-1/quaking genetically interacts with the mir-35 and the let-7 miRNA pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Science.gov (United States)

Messenger RNA translation is regulated by RNA-binding proteins and small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs. Even though we know the majority of RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs that regulate messenger RNA expression, evidence of interactions between the two remain elusive. The role of the RNA-binding protein GLD-1 as a translational repressor is well studied during Caenorhabditis elegans germline development and maintenance. Possible functions of GLD-1 during somatic development and the mechanism of how GLD-1 acts as a translational repressor are not known. Its human homologue, quaking (QKI), is essential for embryonic development. Here, we report that the RNA-binding protein GLD-1 in C. elegans affects multiple microRNA pathways and interacts with proteins required for microRNA function. Using genome-wide RNAi screening, we found that nhl-2 and vig-1, two known modulators of miRNA function, genetically interact with GLD-1. gld-1 mutations enhance multiple phenotypes conferred by mir-35 and let-7 family mutants during somatic development. We used stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture to globally analyse the changes in the proteome conferred by let-7 and gld-1 during animal development. We identified the histone mRNA-binding protein CDL-1 to be, in part, responsible for the phenotypes observed in let-7 and gld-1 mutants. The link between GLD-1 and miRNA-mediated gene regulation is further supported by its biochemical interaction with ALG-1, CGH-1 and PAB-1, proteins implicated in miRNA regulation. Overall, we have uncovered genetic and biochemical interactions between GLD-1 and miRNA pathways.

Akay, Alper; Craig, Ashley; Lehrbach, Nicolas; Larance, Mark; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Wright, Jane E.; Lamond, Angus; Miska, Eric; Gartner, Anton

2013-01-01

385

Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices  

Keywords: apple slices; osmo-dehydration; freeze drying; carboxyl methyl cellulose coating; drying kinetics ...and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied.In total, nine ...the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices.It was observed that increase in

386

Provenance of mineral phases in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments exposed on the southern peninsula of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid-insoluble mineral residua of tektite-bearing Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments in the Beloc Formation of Haiti contain abundant shocked quartz and lesser amounts of shocked plagioclase. The shocked quartz grains typically have 2 or 3 sets of planar deformation features, although grains with up to 15 sets were observed. The proportion of shocked quartz in the boundary sediments increases with stratigraphic height; at least 70 +/- 11% of the proportion of the quartz grains are shocked in the uppermost stratigraphic interval. The proportion of shocked quartz throughout the boundary sediments indicates that these grains were excavated primarily from crystalline silicate units, which may have been covered with a small amount of porous quartz-bearing sediments. Polyhedral and moderately sutured margins in shocked polycrystalline quartz grains, the size of the crystal units in these grains and the presence of shocked plagioclase, indicate these ejecta components were excavated from a target with continental affinites, containing quartzites or metaquartzites and a sialic metamorphic and/or igneous component. Other evidence suggests the target may also have contained a significant amount of calcium carbonate and/or sulfate. The large size and amount of shocked quartz grains deposited in Haiti indicate the crater from which they were excavated was produced in the proto-Caribbean region.

Kring, David A.; Hildebrand, Alan R.; Boynton, William V.

1994-01-01

387

Stress interaction of strike-slip and thrust faults associated with the 2010 M=7.0 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent investigations from combined seismological and space geodetic constraints suggest that the mainshock source faults of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake might be complex and consist of both strike-slip and thrust faults. We calculate Coulomb stress changes on adjacent strike-slip and thrust faults caused by the 2010 M=7.0 rupture by considering a range of mainshock and receiver fault models. We find that for all of the mainshock source models examined, including Hayes et al. (submitted to Nature Geoscience), the Coulomb stress is calculated to have increased on sections of the Enriquillo Fault to both the east and west of the January ruptures. We assume the Enriquillo is dominantly strike-slip. While the magnitude of the calculated stress increase depends on the complexity of the proposed mainshock models, the Enriquillo Fault segment immediately south of Port-au-Prince is calculated to be within a zone of stress increases regardless if the Enriquillo Fault is assumed south dipping or vertical. We further calculate that 60-70% of the nodal planes of the aftershocks determined by Nettles & Hjorleifsdottir (GJI, 2010) were brought closer to failure by the mainshock. Relocating these aftershock locations north by 10 km would bring additional 10% of the aftershock nodal planes into Coulomb stress increases. Overall the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the complex stress interaction between strike-slip and thrust motion on various segments of a larger compressional fault system.

Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Sevilgen, V.; Toda, S.

2010-12-01

388

Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

Andrea Pardini

2011-11-01

389

Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants: detailed determination of safety margins and their scattering for buildings in case of earth quakes; Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse fuer Kernkraftwerke. Detaillierte Ermittlung der Sicherheitsreservefaktoren der Bauwerke und deren Streuung fuer Erdbeben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the frame of probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants studies and evaluations of earth quake events have to be performed. The methodology is aimed to quantify the actual safety margins of the existing structures and their scattering. These data are essentially based on empirical values and results from US power plants. The authors discuss the accuracy and applicability of the simplified methodologies. It turns out that the simplified models can only roughly describe the complex non-linear behavior of buildings. Additional system engineering based effects on the safety reserves cannot be taken into account by the simplified modeling.

Sadegh-Azar, H. [HOCHTIEF Consult IKS Energy (Germany)

2009-07-01

390

The Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Culture Model for Examining Neuronal Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organotypic hippocampal slice culture is an in vitro method to examine mechanisms of neuronal injury in which the basic architecture and composition of the hippocampus is relatively preserved 1. The organotypic culture system allows for the examination of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial effects, but as an ex vivo preparation, does not address effects of blood flow, or recruitment of peripheral inflammatory cells. To that end, this culture method is frequently used to examine excitotoxic a...

Wang, Qian; Andreasson, Katrin

2010-01-01

391

Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to sta...

Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B.; Staley, Kevin J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

2009-01-01

392

Electric field stimulation of precision-cut lung slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic airway diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are the fourth-leading cause of death in developed countries and have a high personal, societal, and economical impact. Recurring inflammation is one characteristic of those diseases leading to airway remodelling and modulating the function of nerves resulting in excessive bronchoconstriction. The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) technique is widely used in pulmonary pharmacology, but neurally-i...

Schlepu?tz, Marco

2011-01-01

393

Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

2011-07-01

394

Lapse function for maximally sliced Brill-Lindquist initial data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For binary black holes the lapse function corresponding to the Brill-Lindquist initial value solution for uncharged black holes is given in analytic form under the maximal slicing condition. In the limiting case of a very small ratio of mass to separation between the black holes, the surface defined by the zero value of the lapse function coincides with the minimal surfaces around the singularities

2002-06-15

395

Lapse function for maximally sliced Brill-Lindquist initial data  

Science.gov (United States)

For binary black holes the lapse function corresponding to the Brill-Lindquist initial value solution for uncharged black holes is given in analytic form under the maximal slicing condition. In the limiting case of a very small ratio of mass to separation between the black holes, the surface defined by the zero value of the lapse function coincides with the minimal surfaces around the singularities.

Jaranowski, Piotr; Schäfer, Gerhard

2002-06-01

396

Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

Nabais, R. M.; Malcata, F. X.

1997-01-01

397

Constant mean curvature slices in the Kerr space-time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, there have been efforts to solve Einstein's equation in the context of a conformal compactification of space-time. Of particular importance in this regard are the so called CMC-foliations, characterized by spatial hyperboloidal hypersurfaces with a constant extrinsic mean curvature K. However, although of interest for general space-times, CMC-slices are known explicitly only for the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild metric. This work is devoted to numerically det...

Schinkel, David; Macedo, Rodrigo Panosso; Ansorg, Marcus

2013-01-01

398

Inital data for perturbed Kerr black holes on hyperboloidal slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We construct initial data corresponding to a single perturbed Kerr black hole in vacuum. These data are defined on specific hyperboloidal ("ACMC-") slices on which the mean extrinsic curvature K asymptotically approaches a constant at future null infinity scri+. More precisely, we require that K obeys the Taylor expansion K=K0 + s^4 where K0 is a constant and s describes a compactified spatial coordinate such that scri+ is represented by s=0. We excise the singular interior ...

Schinkel, David; Ansorg, Marcus; Macedo, Rodrigo Panosso

2013-01-01

399

CONDITIONED SLICING FOR EFFICIENT MULTIWAY DECISION GRAPHS MODEL-CHECKER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating formal verification techniques into the hardware design process provides the means to rigorously prove critical properties. However, most automatic verification techniques, such as model checking, are only effectively applicable to designs of limited sizes due to the state explosion problem. The Multiway Decision Graphs (MDG method is an efficient method to define hardware designs into more abstract environments; however, the MDG model checker (MDG-MC still suffers from the state explosion problem. Furthermore, all the backward reduction algorithms cannot be used in MDG, due to the presence of abstract state variables. In this study, an efficient extractor for MDG Hardware Descrpiton Languge (MDG-HDL is introduced based on static (SS-MDG and conditioned (CS-MDG program slicing techniques. The techniques can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. The main advantages of these techniques are: It has no MDG-HDL coding style limitation, it is accurate and it is competent in dealing with various MDG-HDL constructions. The main motivation for introducing this approach is to tackle the state explosion problem of MDG-MC that big MDG-HDL may cause. We apply our proposed techniques on different MDG-HDL designs and our analyses have shown that the proposed reduction techniques resulted in significantly improved performance of the MDG-MC. In this study, we present a general idea of program slicing, a discussion of how to slice MDG-HDL programs, implementation of the tool and a brief overview of some applications and experimental results. The underlying method and the tool based on it need to be empirically evaluated when applying to various applications.

Saad Elmansori

2013-01-01

400

Pediatric 16-slice CT Protocols: Radiation Dose and Image Quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess radiation dose and image quality of our pediatric 16-slice CT protocols and to compare them with published standards. For 540 weight-based pediatric 16-slice CT examinations in six anatomic regions, CTDIvol, DLP, effective dose, and image noise were determined. Two radiologists evaluated the visual quality of CT images by consensus. We analyzed the relationship of CTDIvol and image noise with body diameter. Our results were compared with published data. The average CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy·cm), effective dose (mSv), and image noise (HU) were as follows: 4.1/125.5/1.6/16.2 for chest CT, 3.3/54.2/1.2/13.7 for heart CT, 5.8/256.6/3.8/13.0 for abdomen-pelvis CT, 6.8/318.7/5.9/12.0 for dynamic abdomen CT, 3.5/86.2/0.35/7.9 for neck CT and 25.4/368.0/1.6/3.7 for brain CT, respectively. All CT images were diagnostic upon visual analysis. The CTDIvol and image noise were proportional to body diameter. Our dose parameters were comparable to the first quartile of the cited German survey, whereas image noise in our study was similar to published data. Our pediatric CT dose is at the lower end of published standards and our image noise can be used as a target noise for each protocol in developing better pediatric multi-slice CT protocols

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
401

SEMAC: Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction in MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants remains an unmet need because of severe artifacts, which mainly stem from large metal-induced field inhomogeneities. This work addresses MRI near metallic implants with an innovative imaging technique called "Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction" (SEMAC). The SEMAC technique corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of each excited slice against metal-induced field inhomogeneities. The robust slice encoding is achieved by extending a view-angle-tilting (VAT) spin-echo sequence with additional z-phase encoding. Although the VAT compensation gradient suppresses most in-plane distortions, the z-phase encoding fully resolves distorted excitation profiles that cause through-plane distortions. By positioning all spins in a region-of-interest to their actual spatial locations, the through-plane distortions can be corrected by summing up the resolved spins in each voxel. The SEMAC technique does not require additional hardware and can be deployed to the large installed base of whole-body MRI systems. The efficacy of the SEMAC technique in eliminating metal-induced distortions with feasible scan times is validated in phantom and in vivo spine and knee studies. PMID:19267347

Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim Butts; Gold, Garry E; Pauly, John M; Hargreaves, Brian A

2009-07-01

402

Molecular Characterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated from Patients in an AIDS Counseling Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a 1-Year Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic diseases that appear among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in Haiti. In this context the probable emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of great epidemiological concern. However, as routine culture of M. tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing are not performed in Haiti, it has not been possible so far to evaluate the rate of drug resistance among M. tuberculosis isola...

Ferdinand, Se?verine; Sola, Christophe; Verdol, Be?atrice; Legrand, Eric; Goh, Khye Seng; Berchel, Myle?ne; Aube?ry, Alexandra; Timothe?e, Maryse; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Rastogi, Nalin

2003-01-01

403

Fingolimod Attenuates Splenocyte-Induced Demyelination in Cerebellar Slice Cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

The family of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) is G-protein-coupled, comprised of subtypes S1PR1-S1PR5 and activated by the endogenous ligand S1P. The phosphorylated version of Fingolimod (pFTY720), an oral therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), induces S1PR1 internalisation in T cells, subsequent insensitivity to S1P gradients and sequestering of these cells within lymphoid organs, thus limiting immune response. S1PRs are also expressed in neuronal and glial cells where pFTY720 is suggested to directly protect against lysolecithin-induced deficits in myelination state in organotypic cerebellar slices. Of note, the effect of pFTY720 on immune cells already migrated into the CNS, prior to treatment, has not been well established. We have previously found that organotypic slice cultures do contain immune cells, which, in principle, could also be regulated by pFTY720 to maintain levels of myelin. Here, a mouse organotypic cerebellar slice and splenocyte co-culture model was thus used to investigate the effects of pFTY720 on splenocyte-induced demyelination. Spleen cells isolated from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunised mice (MOG-splenocytes) or from 2D2 transgenic mice (2D2-splenocytes) both induced demyelination when co-cultured with mouse organotypic cerebellar slices, to a similar extent as lysolecithin. As expected, in vivo treatment of MOG-immunised mice with FTY720 inhibited demyelination induced by MOG-splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro treatment of MOG- and 2D2-splenocytes with pFTY720 also attenuated demyelination caused by these cells. In addition, while in vitro treatment of 2D2-splenocytes with pFTY720 did not alter cell phenotype, pFTY720 inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN?) and interleukin 6 (IL6) from these cells. This work suggests that treatment of splenocytes by pFTY720 attenuates demyelination and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine release, which likely contributes to enhanced myelination state induced by pFTY720 in organotypic cerebellar slices.

Pritchard, Adam J.; Mir, Anis K.; Dev, Kumlesh K.

2014-01-01

404

The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

1992-01-01

405

Complex Seismic Source Inversion Method with the Data Covariance Matrix: Application to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In the finite fault source inversion, seismic source area has usually been approximated by simple fault plane model for simplicity. This approximation, however, may generate the correlated modeling errors originated from the focal mechanism variation in a rupture process, which contributed to biased results in the seismic waveform analysis. This effect becomes predominant for analysis of seismic data around the nodal planes. From CMT inversion analysis, the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake may accompany both strike and dip slip on different fault planes (Nettles and Hjörleifsdóttir, 2010, GJI). In addition, one single fault plane model cannot explain teleseismic body wave well due to complex source process and existence of many mechanism-sensitive stations. For waveform analysis of this earthquake, we developed inversion method that estimates moment tensor component for each space knot in seismic source area and applied it to teleseismic P-wave data recorded at FDSN network stations and Global Seismograph Network stations. In general, such high flexibility source model had caused the unstable and unrealistic result. To avoid this problem, we applied new formulation that considers the data covariance components of observed errors and modeling errors originated from uncertainty of Green's function (Yagi and Fukahata, 2010, AGU). It has already been shown that the new formulation can derive plausible solution without non-negative constraint. For inversion, we arranged space knots on the plane of which strike and dip are same as that of the USGS finite fault model. We confirmed that result is robust against change of strike, dip and knot interval. The result shows that P-axes in main rupture area are north-south direction, which is consistent with stress field of the region. Main rupture area can be divided into 3 patches, near the hypocenter, east and west side of the hypocenter patch, which have different focal mechanisms. Reverse fault is dominant in the hypocenter patch whereas strike slip component is dominant in east and west patches. The CMT inversion analysis shows that many reverse aftershocks are observed west side of the west patch. It seems that rupture stopped at the focal mechanism transition area. Our result is consistent with analysis of InSAR data and the CMT analysis.

Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

2010-12-01

406

Nódulos parotídeos: experiencia en la República de Haití / Parotid nodules: experience in the Republic of Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. Las enfermedades de las glándulas salivales ocupan un lugar relevante entre las patologías quirúrgicas de la cabeza y el cuello. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar la experiencia del tratamiento quirúrgico de tumores parotídeos benignos del lóbulo superficial, mediante anestesia [...] local, en pacientes de la Republica de Haití atendidos como parte de la colaboración médica cubana en ese país. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con nódulos parotídeos, atendidos en la República de Haití entre los años 2005 y 2006. Según su naturaleza, los nódulos fueron agrupados en inflamatorios, neoplásicos y otros. Para el tratamiento quirúrgico se utilizó la anestesia local con lidocaína al 1 %, combinando el método infiltrativo y el bloqueo de campo. Se consultaron 149 pacientes con nódulos parotídeos, el mayor porcentaje de los cuales correspondió a procesos inflamatorios (68,0 %) y en 29 pacientes (19,0 %) se comprobó la presencia de nódulos neoplásicos. Las complicaciones fueron seroma (3 casos; 33,3 %), hematoma (2 casos; 22,2 %), y 4 pacientes no presentaron complicaciones. CONCLUSIONES. El abordaje quirúrgico con anestesia local probó ser una alternativa válida cuando el cirujano no cuenta con los recursos que convencionalmente se movilizan para el tratamiento quirúrgico de estos casos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The diseases of the salivary glands occupy an important place among the surgical pathologies of the neck and the head. The aim of this paper was to present the experience of the surgical treatment of benign parotid tumors of the superficial lobule by local anesthesia in Haitian patient [...] s attended as part of the Cuban medical collaboration in this country. METHODS. A prospective study was carried out in patients with parotid nodules attended in the Republic of Haiti from 2005 to 2006. According to their nature, the nodules were grouped into inflammatory, neoplastic and others. Local anesthesia with lidocaine 1 % was used for the surgical treatment, combining the infiltrative method and the field block. 149 patients with parotid nodules were seen. The highest percentage corresponded to inflammatory processes (68.0 %). The presence of neoplastic nodules was confirmed in 29 patients (19.0 %). The complications were seroma (3 cases; 33.3 %) and hematoma (2 cases; 22.2 %). Four patients did not present complications. CONCLUSIONS. The surgical approach with local anesthesia proved to be a valid alternative when the surgeon does not have the resources that are usually used for the surgical treatment of these cases.

Valles Gamboa, Moraima; Zamora Linares, Carlos; Expósito Reyes, Orlando; Vázquez Polanco, Julio; Frías Banqueris, Roberto.

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Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti / Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verifi [...] cada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6%) resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas). Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's pub [...] lic health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6%) were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P

Chaylah J., Lomotey; Judy, Lewis; Bette, Gebrian; Royneld, Bourdeau; Kevin, Dieckhaus; Juan C., Salazar.

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Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6% were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verificada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6% resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas. Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P < 0,0001. La tasa estimada de sífilis congénita en la zona fue de 767 por 100000 nacidos vivos. CONCLUSIONES: La sífilis materna es frecuente en las zonas rurales de Haití, lo que combinado con la entrada tardía a los servicios de atención prenatal, contribuye a los desenlaces adversos de los embarazos y a la alta tasa estimada de sífilis congénita. Se requieren más estudios sobre la sífilis congénita y los hábitos de búsqueda de atención prenatal de las mujeres de zonas rurales de Haití para comprender el impacto de la sífilis materna en esta parte del país y mejorar el desenlace de los embarazos.

Chaylah J. Lomotey

2009-09-01

409

Experimental and clinical study of thin-slice high-resolution CT for the lung detail  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinical usefulness of thin-slice high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of the chest was assessed by (1) experiments using a phantom and an inflated fixed lung (Heitzman's method), (2) evaluation of the CT delineativity of the bronchi and major fissure and (3) clinical examination of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases. (1) In a phantom experiment using catheters, 10 mm-thick slice scan showed the 6 catheters as a single faint line. By 1.5 mm-thick slice scan, the catheters were defined as 6 separate lines. The profile images suggested that 1.5 mm-thick slice scan enables delineation of more minute details of structures. (2) In an experiment using an inflated fixed lung, 1.5 mm-thick slice scan produced more informative images that resembled macroscopic or soft X-ray images. (3) By 1.5 mm-thick slice scan, the subsegmental bronchi of both the right and left lobes were identified in most cases, while identification was possible in only half the cases by 10 mm-thick slice scan. (4) By 10 mm-thick slice scan, the sub-subsegmental bronchi were not identified in most cases. However, identification was possible in approximately half the cases by 1.5 mm-thick slice scan. (5) By 1.5 mm-thick slice scan, the major fissure was delineated as linear shadow in most cases. It was hardly recognizable by 10 mm-thick slice scan. (6)In diffuse pulmonary diseases, 1.5 mm-thick slice scan allowed more minute visualization of the patho-morphological changes compared to 10 mm-thick slice scan. (7) Thin-slice high-resolution CT is thus expected to contribute to pathological analysis and more accurate diagnosis of pulmonary diseases.

Otsuji, Hideaki; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Satoru and others

1989-01-01

410

The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center data base. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti.Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed.This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broadbased view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level teach

2004-10-01

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Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10?days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

Wampler Peter J

2013-01-01

412

Implementation of an alert and response system in Haiti during the early stage of the response to the cholera epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and 22, and the information did not become available until EWs 23 and 24, when the peak of cases had already been reached. Although many of the partners reporting alerts during the peak of the cholera epidemic have since left Haiti, the A&R System has continued to function as an Early Warning (EWARN) System, and it continues to be developed with recent activities, such as the distribution of cell phones to enhance alert communication. PMID:24106196

Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

2013-10-01

413

Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the response and recovery phases. Our team consists of experts in natural hazards, public health, shelter and infrastructure, education, and security. We are performing a network analysis based on the content of news and situation reports in media and from UN and aid agencies, field reports by academics and organizations like EERI, and discussions with agencies in Haiti. During three trips to Haiti, we have documented what information was being collected by key stakeholders including government, United Nations, non-governmental organizations, and both domestic and international educational institutions. Insights gained from this analysis of disaster response and recovery operations are invaluable in informing the next state of risk reduction, the transition to a sustainable recovery in a damaged region.

McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

2010-12-01

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CONTESTED STATEHOOD AND STATE-BUILDING IN HAITI / Estatalidad en disputa y construcción del Estado en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiende un puente entre los debates globales y específicos de Haití sobre estatalidad, la economía política de la (de)formación del Estado y la conceptualización y medición de dichosfenómenos. Basándose en datos y literatura secundaria sobre Haití, pero sin circunscribirse a este [...] caso, el presente artículo sostiene que a pesar de los rasgos característicos del Estado extremadamente débil de Haití, dicho caso puede ser comparado productivamente con una serie de otros estados, que van desde estados débiles a relativamente fuertes, en América Latina y el Caribe. En el proceso, el artículo sugiere considerar a los niveles de soberanía como una dimensión integral de la estatalidad en la región, pero también en otras partes del mundo. El artículo demuestra la relevancia de conceptos utilizados en otros artículos de este volumen, como el de "debilidad por diseno", para el caso de Haití. El artículo concluye sugiriendo que sería útil ir más allá de las teorías neoweberianas, por ejemplo incorporando análisis críticos feministas, para entender las