WorldWideScience

Sample records for haiti quake slices

  1. Haiti.

    1987-04-01

    The U.S. Department's background notes on Haiti briefly describe her geography, people, history, government, economy and foreign relations. Haiti comprises the western third of the Caribbean island Hispaniola, situated east of Cuba. There are 6 million people, growing at 1.9% annually, of African origin. Infant mortality is 124/1000; life expectancy 54 years. The country is undeveloped: 80% live in rural areas; per capita income is $379; literacy is estimated at 23%; most speak Creole, although Haiti is the only officially French speaking nation in the Western hemisphere. The land is hot and dry, largely becoming deforested and eroded. Haiti became independent in 1804 after a slave rebellion. Since then the government has been a succession of dictatorships, leading to constant political and economic disorder. The current transition government rules by decree. The economy is largely based on small subsistence farms. Coffee, cocoa, mangoes, essential oils and locally assembled manufactured goods are exported. Haiti benefits from foreign aid from several institutions and governments, including an active USAID program that fosters soil conservation, education and business. PMID:12177924

  2. Haiti: From Charity to Justice

    LaMastra, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    It is not easy to learn the "real story" of Haiti; mainstream historical accounts are often told through a distorted lens of racism and colonial exploitation. Even today, in the aftermath of the quake, Haiti's poverty is blamed on poor leadership, a lack of democratic traditions, and isolation due to language. Commentators describe it as a…

  3. Slices

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  4. Quarks and Quakes

    Xu, R X

    2004-01-01

    A quake model of bare strange stars for normal pulsar glitches is summarized. Three mechanisms being responsible for developing elastic stress energy are presented. It is suggested that other kinds of glitches (e.g, the frequency glitch in KS 1947+300 and in AXP/SGRs) could represent the bulk-strain-induced quakes. The apparent field increase of normal pulsars into ``magnetars'' could be the result of stellar catastrophic shrinking when the elastic force raises to a critical point.

  5. A hypothesis of earth quake

    Tsai, Yeong-Shyeong

    2008-01-01

    Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: (i) There are two kinds of earth quakes, one is the triggered breaking (earth quake), the other is spontaneous breaking (earth quake). (ii) Most major quakes in continental plates Eurasian Plate, North America Plate, South America Plate, Africa Plate and Australia Plate are triggered breaking. (iii) These triggered quakes are triggered by the movements of high pressure centers and low pressure centers of the atmosphere on continental plates. (iv) How can the movements of the high pressure centers trigger a quake? It depends on the extent of the high pressure center and the speed of the movement. Here, we stress high pressure center instead of low pressure center because it is dominated by high pressure center mostly. Of course, the boundary of the plates must have stored enough energy to have quakes, that is, near t...

  6. Haiti: A Developing Nation.

    Kaufmann, Valerie

    A proposal is made for creating a one-month study unit for the study of Haiti by eighth grade, social studies students. Background information on Haiti's geography, population, economy, culture, and history is provided. Ideas for three lesson plans on Haiti include the iron market in Haiti, Haitian history, and the role of voodoo in Haitian…

  7. Orthopedic Anesthesia in Haiti

    Osteen, Kristie D.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare practitioners from around the world responded almost immediately in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. This article reports on the efforts of an orthopedic trauma team in Haiti and its efforts in providing surgery without general anesthesia.

  8. QuakeSim Project Networking

    Kong, D.; Donnellan, A.; Pierce, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    QuakeSim is an online computational framework focused on using remotely sensed geodetic imaging data to model and understand earthquakes. With the rise in online social networking over the last decade, many tools and concepts have been developed that are useful to research groups. In particular, QuakeSim is interested in the ability for researchers to post, share, and annotate files generated by modeling tools in order to facilitate collaboration. To accomplish this, features were added to the preexisting QuakeSim site that include single sign-on, automated saving of output from modeling tools, and a personal user space to manage sharing permissions on these saved files. These features implement OpenID and Lightweight Data Access Protocol (LDAP) technologies to manage files across several different servers, including a web server running Drupal and other servers hosting the computational tools themselves.

  9. The QuakeAware Business Plan

    Cole, Ryan Thomas; de Paor, Donal Richard

    2011-01-01

    This business plan details the operating, marketing, financial, competitive, and technological landscapes of QuakeAware. QuakeAware is a website and iPhone / Android mobile phone application that helps citizens prepare for and react to a local earthquake. Presently, QuakeAware faces the challenges of becoming a sustainable enterprise and selecting the optimal strategic direction and operating mode for its future growth. This business plan identifies and assesses the options available to Quake...

  10. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    Brckl, Ewald; Kberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mrz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ? 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt fr Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been reprocessed and yield continuous time series since 2008. The research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a consequent continuation of the ALPAACT initiatives. It is coordinated with the ZAMG efforts to keep the routine seismological work on a high scientific standard. Three polytechnic schools in Vienna and the southern Vienna Basin (Mdling and Wiener Neustadt) take part in SCHOOLS & QUAKES. So-called school seismometers as well as high performance short period stations have been installed at these locations. In addition to routine maintenance and site optimization of the seismic stations, scholars and teachers of these schools contribute to research by their unprejudiced approach to interactive event detection and travel time picking as well as by their expertise in electronics, informatics, and civil engineering. The development of low cost short period stations which meet the requirements of medium to high noise locations, or the generation of shake maps and their conversion into maps of potential source locations are work in progress in cooperation with graduate students.

  11. Citizen initiatives in Haiti

    Imogen Wall

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 earthquake in Haiti ushered in a new era for the role and power of technology and communication systems in disaster response – especially for how local responders used them.

  12. Haiti DevResults

    US Agency for International Development — DevResults is a web-based portfolio management system that tracks program data for the Haiti Mission that was awarded in April of 2013. (The Mozambique and/or...

  13. Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar

    Bastrukov, S; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I

    2011-01-01

    In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument shows that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-induced energy conversion from seismic vibrations to magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetar.

  14. Reflections from Haiti

    Joseph, Carole Berotte; Jenkins-Scott, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    On Oct. 25 and 26, the authors took part in an unprecedented convening of higher education leaders in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Led by the University of Massachusetts Boston, representatives from 40 colleges and universities from across the U.S., Canada, Europe, and the Caribbean gathered with representatives from the Haitian Higher Education

  15. Reflections from Haiti

    Joseph, Carole Berotte; Jenkins-Scott, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    On Oct. 25 and 26, the authors took part in an unprecedented convening of higher education leaders in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Led by the University of Massachusetts Boston, representatives from 40 colleges and universities from across the U.S., Canada, Europe, and the Caribbean gathered with representatives from the Haitian Higher Education…

  16. The Haiti House Project

    Ayers, Ann; McMillan, Ellen; McMillan, Liberty

    2010-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake hit the small country of Haiti, reducing buildings and homes to piles of rubble and killing thousands of people. Immediately, the people of the United States and of just about every country in the world began to devise ways to help the victims of this tragedy. After seeing a presentation that showed…

  17. Teaching about Haiti

    Sokolower, Jody

    2010-01-01

    For a few harrowing weeks in January, the eyes of the world were on Haiti, struggling with the impact of a 7.0 magnitude earthquake. In the spotlight's glare, people saw the devastation wrought by the natural disaster. Viewers with a critical eye or access to alternative media also saw a U.S. military presence more focused on security than food…

  18. Fundraising for Haiti

    2010-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! 58 750 CHF collected for Haiti! Following the appeal launched on 15 February, the CERN Management and Staff Association would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and thank the whole of the CERN community for its generosity towards the victims of the Haiti earthquake. This is a record, an unprecedented show of solidarity at CERN, equal to the immense needs following this catastrophe. Thank you on behalf of the Haitians, they will most certainly need it in the coming months.   The donations will be shared out among various institutions and associations in both Host States, in accordance with the established practice in the event of a catastrophe hitting a non-Member State. The size and activities of each of them have been taken into account. After studying the various requests for aid, the beneficiaries are now known and will receive:     - IFRC - International Federation of Red Cross   and Red&...

  19. Rural Development in Haiti

    Coello, Barbara; Oseni, Gbemisola; Savrimootoo, Tanya; Weiss, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the linkages between rural economic activity, food insecurity and poverty in Haiti as a means of determining the barriers to rural development. The analysis draws on a newly available set of house-hold level living standards measurement data collected in 2012 (ECVMAS). About 70.7 percent of all rural households are poor, and education levels are l...

  20. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  1. Thanks from Haiti

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

  2. Architectural Slicing

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of...... architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a...... system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  3. Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman

    Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Haiti maavrinas on sdistatud nii USA-d kui ka leloomulikke jude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste vlg!" tleb autor, et pstetd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

  4. Fund Raising for Haiti

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  5. Survey report: Haiti.

    Kent, M M

    1987-10-01

    With a population of 6.2 million, Haiti is one of the poorest, most densely populated countries in the Caribbean. According to a 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, fertility averages 6.2 children/woman compared with 6 children/woman in 1977. Moreover, the proportion of women in union practicing family planning declined from 14% in 1977 to 7% in 1983. Female sterilization increased slightly between 1977 and 1983, from 0.2 to 0.7% of women in union, but at the same time there were declines in the percentage of women using traditional methods such as withdrawal and rhythm as well as supply methods such as oral contraceptives and condoms. Concerns about health problems associated with use of the pill and the IUD were cited by many respondents in the 1983 survey as reasons for nonuse of modern methods. The increase in fertility has been created in part by a growing percentage of women in Haiti married or cohabitating. Of the 4321 respondents in the 1983 survey, 23% were married, 31% were cohabitating, and another 9% were in less stable unions. 10% of the formally married women and 7% of the women in noncohabitating unions used family planning compared with only 4% of cohabitating women. Women who had some secondary education were 2-3 times more likely to use contraception, while urban women had use rates twice those of rural residents. Another concern is the high infant mortality rate--107 deaths/1000 births in 1977--caused by poor sanitation and limited access to health services. 77% of Haitian mothers surveyed had given birth at home. 63% had received some prenatal care, but only 22% sought postnatal care. On the other hand, over 90% of the mothers breastfed their infants and over 80% of children over 5 years of age had been vaccinated against the major childhood diseases. PMID:12315100

  6. What hope for Haiti?

    Di Blasi, F

    1992-01-01

    The population, environmental, and economic problems of Haiti must be solved through a national change in attitude, an emphasis on the individual value of children, a social concern for urgent action on sustainable development, and shared responsibility in the international community. The impact of colonialism was to lay waste to subsistence practices which were ecologically balanced. This first nation of self-liberated slaves has problems deeply rooted in the past, which have been worsened by the ruling elite's exploitation. There is extreme poverty, boat people, deforestation, environmental degradation, civil liberty abuses, and a struggle for democracy. Population growth as well as, indirectly, death, hunger, and disease, have contributed to the immigration of Haitians to the US, Canada, France, and neighboring islands. Fertility has been high for the past 20 years. The family planning challenges are discussed in light of the 10% acceptance rate and met demand. The host country's ability to cope with the burden of supplying employment, social services, and legal protection accounts for the reluctance to accept greater numbers of Haitians. Rural-to-urban migration has created nightmares within Haiti. Cite Soleil has a population density of 25,000 people/sq. kilometer, and more than 33% of rural areas is unfit for habitation. The urban slums offer a substandard quality of life due to infiltration of sea water into the soil which prohibits vegetative growth, due to sanitation deficits, and due to inadequate clean water supplies. The example of a small sugar merchant with an income of $40/month reflects the ability to survive but with no provision for empowerment or betterment for the future for the grandchildren in her care. Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau attests to the difficulties and, maybe, impossibilities of turning around the process of environmental devastation and overpopulation. The ecological problems are primarily due to salinization and deforestation; the pressure for fuelwood has increased since the trade embargo, which prevents importation of butane and propane. Tree planting of 20 million/year yields 2-3 million actually surviving. Destructive fishing, quarrying, and agricultural techniques continue to waste resources. PMID:12344704

  7. Coniferyl benzoate in quaking aspen A ruffed grouse feeding deterrent.

    Jakubas, W J; Gullion, G W

    1990-04-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) staminate flower buds and catkins are important food resources for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus); however, ruffed grouse select only certain quaking aspen to feed upon. Earlier studies indicate that the primary difference between quaking aspen that ruffed grouse feed upon and those not used is the level of coniferyl benzoate in the flower buds. Bioassays show that coniferyl benzoate is a feeding deterrent for ruffed grouse; its effect on ruffed grouse after ingestion has not been tested. Possible physiological effects, based on the chemical properties of coniferyl benzoate and its oxidation products, include inhibition of protein digestion, toxic effects, and antiestrogenic effects. PMID:24263713

  8. Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman

    Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Haiti maavärinas on süüdistatud nii USA-d kui ka üleloomulikke jõude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste võlg!" ütleb autor, et päästetööd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

  9. Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti

    Water resources in Haiti need a more rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be described as follows: the country receives as annual precipitation about 40 billion m3 of water. However, 70% of this water is lost by evapotranspiration and of the remaining fraction, considered as a renewable resource, about 20% drains through rivers and discharges into the sea. The remaining 10 % infiltrates into local aquifers. In Haiti water is not always available in the place where it is needed, depending on the precipitation regime, geography, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, most difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of the available resources. Since each economic sector in Haiti has specific needs, water resources management becomes a very important issue to provide access to water of sufficient quality and quantity to the population. This point is also relevant for adequate preservation of natural ecosystems and other uses. In Haiti there are many areas which contain aquifers: Plaine de l'Arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives and Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is heavily exploited due to its geographical location. In fact, since 1980, many studies, using isotope hydrology tools, have been carried out on this aquifer. Almost all studies conducted in the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac showed the same conclusion: the aquifer system is overexploited. Some recommendations have been made, but the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer still continues. Many years after these studies were conducted, the situation has not changed. In 2001, a project dealing with the integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac aquifer was initiated with the cooperation of the IAEA. Despite the difficulties, it is considered that this is the best way to solve this water resources problem. (author)

  10. Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv letab 3100 piiri, bakter vib sealsete ebahgieeniliste olude tttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi prast 12. jaanuari maavrinat. Kaart

  11. Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti

    Water in Haiti needs a rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be resumed in this manner: The country receives by means 40 milliards cubic meters of water. However, 70% of this water was lost by evapotranspiration and the other part which shows the renewable water is distributed like that: 20% of amount drain along of the surface through the river and go to the sea and 10% filters through the aquifer. In Haiti water is not always on the use place it varies in an area to the other depending of some factors like: precipitation, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, some difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of this resource. Whereas, different needs of utilization sectors, water resources management become a need so as to be able to settle water in quality and in quantity sufficiently for natural preservation, ecosystem and else. In Haiti, we have many plains which contain aquifer. We can name them: Plaine de l'arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives et Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is the most exploited because of geographical position. In fact, since 1980 many studies on isotope hydrology have been realized on these. About Plaine du Cul-de-Sac all studies realized show almost the same result: The exploitation limit of this aquifer. Some recommendations have been done in spite of, they still continue with the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer. Many years have been passed but nothing changed. In 2001, with the cooperation of IAEA, the project aquifer integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac has been started. We have some difficulties but I think it's the one of the best ways in order to solve this problem. (author)

  12. Ontology-based Information Management in QuakeSim

    Al-Ghanmi, R.; McLeod, D.; Grant, L.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J.; Pierce, M.

    2007-12-01

    The QuakeSim interdisciplinary research team has developed a federated database system, which records and provides portal-based access to a variety of geoscientific information important to the earthquake study and forecasting process. This includes fault, seismicity, and other information key to modeling earthquakes and tsunamis. Through the QuakeSim portal, scientists can discover relevant information, and access, visualize, and import data to simulation programs and other codes. This is accomplished by utilizing an inter-connected (federated) set of ontologies to describe the semantics of the information and the inter-relationships among the data. Data are recorded in source form with error estimates included, are geotagged as appropriate to specify precisely where on the globe the data were obtained, and are converted as necessary for use by scientists. Data is delivered by the use of a suite of Web Services tied to the semantic metadata (ontology) specifications. A primary goal of the QuakeTables federated database is to provide an integrated resource for simulation and modeling software, such as GeoFest and Virtual California. A key feature of QuakeTables is to allow for multiple fault interpretations, which can be tested in the models and simulations. As such, QuakeTables does not define a standard set of faults, but allows users to select faults from standard sets, from research publications, or from user-defined attributes. At present, the system is being enhanced to include GPS and InSAR data

  13. Haiti: Between Emergency and Reconstruction

    Jean-Marc Biquet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s notes : This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and policy makers.Authored by Jean-Marc Biquet, Research Officer at Doctors without Borders (MSF, the paper focuses on the failure of the aid system in Haiti. The country has been struck by two disasters in a raw: the January 2010 earthquake and a cholera epidemic starting in October the same year. Despite repeated requests to - and commitments from - the UN (UNOCHA in particular to provide a response, we did unfortunately not get any written reaction to MSF's article. But we did receive critical comments by Andrea Binder, Associate Director of the Global Public Policy Institute (GPPi in Berlin ‘Is the Humanitarian Failure in Haiti a System Failure?’, which we publish together with Mr Biquet's initial contribution. Dr. Biner has been involved in the Inter-Agency Real-Time Evaluation of the disaster response to the Haiti Earthquake.download the whole dabate in.pdf on http://poldev.revues.org/pdf/1600

  14. Using damage from 2010 Haiti earthquake for vulnerability estimation of typical structures in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Torres Fernndez, Yolanda; Benito Oterino, Maria Beln; Navarro, N.; Molina, S.; Belizaire, D.

    2014-01-01

    After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, that hits the city of Port-au-Prince, capital city of Haiti, a multidisciplinary working group of specialists (seismologist, geologists, engineers and architects) from different Spanish Universities and also from Haiti, joined effort under the SISMO-HAITI project (financed by the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid), with an objective: Evaluation of seismic hazard and risk in Haiti and its application to the seismic design, urban planning, emergency and resource...

  15. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    Christian Pierre Raccurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  16. The health care delivery crisis in Haiti.

    Fournier, A M; Dodard, M

    1997-10-01

    With its 7 million people inhabiting an area the size of the state of New Jersey and with average annual per capita income of $225, Haiti is the poorest and most densely populated country in the Western Hemisphere. 85% of children in rural Haiti have clinical evidence of malnutrition, the infant mortality rate is 94/1000 live births, the maternal mortality rate is 4.5/1000 live births, life expectancy is 55 years, and there are rapidly growing rates of tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS. Much of Haiti's health crisis is tied to the country's recent troubled political and economic past. That past has disrupted Haiti's health infrastructure to such an extent that Haitian people routinely suffer with, and often die from, readily preventable and treatable illnesses. Haiti's health care infrastructure cannot be rebuilt without humanitarian support and technical assistance from the international community. The authors explain the history, politics, and economics which have contributed to the health care delivery crisis in Haiti and why family medicine will be crucial for the recovery of the country's health care. The development of family medicine will check certain elements which favor emigration and specialization, and will provide the country with well-trained physicians who can treat most common health problems in the country. PMID:9354875

  17. Republic of Haiti - Towards Greater Fiscal Sustainability and Equity

    World Bank (WB)

    2015-01-01

    Haiti has a vision to become an emerging economy by 2030. Haiti has comparative advantages, including its proximity and access to major markets; a young labor force and a dynamic diaspora; and substantial geographic, historical, and cultural assets. Areas of economic opportunity for Haiti include agribusiness, light manufacturing, and tourism. Recognizing these opportunities, the Governmen...

  18. A perioperative nurse's experience in Haiti.

    Stobinski, J X

    1999-02-01

    Haiti is a poor Caribbean nation plagued by years of political uncertainty and a wealth of unmet health care needs. A significant amount of its health care, especially for indigent people, is provided by volunteer nongovernment organizations, including military medical staff members from the United States and Canada. One perioperative nurse, who served with a US Navy surgical company in Port au Prince, Haiti, shares his impressions and experiences of providing surgical care to United Nations troops and Haitian citizens at five hospitals in the Port au Prince area. PMID:10023482

  19. The Virtual Slice Setup

    Lytton, William W.; Samuel A. Neymotin; Hines, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population...

  20. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other...

  1. Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response.

    Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministre de la Sant Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system. PMID:25276595

  2. Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response

    Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system. PMID:25276595

  3. Short-term and Imminent Precursors of Haiti M7.0 Earthquake: Earth Degassing and Thermal Vortex Rotated Movement

    Qiang, Z.; Qiang, J.; Zeng, Z.; Wang, J.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of fracture theory in geology into seismology is hindering the development of seismology and impeding the progress of earthquake forecast. The study of thermal infrared images of the same time but on different days, 30 days prior to the earthquake, one at 17:45:14,Dec.10 UTC,2009 and the other at 17:45:14,Dec.14 UTC,2009, shows that the brightness temperature increases from 296-297°C into 302-303°C in the Cuba Ils., Haiti Isl. Of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea and adjacent area. The area of temperature increase takes the shape of an elliptic circle 4000Km long in the NW direction and 1000Km wide in the NE direction with an area of about 4,000,000Km2 . P axis is stretch in NNE21° direction. The strike of the fracture is NW 3300. The elliptic circle structure had left handed rotation. 12 to 10days before the quake the cloud belt had extended from Port-au-Prince into Atlantic ocean(25°N,-31.5W)with its width of 50-100Km and lasted more than 50 hours. Earthquake can be predicted using the satellite thermal infrared brightness temperature anomalous method and combining the method of array of infrasonic instruments. The autors thank Dr. Helen Wood, former Chairman of CEOS (Committee of Earth Observation Satellite) and Dr. Axel Graumann of NOAA for providing the satellite images used in this study. Thermal Vortex Rotated Movement and Structure Prior to Haiti Earthquake Earth degassing from the epicenter of Haiti Earthquake, Clould belt extends 4,000 km for 50 hours.

  4. Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

  5. An Editor's Journey: Return to Haiti

    Moy, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    This paper recounts the author's story as she returned to Haiti in February to join a building project near Port-Au-Prince and to document efforts by U.S. higher education institutions to help the country rebound from the devastating 2010 earthquake. The author describes how consortiums have been formed in order to support the development of the…

  6. In Haiti, a Rare Leg Up

    Campbell, Monica

    2007-01-01

    This article features Haitian Education & Leadership Program, Haiti's largest university-scholarship program, which provides merit scholarships to students in the top 10 percent of their high-school classes in the country's poorest areas. On average, the scholarships pay students $4,100, which covers tuition, textbooks, and school supplies, basic…

  7. RO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    RO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. RO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast prast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jtkub seal vgivald

  8. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  9. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2015-04-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  10. An outlook on event rates of induced earth quakes in the Netherlands: a preliminary analysis

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate in earth quakes in the Netherlands is attributed to the enhanced depletion of Groningen natural gas, currently at a rate of 50 billion m3 per year. Here, we report on an exponential growth in the earth quake event rate, based on a surprisingly accurate fit to publicly available KNMI data. The data show a doubling in the rate every 6.2 years, leading to a rate of one event per day in 2025. A trend in the magnitude of the quakes is indiscernible.

  11. Improved Perfect Slice Sampling

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. The originally proposed method is rather slow and thus several improvements have been suggested. However, two of them are erroneous. In this article we give a short introduction to perfect slice sampling, point out incorrect methods, and give a new improved version of the original algorithm. (author's abstract)

  12. Intermittent quakes and record dynamics in the thermoremanent magnetization of a spin-glass

    Sibani, Paolo; Rodriguez, G. F.; Kenning, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for analyzing the intermittent behavior of linear response data in aging systems is presented and applied to spin-glass thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) (Rodriguez et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037203, 2003). The probability density function (PDF) of magnetic fluctuations is shown to have an asymmetric exponential tail, demonstrating that the demagnetization process is carried by intermittent, significant, spin rearrangements or \\emph{quakes}. These quakes are most pronounced s...

  13. 75 FR 3476 - Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status

    2010-01-21

    ... Designating Haiti for TPS? On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0-magnitude earthquake. DHS and DOS... will be provided an opportunity to apply in accordance with 8 CFR 244.7(d). You must submit both... available on the OSC ] Web site at http://www.justice.gov/crt/osc/index.php . BILLING CODE 9111-97-P...

  14. The QuakeTables UAVSAR Repository - Delivering RPI Products to Geo-Science Applications

    Al-Ghanmi, R.; McLeod, D.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M.; Zheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the geo-science community has expanded its need for spaceborne data to study the Earth and its deformations. QuakeTables, the ontology-based federated database system, expanded its radar-based data repository from only housing InSAR interferograms to also include Repeat Pass Interferometry (RPI) products for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Each RPI product is cataloged within QuakeTables using its metadata and the number of products available in the RPI release, allowing users to access all related data files and annotations. Further, QuakeTables provides visualization utilizing multiple levels of resolution via Google Maps and Google Earth. As illustrated by the recent earthquake in Japan, there is an urgent need for scientific data after a natural disaster and the interferograms generated from an easily deployable UAVSAR repeat passes can help scientists and first responders study the deformation on the Earth's surface and act accordingly. The QuakeTables infrastructure assures a speedy deployment of such products as soon as they are available. UAVSAR RPI products are constantly being added to the repository as they are released by the JPL UAVSAR group. QuakeTables provides access to both its fault-based and radar-based datasets via a web interface, an API and a web-services interface. The UAVSAR data repository was developed by the QuakeSim group on USC and IU facilities and with the goal of transferring the capabilities Alaska Satellite Facility UAVSAR DAAC.

  15. QuakeSim and the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    Donnellan, Andrea; Rundle, John; Fox, Geoffrey; McLeod, Dennis; Grant, Lisa; Tullis, Terry; Pierce, Marlon; Parker, Jay; Lyzenga, Greg

    2004-01-01

    We are developing simulation and analysis tools in order to develop a solid Earth science framework for understanding and studying active tectonic and earthquake processes. The goal of QuakeSim and its extension, the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO), is to study the physics of earthquakes using state-of-the-art modeling, data manipulation, and pattern recognition technologies. We are developing clearly defined accessible data formats and code protocols as inputs to simulations, which are adapted to high-performance computers. The solid Earth system is extremely complex and nonlinear resulting in computationally intensive problems with millions of unknowns. With these tools it will be possible to construct the more complex models and simulations necessary to develop hazard assessment systems critical for reducing future losses from major earthquakes. We are using Web (Grid) service technology to demonstrate the assimilation of multiple distributed data sources (a typical data grid problem) into a major parallel high-performance computing earthquake forecasting code. Such a linkage of Geoinformatics with Geocomplexity demonstrates the value of the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO) Grid concept, and advances Grid technology by building the first real-time large-scale data assimilation grid.

  16. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

  17. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  18. Slices of the Kerr ergosurface

    Jacobson, Ted; Soong, Yee-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr, and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit, and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Do...

  19. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  20. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    J. E. Daniell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000$. The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  1. Ruffed grouse feeding behavior and its relationship to secondary metabolites of quaking aspen flower buds.

    Jakubas, W J; Gullion, G W; Clausen, T P

    1989-06-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) staminate flower buds and the extended catkins are primary food resources for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Winter feeding observations indicate that ruffed grouse select specific trees or clones of quaking aspen to feed in. Flower buds and catkins of quaking aspen were analyzed for secondary compounds (tannins, alkaloids, and phenolics) that might cause ruffed grouse to avoid trees with high levels of these compounds. Coniferyl benzoate, a compound that has not been previously found in quaking aspen, exists in significantly higher concentrations in buds from trees with no feeding history as compared to ruffed grouse feeding trees. Aspen catkins were also significantly lower in coniferyl benzoate than buds from the same tree. Ruffed grouse feeding preference was not related to the tannin or total phenolic levels found in buds or catkins. Buds from feeding trees had higher protein levels than trees with no feeding history; however, catkins did not differ from buds in protein concentration. The high use of extended catkins in the spring by ruffed grouse is probably due to a lower percentage of bud scale material in the catkin as opposed to the dormant bud. Bud scales contain almost all of the nontannin phenolics in catkins and dormant buds. A feeding strategy where bud scales are avoided may exist for other bird species that feed on quaking aspen. Dormant flower buds are significantly lower in protein-precipitable tannins than catkins and differ in secondary metabolite composition from other aspen foliage. PMID:24272191

  2. Slice profile distortions in single slice continuously moving table MRI

    Sengupta, Saikat; Smith, David S.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Continuously Moving Table (CMT) MRI is a rapid imaging technique that allows scanning of extended fields of view (FOVs) such as the whole-body in a single continuous scan.1 A highly efficient approach to CMT MRI is single slice imaging, where data are continuously acquired from a single axial slice at isocenter with concurrent movement of the patient table.2 However, the continuous motion of the scanner table and supply of fresh magnetization into the excited slice can introduce deviations in the slice magnetization profile. The goal of this work is to investigate and quantify the distortion in the slice profile in CMT MRI. CMT MRI with a table speed of 20 mm/s was implemented on a 3 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner, with continuous radial data acquisition. Simulations were performed to characterize the transient and steady state slice profiles and magnetization effects. Simulated slice profiles were compared to actual slice profile measurements performed in the scanner. Both simulations and experiments revealed an asymmetric slice profile characterized by a skew towards the lagging edge of the moving table, in contrast to the nominal profiles associated with scanning a stationary object. The true excited slice width (FWHM) and pitch of the acquisition was observed to be dependent on table velocity, with larger table speeds resulting in larger slice profile deviations from the nominal shape.

  3. Distributed Computing and MEMS Accelerometers: The Quake Catcher Network

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C.; Jakka, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in distributed computing provide exciting opportunities for seismic data collection. We are in the early stages of implementing a high density, low cost strong-motion network for rapid response and early warning by placing accelerometers in schools, homes, offices, government buildings, fire houses and more. The Quake Catcher Network (QCN) employs existing networked laptops and desktops to form a dense, distributed computing seismic network. Costs for this network are minimal because the QCN uses 1) strong motion sensors (accelerometers) already internal to many laptops and 2) low-cost universal serial bus (USB) accelerometers for use with desktops. The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC!) provides a free, proven paradigm for involving the public in large-scale computational research projects. The QCN leverages public participation to fully implement the seismic network. As such engaging the public to participate in seismic data collection is not only an integral part of the project, but an added value to the QCN. The software provides the client-user with a screen-saver displaying seismic data recorded on their laptop or recently detected earthquakes. Furthermore, this project installs sensors in K-12 classrooms as an educational tool for teaching science. Through a variety of interactive experiments students can learn about earthquakes and the hazards earthquakes pose. In the first six months of limited release of the QCN software, we successfully received triggers and waveforms from laptops near the M 4.7 April 25, 2008 earthquake in Reno, Nevada and the M 5.4 July 29, 2008 earthquake in Chino, California (as well as a few 3.6 and higher events). This fall we continued to expand the network further by installing seismometers in K-12 schools, museums, and government buildings in the greater Los Angeles basin and the San Francisco Bay Area. By summer 2009 we expect to have 1000 USB sensors deployed in California, in addition to any current or new laptop users.

  4. Slices of the Kerr ergosurface

    Jacobson, Ted; Soong, Yee-Ann

    2009-03-01

    The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer Lindquist (BL), Kerr and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

  5. Slices of the Kerr ergosurface

    Jacobson, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr, and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit, and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

  6. Slices of the Kerr ergosurface

    The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

  7. Intermittent quakes and record dynamics in the thermoremanent magnetization of a spin-glass

    Sibani, Paolo; Rodriguez, G. F.; Kenning, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    A method for analyzing the intermittent behavior of linear response data in aging systems is presented and applied to the spin-glass thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) data of Rodriguez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037203 (2003)]. The probability density function of the magnetic fluctuations has an asymmetric exponential tail, showing that the demagnetization process occurs through intermittent spin rearrangements or quakes which significantly differ from reversible fluctuations having a Gaussian distribution with zero average. The intensity of quakes is determined by the TRM decay rate, which in turn depends on t , the time since the initial quench and on tw , the time at which the magnetic field is cut. For a broad range of temperatures, these dependences are extracted numerically from the data and described analytically using the assumption that the system’s linear response is fully subordinated to the occurrence of the quakes which spasmodically release the imbalances created by the initial quench.

  8. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  9. 76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...

    2011-11-08

    ... Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice of Segregation of Public Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen..._Aspen_Wind_Energy_WY@blm.gov ; or Mail: 280 Highway 191 N., Rock Springs, WY 82901. Documents...

  10. Is the Humanitarian Failure in Haiti a System Failure?

    Andrea Binder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become common sense in humanitarian circles to refer to the emergency responses to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and subsequent cholera outbreak as a failure. Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF began doing so publicly in a December 2010 article published in The Guardian. In this regard, Jean-Marc Biquets article Haiti: Between Emergency and Reconstruction. An Inadequate Response reflects a long list of publications that describe and analyse the international systems shortcomings in res...

  11. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ?30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ?50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area. A provisional interpretation is that this segment of the Haiti coastline was subjected to Intensity VIII shaking and rose 58 cm in the January 2010 earthquake. A previous earthquake presumably caused uplift of ?1 m at this location, but we cannot constrain its date at present.

  12. Mixed-phase induced core-quakes and the changes in neutron star parameters

    Bejger, M; Zdunik, J L

    2005-01-01

    We present approximate formulae describing the changes in neutron star parameters caused by the first-order phase transition to an ``exotic'' state (pion or kaon condensate, quark matter) resulting in formation of a mixed-phase core. The analytical formulae for the changes in radius, moment of inertia and the amount of energy released during the core-quake are derived using the theory of linear response of stellar structure to the core transformation. Numerical coefficients in these formulae are obtained for two realistic EOSs of dense matter. The problem of nucleation of the exotic phase as well as possible astrophysical scenarios leading to a core-quake phenomenon is also discussed.

  13. Fire regimes of quaking aspen in the Mountain West

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.; Rogers, Paul C.; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most widespread tree species in North America, and it is found throughout much of the Mountain West (MW) across a broad range of bioclimatic regions. Aspen typically regenerates asexually and prolifically after fire, and due to its seral status in many western conifer forests, aspen is often considered dependent upon disturbance for persistence. In many landscapes, historical evidence for post-fire aspen establishment is clear, and following extended fire-free periods senescing or declining aspen overstories sometimes lack adequate regeneration and are succeeding to conifers. However, aspen also forms relatively stable stands that contain little or no evidence of historical fire. In fact, aspen woodlands range from highly fire-dependent, seral communities to relatively stable, self-replacing, non-seral communities that do not require fire for persistence. Given the broad geographic distribution of aspen, fire regimes in these forests likely co-vary spatially with changing community composition, landscape setting, and climate, and temporally with land use and climate but relatively few studies have explicitly focused on these important spatiotemporal variations. Here we reviewed the literature to summarize aspen fire regimes in the western US and highlight knowledge gaps. We found that only about one-fourth of the 46 research papers assessed for this review could be considered fire history studies (in which mean fire intervals were calculated), and all but one of these were based primarily on data from fire-scarred conifers. Nearly half of the studies reported at least some evidence of persistent aspen in the absence of fire. We also found that large portions of the MW have had little or no aspen fire history research. As a result of this review, we put forth a classification framework for aspen that is defined by key fire regime parameters (fire severity and probability), and that reflects underlying biophysical settings and correlated aspen functional types. We propose the following aspen fire regime types: (1) fire-independent, stable aspen; (2) fire-influenced, stable aspen; (3) fire-dependent, seral, conifer-aspen mix; (4) fire-dependent, seral, montane aspen-conifer; and (5) fire-dependent, seral, subalpine aspen-conifer. Closing research gaps and validating our proposed aspen fire regime classification will likely require additional site-specific research, enhanced dendrochronology techniques, charcoal and pollen record analysis, spatially-explicit modeling, and other techniques. We hope to encourage development of site-appropriate disturbance ecology characterizations, in order to aid efforts to manage and restore aspen communities and to diagnose key factors contributing to changes in aspen.

  14. OpenQuake, a platform for collaborative seismic hazard and risk assessment

    Henshaw, Paul; Burton, Christopher; Butler, Lars; Crowley, Helen; Danciu, Laurentiu; Nastasi, Matteo; Monelli, Damiano; Pagani, Marco; Panzeri, Luigi; Simionato, Michele; Silva, Vitor; Vallarelli, Giuseppe; Weatherill, Graeme; Wyss, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, tools and models for global seismic hazard and risk assessment, within the context of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and international organisations, all contributions are being integrated into OpenQuake: a web-based platform that - together with other resources - will become accessible in 2014. With OpenQuake, stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualize and investigate earthquake hazard and risk, capture new data and share findings for joint learning. The platform is envisaged as a collaborative hub for earthquake risk assessment, used at global and local scales, around which an active network of users has formed. OpenQuake will comprise both online and offline tools, many of which can also be used independently. One of the first steps in OpenQuake development was the creation of open-source software for advanced seismic hazard and risk calculations at any scale, the OpenQuake Engine. Although in continuous development, a command-line version of the software is already being test-driven and used by hundreds worldwide; from non-profits in Central Asia, seismologists in sub-Saharan Africa and companies in South Asia to the European seismic hazard harmonization programme (SHARE). In addition, several technical trainings were organized with scientists from different regions of the world (sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Asia-Pacific) to introduce the engine and other OpenQuake tools to the community, something that will continue to happen over the coming years. Other tools that are being developed of direct interest to the hazard community are: • OpenQuake Modeller; fundamental instruments for the creation of seismogenic input models for seismic hazard assessment, a critical input to the OpenQuake Engine. OpenQuake Modeller will consist of a suite of tools (Hazard Modellers Toolkit) for characterizing the seismogenic sources of earthquakes and their models of earthquakes recurrence. An earthquake catalogue homogenization tool, for integration, statistical comparison and user-defined harmonization of multiple catalogues of earthquakes is also included in the OpenQuake modeling tools. • A data capture tool for active faults; a tool that allows geologists to draw (new) fault discoveries on a map in an intuitive GIS-environment and add details on the fault through the tool. This data, once quality checked, can then be integrated with the global active faults database, which will increase in value with every new fault insertion. Building on many ongoing efforts and the knowledge of scientists worldwide, GEM will for the first time integrate state-of-the-art data, models, results and open-source tools into a single platform. The platform will continue to increase in value, in particular for use in local contexts, through contributions from and collaborations with scientists and organisations worldwide. This presentation will showcase the OpenQuake Platform, focusing on the IT solutions that have been adopted as well as the added value that the platform will bring to scientists worldwide.

  15. System for slicing wafers

    1982-01-01

    A newly patented process for slicing silicon wafers that has distinct advantages over methods now widely used is described. The primary advantage of the new system is that it allows the efficient slicing of a number of ingots simultaneously at high speed. The cutting action is performed mechanically, most often with diamond particles that are transported to the cutting zone by a fluid vehicle or have been made an integral part of the blade by plating or impregnation. The new system uses a multiple or ganged band saw, arranged and spaced so that each side, or length, segment of a blade element, or loop, provides a cutting function. Each blade is maintained precisely in position by guides as it enters and leaves each ingot. The cutting action is performed with a conventional abrasive slurry composed of diamond grit suspended in an oil- or water-based vehicle. The distribution system draws the slurry from the supply reservoir and pumps it to the injection tubes to supply it to each side of each ingot. A flush system is provided at the outer end of the work-station zone. In order to reduce potential damage, a pneumatically driven flushing fluid is provided.

  16. Slice thickness in computed tomography

    With respect to slice thickness of a computed tomography, there are many comments about adequate thickness for diagnosing. In addition, previous works offer a number of experimental results as to whether the actual slice thickness agrees with nominal value or not. We measured slice thickness of the Shimadzu Computed Tomographic Scanner SCT-100N, according to the proposed amendents of U. S. Bureau of Radiological Health, announced in March 1978. The results and several problems about slice thickness of a CT are described in this paper. (author)

  17. Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison with single-slice CT

    Purpose: Presentation and evaluation of slice sensitivity profile and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison to single-slice CT. Methods: Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of a multi-slice CT equiped with a 2D matrix detector array and of a single-slice CT were evaluated in phantom studies. Results: For the single-slice CT the width of the slice sensitivity profiles increased with increasing pitch. In spite of a much higher table speed the slice sensitivity profiles of multi-slice CT were narrower and did not increase with higher pitch. Noise in single-slice CT was independent of pitch. For multi-slice CT noise increased with higher pitch and for the higher pitch decreased slightly with higher detector row collimation. Conclusions: Multi-slice CT provides superior z-resolution and higher volume coverage speed. These qualities fulfill one of the prerequisites for improvement of 3D postprocessing. (orig.)

  18. IMPROVED COOK STOVES FOR HAITI USING THERMOELECTRICS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE

    Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is plagued with continual problems due to severe deforestation throughout the country. Haiti was once nearly completely covered by lush forest, but now less than three percent of Haiti is forested. This environmental cala...

  19. INCREASED DRINKING WATER SUPPLY THROUGH IMPROVED CISTERN CONSTRUCTION IN BARASA HAITI

    Barasa, Haiti is an extremely poor, isolated rural community located on the side of a mountain. Cisterns in Barasa, Haiti are the preferred method to collect and store water for household use. Local masons build cisterns in Haiti which provides jobs for local people. The local...

  20. AIDS in Haiti: 1982-1992.

    Pape, J; Johnson, W D

    1993-11-01

    Haiti was one of the first countries where AIDS was recognized, a burden that led to the stigmatization of an entire nation resulting in serious long-term economic, social, and psychological consequences. Sixty percent of urban hospital beds are now occupied by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is the leading cause of death in sexually active adults and increasingly has become a disease of women and children. AIDS threatens to reverse the decrease in infant mortality achieved during the past decade. In spite of educational efforts, the "silent epidemic" continues in all parts of the country and within all strata of society. The current HIV seroprevalence is 10% in urban areas and 5% in rural areas. AIDS is known but not understood; counseling modifies behavior in only 10%-20% of at-risk persons. This distressing situation is likely to worsen in view of the ongoing political crisis since almost all AIDS-education programs are dependent on foreign support. PMID:8274598

  1. Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake on Women's Reproductive Health.

    Behrman, Julia Andrea; Weitzman, Abigail

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health. PMID:27027990

  2. Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () cholera vaccines in endemic and non-endemic regions, our results suggest that moderate cholera vaccine coverage would be an important element of disease control in Haiti.

  3. The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.

    Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been installed by other regional seismic networks - all communicating via the common NetQuakes servers.

  4. Dual-Superfusion Slice Chamber

    Csaba Niedetzky

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual-superfusion slice chamber: a novel apparatus to obtain network oscillations and network driven activities during visually-guided electrophysiological recordings and optical imaging. It is a unique, worldwide patented idea. This is a brand new type of slice chamber for electrophysiological recordings and/or in vitro imaging developed by Norbert Hajos, Ph.D. The dual-superfusion slice chamber is recommended for all types of slice recordings, but it is indispensable for those investigations, where oxygen is a limiting factor of neuronal function, e.g. network oscillations (Hajos et al., European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 29, pp. 319-327, 2009. Dual-superfusion of submerged slices increases the vitality of cells, since e.g. oxygen as well as other materials from both sides can freely and more effectively diffuse into the thick slices. In the most widely used slice chambers, where the slices are sitting on a glass coverslip, the oxygenation and the drug diffusion is achieved only from one side. We invented a chamber insert where slices are sitting on a mesh and the shape of the insert supports laminar flow around the submerged slices ensuring the better oxygenation of slices. The mesh divides the chamber into two parts. Both the upper (above the mesh, and the lower (below the mesh parts of the chamber have got 2 mm of height. By using this type of chamber design, the flow rate of the superfused solutions could be kept as low as 3-5 ml/min, yet the oxygenation of the tissue could be maximally maintained. In the case, when experiments are desired to perform at higher than room temperature, then not only the flow rate but the temperature, as well, should be maintained as equivalent as possible below and above the slices. To achieve this, a Dual-channel In-line Solution Heater is recommended to use, where the temperature of two inlets is controlled in a single heater head to ensure the same temperature.

  5. Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star

    Bastrukov, S; Takata, J; Chang, H -K; Xu, R X

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulae for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasi-periodic oscillations of the X-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored b...

  6. Use of QuakeSim and UAVSAR for Earthquake Damage Mitigation and Response

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Bawden, G.; Hensley, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceborne, airborne, and modeling and simulation techniques are being applied to earthquake risk assessment and response for mitigation from this natural disaster. QuakeSim is a web-based portal for modeling interseismic strain accumulation using paleoseismic and crustal deformation data. The models are used for understanding strain accumulation and release from earthquakes as well as stress transfer to neighboring faults. Simulations of the fault system can be used for understanding the likelihood and patterns of earthquakes as well as the likelihood of large aftershocks from events. UAVSAR is an airborne L-band InSAR system for collecting crustal deformation data. QuakeSim, UAVSAR, and DESDynI (following launch) can be used for monitoring earthquakes, the associated rupture and damage, and postseismic motions for prediction of aftershock locations.

  7. Seismic Hazard in Haiti: A Geologic Perspective

    Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.

    2012-12-01

    The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are young folds likely underlain by blind thrust faults. Reconnaissance field observations show that the hills are cored by folded alluvial-fan deposits of probable Quaternary age and that the folding defeated north-flowing drainages and ponded lacustrine sediment on the south flank of the folds. Radiocarbon analyses of charcoal samples collected from ponded sediments will help to constrain the age of recent deformation. These blind thrust faults are potentially additional earthquake sources that should be included in seismic hazard assessments for PaP. In our reconnaissance along the Matheux-Neiba fault north of PaP we found only weak evidence of recent deformation, and while this fault system may also be a potential earthquake source, its rate of activity is much lower than the rate on the EPGF. Because the EPGF adjacent to PaP did not rupture in 2010, and has not ruptured in at least 240 years, considerable strain remains to be released in a future earthquake, and this fault still poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

  8. Prion Disease Blood Test Using Immunoprecipitation and Improved Quaking-Induced Conversion

    Orru, C. D.; Wilham, J. M.; Raymond, L.D.; Kuhn, F.; Schroeder, B.; Raeber, A J; Caughey, B

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key challenge in managing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases in medicine, agriculture, and wildlife biology is the development of practical tests for prions that are at or below infectious levels. Of particular interest are tests capable of detecting prions in blood components such as plasma, but blood typically has extremely low prion concentrations and contains inhibitors of the most sensitive prion tests. One of the latter tests is quaking-induced...

  9. Quaking Aspen in the Residential-Wildland Interface: Elk Herbivory Hinders Forest Conservation

    Paul C. Rogers; Jones, Allison; Catlin, James C; Shuler, James; Morris, Arthur; Kuhns, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests are experiencing numerous impediments across North America. In the West, recent drought, fire suppression, insects, diseases, climate trends, inappropriate management, and ungulate herbivory are impacting these high biodiversity forests. Additionally, ecological tension zones are sometimes created where the above factors intermingle with jurisdictional boundaries. The public-private land interface may result in stress to natural areas where g...

  10. [Survey of infant mortality in Mirebalais, Haiti].

    Dsinor, O Y; Ferrus, A; Deverson, A; Bra, P; Desmangles, B; Lerebours, G; Cayemittes, M; Augustin, A

    2000-01-01

    Infant mortality remains high in Haiti, at 74 deaths per 1,000 live births. In this study, we aimed to assess infant mortality in Mirebalais and to identify the associated risk factors. We carried out a census of pregnant women in Mirebalais, at the beginning of the study, over a three-week period. Twelve researchers visited the homes of the newborns to enroll the families in the study and to collect demographic data. Further visits were scheduled for two, four, six, nine and twelve months after birth. If the child died during this time, the investigator asked the mother about all the steps taken to prevent the death of the child, and an autopsy was carried out. The survey began on July 12 1994 and ended on December 31 1995. During that time, about 2,151 pregnant women were enrolled. Seven of these women died and 16 had abortions. In total, 2,069 children were born to the enrolled women. We enrolled 515 other children after birth or following referral by health workers or midwives. We therefore followed 2,584 children. We found that 10% of the mothers were aged between 15 and 19 years, 66.3% had had one to three pregnancies and 73% were entirely uneducated. The early neonatal mortality rate was 4.64 per 1,000 live births, late neonatal mortality was 6.96 per thousand and post-neonatal mortality was 45.6 per thousand live births. Diarrhea was responsible for 60% of the deaths and acute respiratory infections for 11%, these two causes accounting for 71% of the deaths of children aged 1 to 12 months. Thus, although infant mortality has decreased it remains high in Mirebalais, largely due to diarrhea and acute respiratory infections in the post-neonatal period. PMID:11226937

  11. New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes

    Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored. (paper)

  12. "Ayiti Cheri": Cultural Orientation of Early Adolescents in Rural Haiti

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Desir, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are an emerging population in Haiti, particularly after the deadly 2010 earthquake. The steady penetration of U.S. culture into this poor, disaster-prone country begs the question, Do today's adolescents possess a similar fondness for their home country, culture, and traditional family values as did Haitians of old? Or are they…

  13. Migration, Remittances and Educational Outcomes: The Case of Haiti

    Bredl, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates how migration and the receipt of remittances affect educational outcomes in Haiti. Based on a theoretical approach it tries to disentangle the effects of both phenomena that have mostly been jointly modeled in previous literature. The results suggest that remittances play an important role for poor households in…

  14. Haiti : A Review of Accounting and Audit Practices

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Haiti. It supports the Government's efforts to: (a) improve financial sector stability and development; (b) encourage a business climate conducive to private investment and local companies' access to credit and long-term finance; and (c) enhance the governance and accountability of public enterprises. For the purp...

  15. Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tusta / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    RO palub maailmalt maavrinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakmnel Haitile lesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on ptud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

  16. A supply and Demand approach to the Institutional Performance of Haiti

    Marroquin Gramajo, Andres

    2005-01-01

    The recent political crisis in Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere, has again called the attention of the international community This paper tries to describe the development path of Haiti, and advances some hypotheses explaining its reasons, Since the traditional explanations proposed by Marxists and neoclassical economists seem to be insufficient, this paper offers an Institutional approach to improve our understanding of the causes of poverty in Haiti and to visualize poli...

  17. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information: the example of LastQuake smartphone application and Twitter QuakeBot

    Bossu, R.; Etivant, C.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public. Wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest. No need to browse the internet: the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? A while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. LastQuake app and Twitter feed (QuakeBot) focuses on these earthquakes that matter for the public by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, damaging and felt earthquakes. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the USGS, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. We will present the identification process of the felt earthquakes, the smartphone application and the 27 automatically generated tweets and how, by providing better public services, we collect more data from citizens.

  18. Tsunamis triggered by the 12 January 2010 Earthquake in Haiti

    Fritz, H. M.; Hillaire, J. V.; Molire, E.; Mohammed, F.; Wei, Y.

    2010-12-01

    On 12 January 2010 a magnitude Mw 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haitis Capital of Port-au-Prince, which resulted in more than 230,000 fatalities. In addition tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least 3 fatalities at Petit Paradis. Unfortunately, the people of Haiti had neither ancestral knowledge nor educational awareness of tsunami hazards despite the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami at Hispaniolas northeast coast. In sharp contrast Sri Lankan UN-soldiers on duty at Jacmel self-evacuated given the memory of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, and performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 31 January to 7 February 2010 ITST covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniolas south coast between Pedernales, Dominican Republic and Jacmel, Haiti. The Hispaniola survey data includes more than 20 runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum flow depths exceeding 3 m both at Petit Paradis inside the Bay of Grand Gove located 45 km west-southwest of Port-au-Prince and at Jacmel on Haitis south coast. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed on Hispaniola and tsunami runup of more than 1 m was still observed at Pedernales in the Dominican Republic. Jacmel, which is near the center of the south coast, represents an unfortunate example of a village and harbor that was located for protection from storm waves but is vulnerable to tsunami waves with runup doubling from the entrance to the head of the bay. Inundation and damage was limited to less than 100 m inland at both Jacmel and Petit Paradis. Differences in wave period were documented between the tsunami waves at Petit Paradis and Jacmel. The Petit Paradis tsunami is attributed to a coastal submarine landslide. Field observations, video recordings, satellite imagery and numerical modelling are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard. Community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis. Petit Paradis landslide scar with tree located 70m offshore

  19. Cientometria: a produo cientfica de Haity Moussatch / Scientometrics: Haity Moussatch's scientific production

    Elaine Kabarite, Costa; Maria Cristina Soares, Guimares; Ccera Henrique da, Silva.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa aqui relatada um estudo exploratrio sobre a produo cientfica do Laboratrio de Fisiologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, no perodo 1934-1998, com foco na anlise da produo cientfica de Haity Moussatch, lder desse laboratrio, at o ano de 1965. O trab [...] alho visa aferir um possvel impacto na produo cientfica do laboratrio depois que seu lder foi cassado pelo Ato Institucional n.5, ocorrido em 1970. Para tanto, foi realizado o mapeamento da produo cientfica e sua anlise bibliomtrica, a partir de busca bibliogrfica em bases de dados internacionais e pesquisa documental nos acervos da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz e na Biblioteca de Cincias Biomdicas, com o objetivo de colher indcios dos reflexos e das consequncias do chamado Massacre de Manguinhos na dinmica da produo cientfica do laboratrio. Uma caracterstica importante da produo cientfica do pesquisador aponta para um padro consistente de publicao em coautoria, desde o incio de sua carreira acadmica. Possivelmente, esse foi o ponto principal que permitiu que ele continuasse ativo na pesquisa, mesmo aps cassado e fora do Brasil. Este trabalho contribui para escrever parte da histria da cincia no campo da sade, proporcionando novas leituras desse episdio, em diversos campos disciplinares acadmicos. Abstract in english This is an exploratory study about an episode which came to be known as "Manguinhos massacre", when ten leading researchers had their political rights suspended. From the viewpoint of the scientific production of the Laboratory of Physiology at the Fundao Oswaldo Cruz [...] , Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, between 1934-1998, we focused on the scientific production of Haity Moussatche, laboratory chief until 1965. We mapped and analyzed the scientific production retrieved through searches in international databases and from the documentary research conducted at the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and Library of Biomedical Sciences of Fiocruz, in order to collect evidence of the consequences of the political event on the scientific production of the laboratory. An important feature of the scientific production of the researcher points to a consistent pattern of co-authored publication since the beginning of his academic career. Possibly, this was the main factor which allowed him to remain active in his research even after he had been persecuted and exiled from Brazil. This work contributes to the understanding of the scientific history in the field of health, providing new interpretations of this episode in several academic fields.

  20. QuakeSim: a Web Service Environment for Productive Investigations with Earth Surface Sensor Data

    Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Granat, R. A.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; McLeod, D.; Al-Ghanmi, R.; Pierce, M.; Fox, G.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The QuakeSim science gateway environment includes a visually rich portal interface, web service access to data and data processing operations, and the QuakeTables ontology-based database of fault models and sensor data. The integrated tools and services are designed to assist investigators by covering the entire earthquake cycle of strain accumulation and release. The Web interface now includes Drupal-based access to diverse and changing content, with new ability to access data and data processing directly from the public page, as well as the traditional project management areas that require password access. The system is designed to make initial browsing of fault models and deformation data particularly engaging for new users. Popular data and data processing include GPS time series with data mining techniques to find anomalies in time and space, experimental forecasting methods based on catalogue seismicity, faulted deformation models (both half-space and finite element), and model-based inversion of sensor data. The fault models include the CGS and UCERF 2.0 faults of California and are easily augmented with self-consistent fault models from other regions. The QuakeTables deformation data include the comprehensive set of UAVSAR interferograms as well as a growing collection of satellite InSAR data.. Fault interaction simulations are also being incorporated in the web environment based on Virtual California. A sample usage scenario is presented which follows an investigation of UAVSAR data from viewing as an overlay in Google Maps, to selection of an area of interest via a polygon tool, to fast extraction of the relevant correlation and phase information from large data files, to a model inversion of fault slip followed by calculation and display of a synthetic model interferogram.

  1. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  2. Eigenfrequency of nodeless elastic vibrations locked in the crust of quaking neutron star

    Bastrukov, S; Chen, G -T; Molodtsova, I

    2008-01-01

    The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of non-compressional spheroidal and torsional nodeless elastic vibrations in the homogenous crust model of a quaking neutron star is developed and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Particular attention is given to the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that unspecified QPOs are due to nodeless dipole torsional and dipole spheroidal elastic shear vibrations.

  3. The tragedy of Haiti: A reason for major cultural change.

    Brown, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    With the recent earthquake in Haiti, it is most befitting to discuss my travel to this poor country more than a decade ago. The travel was a mission that examined the health status and the education of residents in the capital city of Port- au-Prince. After close observation, it seems that the health and educational status then, today and since the tragedy, is basically the same with less, if any, possible improvement. This article examines the present state of health and education of the Haitian people, in the wake of its recent tragedy. Although, the people were very poor in economics, they were rich in culture and exhibited polite mannerisms that made me feel overly welcomed in their homes and to the few resources they had to offer It appears that in past years, this country was and still is noted as the poorest country in the Americas, however, it is not the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. On many occasions, it has been publicly and widely reported that Haiti experienced political violence throughout its history. The government of Haiti is known for corruption. It also appears that an earthquake the magnitude of 7.0 would not have easily destroyed so many of its infrastructure and people, if in the past, the surrounding countries, including the United States, would have assisted in providing this country with safer and stronger foundations for buildings and especially shelter for the residents and the many visitors who were the true victims. Despite the repressive regime, Haiti's location, history and culture were very attractive to tourists in the 1960s and 1970s. Visitors returned home with memorable artifacts that included cave paintings, wood statues (figurines) and hand made jewelry. PMID:21117444

  4. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating M_w 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with onl...

  5. The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti

    María del Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint Jean; Carlos A Fuster Callaba; Lorenzo Somarriba López

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sites, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This stu...

  6. Vicious cycle of poverty and environmental degradation: Haiti

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Christensen, Norman

    2008-01-01

    than 3% cover left. As a consequence, from 1950-1990, the amount of arable land fell by more than two fifths due to soil erosion. At the same time deforestation has diminished evaporation back to the atmosphere over Haiti, and total rainfall in many locations has fallen by as much as 40%, reducing...... powerful barrier to sustainable forest management. The alleviation of poverty must be a central strategy to restore Haiti’s forest and biodiversity....

  7. On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

  8. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  9. Social Resilience and State Fragility in Haiti : Breaking the Conflict-Poverty Trap

    Verner, Dorte; Heinemann, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Haiti is a resilient society whose rural communities in particular have developed coping mechanisms in response to a long history of underdevelopment and poor governance. Like other fragile states, however, Haiti is beset by widespread poverty and inequality, economic decline and unemployment, institutional weakness and corruption, violence, lawlessness, and recurrent conflict. In order for ...

  10. Education and Conflict in Haiti: Rebuilding the Education Sector after the 2010 Earthquake. Special Report 245

    Luzincourt, Ketty; Gulbrandson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In Haiti, education both promotes and ameliorates conflict. This report describes the education sector before the 2010 earthquake, then presents recommendations on how Haiti and the international community can increase access to and the quality of Haitian schools and modernize the organization and function of the national education sector.…

  11. "There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti

    Desgrottes, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

  12. 78 FR 46671 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the...(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Haiti and I...

  13. Simplified brain slice glucose utilization.

    Newman, G C; Hospod, F E; Maghsoudlou, B; Patlak, C S

    1996-09-01

    Brain slice glucose utilization (SGU) can be measured by methods analogous to those used for in vivo cerebral glucose utilization. In order to make this technique more accessible and applicable to a broad range of experimental conditions, we have derived a simplified operational rate equation and generated the table of apparent rate coefficients necessary to apply the equation under different experimental situations. Calculations of the apparent rate coefficients were based upon an eight-parameter kinetic model combined with Michaelis-Menten theory to account for changes in the rate constants as a function of buffer glucose concentration. The theory was tested with a series of experiments using rat brain slices. [14C]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and [14C]-3-O-methylglucose (3OMG). The errors involved in the simplified technique were estimated by a variety of techniques and found to be acceptable over a broad range of conditions. A detailed, practical protocol for the simplified method is presented. PMID:8784231

  14. Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2010-12-01

    The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

  15. Slice Stretching Effects for Maximal Slicing of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Reimann, B.

    2004-01-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this require...

  16. Slice Stretching at the Event Horizon when Geodesically Slicing the Schwarzschild Spacetime with Excision

    Reimann, B.

    2004-01-01

    Slice-stretching effects are discussed as they arise at the event horizon when geodesically slicing the extended Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime while using singularity excision. In particular, for Novikov and isotropic spatial coordinates the outward movement of the event horizon (``slice sucking'') and the unbounded growth there of the radial metric component (``slice wrapping'') are analyzed. For the overall slice stretching, very similar late time behavior is found when comparing with ...

  17. Program slicing techniques and its applications

    Sasirekha, N; Hemalatha, Dr M

    2011-01-01

    Program understanding is an important aspect in Software Maintenance and Reengineering. Understanding the program is related to execution behaviour and relationship of variable involved in the program. The task of finding all statements in a program that directly or indirectly influence the value for an occurrence of a variable gives the set of statements that can affect the value of a variable at some point in a program is called a program slice. Program slicing is a technique for extracting parts of computer programs by tracing the programs' control and data flow related to some data item. This technique is applicable in various areas such as debugging, program comprehension and understanding, program integration, cohesion measurement, re-engineering, maintenance, testing where it is useful to be able to focus on relevant parts of large programs. This paper focuses on the various slicing techniques (not limited to) like static slicing, quasi static slicing, dynamic slicing and conditional slicing. This pape...

  18. 78 FR 61375 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Quaking-Induced Conversion (QUIC) for Detection of...

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Quaking... INFORMATION: The prospective worldwide exclusive license will be royalty bearing and will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR part 404. The prospective exclusive license may...

  19. Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti

    Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.

    2013-05-01

    Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

  20. X-Ray Flares of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Quakes of Solid Quark Stars?

    Xu, Renxin

    2008-01-01

    We propose a star-quake model to understand X-ray flares of both long and short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, i.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 10^3 to 10^6 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transition is a few MeV, and then a new source of free energy (i.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

  1. Magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations

    Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I V

    2011-01-01

    We compute characteristic parameters of magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about axis of dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After brief outlook of general theoretical background of the model of vibration powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as the oscillation frequency, lifetime, luminosity of radiation, and investigate their time dependence upon magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitoring AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by vibration powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

  2. Torsional seismic vibrations of solid crust in quaking paramagnetic neutron star

    Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Takata, J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an asteroseismic model of non-rotating paramagnetic neutron star with core-crust stratification of interior pervaded by homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field. Focus is on post-quake vibrational relaxation by torsional shear oscillations of electron-nuclear solid-state plasma in the metal-like crust about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. In accord with basic physics underlying the very notion of a neutron star and indirect observational evidence of the dipole configuration of magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars, the model under consideration presumes that micro-composition of core material is dominated by degenerate neutron matter in the state of Pauli's paramagnetic permanent magnetization caused by polarizations of spin magnetic moments of neutrons along magnetic axis of the star. Particular attention is given to the regime of node-free differentially rotational vibrations of crust against immobile core driven by Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic f...

  3. Emerging functions of the Quaking RNA-binding proteins and link to human diseases.

    Darbelli, Lama; Richard, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential players in RNA metabolism including key cellular processes from pre-mRNA splicing to mRNA translation. The K homology-type QUAKING RBP is emerging as a vital factor for oligodendrocytes, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cell, and myocyte function. Interestingly, the qkI gene has now been identified as the culprit gene for a patient with intellectual disabilities and is translocated in a pediatric ganglioglioma as a fusion protein with MYB. In this review, we will focus on the emerging discoveries of the QKI proteins as well as highlight the recent advances in understanding the role of QKI in human disease pathology including myelin disorders, schizophrenia and cancer. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:399-412. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1344 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26991871

  4. The (Impossibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures

    Landon Yarrington

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2010. xx + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 34.95

  5. Node coarsening calculi for program slicing

    Harman, M.; Hierons, RM; Danicic, S.; Howroyd, J; Laurence,; Fox, C.,

    2001-01-01

    Several approaches to reverse and re-engineering are based upon program slicing. Unfortunately, for large systems, such as those which typically form the subject of reverse engineering activities, the space and time requirements of slicing can be a barrier to successful application. Faced with this problem, several authors have found it helpful to merge control flow graph (CFG) nodes, thereby improving the space and time requirements of standard slicing algorithms. The node-merging process es...

  6. Unusually severe food poisoning from vanilla slices.

    Fenton, P A; Dobson, K. W.; Eyre, A; McKendrick, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty six people suffered from severe vomiting and diarrhoea 15 min to 3 h after eating vanilla slices from the same bakery. Five patients were admitted to hospital, and one developed unusual skin lesions after admission. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in large numbers from vanilla slices of the same batch as those giving rise to symptoms, and from five faecal specimens obtained from affected persons. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were also isolated from the slices. Unbaked custa...

  7. An Approach to Scientific Workflow Slicing

    Mengmeng Yang; Jie Cheng; Wei Xu,

    2013-01-01

    Scientific workflow technology has been a useful tool in scientific computations. Since, scientific workflows are normally data-intensive and have complex structures, how to find the relevant knowledge that scientists concern about in a large scientific workflow is a key issue. This study presents a concept of scientific workflow slice which is a sub-workflow relative to a specific slice criterion and proposes a slice generation algorithm. In addition, we also give the concepts of forward wor...

  8. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti.

    Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y

    1993-01-01

    AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518

  9. Neomodern insecurity in Haiti and the politics of asylum.

    James, Erica Caple

    2009-03-01

    The term 'asylum' has a dual connotation that generates opposing but related forms of intervention: providing sanctuary and protection vs. imposing confinement and quarantine. The proliferation of "neomodern insecurity"--intrastate violence and the specter of transnational terrorism, arising within many postcolonial, postauthoritarian and postsocialist states--generates intervention practices that reflect the dual connotations of asylum. In fragile states like Haiti, national insecurity (ensekirite) often results in the flight of traumatized populations across and within national borders. For these individuals, 'asylum' connotes the attainment of political recognition and inclusion outside Haiti's space of ensekirite. Ironically, these vulnerable persons may be viewed as threats to the nations they seek to enter. In so-called secure states like the United States, the threat of insecurity often engenders interventions to contain, manage and rehabilitate states of disorder, as well as their disordered subjects. By chronicling the case of a young Haitian refugee who sought asylum in the United States, was detained and then repatriated after manifesting the disordered signs of insecurity, I argue that the Haitian trope of ensekirite captures and prefigures the subjective experience of neomodernity, one for which there is no asylum. PMID:19116780

  10. Evaluation of the national tuberculosis surveillance program in Haiti

    Salyer, S. J.; Fitter, D. L.; Milo, R.; Blanton, C.; Ho, J. L.; Geffrard, H.; Morose, W.; Marston, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of tuberculosis (TB) surveillance in Haiti, including whether underreporting from facilities to the national level contributes to low national case registration. METHODS We collected 2010 and 2012 TB case totals, reviewed laboratory registries, and abstracted individual TB case reports from 32 of 263 anti-tuberculosis treatment facilities randomly selected after stratification/weighting toward higher-volume facilities. We compared site results to national databases maintained by a non-governmental organization partner (International Child Care [ICC]) for 2010 and 2012, and the National TB Program (Programme National de Lutte contre la Tuberculose, PNLT) for 2012 only. RESULTS Case registries were available at 30/32 facilities for 2010 and all 32 for 2012. Totals of 3711 (2010) and 4143 (2012) cases were reported at the facilities. Case totals per site were higher in site registries than in the national databases by 361 (9.7%) (ICC 2010), 28 (0.8%) (ICC 2012), and 31 (0.8%) cases (PNLT 2012). Of abstracted individual cases, respectively 11.8% and 6.8% were not recorded in national databases for 2010 (n = 323) and 2012 (n = 351). CONCLUSIONS The evaluation demonstrated an improvement in reporting registered TB cases to the PNLT in Haiti between 2010 and 2012. Further improvement in case notification will require enhanced case detection and diagnosis. PMID:26260822

  11. ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

  12. Students, Blacksburg merchants team up for April 24 tailgate to raise money for Haiti

    Crumbley, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech students and the Blacksburg community are teaming up to throw a tailgate party on April 24 to raise money for reliefs efforts in Haiti and to celebrate the university's and town's spirit of service.

  13. Pulsating magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star at the expense of energy of Alfven seismic vibrations

    Bastrukov, S I; Yu, J W; Xu, R X

    2010-01-01

    The impact of magnetic field decay on radiative activity of quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is studied. We found that monotonic depletion of internal magnetic field pressure is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Particular attention is given to the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfven vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples of magnetic field decay illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods produced by quaking neutron star are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

  14. Effectiveness of Disaster-prevention Technologies against Quake-induced Damage of MR Scanners during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Machida, Yoshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Isoda, Haruo; Noguchi, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-04-11

    In the present study, we have performed a statistical analysis to investigate damages in magnetic resonance (MR) scanners caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE, magnitude 9.0) and evaluated whether these disaster-prevention technologies contributed to the reduction of damages in the GEJE or not. It was confirmed that the extent of damage was significantly different between seismic scale (SS) 5 and SS over 6. Our survey study demonstrated that anchoring of MR facilities reduced damages due to quakes and demonstrated that anchoring is an efficient method for quake-induced damage prevention. The odds ratio revealed that base isolation was very useful to prevent damages in MR scanners. PMID:26597429

  15. A Note on Perfect Slice Sampling

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. We show that the simplest version of the perfect slice sampler suggested in the literature does not always sample from the target distribution. (author's abstract)

  16. Nutrition Security in Haiti : Pre- and Post Earthquake Conditions and the Way Forward

    Bassett, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Children in Haiti are born into some of the harshest conditions on the planet, and are left at a disadvantage in terms of growth, development, and potential to thrive. Malnutrition rates in Haiti are among the worst in the Latin America and Caribbean Region. Nearly one-third of all children under-five suffer from stunted growth and three quarters of children 6-24 months are anemic. Malnutr...

  17. Development of a neurology rotation for internal medicine residents in Haiti.

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Martineau, Louine; Morse, Michelle E; Israel, Kerling

    2016-01-15

    In many low-income countries where there are few or no neurologists, patients with neurologic diseases are cared for by primary care physicians who receive no formal training in neurology. Here, we report our experience creating a neurology rotation for internal medicine residents in rural Haiti through a collaboration between a public academic medical center in Haiti and a visiting neurologist. We describe the structure of the rotation and the factors that led to its development. PMID:26723993

  18. Education, daily routine, and prospects of primary school teachers in Haiti

    Thiel, Gertrud

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a detailed description of selected Haitian primary school teachers’ living and working conditions based on narrative interviews, observations, and common experiences during a cross-cultural in-service teacher training program in rural Haiti. The research is focused on the following questions: What type of obstacles did primary school teachers in rural Haiti encounter in their own education, what professional and social challenges are faced in the daily routines of these teac...

  19. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    McAllister, Janet C.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Scott, Mariah L.

    2012-01-01

    In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the status of insecticide resistance has not recently been evaluated for Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. No prophylactics exist for dengue, so prevention is only through vector control methods. An earthquake occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, with a magnitude of 7.0 Mw that devastated the area. Dengue became a major concern for the humanitarian relief workers that entered the country. Bottle bioassays were conducted in the field on adu...

  20. Beyond the Binary: New Roles and Implications of NGOs in Haiti

    Uyttewaal, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Recent academic debates regarding the proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Haiti often fall into the trap of pitting NGOs as an entity against the Haitian state. This paper seeks to follow academic arguments that go beyond this binary framework by examining the coordination and collaboration practices of health NGOs at the local level in the North Department of Haiti. Specifically, this paper will discuss how individuals, both Haitian and foreign, attempt to resist nation...

  1. Lessons Learned during Public Health Response to Cholera Epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Tappero, Jordan W; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths, poor nutrition, and frequent infectious diseases such as HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria. Many nations, multinational agencies, and nongovernmental organizations rapidly mobilized to assist Haiti. The US government provided emergency response through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assis...

  2. The use of data in international humanitarian responses to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti

    Linton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    On 12 January 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, causing severe destruction in Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas. Individuals, organisations, and governments donated over US$6 billion of aid to Haiti. However, the international humanitarian response to the earthquake was characterised by western media as a logistical disaster. Years after the earthquake, hundreds of thousands of Haitians still inhabited ?temporary? camps where they sought refuge after the earthquake, rather tha...

  3. On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region

    S. Cht. Mavrodiev

    2004-01-01

    The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately 1 day and for the maximum 2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region...

  4. Distributed geo-services based on Wireless GIS- a case study for post-quake rescue information system

    Liu, Yimei

    2014-01-01

    A useful application of Wireless GIS is the handling of natural disasters such as earthquakes. This thesis is dedicated to the construction and implementation of a post-quake rescue information system based on open source data and software programs. The emphasis is laid on the assessment of losses in the disaster area, estimation of collapsing buildings and trapped population, and efficient transmission of all the rescue-relevant information. The realized workflow of using open source data an...

  5. Relative sea-level changes during the last century recorded by coral microatolls in Belloc, Haiti

    Weil-Accardo, J.; Feuillet, N.; Jacques, E.; Deschamps, P.; Saurel, J.-M.; Thirumalai, K.; Demeza, S.; Anglade, D.

    2016-04-01

    We present here the first study of coral microatolls in the Caribbean. An exceptional site (Belloc reef) where dozens of microatolls were growing was uplifted and exposed during the 12 January 2010 Mw 7 Haiti earthquake. Total station measurements of the old pre-earthquake and the new post-earthquake coral highest level of survival (HLS) on two generations of Siderastrea siderea corals allowed us to estimate a value of 45 ± 14 cm for the coseismic uplift. In this small 90 m × 70 m reef, microatolls of different shapes (cups, hats or flats) coexist, indicating long term submergence, emergence or stable relative sea-level. This variability in coral shape is uncommon. Two slices of microatolls, one cup-shaped (B8) and one hat-shaped (B10) were sampled with a chain saw and X-rayed to study their stratigraphy. B10 recorded a mean relative sea-level decrease of about - 1 mm/yr over the last five decades, whereas B8 has grown in a context of relative sea-level rise at a rate of about 1 mm/yr over nine decades. Several sudden and temporary die downs simultaneously disrupted the growth of both corals in 1940 ± 2, 1963 ± 2, 1983 ± 2, 1992 ± 1, 2001 ± 1 and 2009 and may be caused by oceanographic/climatic phenomena occurring in the tropical North Atlantic. The last one, in 2009, was associated with a clear sea-level height decrease (about 10 cm) in the satellite data. B10 was strongly affected by these events and records die downs of systematically larger amplitude, which tended to delay its upward growth compared to B8. This makes B10 less reliable for the evaluation of the relative sea-level trend, its emergence rate being only an apparent estimate due to die downs. Fossil coral microatolls of Diploria strigosa which died between 1958 and 1966 (according to U/Th dating), probably during one of the strongest hurricane reported in Haiti (Flora, 1963), display a cup shape attesting for submergence. Their HLS is 1 cm below the HLS of the S. siderea killed in 2010. The record of B8, the diversity in shape of the S. siderea microatolls and the position of fossil D. strigosa corals overall indicate stable to slightly increasing relative sea-level (about 1 mm/yr). This is on the same order of magnitude, although slightly lower, as the rate we determined over the last 74 years by using eight tide gauge records around Hispaniola (1.63 ± 0.20 mm/yr) and the mean rate of sea-level rise previously published (2.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) in the area. This study demonstrates that coral microatolls can be used to infer relative sea-level changes over the last decades or centuries in the Caribbean, where tide gauge records are often sparse, incomplete or nonexistent. This is of prime importance for the numerous small and flat Caribbean islands, highly vulnerable to the threat of global sea-level rise.

  6. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  7. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2009-12-01

    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed more than 60 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System.

  8. Virus and Antibody Diagnostics for Swine Samples of the Dominican Republic Collected in Regions Near the Border to Haiti

    Ventura, A.; Gonzalez, W.; Barrette, R.; Swenson, S; Bracht, A.; Rowland, J.; Fabian, A.; Moran, K.; Mohamed, F.; O'Hearn, E.; Jenkins-Moore, M.; Toms, D.; Shaw, J.; Morales, P.; Pyburn, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti share the island of Hispaniola, and reportable transboundary animal diseases have been introduced between the two countries historically. Outbreaks of severe teschovirus encephalomyelitis in pigs began occurring in Haiti in February 2009, and a field and laboratort study in April 2010 indicated that the teschovirus disease is prevalent in many regions in Haiti including areas near the border with DR and that other viral disease agents, including CSF virus...

  9. The superflares of soft Gamma-ray repeatres: giant quakes in solid quark stars?

    Xu, R X; Yang, Y

    2006-01-01

    Three times of supergiant flares from soft $\\gamma$-ray repeatres are observed, with typical released energy of $\\sim 10^{44-47}$ erg. A conventional model (i.e., the magnetar model) for such events is catastrophic magnetism-powered instability through magnetohydrodynamic process, in which a significant part of short-hard $\\gamma$-ray bursts could also be the results of magnetars. Based on various observational features (e.g., precession, glitch, thermal photon emission) and the underlying theory of strong interaction (quantum chromodynamics, QCD), it could not be ruled out yet that pulsar-like stars might be actually solid quark stars. Strain energy develops during a solid star's life, and starquakes could occur when stellar stresses reach a critical value, with huge energy released. An alternative model for supergiant flares of soft $\\gamma$-ray repeatres is presented, in which energy release during a star quake of solid quark stars is calculated. Numerical results for spherically asymmetric solid stars sho...

  10. STAR RNA-binding protein Quaking suppresses cancer via stabilization of specific miRNA.

    Chen, An-Jou; Paik, Ji-Hye; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet A; Mortensen, Richard; Hu, Jian; Ying, Haoqiang; Hu, Baoli; Hurt, Jessica; Farny, Natalie; Dong, Caroline; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Y Alan; Silver, Pamela A; Chin, Lynda; Vasudevan, Shobha; Depinho, Ronald A

    2012-07-01

    Multidimensional cancer genome analysis and validation has defined Quaking (QKI), a member of the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, as a novel glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor suppressor. Here, we establish that p53 directly regulates QKI gene expression, and QKI protein associates with and leads to the stabilization of miR-20a; miR-20a, in turn, regulates TGF?R2 and the TGF? signaling network. This pathway circuitry is substantiated by in silico epistasis analysis of its components in the human GBM TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas Project) collection and by their gain- and loss-of-function interactions in in vitro and in vivo complementation studies. This p53-QKI-miR-20a-TGF? pathway expands our understanding of the p53 tumor suppression network in cancer and reveals a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving regulation of specific cancer-relevant microRNAs. PMID:22751500

  11. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  12. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations. PMID:26886130

  13. The Quake Catcher Network: Cyberinfrastructure Bringing Seismology into Schools and Homes

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.

    2007-12-01

    We propose to implement a high density, low cost strong-motion network for rapid response and early warning by placing sensors in schools, homes, and offices. The Quake Catcher Network (QCN) will employ existing networked laptops and desktops to form the world's largest high-density, distributed computing seismic network. Costs for this network will be minimal because the QCN will use 1) strong motion sensors (accelerometers) already internal to many laptops and 2) nearly identical low-cost universal serial bus (USB) accelerometers for use with desktops. The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC!) provides a free, proven paradigm for involving the public in large-scale computational research projects. As evidenced by the SETI@home program and others, individuals are especially willing to donate their unused computing power to projects that they deem relevant, worthwhile, and educational. The client- and server-side software will rapidly monitor incoming seismic signals, detect the magnitudes and locations of significant earthquakes, and may even provide early warnings to other computers and users before they can feel the earthquake. The software will provide the client-user with a screen-saver displaying seismic data recorded on their laptop, recently detected earthquakes, and general information about earthquakes and the geosciences. Furthermore, this project will install USB sensors in K-12 classrooms as an educational tool for teaching science. Through a variety of interactive experiments students will learn about earthquakes and the hazards earthquakes pose. For example, students can learn how the vibrations of an earthquake decrease with distance by jumping up and down at increasing distances from the sensor and plotting the decreased amplitude of the seismic signal measured on their computer. We hope to include an audio component so that students can hear and better understand the difference between low and high frequency seismic signals. The QCN will provide a natural way to engage students and the public in earthquake detection and research.

  14. Reconciling divergent interpretations of quaking aspen decline on the northern Colorado Front Range.

    Kashian, Daniel M; Romme, William H; Regan, Claudia M

    2007-07-01

    Ecologists have debated over the past 65 years whether quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has or has not declined in abundance, vigor, or regeneration in western North America. Many studies have provided divergent interpretations of the condition of aspen forests, leading to difficulty in translating this ecological information into management recommendations. To reconcile these contrasting conclusions and to test the hypothesis that multiple types of aspen decline and persistence occur simultaneously on heterogeneous landscapes, we assessed 91 aspen stands across the northern Colorado Front Range to determine the range of ecological conditions that underlie aspen decline or persistence. Approximately 15% of aspen forest area in our sample exhibited dieback of mature stems coupled with a lack of young trees indicative of declining stands, most often at lower elevations where elk browsing is heavy and chronic, and where effects of fire exclusion have been most significant. However, 52% of the area sampled had multiple cohorts indicative of self-replacing or persistent stands. Conifer dominance was increasing in over 33% of all aspen forest area sampled, most often at high elevations among lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Englem. ex Wats.) forests. Reconstructions of relative basal area and density of aspen and lodgepole pine in these stands suggest cyclical dominance of these species, where conifers gradually replace aspen over long fire intervals, and aspen vigorously re-establish following stand-replacing fires. The diversity of ecological contexts across the northern Colorado Front Range creates a variety of aspen dynamics leading to decline or persistence, and no single trend describes the general condition of aspen forests in appropriate detail for managers. Active management may be useful in preserving individual stands at fine scales, but management prescriptions should reflect specific drivers of decline in these stands. PMID:17708209

  15. Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.

    Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively including in them contingency planning for international relief operations. Healthcare professionals of these institutions who travel to disaster zones should rigorously prepare themselves and make provisions for collecting and reporting data, which will enrich the knowledge of this growing activity. PMID:21598258

  16. Advantages to Geoscience and Disaster Response from QuakeSim Implementation of Interferometric Radar Maps in a GIS Database System

    Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Glasscoe, Margaret; Fox, Geoffrey; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Ma, Yu

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution maps of earth surface deformation are available in public archives for scientific interpretation, but are primarily available as bulky downloads on the internet. The NASA uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) archive of airborne radar interferograms delivers very high resolution images (approximately seven meter pixels) making remote handling of the files that much more pressing. Data exploration requiring data selection and exploratory analysis has been tedious. QuakeSim has implemented an archive of UAVSAR data in a web service and browser system based on GeoServer (http://geoserver.org). This supports a variety of services that supply consistent maps, raster image data and geographic information systems (GIS) objects including standard earthquake faults. Browsing the database is supported by initially displaying GIS-referenced thumbnail images of the radar displacement maps. Access is also provided to image metadata and links for full file downloads. One of the most widely used features is the QuakeSim line-of-sight profile tool, which calculates the radar-observed displacement (from an unwrapped interferogram product) along a line specified through a web browser. Displacement values along a profile are updated to a plot on the screen as the user interactively redefines the endpoints of the line and the sampling density. The profile and also a plot of the ground height are available as CSV (text) files for further examination, without any need to download the full radar file. Additional tools allow the user to select a polygon overlapping the radar displacement image, specify a downsampling rate and extract a modest sized grid of observations for display or for inversion, for example, the QuakeSim simplex inversion tool which estimates a consistent fault geometry and slip model.

  17. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices. PMID:24425966

  18. On the powerful use of simulations in the quake-catcher network to efficiently position low-cost earthquake sensors

    Benson, K.; Estrada, T.; Taufer, M.; Lawrence, J.; Cochran, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) uses low-cost sensors connected to volunteer computers across the world to monitor seismic events. The location and density of these sensors' placement can impact the accuracy of the event detection. Because testing different special arrangements of new sensors could disrupt the currently active project, this would best be accomplished in a simulated environment. This paper presents an accurate and efficient framework for simulating the low cost QCN sensors and identifying their most effective locations and densities. Results presented show how our simulations are reliable tools to study diverse scenarios under different geographical and infrastructural constraints. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  19. Update on cholera --- Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Florida, 2010.

    2010-12-24

    On October 21, 2010, a cholera outbreak was confirmed by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory. By November 19, the outbreak had reached every department of the country, and by December 17, a total of 121,518 cases of cholera, resulting in 63,711 hospitalizations and 2,591 deaths, had been reported. By November 16, additional cases of cholera had been confirmed in the neighboring Dominican Republic and in Florida. Several confirmed cases in the Dominican Republic and all confirmed U.S. cases were among travelers from Haiti. This report describes cases of cholera identified in the Dominican Republic and United States and provides recommendations to physicians regarding management of travel-related cases. Travelers who develop watery diarrhea within 5 days after returning from cholera-affected areas should seek health care and report their travel histories. Clinicians should enquire about recent travel when evaluating patients with diarrhea. When cholera is suspected, rehydration should be initiated immediately, a stool specimen should be collected for culture of Vibrio cholerae, and public health authorities should be notified. PMID:21178947

  20. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  1. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-11-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquake-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergence-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of California-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record.

  2. Childhood survival in Haiti: protective effect of measles vaccination.

    Holt, E A; Boulos, R; Halsey, N A; Boulos, L M; Boulos, C

    1990-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of measles vaccination on survival of children residing in a periurban slum in Haiti, a total-population survey was conducted 2.5 years after completion of a one-time study of the serologic response to measles vaccine administered in the same population. Pregnancy histories from the 16,400 women in the population revealed that 1499 children had been born during a 7-month interval that would have made them eligible for participation in the measles vaccine program. Of these children, 1381 (92.1%) survived to 9 months of age, the median age that measles vaccine had been administered. Seventy-three infants had died between 9 and 39 months of age. Mortality of infants who were seronegative before receiving measles vaccine was significantly lower (P = .0013) than that of unvaccinated infants (3/235 vs 70/1056, respectively). Other factors positively associated with survival between 9 and 39 months of age included socioeconomic status (P = .0002), maternal literacy (P = .0020), maternal knowledge and use of oral rehydration solution (P = .0002), and an interval of greater than 24 months to the birth of the next younger sibling (P = .0012). Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent association of measles vaccination by adjusting for other factors that also correlated with survival and that might have been associated with maternal seeking of vaccinations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2296506

  3. The January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake: Science and Engineering for Earthquake Resilience (Invited)

    Calais, E.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Momplaisir, R.; Prepetit, C.

    2010-12-01

    On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and causing an estimated 8 billion in damages, ˜120% of the country's GDP. Science and engineering were key to answering pressing questions raised by governement authorities and international agencies in the days and weeks after the event. As Haiti starts its reconstruction, there is an opportunity for science and engineering to provide pragmatic guidelines to help build a sustainable culture of resilience to natural hazards. We will address the challenges and opportunities of integrating risk reduction into government policies, a goal that requires close interations with politicians, risk managers, economists, and social scientists. Communicating science to decision makers and the public, while accounting for the challenges of sustainable development, remains a challenge even in the wake of the human and economic tragedy of the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti.

  4. Exploring Child Mortality Risks Associated with Diverse Patterns of Maternal Migration in Haiti

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Thomas, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Internal migration is a salient dimension of adulthood in Haiti, particularly among women. Despite the prevalence of migration in Haiti, it remains unknown whether Haitian womens diverse patterns of migration influence their childrens health and survival. In this paper, we introduce the concept of lateral (i.e., rural-to-rural, urban-to-urban) versus nonlateral (i.e., rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural) migration to describe how some patterns of mothers internal migration may be associated wit...

  5. Who Benefit from Cash and Food-for-Work Programs in Post-Earthquake Haiti?

    Echevin, Damien; Lamanna, Francesca; Oviedo, Ana-Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a unique post-earthquake survey designed to provide a rapid assessment of food insecurity in Haiti is used in order to address the question of whether cash and food-for-work (C/FfW) programs are allocated adequately in Haiti. We consider that the allocation principle should meet two main criteria. First, C/FfW programs should be targeted towards people who are in the most necessitous circumstances (i.e., poor and food insecure people). Second, these programs should be targeted ...

  6. A Quantitative Framework for Assessing Public Investment in Tourism : An Application to Haiti

    Banerjee, Onil; Cicowiez, Martín

    2015-01-01

    This study develops a linked regional computable general equilibrium and micro-simulation (RCGE-MS) model to assess the regional economy-wide and poverty impacts of a US$36 million investment in tourism in the south of Haiti. The first social accounting matrix for Haiti with a base year of 2012/2013 was constructed to calibrate the model. This research addresses three key gaps identified in the tourism impact assessment literature. First, a destination-specific tourism demand and value chain ...

  7. A Quantitative Framework for Assessing Public Investment in Tourism - An Application to Haiti

    Banerjee, Onil; Cicowiez, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study develops a linked regional computable general equilibrium and micro-simulation (RCGE-MS) model to assess the regional economy-wide and poverty impacts of a US$36 million investment in tourism in the south of Haiti. The first social accounting matrix for Haiti with a base year of 2012/2013 was constructed to calibrate the model. This research addresses three key gaps identified in the tourism impact assessment literature. First, a destination-specific tourism demand and value chain ...

  8. Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti

    Jeffrey McNeely

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

  9. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

  10. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  11. Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming

    Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

  12. Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsitus Green, in Haiti

    Full text: The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsitus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), very likely originated from Asia and was first observed in the Western Hemisphere in 1994 on the island of Grenada. Since then, the insect has spread to over 31 Caribbean Islands, plus countries in South America, Central America and North America. The PHM is very polyphagous and associated with some 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and trees, and very prolific with up to 500-600 eggs/female. This mealybug was introduced into the American continent without its natural enemies and has the potential of rapidly becoming a very serious threat to the agricultural industry and the environment of the region. In Haiti, the PHM was observed for the first time in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the capital, in May 2002. In July 2002, in a cooperative effort between the Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, and International Services (USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS), the International Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a biological control programme was developed for Haiti. The first action for the management of the PHM in Haiti was to initiate a public awareness campaign and train local technicians. The PHM biological control programme started with the technical assistance of the USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS, and the support of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture (PRDA), which managed the insectary operation and provided two exotic parasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). From July 2002 to January 2004 Haiti received 180,000 parasitoids from PRDA. In April 2003 the National Association of Mango Exporters of Haiti (ANEM) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) representative in Haiti collectively developed support through the Haiti Ministry of Agriculture in order to establish an insectary to mass-produce locally the exotic parasitoids A. kamali and G. indica. From October 2003 to November 2004, 265,000 parasitoids were mass-produced at the Haiti insectary. These parasitoids were released in Haiti in PHM infested areas at the rate of 200 to 400 individuals per species per site and a distance of about one mile between releases. Six study sites were selected using infested hibiscus plants as field hosts and sampled for about one year in order to monitor the impact of the parasitoids on the population density of PHM. The results of the study indicated a 98% reduction in the PHM population density by the parasitoids, which maintained an average of 14% parasitisation following the mealybug population decline. The PHM has the capability of spreading across the country, but at a reduced rate of distribution since the implementation of this successful biological control programme. The Haiti Ministry of Agriculture continues to survey for new PHM infested areas and is prepared to release parasitoids as necessary to ensure the continued success of the PHM biological control programme. (author)

  13. Model for a national radiation protection infrastructure in Haiti

    Radiation controls took an increasing trend in Haiti. The corresponding trend is in the making of a national authority that will oversee all private and public establishments where ionizing radiation sources are being used on a diagnostic basis or for therapeutic purposes. The primary purpose of this authority is to improve regulatory framework for radiation protection but also to layout mechanisms for controlling sources. With IAEA helps and expertise a national programme is being implemented that will reflect priorities of the international Basic Safety Standard. Our goal in this paper was to provide a model authority based on the legal culture of the country and mindset of healthcare worker. The unique feature of this proposed model is that it places greater emphasis on responding to a health priority, and greater government willingness to have and independent body to regulate every single user of ionizing radiations and this flexible model can be implemented with minimal expenditures for our national budget. The following key services have been identified to provide the needed control mechanism for the Authority: Administrative Affairs Services; Personal Dosimetry Services; Nuclear and Radiological Safety Services; Legal Affairs Services. The possibility to achieve reduction of the exposed x ray workers and to establish a greater discipline in the use nuclear and radiological technology and availability of state of the art technology can be reached only if such a national body is effectively implemented by mean of a national decree therefore abiding all citizens. A basic inventory model is annexed for the purposes of assessing current needs in radiation protection. (author)

  14. CONTESTED STATEHOOD AND STATE-BUILDING IN HAITI Estatalidad en disputa y construccin del Estado en Hait

    STEPHEN BARANYI

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges global and Haiti-specific debates on statehood, the political economy of state and state (de)formation, as well as the conceptualization and measurement of those phenomena. Drawing on data sets and secondary literatures from Haiti and beyond, it argues that despite the unique features of the extremely weak state in Haiti, that case can usefully be compared to the range of weak to fairly strong states in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the process, the article makes a ...

  15. Haiti: Incentives To Improve Basic Education (IIBE)--Project Bilaterial d'Education (PROBED). Midterm Evaluation.

    Locher, Uli; And Others

    Haiti's Incentives to Improve Basic Education (IIBE) or Project Bilteral d'Education (PROBED) program seeks to stimulate improvements in educational quality and efficiency in private primary schools. The program surpasses other efforts because of: (1) unusually thorough preparation; (2) rapid assumption of management by Haitians; (3) a

  16. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where

  17. Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

  18. Who Will be My Brother's Keeper--My First Visit to Haiti

    Tinker Sachs, Gertrude

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her preparations for the Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) professional presentations in Haiti. As a cultural worker, (after Paulo Freire), she was very conscious of the need for care in working with "the Other" especially when the Other is known only from second hand…

  19. Mosquito-Borne Infections in the Aftermath of Hurricane Jeanne— Gonaïves, Haiti, 2004

    Following Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004, surveillance for mosquito-borne diseases in Gonaïves Haiti identified three patients with malaria, two with acute dengue infections, and two with acute West Nile virus infections among 116 febrile patients. These are the first reported human West Nile vi...

  20. Rebuilding Haiti's Educational Access: A Phenomenological Study of Technology Use in Education Delivery

    Sandiford, Gladwyn A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of access to technology blended with face-to-face instruction and learning in Haiti. Despite this lack of access, some Haitian college students have nevertheless leveraged technology to overcome the obstacles of poverty and obtain a higher education. This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 adult…

  1. Plasmodium falciparum K76T pfcrt Gene Mutations and Parasite Population Structure, Haiti, 2006–2009

    Charles, Macarthur; Das, Sanchita; Daniels, Rachel; Kirkman, Laura; Delva, Glavdia G.; Destine, Rodney; Escalante, Ananias; Villegas, Leopoldo; Daniels, Noah M.; Shigyo, Kristi; Volkman, Sarah K.; Pape, Jean W.

    2016-01-01

    Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006–2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites. Direct sequencing of the pfcrt resistance locus and single-nucleotide polymorphism barcoding did not definitively identify a resistant population, suggesting that sustained propagation of chloroquine-resistant parasites was not occurring in Haiti during the study period. Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population with highly related parasites. Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, raising the possibility that reported cases may be of exogenous origin. PMID:27089479

  2. Haiti: uma reconstrução em pedaços

    Thiago Gehre Galvão

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O fantasma do passado colonial, juntamente com o oportunismo e o pragmatismo da ajuda humanitária internacional produzem ações desencontradas no processo de reconstrução do Haiti após o terremoto.

  3. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Haiti

    Jacobson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 persons have disabilities in Haiti, but there are no data that refer specifically to those with intellectual disabilities. Traditional fears and stigma about disability are widespread. While the constitution supports the idea that people with disabilities should have autonomy and education, there are no laws to mandate…

  4. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  5. Plasmodium falciparum K76T pfcrt Gene Mutations and Parasite Population Structure, Haiti, 2006-2009.

    Charles, Macarthur; Das, Sanchita; Daniels, Rachel; Kirkman, Laura; Delva, Glavdia G; Destine, Rodney; Escalante, Ananias; Villegas, Leopoldo; Daniels, Noah M; Shigyo, Kristi; Volkman, Sarah K; Pape, Jean W; Golightly, Linnie M

    2016-05-01

    Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006-2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites. Direct sequencing of the pfcrt resistance locus and single-nucleotide polymorphism barcoding did not definitively identify a resistant population, suggesting that sustained propagation of chloroquine-resistant parasites was not occurring in Haiti during the study period. Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population with highly related parasites. Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, raising the possibility that reported cases may be of exogenous origin. PMID:27089479

  6. Bringing HOPE to Haiti's Apparel Industry : Improving Competitiveness through Factory-level

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In October 2008 the United States Congress enacted legislation that gave the Republic of Haiti expanded, flexible access to the U.S. market for its apparel exports. The Second Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement act of 2008 (HOPE II, updated from the original legislation passed in 2006) was welcomed for its potential to revitalize a decaying industry, attract new ...

  7. Travel Health Alert Notices and Haiti Cholera Outbreak, Florida, USA, 2011

    Selent, Monica U.; McWhorter, Amanda; De Rochars, Valery M. Beau; Myers, Rebecca; Hunter, David W.; Brown, Clive M.; Cohen, Nicole J.; Molinari, Noelle A.; Warwar, Kirsten; Robbins, Danisha; Heiman, Katherine E.; Newton, Anna E.; Schmitz, Ann; Oraze, Michael J.; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    To enhance the timeliness of medical evaluation for cholera-like illness during the 2011 cholera outbreak in Hispaniola, printed Travel Health Alert Notices (T-HANs) were distributed to travelers from Haiti to the United States. Evaluation of the T-HANs’ influence on travelers’ health care–seeking behavior suggested T-HANs might positively influence health care–seeking behavior.

  8. Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Diamond, Ulrica; Kracalik, Ian T.; Widmer, Jocelyn; Brown, Will; Morrissey, B. David; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Curtis, Andrew J; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions.

  9. Building damage assessment after the earthquake in Haiti using two postevent satellite stereo imagery and DSMs

    Tian, Jiaojiao; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Reinartz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel after-disaster building damage monitoring method is presented. This method combines the multispectral imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) from stereo matching of two dates to obtain three kinds of changes: collapsed buildings, newly built buildings and temporary she...... changes after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the obtained results are further evaluated both visually and numerically....

  10. A Review of Gender Issues in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica

    World Bank, (WB)

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the effect of gender on socio-economic outcomes in three Caribbean countries: the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica. Organized in three separate country notes, it covers: demographics, health and reproductive health, violence, education, labor and agriculture. The report is part of a large effort aimed at establishing a strategic social agenda in the region. Many o...

  11. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  12. Sexual Violence and Reproductive Health among Youth in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry

    2008-01-01

    We examine sexual violence and reproductive health outcomes among sexually experienced youth in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control methodology to identify participants in locations where sexual partnerships are formed. Sexual violence is common and is significantly associated with condom use, pregnancy experience and recent STI symptoms.

  13. The RNA-binding protein quaking maintains endothelial barrier function and affects VE-cadherin and β-catenin protein expression.

    de Bruin, Ruben G; van der Veer, Eric P; Prins, Jurriën; Lee, Dae Hyun; Dane, Martijn J C; Zhang, Huayu; Roeten, Marko K; Bijkerk, Roel; de Boer, Hetty C; Rabelink, Ton J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van Gils, Janine M

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of endothelial cell-cell contacts is essential for physiological functioning of the endothelium. Interendothelial junctions are actively involved in the control of vascular leakage, leukocyte diapedesis, and the initiation and progression of angiogenesis. We found that the RNA-binding protein quaking is highly expressed by endothelial cells, and that its expression was augmented by prolonged culture under laminar flow and the transcription factor KLF2 binding to the promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that quaking directly binds to the mRNA of VE-cadherin and β-catenin and can induce mRNA translation mediated by the 3'UTR of these genes. Reduced quaking levels attenuated VE-cadherin and β-catenin expression and endothelial barrier function in vitro and resulted in increased bradykinin-induced vascular leakage in vivo. Taken together, we report that quaking is essential in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our results provide novel insight into the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling vascular integrity. PMID:26905650

  14. Tsunami scenarios and hazard assessment along the northern coast of Haiti

    Gailler, A.; Calais, E.; Hébert, H.; Roy, C.; Okal, E.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here, we investigate the impact of three possible earthquake scenarios, consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 min between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative maps of run-up heights that can be transferred, with added factors of safety, into practical implementation for tsunami preparedness and protection.

  15. Tissue slices in the study of lung metabolism and toxicology.

    Freeman, B.A.; O'Neil, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Lung tissue slices are model systems for the study of pulmonary metabolism. Because of the speed and simplicity of slice preparation, lung slices have been used in studies of oxygen, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid utilization and adenine nucleotide metabolism. Dose-response characteristics for toxicants are readily described because multiple lung samples can be studied from the same animal or a population of animals. Lung slices prepared from animals exposed to oxidant air pollutants exhi...

  16. On the Reliability of the Geomagnetic Quake as Short Time Earthquake Precursor for Sofia Region- 2002, 2003

    Mavrodiev, S C

    2004-01-01

    The local when earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic quakes and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately +/-1 day and for the maximum- +/-2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2003 for Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local when, where earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information as well as other precursory information is essential.

  17. Skopje and Sofia 2005 Earthquake and Geomagnetic data and the Geomagnetic Quake as Imminent Reliable Earthquakes Precursor

    Mavrodiev, S C

    2006-01-01

    The imminent WHEN earthquake predictions are based on the correlation between geomagnetic quakes and the incoming minimum (or maximum) of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the incoming earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately one day and for the maximum- two days. The statistic evidence for reliability is based on of distributions of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2005 for Sofia region and 2004- 2005 for Skopje. The project for complex Balkan- Black Sea region NETWORK for earthquake prediction by using the reliable precursors will be proposed in near future. The Project is based on the temporary data acquisition system for preliminary archiving, testing, visualizing and analyzing of the data with aim to prepare regional daily risk estimation.

  18. Quaking neutron star deriving radiative power of oscillating magneto-dipole emission from energy of Alfv\\'en seismic vibrations

    Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Yu, J W

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that depletion of the magnetic field pressure in a quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Highlighted is the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfv\\'en vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods due to magnetic field decay are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

  19. Torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking neutron star restored by combined forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses

    Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Molodtsova, I V; Podgainy, D V

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of Newtonian magneto-solid-mechanics, relied on equations appropriate for a perfectly conducting elastic continuous medium threaded by a uniform magnetic field, an asteroseismic model of a neutron star undergoing global differentially rotational, torsional, nodeless vibrations under the combined action of Hooke's elastic and Lorentz magnetic forces is considered with emphasis on toroidal Alfven mode. The obtained spectral equation for frequency is applied to l-pole identification of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux during flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Our calculations suggest that detected QPOs can be consistently interpreted as produced by global torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking magnetar if they are considered to be restored by joint action of bulk forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses.

  20. On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region

    S. Cht. Mavrodiev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local 'when, where' earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth's surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information, as well as other precursory information, is essential.

  1. Quaking promotes monocyte differentiation into pro-atherogenic macrophages by controlling pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression

    de Bruin, Ruben G.; Shiue, Lily; Prins, Jurriën; de Boer, Hetty C.; Singh, Anjana; Fagg, W. Samuel; van Gils, Janine M.; Duijs, Jacques M. G. J.; Katzman, Sol; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O.; Böhringer, Stefan; Leung, Wai Y.; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Donahue, John P.; van der Zande, Patrick H.J.; Sijbom, Rick; van Alem, Carla M. A.; Bot, Ilze; van Kooten, Cees; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Esch, Hilde; Rabelink, Ton J.; Kazan, Hilal; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Ares Jr., Manuel; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of inflammatory diseases is the excessive recruitment and influx of monocytes to sites of tissue damage and their ensuing differentiation into macrophages. Numerous stimuli are known to induce transcriptional changes associated with macrophage phenotype, but posttranscriptional control of human macrophage differentiation is less well understood. Here we show that expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes and early human atherosclerotic lesions, but are abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Depletion of QKI protein impairs monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, reveal striking changes in QKI-dependent messenger RNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. The biological importance of these transcripts and requirement for QKI during differentiation illustrates a central role for QKI in posttranscriptionally guiding macrophage identity and function. PMID:27029405

  2. The norwegian approach to peace : an analysis of the norwegian conflict preventive involvement between Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    2005-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to examine how the Norwegian Ministry of foreign affairs (MFA) in cooperation with Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) has contributed to preventive conflict resolution through dialogues and negotiations between parties in a possible future conflict situation. The Norwegian involvement in the current peace process between Haiti and the Dominican Republic has constituted the basic case study of this project. The conflict between Haiti and the Dominican Republ...

  3. Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

  4. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  5. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  6. Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes

    1995-01-01

    A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners.

  7. Slice Energy and Theories of Gravitation

    Cotsakis, Spiros

    2005-01-01

    We review recent work on the use of the slice energy concept in generalized theories of gravitation. We focus on two special features in these theories, namely, the energy exchange between the matter component and the scalar field generated by the conformal transformation to the Einstein frame of such theories and the issue of the physical equivalence of different conformal frame representations. We show that all such conformally-related, generalized theories of gravitation allow for the slic...

  8. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  9. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  10. Interannual and intra-annual variability of rainfall in Haiti (1905-2005)

    Moron, Vincent; Frelat, Romain; Jean-Jeune, Pierre Karly; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    The interannual variability of annual and monthly rainfall in Haiti is examined from a database of 78 rain gauges in 1905-2005. The spatial coherence of annual rainfall is rather low, which is partly due to Haiti's rugged landscape, complex shoreline, and surrounding warm waters (mean sea surface temperatures >27 °C from May to December). The interannual variation of monthly rainfall is mostly shaped by the intensity of the low-level winds across the Caribbean Sea, leading to a drier- (or wetter-) than-average rainy season associated with easterly (or westerly) anomalies, increasing (or decreasing) winds. The varying speed of low-level easterlies across the Caribbean basin may reflect at least four different processes during the year: (1) an anomalous trough/ridge over the western edge of the Azores high from December to February, peaking in January; (2) a zonal pressure gradient between Eastern Pacific and the tropical Northern Atlantic from May/June to September, with a peak in August (i.e. lower-than-average rainfall in Haiti is associated with positive sea level pressure anomalies over the tropical North Atlantic and negative sea level pressure anomalies over the Eastern Pacific); (3) a local ocean-atmosphere coupling between the speed of the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the Caribbean basin (i.e. colder-than-average SST in the southern Caribbean sea is associated with increased easterlies and below-average rainfall in Haiti). This coupling is triggered when the warmest Caribbean waters move northward toward the Gulf of Mexico; (4) in October/November, a drier- (or wetter-) than-usual rainy season is related to an almost closed anticyclonic (or cyclonic) anomaly located ENE of Haiti on the SW edge of the Azores high. This suggests a main control of the interannual variations of rainfall by intensity, track and/or recurrence of tropical depressions traveling northeast of Haiti. During this period, the teleconnection of Haitian rainfall with synchronous Atlantic and Eastern Pacific SST is at a minimum.

  11. An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program

    Pani, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a method to dynamically slice object-oriented (00) programs based on dependence analysis. It uses the Control Dependency Graph for object program and other static information to reduce the information to be traced during program execution. In this paper we present a method to find the dynamic Slice of object oriented programs where we are finding the slices for object and in case of function overloading.

  12. Complementary nature of surface and atmospheric parameters associated with Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010

    Ramesh P. Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes surface (surface air temperature and atmospheric parameters (relative humidity, surface latent heat flux over the epicenter (18°27´25´´ N 72°31´59´´ W of Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010. Our analysis shows pronounced changes in surface and atmospheric parameters few days prior to the main earthquake event. Changes in relative humidity are found from the surface up to an altitude of 500 hPa clearly show atmospheric perturbations associated with the earthquake event. The purpose of this paper is to show complementary nature of the changes observed in surface, atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The total ozone concentration is found to be lowest on the day of earthquake and afterwards found to be increased within a week of earthquake. The present results show existence of coupling between lithosphere-atmosphere associated with the deadly Haiti earthquake.

  13. [Hepatobiliary fascioliasis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis in domestic animals in Haiti].

    Blaise, J; Raccurt, C P

    2007-12-01

    In Haiti, hepatobiliary fascioliasis and hepatic hydatid cysts cause major economic losses among livestock. Surveys show high prevalence rates for bovine distomatosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (10.7% to 22.78%). Among small ruminants, the prevalence of distomatosis is low (sheep: 3.2%, goats: 0.9%) although Dicrocoelium dendriticum is found in 1.1% of sheep. Hepatic hydatidosis is more common among pigs (5.2%) and sheep (2.1%) than among goats (0.9%) and cattle (0.3%). In the case of dogs, 21% excrete egg-bearing segments in their faeces and 25% harbour Echinococcus granulosus in the small intestine. As a result of local dietary habits (consumption of raw cress), environmental pollution by animal faeces, poverty and poor standards of hygiene in Haiti, these flatworms pose serious health risks to the population, even though this is largely unknown at present. PMID:18293622

  14. Rain Check Application: Mobile tool to monitor rainfall in remote parts of Haiti

    Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Rainfall observations performed uniformly and continuously over a period of time are valuable inputs in developing climate models and predicting events such as floods and droughts. Rain-Check is a mobile application developed in Google App Inventor Platform, for android based smart phones, to allow field researchers to monitor various rain gauges distributed though out remote regions of Haiti and send daily readings via SMS messages for further analysis and long term trending. Rainfall rate and quantity interact with many other factors to influence erosion, vegetative cover, groundwater recharge, stream water chemistry and runoff into streams impacting agriculture and livestock. Rainfall observation from various sites is especially significant in Haiti with over 80% of the country is mountainous terrain. Data sets from global models and limited number of ground stations do not capture the fine-scale rainfall patterns necessary to describe local climate. Placement and reading of rain gauges are critical to accurate measurement of rainfall.

  15. Transboundary Impacts of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Disaster: Focus on Legal Dilemmas in South Florida

    Alka Sapat; Ann-Margaret Esnard

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic disasters affect not just the areas/regions and countries where they strike, but also have transboundary effects and repercussions on neighboring countries, which often serve as receiving areas for displaced survivors. South Florida, for example, served as a receiving area for earthquake survivors after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. To understand the transboundary sociolegal impacts on host communities, we draw theoretical insights from research on transboundary crises and intervie...

  16. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  17. Operational implementation and lessons learned from Haiti's first helicopter air ambulance.

    DeGennaro, Vincent; Owen, Jordan; Chandler, Jerry; McDaniel, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Critical-care helicopter transport has demonstrated improvements in morbidity and mortality to those patients who utilise the service, but this has largely excluded developing country populations due to set up costs. Haiti Air Ambulance is the first completely publicly-available helicopter ambulance service in a developing country. US standards were adopted for both aviation and aeromedical care in Haiti due to proximity and relationships. In order to implement properly, standards for aviation, critical care, and insurance reimbursement had to be put in place with local authorities. Haiti Air Ambulance worked with the Ministry of Health to author standards for medical procedures, medication usage, and staff training for aeromedical programs in the country. Utilisation criteria for the helicopter were drafted, edited, and constantly updated to ensure the program adapted to the clinical situation while maintaining US standard of care. During the first year, 76 patients were transferred; 13 of whom were children and 3 pregnant women. Three patients were intubated and two required bi-level mask ventilation. Traumatic injury and non-emergency interfacility transfers were the two most common indications for service. More than half of the transfers (54%) originated at one of six hospitals, mostly as a result of highly-involved staff. The program was limited by weather and the lack of weather reporting, radar, visual flight recognition, thus also causing an inability to fly at night. In partnership with the government and other non-governmental organisations, we seek to implement a more robust pre-hospital system in Haiti over the next 12-24 months, including more scene call capabilities. PMID:26739767

  18. 77 FR 12201 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Haiti

    2012-02-29

    .... 744 (22 U.S.C. 2752, 2778, 2780, 2791, and 2797); E.O. 11958, 42 FR 4311; 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 79; 22 U.S.C. 2651a; 22 U.S.C. 287c; E.O. 12918, 59 FR 28205; 3 CFR, 1994 Comp., p. 899; Sec. 1225, Pub. L... Part 126 RIN 1400-AD08 Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Haiti...

  19. Sentinel events predicting later unwanted sex among girls: A national survey in Haiti, 2012.

    Sumner, Steven A; Marcelin, Louis H; Cela, Toni; Mercy, James A; Lea, Veronica; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D

    2015-12-01

    Sexual violence against children is a significant global public health problem, yet limited studies exist from low-resource settings. In Haiti we conducted the country's first, nationally representative survey focused on childhood violence to help inform the development of a national action plan for violence against children. The Haiti Violence Against Children Survey was a household-level, multistage, cluster survey among youth age 13-24. In this analysis we sought to determine whether sexual violence sentinel events (unwanted sexual touching or unwanted attempted sex) were predictive of later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex in Haiti. We also sought to explore characteristics of sentinel events and help-seeking behavior among Haitian children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sentinel events and later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex. Overall, 1,457 females reported on experiences of sexual violence occurring in childhood (before age 18). A sentinel event occurred in 40.4% of females who experienced subsequent unwanted completed sex. Females experiencing a sentinel event were approximately two and a half times more likely to experience later unwanted completed sex (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, p=.004) compared to individuals who did not experience a sentinel event. The mean lag time from first sentinel event to first unwanted completed sex was 2.3 years. Only half (54.6%) of children experiencing a sentinel event told someone about their experience of sexual violence. Among children, sentinel events occur frequently before later acts of completed unwanted sex and may represent a useful point of intervention. Reporting of sexual violence by children in Haiti is low and can be improved to better act on sentinel events. PMID:26297488

  20. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Haiti

    Marie-Marcelle Deschamps

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the effectiveness of a program designed to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV at the primary HIV testing and treatment center in Haiti between 1999 and 2004. METHODS: All pregnant, HIV-positive women who attended the major HIV testing and treatment clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, between March 1999 and December 2004 were asked to participate in an MTCT prevention program. Of the 650 women who participated, 73.3% received zidovudine (AZT, 2.9% received nevirapine (NVP, and 10.1% received triple-drug therapy when it became available in 2003 and if clinical/laboratory indications were met. Approximately 13.8% received no antiretroviral medication. All participants received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and infant formula for their children. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log rank test were used to evaluate program impact on child survival. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 348 mother-infant pairs who completed the program to prevent MTCT of HIV. The rate of MTCT in the study was 9.2% (95% CI: 6.14-12.24, in contrast to the historical mother-to-child transmission rate of 27% in Haiti. HIV-positive infants were less likely to survive than HIV-negative infants at 18 months of follow-up (?2 = 19.06, P < .001, log rank test. Infant survival improved with early pediatric diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The MTCT prevention program described proved to be feasible and effective in reducing vertical HIV transmission in Haiti. The authors emphasize the need to expand testing, extend services to rural areas, and implement early HIV diagnosis to reduce infant mortality.

  1. Haiti 1994-95: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    1996-01-01

    These are summary results from the 1994-1995 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey, which covered 4,818 households and 5,356 women aged 15-49 and a subsample of 1,610 men aged 15-59. Tabular data are provided on population characteristics, fertility, current contraceptive use, marital and contraceptive status, postpartum variables, infant mortality, disease prevention and treatment, and nutrition. PMID:8875736

  2. Design of Public-Private Partnership for Waste Management in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti

    Bessonova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Waste management is a growing concern in rapidly urbanizing developing countries and Haiti is noexception. Excessive amounts of improperly discharged waste endangers unique tropical environment, appears to bea reason of fast spread of epidemic diseases, increases risk of floods during the hurricane season and contributes toclimate change. Due to various historical, economic, natural and socio-political reasons, public sector of Haitianstate is not able to provide decent waste management servi...

  3. Costs of Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Haiti

    Goldman, Ann S; Brady, Molly A.; Direny, Abdel; Desir, Luccene; Oscard, Roland; Vely, Jean-Francois; Linehan, Mary; Baker, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cost analysis of Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population neglected tropical disease program, Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negliges and collected data for 9 of 55 communes participating in the May 2008April 2009 mass drug administration (MDA). The Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negliges Program partnered with IMA World Health and Hpital Ste. Croix to implement MDA for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis by using once a year treatme...

  4. New concepts in post-disaster development: Learning from social entrepreneurs in Northern Haiti

    Farny, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Research Objective This research studies social entrepreneurship as a development tool. The motivation stems from the low ability of the hundreds of international organizations to provide tangible solutions for a better life for the local population in the post-disaster situation. The question raised is how social entrepreneurs can support the development of post-disaster Haiti. Social entrepreneurship seems a promising way to acknowledge social opportunities, while applying business pract...

  5. BRDF Slices: Accurate Adaptive Anisotropic Appearance Acquisition

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Haindl, Michal; Žid, Pavel; Krupička, Mikuláš; Havran, V.

    New York : IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services, 2013, s. 1468-1473. ISBN 978-0-7695-4990-3. ISSN 2160-7508. [Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Portland, OR (US), 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: EC FP7, European Reintegration Grant(BE) 239294 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF slices * adaptive anisotropic material appearance * measurement device Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/filip-0393865.pdf

  6. TRANSFORM DOMAIN SLICE BASED DISTRIBUTED VIDEO CODING

    SAMIR BELHOUARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed video coding depends heavily on the virtual channel model. Due to the limitations of the side information estimation one stationary model does not properly describe the virtual channel. In this work the correlation noise is modelled per slice to obtain location-specific correlation noise model. The resulting delay from the lengthy Slepian-Wolf (SW codec input is also reduced by reducing the length of SW codec input. The proposed solution does not impose any extra complexity, it utilizes the existing resources. The results presented here support the proposed algorithm.

  7. Multi-slice imAGe generation using intra-slice paraLLel imaging and Inter-slice shifting (MAGGULLI).

    Kim, Dongchan; Seo, Hyunseok; Oh, Changheun; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2016-02-21

    For acceleration of imaging time, multi-band imaging techniques (e.g. CAIPIRINHA) use the sensitivity differences of the multi-channel RF coils in the slice selection direction. To more effectively utilize the RF coil characteristics than the conventional multi-band imaging techniques, we propose a new imaging technique, called multi-slice image generation using intra-slice parallel imaging and inter-slice shifting (MAGGULLI). The proposed technique used an inter-slice shifting gradient in slice selection direction to make multi-slice images shift in the frequency encoding direction. Thus, aliasing caused by sub-sampling in the phase encoding direction is orthogonal to that by multi-band imaging with the inter-slice shifting, both of which are resolved by using the sensitivity information of the RF coil. Phantom and in vivo imaging experiments for the acceleration factors up to 10 demonstrate that the quality of the images reconstructed by MAGGULLI are better than that of CAIPIRINHA for high acceleration factors in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. PMID:26836647

  8. In the Aftermath of Haiti's Earthquake: A Discussion of Lessons Learned

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti brought massive devastation to that country (see Figure 1). In this week's issue of Eos, three noted seismologists respond to questions from Eos senior writer Randy Showstack in a news roundtable format. Paul Mann, senior research scientist with the Institute for Geophysics at the University of Texas at Austin, has just returned from Haiti, where he and a colleague worked on a fault rupture survey; they plan to conduct an offshore fault survey soon. Glen Mattioli, professor of geosciences at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, has been part of a team conducting a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Haiti to measure ground deformation following the earthquake and to install a number of continuous GPS sites to examine after slip, viscoelastic relaxation, and the time return to interseismic deformation (see Figure 2). Work by Mann, Mattioli, and their colleagues has been supported through a U.S. National Science Foundation Rapid Response Research (RAPID) proposal grant provided to Purdue University, with Eric Calais serving as principal investigator. Carol Prentice, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Team, has been conducting paleoseismic research on the active faults in the Caribbean region since 1991, including projects on Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Jamaica.

  9. Letter to the Editor : Rapidly-deployed small tent hospitals: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti.

    Rosen, Y.; Gurman , P.; Verna, E.; Elman , N.; Labor, E. (Materials Science Division); (Superior NanoBioSystems LLC); (Fast Israeli Rescue & Search Team); (Clinique Adonai); (Mass. Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Haifa)

    2012-06-01

    The damage to medical facilities resulting form the January 2010 earthquake in haiti necessitated the establishment of field tent hospitals. Much of the local medical infrastructure was destroyed or limited operationally when the Fast Israel Rescue and Search Team (FIRST) arrived in Haiti shortly after the January 2010 earthquake. The FIRST deployed small tent hospitals in Port-au-Prince and in 11 remote areas outside of the city. Each tent was set up in less than a half hour. The tents were staffed with an orthopedic surgeon, gynecologists, primary care and emergency care physicians, a physician with previous experience in tropical medicine, nurses, paramedics, medics, and psychologists. The rapidly deployable and temporary nature of the effort allowed the team to treat and educate, as well as provide supplies for, thousands of refugees throughout Haiti. In addition, a local Haitian physician and his team created a small tent hospital to serve the Petion Refugee Camp and its environs. FIRST personnel also took shifts at this hospital.

  10. Monitoring of Ecological Restoration at the Central Quake-Hit Areas of Wenchuan Earthquake Using RS & GIS Remote Sensing

    Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Sichuan earthquake, occurred on 12 May 2008 with a magnitude of 8.0 and the center at Wenchuan (31.021N, 103.367E), has not only caused a large number of human casualties and property loss, but also severely damaged the ecological system in its surrounding 10 counties, threatening the local ecological safety. As part of the post-disaster reconstruction services, a systematic monitoring of the ecological restoration at the central quake-hit areas has been made based on RS & GIS remote sensing. In this paper we selected the Dujiangyan area for analysis. The reason to select this region is because that Dujiangyan area is about 40 km from the epicenter, and as a region in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, it has a well developed forest ecosystem in the northern part before the earth quake. The coverage of grassland in this region is relatively less. Since the ecological restoration after the earthquake is a long term process, the restoration for different vegetation types has different characteristics. From the analysis of the spatiotemporal change of land-use and vegetation cover in Dujiangyan area from the post-earthquake in 2008 to 2013, we found: (1) During the earthquake, the major vegetation type destroyed is the woodland, which accounts for 99.34% of the destroyed area, and the next are arable land and grassland. (2) The ecological restoration started from the grassland and gradually transited to shrub. In two years after the earthquake, the most significant increase in both area of coverage and magnitude is the grassland, and by 2013, the area of grassland decreased slightly, and instead the area of shrub increased, demonstrating a transition trend from the grassland to the shrub. (3) From the map of vegetation cover, we can see these change occurs mainly in the northern mountain area, while the change of land use mainly occurred in the southern part of the city. These changes can be linked clearly with the earthquake disaster and the post- reconstruction human activities.

  11. AMBER: a PIC slice code for DARHT

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Fawley, William

    1999-11-01

    The accelerator for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will produce a 4-kA, 20-MeV, 2-? s output electron beam with a design goal of less than 1000 ? mm-mrad normalized transverse emittance and less than 0.5-mm beam centroid motion. In order to study the beam dynamics throughout the accelerator, we have developed a slice Particle-In-Cell code named AMBER, in which the beam is modeled as a time-steady flow, subject to self, as well as external, electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. The code follows the evolution of a slice of the beam as it propagates through the DARHT accelerator lattice, modeled as an assembly of pipes, solenoids and gaps. In particular, we have paid careful attention to non-paraxial phenomena that can contribute to nonlinear forces and possible emittance growth. We will present the model and the numerical techniques implemented, as well as some test cases and some preliminary results obtained when studying emittance growth during the beam propagation.

  12. Copper sensitivity in dorsal hippocampus slices.

    Leiva, J; Palestini, M; Tetas, M; López, J

    2000-04-01

    The action of copper on the pyramidal neurons in CA1 of the hippocampus is little understood. Our main aim was to study the possible interaction of copper on the synaptic network in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We used Wistar rats hippocampus slices in a recording chamber. The population response ("population of spikes") collected by an extracellular micropipette under baseline conditions served as control. Copper, GABA, bicuculline and picrotoxin were delivered in different experimental conditions to the slice. One, 10 and 100 microM of copper concentration decreased significantly the amplitude and duration of the population spikes in relation to the control response. This effect did not show concentration dependency. Copper in bicuculline medium decreased significantly the duration response in relation to the control response and in relation to copper effect in a free bicuculline medium. This phenomenon emphasizes the copper action on the GABA (B) and (C) receptors. Copper in a picrotoxin medium increased significantly the excitability of the response. This new effect suggests that copper acts on non-GABA receptors, an effect that could be detected when the GABA receptors were inactivated. As a result of these findings it appears that, under our experimental conditions, copper generated transient sensitivity changes in pyramidal neurons of CA1 dorsal hippocampus. PMID:10782257

  13. Stark effect on a geometry defined by a cake' slice

    Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

    2005-01-01

    By using a variational calculation, we study the effect of an external applied electric field on the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum box with a geometry defined by a slice of a cake. This geometry is a first approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). By modeling the tip with the slice, we calculate the electronic ground state energy as function of the slice's diameter, its angular aperture, its thickness and the intensity of the external electric field applied along the slice. For the applied field pointing to the wider part of the slice, a confining electronic effect in the opposite side is clearly observed. This effect is sharper as the angular slice's aperture is smaller and there is more radial space to manifest itself.

  14. Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling

    Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

  15. Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care.

    Jacobs, Lee D; Judd, Thomas M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates in Haiti are the highest in the Western Hemisphere, with rates similar to those found in Afghanistan and several African countries. We identify several factors that have perpetuated this health care crisis and summarize the literature highlighting the most cost-effective, evidence-based interventions proved to decrease these mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries.To create a major change in Haiti's health care infrastructure, we are implementing two strategies that are unique for low-income countries: development of a countrywide network of geographic "community care grids" to facilitate implementation of frontline interventions, and the construction of a centrally located referral and teaching hospital to provide specialty care for communities throughout the country. This hospital strategy will leverage the proximity of Haiti to North America by mobilizing large numbers of North American medical volunteers to provide one-on-one mentoring for the Haitian medical staff. The first phase of this strategy will address the child and maternal health crisis.We have begun implementation of these evidence-based strategies that we believe will fast-track improvement in the child and maternal mortality rates throughout the country. We anticipate that, as we partner with private and public groups already working in Haiti, one day Haiti's health care system will be among the leaders in that region. PMID:26934625

  16. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938703

  17. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. Revolution during storage at 5?C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil?; 5?C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 ?L L1 respectively (5?C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

  18. Eigenmodes of seismic elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares

    Bastrukov, Sergey; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-Ting

    2007-01-01

    The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional seismic elastic vibrations trapped in the crust of quaking neutron star is outlined. The spectral equations for the frequency of these modes are obtained and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis is heavily relied on the currently accepted identification of the QPOs frequency from the range [30-200] Hz with those for torsional nodeless vibrations. Based on this identification, which is used to fix the input parameters entering the obtained spectral formulae, we compute frequency spectrum of nodeless spheroidal elastic vibrations. Focus is placed on the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that QPOs with frequencies 18 Hz and 26 Hz are due to dipole spheroidal and dipole torsional shear vibrations of the crust a...

  19. Nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking neutron star

    Bastrukov, S I; Molodtsova, I V; Takata, J

    2008-01-01

    The two-component, core-crust, model of a neutron star with homogenous internal and dipolar external magnetic field is studied responding to quake-induced perturbation by substantially nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of the perfectly conducting crustal matter about axis of fossil magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. The energy variational method of the magneto-solid-mechanical theory of a viscoelastic perfectly conducting medium pervaded by magnetic field is utilized to compute the frequency and lifetime of nodeless torsional vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma about the dipole magnetic-moment axis of the star. It is found that obtained two-parametric spectral formula for the frequency of this toroidal Alfven mode provides fairly accurate account of rapid oscillations of the X-ray flux during the flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14, supporting the investigated conjecture that these quasi-periodic oscillations owe its origin to axisymmetric torsional oscillations predomina...

  20. Structure-function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J. [MSKCC; (Rockefeller)

    2013-09-27

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins.

  1. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 102.8 to 105.8 SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  2. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  3. Reality, No Matter How You Slice It

    Wharton, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In order to reject the notion that information is always about something, the "It from Bit" idea relies on the nonexistence of a realistic framework that might underly quantum theory. This essay develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical statistical mechanics). The "It from Bit" argument against a spacetime-based reality must then somehow defend the importance of dynamical laws, even as it denies a reality on which such fundamental laws could operate.

  4. Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine

    Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PINEAPPLE SLICES TREATED WITH ANTIBROWNING AGENTS

    The physiological responses of pineapple slices to antibrowning agents have been studied. Slices were immersed for 2 minutes in solutions of Isoascorbic acid (IAA) 0.1 M, ascorbic acid (AA) 0.05 M or acetyl cysteine (AC) 0.05 M, packaged in polystyrene trays, prior to storage for up to 14 days at 1...

  6. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.; Hansen, J.; Sabourin, David; Dimaki, Maria; Kokaia, M.; Dufva, Martin; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Emnéus, Jenny; Heiskanen, Arto

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  7. High-resolution spatial analysis of cholera patients reported in Artibonite department, Haiti in 2010–2011

    Maya Allan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion/significance: These findings demonstrate the value of high-resolution mapping for pinpointing locations most affected by cholera, and in the future could help prioritize the places in need of interventions such as improvement of sanitation and vaccination. The findings also describe spatio-temporal transmission patterns of the epidemic in a cholera-naïve country such as Haiti. By identifying transmission hubs, it is possible to target prevention strategies that, over time, could reduce transmission of the disease and eventually eliminate cholera in Haiti.

  8. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program.

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  9. High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Sealfon Rachel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x; four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961, 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

  10. Transpressional rupture of an unmapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Calais, Éric

    2010-10-24

    On 12 January 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti. The disaster killed more than 200,000 people and caused an estimated $8 billion in damages, about 100% of the country?s gross domestic product. The earthquake was initially thought to have ruptured the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault of the southern peninsula of Haiti, which is one of two main strike-slip faults inferred to accommodate the 2cmyr -1 relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates. Here we use global positioning system and radar interferometry measurements of ground motion to show that the earthquake involved a combination of horizontal and contractional slip, causing transpressional motion. This result is consistent with the long-term pattern of strain accumulation in Hispaniola. The unexpected contractional deformation caused by the earthquake and by the pattern of strain accumulation indicates present activity on faults other than the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We show that the earthquake instead ruptured an unmapped north-dipping fault, called the Léogâne fault. The Léogâne fault lies subparallel tog-but is different fromg-the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We suggest that the 2010 earthquake may have activated the southernmost front of the Haitian fold-and-thrust belt as it abuts against the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. As the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault did not release any significant accumulated elastic strain, it remains a significant seismic threat for Haiti and for Port-au-Prince in particular. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (?=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (?=-0.05, ppsychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings. PMID:25950916

  12. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  13. Comparison of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) generated from 4-slice and 64-slice helical CT scanners, a phantom study

    Full text: Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated from CT data sets and playa vital role for verifying patient position for many radiotherapy treatments. The present study aimed to investigate the impact on the image quality of DRRs due to changes in the original CT data acquisition; specifically a 4-slice CT scanner and a 64-slice CT scanner have been considered. A specifically designed CT simulation phantom (Nuclear Associates Model 76--417) with test patterns to measure low contrast and modulation transfer function (MTF) was used to evaluate DRR characteristics for Siemens Somatom Sensation 4 and Sensation 64 CT scanners. The phantom was scanned as described in the manufacturer's manual, using the departmental protocol for head CT. The CT images were obtained with 120 kV, 300 mAs, a scanning and reconstruction pitch of I and collimation of I mm. Each of the test patterns from the DRRs was compared for the 4-slice and the 64-slice helical scans. Results The calculated relative MTF (RMTF) showed higher spatial resolution for DRRs generated from 64-slice scans compared with 4-slice scans, Fig. 1. The low contrast values for hole diameter patterns on the DRRs ranged from 0.01-8.04% for 64 slice scans and 0.06-6.15% for 4 slice scans.

  14. Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (Haiti). A Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning

    Molina Palacios, Sergio; Torres Fernández, Yolanda; Moise, Junie; Benito Oterino, Belen

    2011-01-01

    The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital. The earthquake occurred in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North American plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward...

  15. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  16. Negative affect predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms in Brazilian volunteer United Nations peacekeepers in Haiti.

    Souza, Wanderson F; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Mendona-de-Souza, Ana C; Duarte, Antnio F A; Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mari, Jair J; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2008-11-01

    Our study evaluated the relationship between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) traits on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among peacekeepers. A longitudinal study with 138 army personnel deployed to a peacekeeping mission in Haiti was conducted. An instrument for measuring PA and NA traits was used before deployment. PTSS, indexed by posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist--Military Version (PCL-M) and frequency of stressful situations were measured after return. Regression analysis showed that both NA and number of stressful situations contributed toward increasing PCL-M scores (Adjusted R = 0.25; p peacekeepers and also worsen the consequences of being exposed to stressful situations. PMID:19008738

  17. Stabilization as the securitization of Peacebuilding? The experience of Brazil and MINUSTAH in Haiti

    Thomaz Alexandre Mayer Napoleo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledgement that many vulnerable societies relapse into violence in the aftermath of the withdrawal of peacekeeping operations has underscored the imperative of developing sustainable exit strategies. Stabilization has hence emerged as a possible means to promote short-term security while avoiding direct political responsibility over complex crises, but the meaning of the term and its consequences remain disputed. The aim of this contribution is to examine the conceptual, academic and diplomatic debate over the concept of stabilization in peace operations by addressing the case of the United Nations Mission for the Stabilization of Haiti (MINUSTAH, and Brazils multidimensional role in it.

  18. Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    van Herp Michel; Ford Nathan; Ponsar Frédérique; Mancini Silvia; Bachy Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care. Household heads from 945 househ...

  19. Performance and utility of a rapid diagnostic test for cholera: notes from Haiti.

    Boncy, Jacques; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Dahourou, Georges; Hast, Marisa; Buteau, Josiane; Stanislas, Magalie; Moffett, Daphne; Bopp, Cheryl; Balajee, S Arunmozhi

    2013-08-01

    The present study details work done at the National Public Health Laboratory in Haiti (LNSP), comparing the results of a cholera rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with culture-based methods. As of October 21, 2011, 644 specimens were tested by both RDT and culture-based method at the LNSP. The sensitivity and specificity of RDT were 95% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 89% and negative predictive value of 91%. In resource-limited settings, the RDT has good utility and should be considered as part of the laboratory testing algorithm. PMID:23886437

  20. Making a difference: CRNAs aboard the USNS Comfort respond to the disaster in Haiti.

    Thomas, Shervette

    2010-08-01

    The devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, resulted in massive destruction and human suffering that captured attention worldwide. This column details the experiences shared by the anesthesia department aboard the USNS Comfort. A total of 843 urgent and emergent surgical cases were completed. The mission included cooperation of both military and civilian anesthesia providers. The level of devastation and trauma provided an experience unparalleled by most trauma units and will forever be etched in the minds of those who responded. PMID:20879625

  1. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  2. Project experimentale sur le bilinguisme Creole-Francais au niveau de l' enseignement primaire en Haiti (Experimental Project on Creole-French Bilingualism at the Primary Level in Haiti).

    de Ronceray, Hubert; Petit-Frere, Serge

    1975-01-01

    This is a progress report on the first year of an experimental bilingual education project for primary education in Haiti, sponsored by the Centre Haitien d' Investigation en Sciences Sociales (CHISS), The center's goal was to carry out a scientific project, to secure the facts from emotional and political prejudice. The point is to show the

  3. A simple and inexpensive slicer for preparation of brain slices.

    Pai, K S; Shankar, S K; Ravindranath, V

    1991-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive slicer has been developed for the preparation of slices of mouse or rat brain. The instrument consists of razor blades, separated by an 0.5 mm thick polyethylene sheet (1 x 1 cm), mounted on metal screws through a hole in the center of the polyethylene sheet. Using this slicer, 6-8 uniform slices of 500 microns thickness were obtained from mouse or rat brain. These brain slices were incubated in a medium consisting of artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 1 h at 37 degrees C under an oxygen atmosphere and the activities of various subcellular marker enzymes were assayed. The slice weights and the activities of the enzymes did not vary significantly in different batches of slices. Morphological evaluation of the slices revealed well-preserved neurons. Histochemical staining for mitochondrial enzymes revealed intense staining of neuronal cells and lighter staining of the white matter in all the regions examined. These slices could serve as a useful in vitro model for studying brain function and the effect of various toxicants on the brain. PMID:1719306

  4. Mathematical modeling on vacuum drying of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices

    Lee, Jun Ho; Zuo, Li

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer vacuum drying behavior of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 50, 60, and 70 °C and the mathematical models were used to fit the thin-layer vacuum drying of Z. jujuba slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. The drying rate was found to increase with temperature, thereby reducing the total drying time. It was found that Z. jujuba slices with thickness of 4 mm would be dried up to 0.08 k...

  5. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P???0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10% salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P???0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  6. Utilizing Task Shifting to Increase Access to Maternal and Infant Health Interventions: A Case Study of Midwives for Haiti.

    Floyd, Barbara O'Malley; Brunk, Nadene

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of health workers worldwide has been identified as a barrier to achieving targeted health goals. Task shifting has been recommended by the World Health Organization to increase access to trained and skilled birth attendants. One example of task shifting is the use of cadres of health care workers, such as nurses and auxiliary nurse-midwives, who can successfully deliver skilled care to women and infants in low-resource areas where women would otherwise lack access to critical health interventions during the childbearing years. Midwives for Haiti is an organization demonstrating the use of task shifting in its education program for auxiliary midwives. Graduates of the Midwives for Haiti education program are employed and working with women in hospitals, birth centers, and clinics across Haiti. This article reviews the Midwives for Haiti education program and presents successes and challenges in task shifting as a strategy to increase access to skilled maternal and newborn care and to meet international health goals to reduce maternal and infant mortality in a low-resource country. PMID:26824199

  7. Te Tremble: An Unnatural Disaster--A Trial Role Play Probes the Roots of Devastation in Haiti

    Sanchez, Adam

    2011-01-01

    When the author first heard that the earthquake that hit Haiti destroyed entire Haitian cities and killed more than a quarter million people, he was shocked. For him, it was apparent that this was more than a natural disaster. As he learned about the role the U.S. government had played in Haitian affairs--the multiple occupations, the support for…

  8. Post Hurricane Jeanne Mosquito-Borne Infectious Disease Surveillance and Human West Nile Virus Infection in Haiti in 2004

    We established laboratory-based fever surveillance in the three clinics providing health care in Gonaives, Haiti following Hurricane Jeanne in 2004. Patients who were febrile (temperature > 38.5° C) at the time of presentation were asked to provide blood for a serum sample and thick and thin malari...

  9. Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.

    Clover, A James P

    2011-06-01

    After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

  10. Factors Related to Fetal Death in Pregnant Women with Cholera, Haiti, 2011–2014

    2016-03-14

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID article Factors Related to Fetal Death in Pregnant Women with Cholera, Haiti, 2011–2014.  Created: 3/14/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/14/2016.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  12. Democracy as a Human Right: Raymond Joseph, Despotic Haiti, and the Translation of a Rights Discourse, 1965–1969

    Millery Polyné

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Raymond Joseph’s political vision of Haiti between 1965 and 1969, particularly through how he appropriates, links, and frames a human rights discourse that is dependent upon and constitutive of democratic principles of collectivity, popular control, and relative political and economic equality.

  13. Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti

    Elizabeth Wickstrom

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

  14. Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.

    James, Erica Caple

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict. PMID:19836120

  15. The effect of an international embargo on malnutrition and childhood mortality in rural Haiti.

    Reid, Britt C; Psoter, Walter J; Gebrian, Bette; Wang, Min Qi

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of an international embargo against Haiti, from October 1991 through October 1994, on early childhood protein-energy malnutrition and all-cause mortality in a geographic area where humanitarian aid was continuously available to the children in the study. The authors used longitudinal anthropometric records on 1593 children, 24 months old or younger, living in the rural Grand Anse Department of Haiti from 1989 through 1996. Kaplan-Meier graphs for all-cause mortality accounting for malnutrition status and stratified by calendar period were applied to the database and assessed using logrank tests. Adjusted relative risks were assessed by Cox regression. The results show that despite the continuous availability of preventive services (1989-1996), higher all-cause mortality was more strongly associated with a calendar period coinciding with the international embargo than with periods before and after the embargo. The incidence of childhood mortality and of severe malnutrition were also higher during the period of the embargo than in the periods before and after the embargo. The findings suggest that future international sanctions, even those with humanitarian/medical exceptions, could result in substantial infant death. PMID:17844931

  16. Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake

    M. A. Athanasiou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

  17. Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti

    Carter Tamar E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR and sulphadoxine (SDX treatment combination (SP, have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61 of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540 examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59. Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

  18. Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)

    Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer with a Windows operating system (Mac users can use a Windows emulator); and (3) our free QCN game software (available from http://quakeinfo.ucsd.edu/ dkilb/WEB/QCN/Downloads.html).

  19. Employing the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to Investigate Site Effects in Christchurch, New Zealand Using the κ Method

    Neighbors, C.; Liao, E. J.; Cochran, E. S.; Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Christensen, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The 3 September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake was felt over 900 km from the source. The maximum felt-intensity was estimated to be at Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 9 and measured near-field accelerations were found to exceed 1 g. The mainshock damaged or destroyed over 100,000 buildings and spatially variable effects (such as liquefaction, slumping, and amplification) were observed throughout the city of Christchurch. Following the mainshock, a vigorous aftershock sequence has continued for months in the region. To record the aftershocks for early warning and other hazard mitigation efforts, a network of over 192 low-cost, 14-bit accelerometers were deployed in local buildings as part of the Quake-Catcher Network Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP). With a large number of sensors covering a city area of ~300 km2, the RAMP collected vastly more data and at a finer scale relative to the deployment of costly traditional broadband sensors. Recent comparison of the signal-to-noise quality of the 14-bit QCN sensors to the strong motion 24-bit New Zealand GeoNet sensors show similar responses. Initial analyses of the data show that aftershocks of magnitude >M4.5 within 30 km of the hypocentral distance were well recorded by QCN sensors. Utilizing the dense coverage, we investigate local site amplification by analyzing the spectra decay parameter, kappa (κ). Following the routine outlined in Douglas et al. (2010, Pure Appl. Geophys.), whereby a 5-sec S-wave window is used to calculate the Fourier spectra and κ for each station, investigations of κ values between stations are used to estimate site conditions on seismic wave behavior at each location. Results from this study will be compared to work performed by New Zealand researchers using other methods to calculate site response, such as the spectral ratio method. Together, these studies will highlight areas of the Christchurch region that may be more susceptible to ground shaking, which can be used to mitigate loss prior to future large earthquakes.

  20. Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen, E-mail: wli@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector.

  1. On surgery curves for genus one slice knots

    Gilmer, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    If a knot K bounds a genus one Seifert surface F in the 3-sphere and F contains an essential simple closed curve alpha that has induced framing 0 and is smoothly slice, then K is smoothly slice. Conjecturally, the converse holds. It is known that if K is slice, then there are strong constraints on the algebraic concordance class of such alpha, and it was thought that these constraints might imply that alpha is at least algebraically slice. We present a counterexample; in the process we answer negatively a question of Cooper and relate the result to a problem of Kauffman. Results of this paper depend on the interplay between the Casson-Gordon invariants of K and algebraic invariants of alpha.

  2. Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging

    We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector

  3. Continuous slice functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces

    Ghiloni, Riccardo; Perotti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to define a continuous functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces, starting from basic issues regarding the notion of spherical spectrum of a normal operator. As properties of the spherical spectrum suggest, the class of continuous functions to consider in this setting is the one of slice quaternionic functions. Slice functions generalize the concept of slice regular function, which comprises power series with quaternionic coefficients on one side and that can be seen as an effective generalization to quaternions of holomorphic functions of one complex variable. The notion of slice function allows to introduce suitable classes of real, complex and quaternionic $C^*$--algebras and to define, on each of these $C^*$--algebras, a functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators. In particular, we establish several versions of the spectral map theorem. Some of the results are proved also for unbounded operators. However, the mentioned continuous functional calculi are defined o...

  4. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar...... and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato...... chips. Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching...

  5. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  6. Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

  7. Cardiac tissue slices: preparation, handling, and successful optical mapping.

    Wang, Ken; Lee, Peter; Mirams, Gary R; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Borg, Thomas K; Gavaghan, David J; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac tissue slices are becoming increasingly popular as a model system for cardiac electrophysiology and pharmacology research and development. Here, we describe in detail the preparation, handling, and optical mapping of transmembrane potential and intracellular free calcium concentration transients (CaT) in ventricular tissue slices from guinea pigs and rabbits. Slices cut in the epicardium-tangential plane contained well-aligned in-slice myocardial cell strands ("fibers") in subepicardial and midmyocardial sections. Cut with a high-precision slow-advancing microtome at a thickness of 350 to 400 μm, tissue slices preserved essential action potential (AP) properties of the precutting Langendorff-perfused heart. We identified the need for a postcutting recovery period of 36 min (guinea pig) and 63 min (rabbit) to reach 97.5% of final steady-state values for AP duration (APD) (identified by exponential fitting). There was no significant difference between the postcutting recovery dynamics in slices obtained using 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime or blebistatin as electromechanical uncouplers during the cutting process. A rapid increase in APD, seen after cutting, was caused by exposure to ice-cold solution during the slicing procedure, not by tissue injury, differences in uncouplers, or pH-buffers (bicarbonate; HEPES). To characterize intrinsic patterns of CaT, AP, and conduction, a combination of multipoint and field stimulation should be used to avoid misinterpretation based on source-sink effects. In summary, we describe in detail the preparation, mapping, and data analysis approaches for reproducible cardiac tissue slice-based investigations into AP and CaT dynamics. PMID:25595366

  8. Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance

    Xin Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

  9. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) Cloning Method

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15–52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of D...

  10. AIRWAY-PARENCHYMAL INTERDEPENDENCE IN THE LUNG SLICE

    Ma, Baoshun; Sanderson, Michael; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The explanted lung slice has become a popular in vitro system for studying how airways contract. Because the forces of airway-parenchymal interdependence are such important modulators of airway narrowing, it is of significant interest to understand how the parenchyma around a constricting airway in a lung slice behaves. We have previously shown that the predictions of the 2-dimensional distortion field around a constricting airway are substantially different depending on whether the parenchym...

  11. Infrared drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) slices

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different infrared power levels (104, 125, 146 and 167 W) on drying kinetics and rehydration ratio of sweet potato slices was investigated. It was observed that the power levels affected the drying time and rehydration ratio. The increase in infrared power level decreased the drying time. The experimental data obtained from drying study were fitted with Newton, Henderson and Pabis and Logarithmic models to evaluate the drying kinetics of the sweet potato slices. The fit quality ...

  12. Preservation of low slice emittance in bunch compressors

    Bettoni, S.; Aiba, M.; Beutner, B.; Pedrozzi, M.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S.; Schietinger, T.

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing the dilution of the electron beam emittance is crucial for the performance of accelerators, in particular for free electron laser facilities, where the length of the machine and the efficiency of the lasing process depend on it. Measurements performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility revealed an increase in slice emittance after compressing the bunch even for moderate compression factors. The phenomenon was experimentally studied by characterizing the dependence of the effect on beam and machine parameters relevant for the bunch compression. The reproduction of these measurements in simulation required the use of a 3D beam dynamics model along the bunch compressor that includes coherent synchrotron radiation. Our investigations identified transverse effects, such as coherent synchrotron radiation and transverse space charge as the sources of the observed emittance dilution, excluding other effects, such as chromatic effects on single slices or spurious dispersion. We also present studies, both experimental and simulation based, on the effect of the optics mismatch of the slices on the variation of the slice emittance along the bunch. After a corresponding reoptimization of the beam optics in the test facility we reached slice emittances below 200 nm for the central slices along the longitudinal dimension with a moderate increase up to 300 nm in the head and tail for a compression factor of 7.5 and a bunch charge of 200 pC, equivalent to a final current of 150 A, at about 230 MeV energy.

  13. Rapid-Testing Technology and Systems Improvement for the Elimination of Congenital Syphilis in Haiti: Overcoming the Technology to Systems Gap

    Linda Severe; Daphne Benoit; Xi K. Zhou; Pape, Jean W; Peeling, Rosanna W; Daniel W Fitzgerald; Kedar S Mate

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the availability of rapid diagnostic tests and inexpensive treatment for pregnant women, maternal-child syphilis transmission remains a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Haiti, more than 3000 babies are born with congenital syphilis annually. Methods and Findings. From 2007 to 2011, we used a sequential time series, multi-intervention study design in fourteen clinics throughout Haiti to improve syphilis testing and treatment in ...

  14. Radiation exposure in multi-slice versus single-slice spiral CT: results of a nationwide survey

    Multi-slice (MS) technology increases the efficacy of CT procedures and offers new promising applications. The expanding use of MSCT, however, may result in an increase in both frequency of procedures and levels of patient exposure. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to gain an overview of MSCT examinations conducted in Germany in 2001. All MSCT facilities were requested to provide information about 14 standard examinations with respect to scan parameters and frequency. Based on this data, dosimetric quantities were estimated using an experimentally validated formalism. Results are compared with those of a previous survey for single-slice (SS) spiral CT scanners. According to the data provided for 39 dual- and 73 quad-slice systems, the average annual number of patients examined at MSCT is markedly higher than that examined at SSCT scanners (5500 vs 3500). The average effective dose to patients was changed from 7.4 mSv at single-slice to 5.5 mSv and 8.1 mSv at dual- and quad-slice scanners, respectively. There is a considerable potential for dose reduction at quad-slice systems by an optimisation of scan protocols and better education of the personnel. To avoid an increase in the collective effective dose from CT procedures, a clear medical justification is required in each case. (orig.)

  15. Quaking Neutron Stars

    Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

  16. The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault in Haiti: Holocene Offsets and Seismic Hazard

    Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Mann, P.; Gold, R. D.; Hudnut, K. W.; Jean, P.; Briggs, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic M 7.0 Léogâne earthquake of 12 January 2010 in Haiti highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Although the location of the epicenter and preliminary seismologic data suggested the earthquake was likely due to slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault zone (EPGFZ), more detailed analysis and modeling of data show that most, and possibly all, of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, blind thrust fault north of the EPGFZ (Hayes et al., in press; Calais et al., in press). This result implies that only a part of the accumulated plate-boundary strain was released by this earthquake, and that significant hazard still remains associated with the EPGFZ, the primary, plate-boundary strike-slip fault adjacent to Port-au-Prince in southern Haiti. Prior to the 2010 earthquake, this fault zone was known to be a significant plate-boundary fault, but no detailed Quaternary studies of the fault had been done. Geodetic models suggested that it accommodates 7±2 mm/yr of left-lateral slip, and historical accounts suggest it may be the source of at least three major historical earthquakes. Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary fault traces using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LIDAR data. We also conducted a detailed ground-based assessment of the fault in the epicentral area and an aerial reconnaissance of the entire fault in Haiti. The geomorphic expression of the EPGFZ is especially prominent east of the 2010 epicenter where the Rivière Momance and Rivière Froide flow along strike valleys about 10 km south of Port-au-Prince (PAP). Here, the EPGFZ has an average strike of 085 degrees and a near-surface dip of 60-80 degrees south, which contrasts with the 50 degree north-dipping modeled fault for the 12 January earthquake. Along the EPGFZ, we found left-lateral stream offsets that range up to 160 m, indicating repeated left-lateral surface rupture in the Quaternary. We also found a set of nine small left-lateral offsets that range from 1.3-3.3 m along a 12-km-long section of the fault near Port-au-Prince, which are not visible on high-resolution imagery including LiDAR. We associate these small offsets with the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake, which is likely one of two historical earthquakes, in 1770 or 1751. The size range of the offsets implies that the earthquake was larger than M7.0. The lack of surface rupture in 2010 coupled with other seismologic, geologic, and geodetic observations suggest that the 2010 earthquake occurred on a previously unrecognized structure, now referred to as the Léogâne fault, and that the EPGFZ east of the 12 January epicenter remains a significant seismic hazard. Because the main EPGFZ closest to Port-au-Prince did not rupture in 2010, considerable strain remains to be released in an earthquake that poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

  17. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations. PMID:25916602

  18. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  19. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  20. Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

  1. The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

  2. Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser

    2014-05-01

    Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

  3. Factors associated with use of maternal health services in Haiti: a multilevel analysis

    Stella O. Babalola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with utilization of maternal health services (MHS among women giving birth in Haiti from 2007 - 2012. METHODS: Observational data derived from the 2012 Haiti Mortality, Morbidity and Service Use Survey are analyzed. Multilevel analytic methods are used to assess factors associated with use of antenatal services and skilled birth attendance (SBA. RESULTS: The strongest adjusted predictors include child's birth rank, household poverty, and community media saturation. The odds of obtaining four antenatal care visits decrease by 53% (odds ratio (OR = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.37-0.57 with high birth rank and by 37% (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.51-0.78 with household poverty, and increase by 38% (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.01-1.88 with high community media saturation. The odds of using SBA at delivery decrease by 72% (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.22-0.34 with high birth rank and by 42% (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.46-0.73 with household poverty, and increase by 92% (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.41-2.61 with high community media saturation. Use of antenatal services is strongly associated with SBA (OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.85-2.61. Significant clustering of use of MHS exists at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with use of MHS operate at multiple levels. Efforts to promote such services should identify and pay special attention to the needs of multiparous and uneducated women, address the distance-decay phenomenon, and improve access for the poor. Community mobilization efforts designed to change norms hindering the use of MHS are also relevant.

  4. Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

  5. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first two pairs of horizontal vibrational frequencies, which are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. The approach has been applied to a CSN-instrumented 12-story reinforced concrete building near downtown Los Angeles. The frequencies were identified directly from spectra of the 8 August 2012 M4.5 Yorba Linda, California earthquake acceleration time series. When the basic dimensions and the first two frequencies are input into a prismatic Timoshenko beam model of the building, the model yields mode shapes that have been shown to match well with densely recorded data. For the instrumented 12-story building, comparisons of the predictions of responses on other floors using only the record from the 9th floor with actual data from the other floors shows this method to approximate the true response remarkably well.

  6. Rapid and quantitative discrimination of tumour cells on tissue slices.

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wei, Wen-Chun; Hsiao, Pei-Yi; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er

    2016-06-10

    After a needle biopsy, immunohistochemistry is generally used to stain tissue slices for clinically confirming tumours. Currently, tissue slices are immersed in a bioprobe-linked fluorescent reagent for several minutes, washed to remove the unbound reagent, and then observed using a fluorescence microscope. However, the observation must be performed by experienced pathologists, and producing a qualitative analysis is time consuming. Therefore, this study proposes a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference device biosusceptometry (SSB) method for avoiding these drawbacks. First, stain reagents were synthesised for the dual modalities of fluorescent and magnetic imaging by combining iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles and the currently used fluorescent reagent. The reagent for the proposed approach was stained using the same procedure as that for the current fluorescent reagent, and tissue slices were rapidly imaged using the developed SSB for obtaining coregistered optical and magnetic images. Analysing the total intensity of magnetic spots in SSB images enables quantitatively determining the tumour cells of tissue slices. To confirm the magnetic imaging results, a traditional observation methodology entailing the use of a fluorescence microscope was also performed as the gold standard. This study determined high consistency between the fluorescent and magnetic spots in different regions of the tissue slices, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach, which will benefit future clinical pathology. PMID:27138705

  7. Notes on maximal slices of five-dimensional black holes

    We consider maximal slices of the Myers–Perry black hole, the doubly spinning black ring, and the Black Saturn solution. These slices are complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with inner boundaries corresponding to black hole horizons. Although these spaces are simply connected as a consequence of topological censorship, they have non-trivial topology. In this paper we investigate the question of whether the topology of spatial sections of the horizon uniquely determines the topology of the maximal slices. We show that the horizon determines the homological invariants of the slice under certain conditions. The homological analysis is extended to black holes for which explicit geometries are not yet known. We believe that these results could provide insights in the context of proving existence of deformations of this initial data. For the topological slices of the doubly spinning black ring and the Black Saturn we compute the homotopy groups up to dimension 3 and show that their four-dimensional homotopy group is not trivial. (paper)

  8. Fractal Segmentation and Clustering Analysis for Seismic Time Slices

    Ronquillo, G.; Oleschko, K.; Korvin, G.; Arizabalo, R. D.

    2002-05-01

    Fractal analysis has become part of the standard approach for quantifying texture on gray-tone or colored images. In this research we introduce a multi-stage fractal procedure to segment, classify and measure the clustering patterns on seismic time slices from a 3-D seismic survey. Five fractal classifiers (c1)-(c5) were designed to yield standardized, unbiased and precise measures of the clustering of seismic signals. The classifiers were tested on seismic time slices from the AKAL field, Cantarell Oil Complex, Mexico. The generalized lacunarity (c1), fractal signature (c2), heterogeneity (c3), rugosity of boundaries (c4) and continuity resp. tortuosity (c5) of the clusters are shown to be efficient measures of the time-space variability of seismic signals. The Local Fractal Analysis (LFA) of time slices has proved to be a powerful edge detection filter to detect and enhance linear features, like faults or buried meandering rivers. The local fractal dimensions of the time slices were also compared with the self-affinity dimensions of the corresponding parts of porosity-logs. It is speculated that the spectral dimension of the negative-amplitude parts of the time-slice yields a measure of connectivity between the formation's high-porosity zones, and correlates with overall permeability.

  9. [Transport of lithium in rat renal cortex slices].

    Günther, C; Kersten, L; Bräunlich, H

    1983-01-01

    Slices of the renal cortex take up lithium from the incubation medium; this uptake does not follow a saturation kinetics and is demonstrable under aerobic and anaerobic conditions alike. The lithium uptake is associated with a variation of the sodium and potassium content in the slices. These changes are distinguishable from the electrolyte movements caused by the introduction of the slices into the incubation medium. The present findings characterize the lithium uptake into the renal tissue as a passive process. With the in vivo experiments, accumulation of lithium in the renal tissue against the serum should presuppose glomerular filtration and enrichment of lithium in the lumen of the tubuli through processes of urine concentration. In slices of the renal cortex, like in the intact animal the uptake of lithium can be influenced by inhibitors of the renal electrolyte movement. The present findings have provided evidence that lithium enters the tubular cells passively, and that slices of the renal cortex are suited for testing substances acting on the renal handling of lithium. PMID:6314999

  10. Diagnosing Cervical Dysplasia Using Visual Inspection of the Cervix with Acetic Acid in a Woman in Rural Haiti

    Elizabeth Roger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women in developing countries, despite the fact that inexpensive, simple and effective screening methods are available. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA can be used as part of a “screen and treat” program to identify precancerous lesions for cryotherapy treatment. This case report details how the VIA screening test was incorporated into the care of a patient presenting to a maternal health clinic in Thomonde, Haiti which was staffed by doctors and medical students from Emory University School of Medicine in collaboration with Haiti Medishare. As demonstrated here, the VIA test requires minimal materials, can be efficiently incorporated into a physical exams, provides immediate results, and is easily demonstrated to and performed by local healthcare providers. The straightforward and sensitive VIA technique is an ideal cervical cancer screening method for resource poor areas.

  11. Fluid dynamic lateral slicing of high tensile strength carbon nanotubes

    Vimalanathan, Kasturi; Gascooke, Jason R.; Suarez-Martinez, Irene; Marks, Nigel A.; Kumari, Harshita; Garvey, Christopher J.; Atwood, Jerry L.; Lawrance, Warren D.; Raston, Colin L.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral slicing of micron length carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is effective on laser irradiation of the materials suspended within dynamic liquid thin films in a microfluidic vortex fluidic device (VFD). The method produces sliced CNTs with minimal defects in the absence of any chemical stabilizers, having broad length distributions centred at ca 190, 160 nm and 171 nm for single, double and multi walled CNTs respectively, as established using atomic force microscopy and supported by small angle neutron scattering solution data. Molecular dynamics simulations on a bent single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with a radius of curvature of order 10 nm results in tearing across the tube upon heating, highlighting the role of shear forces which bend the tube forming strained bonds which are ruptured by the laser irradiation. CNT slicing occurs with the VFD operating in both the confined mode for a finite volume of liquid and continuous flow for scalability purposes. PMID:26965728

  12. On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution

    Slabý, Jiří; Trtík, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

  13. 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of Caroli disease

    Objective: To investigate the value of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of Caroli disease. Methods: 64-slice spiral CT of 15 patients with histologically proven Caroli disease was reviewed. Results: All cases were polycystic or multi-tubular hypodensities in the livers communicating with intrahepatic bile ducts. There was no contrast enhancement. The central dot sign was detected on 2 patients. Of 12 patients with type I disease, ancillary findings included multiple hemangiomas and small cysts in the liver (2), bile duct stones (4), pneumobilia (3), and cholangitis (1). Of the remaining 3 patients with type II disease, two had liver cirrhosis and the other cholangitis with periportal fibrosis. Conclusion: 64 slice spiral CT with multiplanar reconstruction allows clear depiction of cystic liver lesions and their relationship with intrahepatic bile ducts. It is valuable in the diagnosis of Caroli disease. (authors)

  14. Thin slice expert testimony and mock trial deliberations.

    Parrott, Caroline Titcomb; Brodsky, Stanley L; Wilson, Jennifer Kelly

    2015-01-01

    This study examined impressions of expert witness testimony in a not guilty by reason of insanity defense on two outcomes: witness's credibility and verdict. Borrowing in part from the "thin slice" methodology, we assessed outcomes in a 2 (deliberating vs. non-deliberating jurors) × 3 (length of videotaped testimony) between-subjects design. In 30 mock juries, 188 participants viewed the testimony by a forensic psychologist; then half of the juries deliberated. Thinner slices of the testimony were defined by the lower (30s long) and upper (5 min long) temporal bounds in the literature. The third, fuller testimony condition was 10 min long and served as the accuracy marker for the shorter sliced exposures. We aimed to explore potential consequences to jurors relying on impressions of the expert, and his or her opinion, and to test that effect post deliberation. Accounting for deliberation, brief impressions of expert credibility generally exerted a similar influence on credibility to fuller considerations. The essential finding was that a two-way interaction emerged from time slice and deliberation on verdict for jurors in the 30s condition. Overall, predictive accuracy was found in the 5 min slice, yet accuracy was not supported in the predictions based on the shortest slice. Individually-formed impressions are not likely to translate to the verdict ballot post-deliberation. Instead, brief impressions are likely to be heavily influenced by deliberation. Implications for understanding how impression-based testimony evaluations translate from the jury box to the deliberation room are discussed. PMID:26346686

  15. Finding One's Place: Shifting Ethnic Identities of Recent Immigrant Children from China, Haiti, and Mexico in the United States

    Song, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the ethnic identity adaptations of recently-arrived immigrant children from China, Haiti, and Mexico. Overall, three main types of ethnic identity categories emerged: country of origin (e.g., Chinese), hyphenated (e.g., Chinese American), and pan-ethnic (e.g., Asian or Asian American). These three ethnic identities were examined to assess their relationships with various social and structural variables. While most of the participants retained their ...

  16. Task-Shifting in HIV Care: A Case Study of Nurse-Centered Community-Based Care in Rural Haiti

    Ivers, Louise C; Jerome, Jean-Gregory; Cullen, Kimberly A; Lambert, Wesler; Celletti, Francesca; Samb, Badara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction At least 36 countries are suffering from severe shortages of healthcare workers and this crisis of human resources in developing countries is a major obstacle to scale-up of HIV care. We performed a case study to evaluate a health service delivery model where a task-shifting approach to HIV care had been undertaken with tasks shifted from doctors to nurses and community health workers in rural Haiti. Methods Data were collected using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods at ...

  17. Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Antilln, Marina; Gonsalves, Gregg; Miller, Alice M.; Ko, Albert I.; Pitzer, Virginia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Introduction of Vibrio cholerae to Haiti during the deployment of United Nations (UN) peacekeepers in 2010 resulted in one of the largest cholera epidemics of the modern era. Following the outbreak, a UN-commissioned independent panel recommended three pre-deployment intervention strategies to minimize the risk of cholera introduction in future peacekeeping operations: screening for V. cholerae carriage, administering prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapies, or immunizing with oral cholera vaccines. However, uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these approaches has forestalled their implementation by the UN. We assessed how the interventions would have impacted the likelihood of the Haiti cholera epidemic. Methods and Findings We developed a stochastic model for cholera importation and transmission, fitted to reported cases during the first weeks of the 2010 outbreak in Haiti. Using this model, we estimated that diagnostic screening reduces the probability of cases occurring by 82% (95% credible interval: 75%, 85%); however, false-positive test outcomes may hamper this approach. Antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis at time of departure and oral cholera vaccination reduce the probability of cases by 50% (41%, 57%) and by up to 61% (58%, 63%), respectively. Chemoprophylaxis beginning 1 wk before departure confers a 91% (78%, 96%) reduction independently, and up to a 98% reduction (94%, 99%) if coupled with vaccination. These results are not sensitive to assumptions about the background cholera incidence rate in the endemic troop-sending country. Further research is needed to (1) validate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid test approaches for detecting asymptomatic carriage, (2) compare prophylactic efficacy across antimicrobial regimens, and (3) quantify the impact of oral cholera vaccine on transmission from asymptomatic carriers. Conclusions Screening, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccination are all effective strategies to prevent cholera introduction during large-scale personnel deployments such as that precipitating the 2010 Haiti outbreak. Antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis was estimated to provide the greatest protection at the lowest cost among the approaches recently evaluated by the UN. PMID:26812236

  18. Revision of the geological context of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, metropolitan area: implications for seismic microzonation

    Terrier, M.; A. Bialkowski; Nachbaur, A.; C. Prépetit; Joseph, Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    A geological study has been conducted in the framework of the microzonation of Portau- Prince, Haiti. It reveals the deposit of Miocene and Pliocene formations in a marine environment and the impact on these deposits of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden N80° E fault system and of N110° E faults. The tectonic and morphological analysis indicates motion during the Quaternary along several mapped reverse left-lateral N110° E faults affecting the capital. Assessing ground-...

  19. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    Alessandro Leone; Giovanni Fiorillo; Franca Criscuoli; Stefano Ravasenghi; Laura Santagostini; Gelsomina Fico; Angela Spadafranca; Alberto Battezzati; Alberto Schiraldi; Federica Pozzi; Sara di Lello; Sandro Filippini; Simona Bertoli

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose prese...

  20. Cholera Vaccination Campaign Contributes to Improved Knowledge Regarding Cholera and Improved Practice Relevant to Waterborne Disease in Rural Haiti

    Aibana, Omowunmi; Franke, Molly; Teng, Jessica; Hilaire, Johanne; Raymond, Max; Ivers, Louise C.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2010, Haiti experienced a cholera outbreak that is now considered one of the largest cholera epidemics in recent history. A comprehensive approach is necessary to successfully fight the epidemic and proven methods for controlling cholera include improving access to clean water and sanitation as well as widespread hygiene education. In addition, there are two safe cholera vaccines approved for use. The authors conducted surveys before and after a cholera vaccination campaign, that i...

  1. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera tre...

  2. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Furio Massolino; Andrea Pardini

    2011-01-01

    Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the sam...

  3. Perceived discrimination and stigma toward children affected by HIV/AIDS and their HIV-positive caregivers in central Haiti

    Surkan, Pamela J; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Williams, David R; Eustache, Eddy; Louis, Ermaze; Jean-Paul, Thierry; Lambert, Wesler; Scanlan, Fiona C.; Oswald, Catherine M.; Fawzi, Mary C Smith

    2010-01-01

    In many settings worldwide, HIV-positive individuals have experienced a significant level of stigma and discrimination. This discrimination may also impact other family members affected by the disease, including children. The aim of our study was to identify factors associated with stigma and/or discrimination among HIV-affected youth and their HIV-positive caregivers in central Haiti. Recruitment of HIV-positive patients with children aged 10–17 years was conducted in 2006–2007. Data on HIV-...

  4. Measuring Youth Sexual Risk-Taking in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Programmatic Recommendations from Different Methodological Approaches

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    No studies have examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying youth at high risk of unintended pregnancies and contracting HIV. This study compares sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors of youth (ages 15-24) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti surveyed using three different study methodologies. The three study methodologies are compared in terms of their utility for identifying high risk youth and utility for program planning. The three study methodologies are: a represen...

  5. Access to Safe Water in Rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 Months after the Onset of the Cholera Epidemic

    Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Murphy, Jennifer; Bertrand, Fabienne; Husain, Farah; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest improved water and sanitation coverage in the Western Hemisphere and is suffering from the largest cholera epidemic on record. In May of 2012, an assessment was conducted in rural areas of the Artibonite Department to describe the type and quality of water sources and determine knowledge, access, and use of household water treatment products to inform future programs. It was conducted after emergency response was scaled back but before longer-term water, sanitation, and h...

  6. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in a Population of Women Living in Port-au-Prince and Leogane, Haiti

    Walmer, David K; Eder, Paul S.; Bell, Laura; Salim, Hiam; Kobayashi, Lori; Ndirangu, Jackie; Tinfo, Nicole; Castle, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been no published studies of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)--the necessary cause of cervical cancer--in Haiti, a nation that has one of the greatest burdens of cervical cancer globally. Objective Characterize prevalence of carcinogenic HPV and the prevalence of individual carcinogenic HPV genotypes in women with cervical precancer or cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+). Methods Women (n=9,769; aged 25-60 years) were s...

  7. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : slicing system developmens

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1996-01-01

    With direct deposition of metal a new Rapid Prototyping process had been developed at Cranfield University in the last couple of years. The process entails the use of a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. First, a solid model is drawn using a CAD system, then data indicating the kind of layers and dimension is incorporated and the solid is automatically sliced. This slicing routine also generates reports ...

  8. Design of Three-Dimensional Multiple Slice Turbo Codes

    Boutillon Emmanuel; Jzquel Michel; Gnaedig David

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to designing low-complexity high-speed turbo codes for very low frame error rate applications. The key idea is to adapt and optimize the technique of multiple turbo codes to obtain the required frame error rate combined with a family of turbo codes, called multiple slice turbo codes (MSTCs), which allows high throughput at low hardware complexity. The proposed coding scheme is based on a versatile three-dimensional multiple slice turbo code (3D-MSTC) using ...

  9. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  10. Verification of Software Product Lines with Delta-Oriented Slicing

    Bruns, Daniel; Klebanov, Vladimir; Schaefer, Ina

    Software product line (SPL) engineering is a well-known approach to develop industry-size adaptable software systems. SPL are often used in domains where high-quality software is desirable; the overwhelming product diversity, however, remains a challenge for assuring correctness. In this paper, we present delta-oriented slicing, an approach to reduce the deductive verification effort across an SPL where individual products are Java programs and their relations are described by deltas. On the specification side, we extend the delta language to deal with formal specifications. On the verification side, we combine proof slicing and similarity-guided proof reuse to ease the verification process.

  11. Classification of CT-brain slices based on local histograms

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Tymkovych, Maksym Y.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Timchik, Sergii V.; Kisała, Piotr; Orakbaev, Yerbol

    2015-12-01

    Neurosurgical intervention is a very complicated process. Modern operating procedures based on data such as CT, MRI, etc. Automated analysis of these data is an important task for researchers. Some modern methods of brain-slice segmentation use additional data to process these images. Classification can be used to obtain this information. To classify the CT images of the brain, we suggest using local histogram and features extracted from them. The paper shows the process of feature extraction and classification CT-slices of the brain. The process of feature extraction is specialized for axial cross-section of the brain. The work can be applied to medical neurosurgical systems.

  12. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya; Waagepetersen, Helle; Dimaki, Maria

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  13. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Hafezi Negar; Sheikhdavoodi Mohammad Javad; Sajadiye Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and ...

  14. (Non)perturbative gravity, nonlocality, and nice slices

    Perturbative dynamics of gravity is investigated for high-energy scattering and in black hole backgrounds. In the latter case, a straightforward perturbative analysis fails, in a close parallel to the failure of the former when the impact parameter reaches the Schwarzschild radius. This suggests a flaw in a semiclassical description of physics on spatial slices that intersect both outgoing Hawking radiation and matter that has carried information into a black hole; such slices are instrumental in a general argument for black hole information loss. This indicates a possible role for the proposal that nonperturbative gravitational physics is intrinsically nonlocal

  15. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  16. The Future of Effective Nuclear Regulatory Control in Third World Countries. The case of Haiti: Thoughts and Ideas

    Full text: Haiti is the poorest country in America with 75% of the population living under the poverty line and 56% in an extreme situation. Under UN classification, the country ranked 154 on a total of 193. Haiti is an IAEA member since 1958, after a few years of non active participation in agency's activities for nations members , except for signing one agreement on physical protection, the country had become involved at various level of technical cooperation. In 2003 Haiti paid in full its arrears in membership contributions to IAEA sending a clear signal to its good to renew with technical cooperation. At the same time Agency renewed its technical cooperation with the country at various level mainly in : 1. Isotopes hydrology Applications of isotopes radiation in Industry 2. Radiation medicine and Health 3. Nuclear radiation safety and nuclear Security 4. General Atomic Development. As a third country, Haiti is clearly dependent on international cooperation resources. A fundamental challenge for its National Regulatory board is to insure availability of optimum quantities of resources with national and foreign partners, to establish the culture of regular control regulatory activities, safety culture and improve the quality of human and training assistance for its technical entities. National Regulatory authority faces a range of important challenges in all sectors, just to mention some of them: Improve coordination with technical ministries and other technical entities in related nuclear field within a clear plan of action; Advocate introduction of teaching safety and security culture and radiological protection at university level and in secondary education; Strengthen the training of the personnel in the field of radioprotection along with customs and border officers; Scale up the number of trained people in physics and nuclear techniques in medicine and industry; Scale up the use of new and reliable detectors to better detect sources and include all in - country sources a national database as recommended by Agency; Scale up participation of participation of dosimetric unit of the national authority in various regional inter-comparative studies; Advocate full use scrap metal control to prevent malicious activities, develop regulation regarding the disposal of unused sealed sources; Promote cooperation with other advanced National Regulatory authority at regional and Caribbean levels; Consolidate the legal and regulatory framework by providing Haiti with the necessary technical legal assistance. While it remains to be seen if the Regulatory Board will become a full independent entity with its own budget, human resources development in radioprotection will continue to be one the pillars of Board activity. In this regard, NRB and its technical unit must continue to work with regional board to acquire more training and collaborate with the Ministry of Finance and lawmakers to address its adequate financial and material resources. (author)

  17. Knot Floer Filtration Classes of Topologically Slice Knots

    Tobin, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The knot Floer complex and the concordance invariant $\\varepsilon$ can be used to define a filtration on the smooth concordance group. We exhibit an ordered subset of this filtration that is isomorphic to $\\mathbb{N} \\times \\mathbb{N}$ and consists of topologically slice knots.

  18. The slice filtration and Grothendieck-Witt groups

    Levine, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Let k be a perfect field of characteristic different from two. We show that the filtration on the Grothendieck-Witt group GW(k) induced by the slice filtration for the sphere spectrum in the motivic stable homotopy category is the I-adic filtration, where I is the augmentation ideal in GW(k).

  19. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 ?M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP+, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14CO2 from D-[14C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  20. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Potato Slices Drying Characteristics using Solar Dryer

    Aklilu Tesfamichael

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the drying characteristic curves and the drying duration when potato slices dried using natural convection solar dryer. For that sake an experimental setup was developed. Measurements of total solar radiation on the plane of the collector, ambient air temperature and humidity, drying air temperature and relative humidity inside the dryer as well as solids moisture loss-in-weight were collected. A data logger was used for data acquisition of all the drying parameters. These data were employed to study the potato slices drying characteristics and its nature. A number of experiments were conducted using potato slices. It was observed that the drying time for 6.3 kg m-2 potato was reduced by about 30% compared to direct sun drying. Furthermore, the potato slices drying rate decreases to zero and hence potato is a hygroscopic material. The dryer inlet temperature was 14-29C higher than the ambient temperature. The study showed, other than the reduction in the drying time, application of the natural convection solar dryer generates improved quality dried materials than direct sunshine drying. The results could be used as an input for process and product optimization.

  2. Stereological estimation based on isotropic slices through fixed points

    Kieu, K; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1993-01-01

    Stereological estimators of length and surface area based on measurements in an isotropic slice through a fixed point are described. Measurements of three-dimensional angles are not needed. The estimators depend only on distance measurements. The variance of the length estimator is studied in som...

  3. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  4. Gravitational clustering of galaxies in the CfA slice

    The clustering properties of the Galaxies in the CfA slice have been analyzed by comparing the properties of the neighbor distributions to the predictions of gravitational clustering theory. The agreement is excellent and implies that the observed structures can be explained by gravitational effects alone and do not require exotic explanations

  5. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN PINEAPPLE SLICES TREATED WITH ANTIBROWNING AGENTS

    The effectiveness of ascorbic acid (AA), isoascorbic acid (IAA) and N-acetyl-cysteine (AC) in inhibiting browning on the cut surfaces of fresh-cut pineapple slices stored for up to 14 days at 10C were studied. IAA and AA maintained higher levels of sugars and vitamin C in alices than AC and the co...

  6. Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse in polar time slicing

    Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse provides a good test-bed calculation for general-relativistic numerical codes that evolve matter in strong gravitational fields. Such codes are often based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism, for which an appropriate choice of coordinates (lapse and shift functions) is the key to a successful spacetime evolution. Polar time slicing has been proposed as a good choice of time coordinate because of its singularity-avoidance features. We express the entire Oppenheimer-Snyder solution analytically in polar time slicing to facilitate calibrations of numerical codes written in this gauge. We examine two possible choices of radial coordinate: isotropic and Schwarzschild. We find that, while polar slicing does indeed hold back collapse near the center of a black hole, it is not alone sufficient to allow a singularity-free numerical evolution. For example, with the Schwarzschild radial coordinate the radial metric coefficient develops an ever-increasing spike at the surface of the black hole. This does not occur in isotropic coordinates, where the metric coefficient reaches a finite maximum value at the center. By contrast, the isotropic radial metric coefficient in maximal time slicing diverges exponentially at the center at late times. These generic features may be important in constructing a numerical code

  7. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments. PMID:26396303

  8. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [3H]norepinephrine or [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  9. Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti

    Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change might result in worsening tropical storms that impede access due to the poor condition of footpaths and thus adversely affect maternal mortality. Additional factors such as deforestation and associated accelerated rainwater runoff may further worsen conditions. The linkage between maternal mortality and climate change will not be detected unless more robust methods are used. We propose using a mixed methods approach that combines use of secondary climate and health data (e.g. Landsat, stream flow, precipitation) with a stratified spatial sampling strategy across this complex land mass coupled with direct observation and qualitative methods using key informant interviews to probe for root causes of changes in health outcomes such as weather, deforestation, food and economic security. This mixed methods approach can be used for cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies linking the impact of climatological factors and important determinants of health such as economic activity. We propose that the impact of climate change on health will be best studied by mixed method approaches and that reliance on secondary data alone risks missing important associations between changes in climate and health.

  10. Intervencin internacional. Hait: receta rpida, fracaso anticipado | International intervention. Haiti: repeated recipe, failure ahead

    Gastn AN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available En el momento de autorizar la intervencin militar y la posterior creacin de la misin de mantenimiento de la paz, de enero a junio del 2004, el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU careca de un diagnstico preciso sobre el carcter del Estado haitiano y su historia, el tipo de conflicto y la naturaleza de la violencia en el pas, lo que explica, a casi cuatro aos de esa intervencin, la recurrente inestabilidad y la persistencia de la violencia en la nacin caribea. El tipo de intervencin y las estrategias de pacificacin utilizadas por la comunidad internacional fueron inapropiadas y se mostraron ineficaces para atender casos como el haitiano. La misin de imposicin de la paz desplegada en el pas utiliz la disuasin militar para contener las manifestaciones externas de la violencia congelando as el conflicto y garantizando la realizacin de elecciones masivas y transparentes el 6 de Febrero de 2006. Sin embargo, las causas presentes e histricas que generan y reproducen esta violencia siguen intactas. La democracia no puede prosperar en ausencia de un estado que garantice un orden poltico con un mnimo de institucionalidad, particularmente, cuando el desorden se ha convertido en el instrumento poltico por excelencia de algunos actores, para mantener el statu quo. Los beneficios del proceso de normalizacin democrtica, en un contexto de ausencia estatal, no son sostenibles en el tiempo.When the UN Security Council authorized the military intervention in Haiti and passed a resolution creating a peacekeeping force in the country, it lacked a precise diagnosis on the character of the Haitian state, its history, the essential qualities of the ongoing conflict, as well as the nature of the violence the country was experiencing. This explains why, after almost five years of UN presence in Haiti, recurrent instability and persistent violence are still common features in the Caribbean nation. The kind of intervention and the strategies implemented by the international community to pacify the country were inappropriate and they proved to be ineffective in tackling cases such as the Haitian one. The peace enforcement mission deployed to the country used military deterrence to contain external manifestations of the violence, thereby freezing the conflict and pursuing the organization of massive and transparent elections that were held on 6 February 2006. However, the present and historical causes provoking and reproducing the violence in Haiti violence are still in place. Democracy cannot thrive in the absence of a state structure able to guarantee a political order with a minimum of institutional development, particularly, when disorder has become the preferred political tool for some local actors in order to maintain the status quo. The benefits of a normalized institutional life, in a context of state absence, are not sustainable for the long term.

  11. Transboundary Impacts of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Disaster: Focus on Legal Dilemmas in South Florida

    Alka Sapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic disasters affect not just the areas/regions and countries where they strike, but also have transboundary effects and repercussions on neighboring countries, which often serve as receiving areas for displaced survivors. South Florida, for example, served as a receiving area for earthquake survivors after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. To understand the transboundary sociolegal impacts on host communities, we draw theoretical insights from research on transboundary crises and interviewed key members of school districts, city and county governments, non-profit organizations, relief task forces, the Haitian-American diaspora, and local government agencies. We also looked at relevant plans/policies modified by governmental and non-governmental institutions in response to the legal issues that arose. The findings highlight the manner in which street-level workers in state and non-state organizations deal with legal complexities and ramifications, along with the role played by the Haitian-American diaspora actors and their networks. Los desastres por catástrofes no afectan solo a las áreas/regiones y países a los que golpean, sino que también tienen efectos transfronterizos y repercuten en los países vecinos, que a menudo sirven como áreas de recepción para los sobrevivientes desplazados. El sur de Florida, por ejemplo, sirvió como área de acogida para los supervivientes del terremoto de Haiti de 2010. Para entender el impacto sociojurídico a nivel transfronterizo en las comunidades de acogida, se trazan nuevas percepciones teóricas a partir de la investigación de crisis transfronterizas, y mediante entrevistas a miembros clave de distritos escolares, gobiernos de ciudades y condados, organizaciones sin ánimos de lucro, grupos de trabajo de auxilio, la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense, y agencias del gobierno local. También se estudian los planes/políticas relevantes, modificados por las instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales para responder a las cuestiones jurídicas que se plantearon. Los resultados destacan cómo se enfrentan los trabajadores a nivel de calle de las organizaciones estatales y no estatales a las complejidades y consecuencias legales, junto con el papel desempeñado por los protagonistas de la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense y sus redes de contactos.

  12. Zika Virus Outbreak in Haiti in 2014: Molecular and Clinical Data

    Lednicky, John; Beau De Rochars, Valery Madsen; El Badry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Rashid, Mohammed; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J. Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV), first isolated in Uganda in 1947, is currently spreading rapidly through South America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, infection has been linked with microcephaly and other serious complications, leading to declaration of a public health emergency of international concern; however, there currently are only limited data on the virus (and its possible sources and manifestations) in the Caribbean. Methods From May, 2014-February, 2015, in conjunction with studies of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus infections, blood samples were collected from children in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti who presented to a school clinic with undifferentiated febrile illness. Samples were initially screened by RT-PCR for CHIKV and DENV, with samples negative in these assays further screened by viral culture. Findings Of 177 samples screened, three were positive for ZIKV, confirmed by viral sequencing; DENV-1 was also identified in culture from one of the three positive case patients. Patients were from two different schools and 3 different towns, with all three cases occurring within a single week, consistent with the occurrence of an outbreak in the region. Phylogenetic analysis of known full genome viral sequences demonstrated a close relationship with ZIKV from Brazil; additional analysis of the NS5 gene, for which more sequences are currently available, showed the Haitian strains clustering within a monophyletic clade distinct from Brazilian, Puerto Rican and Guatemalan sequences, with all part of a larger clade including isolates from Easter Island. Phylogeography also clarified that at least three major African sub-lineages exist, and confirmed that the South American epidemic is most likely to have originated from an initial ZIKV introduction from French Polynesia into Easter Island, and then to the remainder of the Americas. Conclusions ZIKV epidemics in South America, as well as in Africa, show complex dissemination patterns. The virus appears to have been circulating in Haiti prior to the first reported cases in Brazil. Factors contributing to transmission and the possible linkage of this early Haitian outbreak with microcephaly remain to be determined. PMID:27111294

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    Koenig, Serena P.; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a randomized clinical trial of early versus standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, early ART decreased mortality by 75%. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of early versus standard ART in this trial. Methods and Findings Trial data included use of ART and other medications, laboratory tests, outpatient visits, radiographic studies, procedures, and hospital services. Medication, laboratory, radiograph, labor, and overhead costs were from the study clinic, and hospital and procedure costs were from local providers. We evaluated cost per year of life saved (YLS), including patient and caregiver costs, with a median of 21 months and maximum of 36 months of follow-up, and with costs and life expectancy discounted at 3% per annum. Between 2005 and 2008, 816 participants were enrolled and followed for a median of 21 months. Mean total costs per patient during the trial were US$1,381 for early ART and US$1,033 for standard ART. After excluding research-related laboratory tests without clinical benefit, costs were US$1,158 (early ART) and US$979 (standard ART). Early ART patients had higher mean costs for ART (US$398 versus US$81) but lower costs for non-ART medications, CD4 cell counts, clinically indicated tests, and radiographs (US$275 versus US$384). The cost-effectiveness ratio after a maximum of 3 years for early versus standard ART was US$3,975/YLS (95% CI US$2,129/YLS–US$9,979/YLS) including research-related tests, and US$2,050/YLS excluding research-related tests (95% CI US$722/YLS–US$5,537/YLS). Conclusions Initiating ART in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, consistent with World Health Organization advice, was cost-effective (US$/YLS <3 times gross domestic product per capita) after a maximum of 3 years, after excluding research-related laboratory tests. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00120510 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21949643

  14. A projector/backprojector with slice-to-slice blurring for efficient three-dimensional scatter modeling.

    Zeng, G L; Bai, C; Gullberg, G T

    1999-08-01

    Scatter correction is an important factor in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Many scatter correction techniques, such as multiple-window subtraction and intrinsic modeling with iterative algorithms, have been under study for many years. Previously, we developed an efficient slice-to-slice blurring technique to model attenuation and system geometric response in a projector/backprojector pair, which was used in an ML-EM algorithm to reconstruct SPECT data. This paper proposes a projector/backprojector that models the three-dimensional (3-D) first-order scatter in SPECT, also using an efficient slice-to-slice blurring technique. The scatter response is estimated from a known nonuniform attenuation distribution map. It is assumed that the probability of detection of a first-order scattered photon from a photon that is emitted in a given source voxel and scattered in a given scatter voxel is proportional to the attenuation coefficient value at that voxel. Monte Carlo simulations of point sources and an MCAT torso phantom were used to verify the accuracy of the proposed projector/backprojector model. An experimental Jaszczak torso/cardiac phantom SPECT study was also performed. For a 64 x 64 x 64 image volume, it took 8.7 s to perform each iteration per slice on a Sun ULTRA Enterprise 3000 (167 MHz, 1 Gbyte RAM) computer, when modeling 3-D scatter, attenuation, and system geometric response functions. The main advantage of the proposed method is its easy implementation and the possibility of performing reconstruction in clinically acceptable time. PMID:10534054

  15. A method for estimation of enzymatic browning and its suppression in apple slices

    P. Varoquaux

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A described method is based on diffuse light reflectance in the spectral region 400-720 nm for the examination of enzymatic browning of apple slices. In this method apples are sliced as directly dipped for 4 s in the inhibitors. Based on the obtained results data for the limits of visual acceptance of the slice colour are proposed. An enzymatic browning parameter of the slices is determined from the time-course measurements of the difference in absorbance at 440 nm between the brown slice and the same slice where the original colour was restored by slicing a further 1.5 mm layer. Three varieties of apples Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious were sliced under water or in ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and sodium bisulphite solutions. Different concentrations of the suppressant were objectively compared, and their efficiencies were expressed by the allowable period of cold storage.

  16. New endemic platyrrhine humerus from Haiti and the evolution of the Greater Antillean platyrrhines.

    Tallman, Melissa; Cooke, Siobhán B

    2016-02-01

    Much debate surrounds the phylogenetic affinities of the endemic Greater Antillean platyrrhines. Thus far, most phylogenetic analyses have been constructed and tested using craniodental characters. We add to this dialog by considering how features of the distal humerus support or refute existing hypotheses for the origins of fossil Caribbean primates, utilizing three-dimensional geometric morphometric data in combination with character based cladistic analyses. We also add to the sample of fossil platyrrhine humeri with the description of UF 114718, a new distal humerus from Haiti. We reconstruct UF 114718 to be a generalized, arboreal quadruped attributed to the species Insulacebus toussantiana. Our results from phylogenetic analyses lend some support to the idea that some Greater Antillean fossil taxa including Xenothrix mcgregori, Antillothrix bernensis, and Insulacebus toussaintiana could form a monophyletic clade that is sister to either extant Platyrrhini or basal pitheciids. Based on the distal humeral data, we reconstruct the earliest ancestral platyrrhine to be a generalized, arboreal quadruped that potentially emphasized pronated arm postures during locomotion and may have engaged in some limited climbing, most similar in shape to early anthropoids and some of the earliest Antillean forms. However, aspects of shape and standard qualitative characters relating to the distal humerus seem to be variable and prone to both homoplasy and reversals; thus these results must be interpreted cautiously and (where possible) within the context provided by other parts of the skeleton. PMID:26852817

  17. Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles

    Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

  18. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti.

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Smiley, Sarah L; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results "of interest" (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional "of interest" positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the "of interest" water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens. PMID:26848672

  19. Effectiveness of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Haiti: 37-Month Follow-Up.

    Sévère, Karine; Rouzier, Vanessa; Anglade, Stravinsky Benedict; Bertil, Claudin; Joseph, Patrice; Deroncelay, Alexandra; Mabou, Marie Marcelle; Wright, Peter F; Guillaume, Florence Duperval; Pape, Jean William

    2016-05-01

    The first oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign, since its prequalification by the World Health Organization, in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic (reactive vaccination) was successfully conducted in a poor urban slum of approximately 70,000 inhabitants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2012. Vaccine coverage was 75% of the target population. This report documents the impact of OCV in reducing the number of culture-confirmed cases of cholera admitted to the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) cholera treatment center from that community in the 37 months postvaccination (April 2012-April 30, 2015). Of 1,788 patients with culture-confirmed cholera, 1,770 (99%) were either from outside the vaccine area (1,400 cases) or from the vaccinated community who had not received OCV (370 cases). Of the 388 people from the catchment area who developed culture-confirmed cholera, 370 occurred among the 17,643 people who had not been vaccinated (2.1%) and the remaining 18 occurred among the 52,357 people (0.034%) who had been vaccinated (P < 0.001), for an efficacy that approximates 97.5%. Despite not being designed as a randomized control trial, the very high efficacy is a strong evidence for the effectiveness of OCV as part of an integrated package for the control of cholera in outbreak settings. PMID:26928838

  20. Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Athanasiou, M; Iliopoulos, A; Pavlos, G; David, K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that have been recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12/1/2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46o and Longitude 287.47o, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal keeping only the very low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the strong earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory e...

  1. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  2. Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Van Herp Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care. Household heads from 945 households (corresponding to 4,763 people in Cité Soleil and 1,800 household (9,539 people in Martissant provided information on household members. The average recall period was 579 days for Cité Soleil and 601 days for Martissant. Results In Cité Soleil 120 deaths (21 children were reported (CMR 0.4 deaths/10,000 people/day; Discussion Extrapolating to the total population of these two districts some 2,000 violent deaths occurred over the recall period. Among the survivors, violence had lasting effects in terms of physical and mental health and loss of property and possessions.

  3. Safety challenges of medical equipment in nurse anaesthetist training in Haiti.

    Santos, A L R; Wauben, L S G L; Guilavogui, S; Brezet, J C; Goossens, R; Rosseel, P M J

    2016-03-01

    Safety challenges related to the use of medical equipment were investigated during the training of nurse anaesthetists in Haiti, using a systems approach to Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The Observable Performance Obstacles tool, based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, was used in combination with exploratory observations during 13 surgical procedures, to identify performance obstacles created by the systemic interrelationships of medical equipment. The identification of performance obstacles is an effective way to study the accumulation of latent factors and risk hazards, and understand its implications in practice and behaviour of healthcare practitioners. In total, 123 performance obstacles were identified, of which the majority was related to environmental and organizational aspects. These findings show how the performance of nurse anaesthetists and their relation to medical equipment is continuously affected by more than user-related aspects. The contribution of systemic performance obstacles and coping strategies to enrich system design interventions and improve healthcare system is highlighted. In addition, methodological challenges of HFE research in low-resource settings related to professional culture and habits, and the potential of community ergonomics as a problem-managing approach are described. PMID:26154027

  4. Disclosure and impact of maternal HIV+ serostatus on mothers and children in rural Haiti.

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine M; Louis, Ermaze; King, Gary; Scanlan, Fiona; Mukherjee, Joia S; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWHs) in the United States have reported that one of their main challenges is the decision to disclose their HIV serostatus to their children and the potential consequences of their disclosure. Little is known about the experiences of MLWHs regarding disclosing their HIV serostatus to their children and the impact of maternal HIV serostatus disclosure in the island nations of the Caribbean. Study objectives were to identify the factors influencing maternal HIV serostatus disclosure, examine the breadth of maternal HIV serostatus, and understand the impact of disclosure on mothers and the children. Baseline interviews were conducted between 2006 and 2007 with 25 HIV-positive mothers and 26 children ages 10-17 participating in a pilot psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in Haiti. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded for topical themes by two investigators. Analysis of the interviews yielded several themes relevant to reasons for disclosure, including children's experience of HIV stigma in the community, social support and encouragement from psychosocial intervention workers. The main themes related to breadth of disclosure were brief disclosure and explicit disclosure with some mothers sharing information about how they learned about their illness diagnosis and their medication. Themes related to impacts of disclosure included emotional reactions of children and mothers, and children's desire to assist mothers with illness and become involved. These findings suggest the need to provide more psychosocial support to HIV-affected families in the Caribbean region. PMID:24158504

  5. [Estimation of vital statistics in rural areas of northern Haiti using a simplified sampling method].

    Livengood, J R; Jacques, C H; Vogel, A; Roberts, J M; Breman, J G

    1990-10-01

    In September 1983, we selected 30 villages in four rural counties of northern Haiti for a partial census and malaria prevalence survey. A cohort of 1,577 persons was enumerated in this census. Survey teams revisited the same houses in these villages in September 1984 and updated the previous census, inquiring about all listed family members. We administered an additional questionnaire to each household concerning the occurrence over the past year of deaths, births, pregnancies, and migration. Among the 1,218 persons who had been followed for one year, there were 21 deaths (crude mortality rate: 17 per 1,000 population; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 12 per 1,000, 25 per 1,000) and 35 births (birth rate: 29 per 1,000 population year; 95% CI: 19 per 1,000, 38 per 1,000). The infant mortality rate was 171 per 1,000 live births (95% CI: 81 per 1,000, 315 per 1,000), and the mortality rate for children less than 5 years old was 36 per 1,000 (95% CI: 24 per 1,000, 56 per 1,000). Although small sample surveys are subject to limitations of precision dependent on sample size, they can be a simple method by which researchers may estimate vital statistics for rural areas of less-developed countries. PMID:2149635

  6. High-resolution and LIDAR imaging support to the Haiti earthquake relief effort

    Messinger, David W.; van Aardt, Jan; McKeown, Don; Casterline, May; Faulring, Jason; Raqueño, Nina; Basener, Bill; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program (WASP) is an imaging system designed, built, and operated by the RIT Center for Imaging Science. The system consists of four cameras: a high resolution color camera and SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR cameras. When flown with our corporate partners, Kucera International, the imaging system is combined with a high-resolution LIDAR. This combination provides a full-spectrum, multimodal data collection platform unique to RIT. Under funding by the World Bank, the WASP system was used to image over 250 sq. mi. in Haiti (approximately 15,000 visible and 45,000 infrared frames) from January 21 - 27, 2010 in support of the earthquake relief efforts. Priorities of collection were the area surrounding Port au Prince, the city of Leogane, several other badly damaged towns, and, at the request of the USGS, a high resolution LIDAR collection over the fault line. The imagery was used in the field by disaster relief workers and by collaborators at the University of Buffalo and ImageCat, Inc. to perform building damage and road network trafficability assessments. Additionally, large area mosaics and semi-automatic processing algorithms were developed for value-added product development. In particular, a methodology was developed to extract the locations of blue tarps (indicative of displaced persons) from the images. All imagery was made available to the public through outlets such as Google Earth, the University of Buffalo, the US Geological Survey, the United Nations, and other sites.

  7. Prediction of the spatial evolution and effects of control measures for the unfolding Haiti cholera outbreak

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Blokesch, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-03-01

    Here we propose spatially explicit predictions of the residual progression of the current Haiti cholera outbreak accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities, and for the redistribution among them of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease. Spreading mechanisms include the diffusion of pathogens in the aquatic environment and their dissemination due to the movement of human carriers. The model reproduces the spatiotemporal features of the outbreak to date, thus suggesting the robustness of predicted future developments of the epidemic. We estimate that, under unchanged conditions, the number of new cases in the whole country should start to decrease in January. During this month the epidemic should mainly involve the Ouest department (Port-au-Prince) while fading out in northern regions. Our spatially explicit model allows also the analysis of the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. To that end our results show that mass vaccinations would have a negligible impact at this stage of the epidemic. We also show that targeted sanitation strategies, providing clean drinking water supply and/or staging educational campaigns aimed at reducing exposure, may weaken the strength of the residual evolution of the infection.

  8. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare

    Millien, Max F.; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne B.; Wallace, Ryan; Caldas, Eduardo; Rwangabgoba, Jean M.; Poncelet, Jean L.; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti’s rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP) with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population. PMID:26110845

  9. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K.; Smiley, Sarah L.; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J. Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results of interest (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional of interest positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the of interest water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens. PMID:26848672

  10. [Poliomyelitis outbreak caused by vaccine-derived virus in Haiti and the Dominican Republic].

    Landaverde, M; Venczel, L; de Quadros, C A

    2001-04-01

    In October 2000, the Ministries of Health of the Dominican Republic and Haiti notified two cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in rural areas, one of them in a 9-month-old female, and the other in a 2-year-old female, respectively. Stool samples that were obtained from these cases, which occurred in July and August 2000, after a 9-year interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in the Western Hemisphere, revealed the presence of type 1 poliovirus. Genetic sequencing, which was later performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, revealed an atypical descendant of the virus used in the manufacture of the oral polio vaccine (OPV), but with 3% genetic divergence with respect to the parent strain. Normally, viral isolates that derive from vaccine components show 99.5% genetic agreement with the parent strain; in wild polioviruses, on the other hand, this agreement is usually less than 82.0%. Thus, the 3% genetic divergence detected in this study suggests that, in areas with low vaccine coverage, the virus used in the vaccine remained in circulation for at least two years, during which it recovered the neurovirulence and communicability of wild poliovirus type 1. This report describes the characteristics and results of the active search for cases of AFP that was sparked by the detection of the two index cases. It also looks at the public health implications of this outbreak for the entire Region of the Americas. PMID:11418973

  11. Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education

    Adelheid Pichler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

  12. Sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Carver, Jasmine W; Dévieux, Jessy G; Gaston, Stéphanie C; Altice, Frederick L; Niccolai, Linda M

    2014-08-01

    Engagement in sexual activity among Haitian youth is increasing. The present cross-sectional study examined the independent correlates of sexual risk behaviors among 200 (108 male/92 female) 13-18 year-old adolescents in Port-au-Prince, Haiti using face-to-face interviews. The majority (60.0 %) had engaged in sexual intercourse. Multivariate modeling found males to be 3.52 times more likely to have had sex, 5.42 times more likely to report sexual debut before age 14, 9.75 times more likely to have >1 sexual partner, and 3.33 times more likely to not have used a condom during last sex. Adolescents living with parents, grandparents, aunts or uncles were less likely to report having unprotected sex compared with those without adult family members in the home (AOR range 0.26-0.51). The high prevalence of risky sex among males and the protective influence of stable family cohesiveness have important implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:24402691

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopy Structure and Firmness of Papain Treated Apple Slices

    Luo, Yaguang; Patterson, Max E.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    'Mcintosh' apple (Malus domesrica Borkh.) slices were treated with papain. Textural changes were recorded with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Structural changes and distribution of microorganisms in apple tissues after treatment were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Apple slices submerg ed in a 1% papain solution were significantly firmer than apple slices submerged in the distilled water control for a 24 hour period (P < 0.05). Three and four days after slicing , a ...

  14. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  15. A three-dimensional display for medical images from slices

    A number of new medical imaging modalities, e.g. computed tomography and B-scan ultrasonography, produce 3-D data as a stack of parallel cross-sectional slices. The interpretation of such data is made difficult by the inherent 2-D nature of current viewing devices-each slice has to be viewed individually and imagined to be part of a stack of such images. We are currently developing a family of display systems for observing these and other distributions of data in 3-space. The devices are based on an acoustically vibrated ('varifocal') mirror surface reflecting a screen on which different images are presented in synchrony with the mirror positions. The resulting images, each seen at different depth from the mirror surface, appear as a stack of transparencies and can be viewed by a number of observers who may move about the mirror. All familiar depth cues such as head-motion parallax and stereopsis are present

  16. Identity Disclosure Protection in Slicing for Privacy Preservation

    M. Senthil Raja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years privacy preservation micro data publishing has gained wide popularity. Two of the most widely used anonymization techniques are generalization and bucketization. Bucketization doesn’t prevent membership disclosure and it doesn’t apply for data that don’t have a clear distinction between quasi-identifiers and sensitive attribute. On the other hand, generalization loses high amount of data. A combination of both i.e., slicing provides better data utility but still its prone to attacks. Slicing protects the data against membership and attribute disclosure but it doesn’t provide any details about identity disclosure. To overcome this we apply k-anonymity through ranging which will improve the overall utility and privacy of data. Here the data is not lost as well as it doesn’t result in inference attacks.

  17. Authentication and self-correction in sequential MRI slices.

    Fotopoulos, Vassilis; Stavrinou, Maria L; Skodras, Athanassios N

    2011-10-01

    One of the new challenges of Information Technology in the medical world is the protection and authentication of a variety of digital medical files, datasets, and images. In this work, the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice sequences to hide digital data is investigated and more specifically the case that the hidden data are the regions of interest (ROI) of the MRI slices. The regions of non-interest (RONI) are used as cover. The hiding capacity of the whole sequence is taken into account. Any ROI-targeted tampering attempt can be detected, and the original image can be self-restored (under certain conditions) by extracting the ROI from the RONI. PMID:20945077

  18. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2005-01-01

    85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...... relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64...

  19. Trimethyltin (TMT) neurotoxicity in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures

    Noraberg, J; Gramsbergen, J B; Fonnum, F; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model for...... neurotoxicological studies, including further studies of neurotoxic mechanisms of TMT. Four-week-old cultures, derived from 7-day-old donor rats and grown in serum-free medium, were exposed to TMT (0.5-100 microM) for 24 h followed by 24 h in normal medium. TMT-induced neurodegeneration was then monitored by (a...... vivo cell stain observations of rats acutely exposed to TMT. The mean PI uptake of the cultures and the LDH efflux into the medium were highly correlated. The combined results obtained by the different markers indicate that the hippocampal slice culture method is a feasible model for further studies of...

  20. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...... loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity....

  1. Psychosocial Functioning Among HIV-Affected Youth and Their Caregivers in Haiti: Implications for Family-Focused Service Provision in High HIV Burden Settings

    Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Surkan, Pamela; Louis, Ermaze; Scanlan, Fiona; Wong, Richard; Li, Michelle; Mukherjee, Joia

    2010-01-01

    The study is an analysis of baseline data from a pilot psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in Haiti. Six sites in Haiti's Central Department affiliated with Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante (PIH/ZL) and the Haitian Ministry of Health were included. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at PIH/ZL. The baseline questionnaire was administered from February 2006 to January 2007 with HIV-affected youth (n = 492), a...

  2. CONDITIONED SLICING FOR EFFICIENT MULTIWAY DECISION GRAPHS MODEL-CHECKER

    Saad Elmansori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal verification techniques into the hardware design process provides the means to rigorously prove critical properties. However, most automatic verification techniques, such as model checking, are only effectively applicable to designs of limited sizes due to the state explosion problem. The Multiway Decision Graphs (MDG method is an efficient method to define hardware designs into more abstract environments; however, the MDG model checker (MDG-MC still suffers from the state explosion problem. Furthermore, all the backward reduction algorithms cannot be used in MDG, due to the presence of abstract state variables. In this study, an efficient extractor for MDG Hardware Descrpiton Languge (MDG-HDL is introduced based on static (SS-MDG and conditioned (CS-MDG program slicing techniques. The techniques can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. The main advantages of these techniques are: It has no MDG-HDL coding style limitation, it is accurate and it is competent in dealing with various MDG-HDL constructions. The main motivation for introducing this approach is to tackle the state explosion problem of MDG-MC that big MDG-HDL may cause. We apply our proposed techniques on different MDG-HDL designs and our analyses have shown that the proposed reduction techniques resulted in significantly improved performance of the MDG-MC. In this study, we present a general idea of program slicing, a discussion of how to slice MDG-HDL programs, implementation of the tool and a brief overview of some applications and experimental results. The underlying method and the tool based on it need to be empirically evaluated when applying to various applications.

  3. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10-10 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  4. Strategies for spectrum slicing based on restarted Lanczos methods

    Campos González, Maria Camen; Román Moltó, José Enrique

    2012-01-01

    In the context of symmetric-definite generalized eigenvalue problems, it is often required to compute all eigenvalues contained in a prescribed interval. For large-scale problems, the method of choice is the so-called spectrum slicing technique: a shift-and-invert Lanczos method combined with a dynamic shift selection that sweeps the interval in a smart way. This kind of strategies were proposed initially in the context of unrestarted Lanczos methods, back in the 1990's. We propose variations...

  5. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  6. Identity Disclosure Protection in Slicing for Privacy Preservation

    M. Senthil Raja; D. Vidhyabharathi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years privacy preservation micro data publishing has gained wide popularity. Two of the most widely used anonymization techniques are generalization and bucketization. Bucketization doesn’t prevent membership disclosure and it doesn’t apply for data that don’t have a clear distinction between quasi-identifiers and sensitive attribute. On the other hand, generalization loses high amount of data. A combination of both i.e., slicing provides better data utility but still its prone to a...

  7. Optimizing algebraic petri net model checking by slicing

    Khan, Yasir Imtiaz; Risoldi, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    High-level Petri nets make models more concise and read- able as compared to low-level Petri nets. However, usual verification techniques such as state space analysis remain an open challenge for both because of state space explosion. The contribution of this paper is to propose an approach for property based reduction of the state space of Algebraic Petri nets (a variant of high-level Petri nets). To achieve the objective, we propose a slicing algorithm for Algebraic Petri ...

  8. A Note on Sliced Inverse Regression with Regularizations

    2011-01-01

    In "Li, L. and Yin, X. (2008). Sliced Inverse Regression with Regularizations. Biometrics, 64(1):124--131" a ridge SIR estimator is introduced as the solution of a minimization problem and computed thanks to an alternating least-squares algorithm. This methodology reveals good performance in practice. In this note, we focus on the theoretical properties of the estimator. Is it shown that the minimization problem is degenerated in the sense that only two situations can occur: Either the ridge ...

  9. Spectral decomposition of black-hole perturbations on hyperboloidal slices

    Ansorg, Marcus; Macedo, Rodrigo Panosso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a spectral decomposition of solutions to relativistic wave equations described on horizon penetrating hyperboloidal slices within a given Schwarzschild-black-hole background. The wave equa- tion in question is Laplace-transformed which leads to a spatial differential equation with a complex parameter. For initial data which are analytic with respect to a compactified spatial coordinate, this equation is treated with the help of the Mathematica-package in terms of a so...

  10. Experimental Analysis of Potato Slices Drying Characteristics using Solar Dryer

    Aklilu Tesfamichael; Abebayehu Assefa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the drying characteristic curves and the drying duration when potato slices dried using natural convection solar dryer. For that sake an experimental setup was developed. Measurements of total solar radiation on the plane of the collector, ambient air temperature and humidity, drying air temperature and relative humidity inside the dryer as well as solid’s moisture loss-in-weight were collected. A data logger was used for data acquisition of all t...

  11. A recording chamber for small volume slice electrophysiology.

    Dondzillo, Anna; Quinn, Kevin D; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I; Reisdorph, Nichole; Lei, Tim C; Klug, Achim

    2015-09-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from brain slices are typically performed in small recording chambers that allow for the superfusion of the tissue with artificial extracellular solution (ECS), while the chamber holding the tissue is mounted in the optical path of a microscope to image neurons in the tissue. ECS itself is inexpensive, and thus superfusion rates and volumes of ECS consumed during an experiment using standard ECS are not critical. However, some experiments require the addition of expensive pharmacological agents or other chemical compounds to the ECS, creating a need to build superfusion systems that operate on small volumes while still delivering appropriate amounts of oxygen and other nutrients to the tissue. We developed a closed circulation tissue chamber for slice recordings that operates with small volumes of bath solution in the range of 1.0 to 2.6 ml and a constant oxygen/carbon dioxide delivery to the solution in the bath. In our chamber, the ECS is oxygenated and recirculated directly in the recording chamber, eliminating the need for tubes and external bottles/containers to recirculate and bubble ECS and greatly reducing the total ECS volume required for superfusion. At the same time, the efficiency of tissue oxygenation and health of the section are comparable to standard superfusion methods. We also determined that the small volume of ECS contains a sufficient amount of nutrients to support the health of a standard brain slice for several hours without concern for either depletion of nutrients or accumulation of waste products. PMID:26203105

  12. Motion analysis and segmentation through spatio-temporal slices processing.

    Ngo, Chong-Wah; Pong, Ting-Chuen; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents new approaches in characterizing and segmenting the content of video. These approaches are developed based upon the pattern analysis of spatio-temporal slices. While traditional approaches to motion sequence analysis tend to formulate computational methodologies on two or three adjacent frames, spatio-temporal slices provide rich visual patterns along a larger temporal scale. We first describe a motion computation method based on a structure tensor formulation. This method encodes visual patterns of spatio-temporal slices in a tensor histogram, on one hand, characterizing the temporal changes of motion over time, on the other hand, describing the motion trajectories of different moving objects. By analyzing the tensor histogram of an image sequence, we can temporally segment the sequence into several motion coherent subunits, in addition, spatially segment the sequence into various motion layers. The temporal segmentation of image sequences expeditiously facilitates the motion annotation and content representation of a video, while the spatial decomposition of image sequences leads to a prominent way of reconstructing background panoramic images and computing foreground objects. PMID:18237913

  13. Analyzing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse organotypic slice cultures.

    Pham, Anh H; Chan, David C

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are mobile organelles that dynamically remodel their membranes and actively migrate along cytoskeletal tracks. There is overwhelming evidence that regulators of mitochondrial dynamics are critical for the survival and function of neural tissues. In multiple animal models, ablation of genes regulating mitochondrial shape result in stunted neural development and neurodegeneration. Organotypic cultures serve as ideal in vitro tissue models to further dissect the mechanisms of mitochondrial function in neuronal survival. Slice cultures preserve the three-dimensional cytoarchitecture of neural networks and can survive for prolonged periods in culture. In addition, these cultures allow long-term assessment of genetic or pharmacologic perturbations on neuronal function. Organotypic preparations from murine and rat models have been developed for many regions of the brain. In this chapter, we describe our methods for preparing basal ganglia and cerebellar slice cultures suitable for studying mitochondrial function in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar ataxia, respectively. With such slices, we describe a robust method for live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics. To quantitatively analyze mitochondrial motility, we show how to generate kymographs using the open source image analysis program ImageJ. These techniques provide a powerful platform for assessing mitochondrial activity in neural networks. PMID:25416355

  14. Protecting and improving breastfeeding practices during a major emergency: lessons learnt from the baby tents in Haiti

    Mohamed Ag Ayoya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Problem The 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced about 1.5 million people, many of them into camps for internally displaced persons. It was expected that disruption of breastfeeding practices would lead to increased infant morbidity, malnutrition and mortality. Approach Haiti's health ministry and the United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with local and international nongovernmental organizations, established baby tents in the areas affected by the earthquake. The tents provided a safe place for mothers to breastfeed and for non-breastfed infants to receive ready-to-use infant formula. Such a large and coordinated baby tent response in an emergency context had never been mounted before anywhere in the world. Local setting Baby tents were set up in five cities but mainly in Port-au-Prince, where the majority of Haiti's 1555 camps for displaced persons had been established. Relevant changes Between February 2010 and June 2012, 193 baby tents were set up; 180?499 motherinfant pairs and 52?503 pregnant women were registered in the baby tent programme. Of infants younger than 6months, 70% were reported to be exclusively breastfed and 10% of the mixed feeders moved to exclusive breastfeeding while enrolled. In 2010, 13.5% of registered infants could not be breastfed. These infants received ready-to-use infant formula. Lessons learnt Thanks to rapid programme scale-up, breastfeeding practices remained undisrupted. However, better evaluation methods and comprehensive guidance on the implementation and monitoring of baby tents are needed for future emergencies, along with a clear strategy for transitioning baby tent activities into facility and community programmes.

  15. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Logne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 93%. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88%, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100colony-forming units per 100ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

  16. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Urbain Fifi; Thierry Winiarski; Evens Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch test...

  17. Deep Tectonic Tremor in Haiti triggered by the 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Douilly, R.; Calais, E.; Deschamps, A.; Haase, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Tectonic tremors have been observed along major plate-boundary faults around the world. In most of these regions, tremors occur spontaneously (i.e. ambient) or as a result of small stress perturbations from passing surface waves (i.e. triggered). Because tremors are located below the seismogenic zone, a detailed study of their behavior could help to better understand how tectonic movement is accommodated in the deep root of major faults, and the relationship with large earthquakes. Here, we present evidence of triggered tremor in southern Haiti around the aftershock zone of the 2010/01/12 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake. Following the January mainshock, several groups have installed land and ocean bottom seismometers to record aftershock activity (e.g., De Lepinay et al., 2011). In the following month, the 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake occurred and was recorded in the southern Haiti region by these seismic stations. We apply a 5-15 Hz band-pass filter to all seismograms to identify local high-frequency signals during the Chile teleseismic waves. Tremor is identified as non-impulsive bursts with 10-20 s durations that is coherent among different stations and is modulated by surface waves. We also convert the seismic data into audible sounds and use them to distinguish between local aftershocks and deep tremor. We locate the source of the tremor bursts using an envelope cross-correlation method based on travel time differences. Because tremor depth is not well constrained with this method, we set it to 20 km, close to the recent estimate of Moho depth in this region (McNamara et al., 2012). Most tremors are located south of the surface expression of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), a high-angle southward dipping left-lateral strike-slip fault that marks the boundary between the Gonave microplate and the Caribbean plate, although the location errors are large. Tremor peaks are mostly modulated by Love wave velocity, which is consistent with left-lateral shear motion induced by the normal incidence of Love wave on a near-vertical strike-slip fault. Our ongoing efforts include comparing tremor and aftershock locations with the same envelope techniques, and identifying tremor at other times. If the tremor locations are reliable, the results pose interesting questions about stress changes following the Haiti mainshock that lead to triggered seismicity on the shallow south dipping Trois Baies fault (De Lepinay et al., 2011, Douilly et al, 2013), and triggered tremor on the EPGF, where no aftershocks were recorded.

  18. Tektites in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary rocks on Haiti and their bearing on the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis

    Izett, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Relic tektites are associated with a Pt-group metal abundance anomaly and shocked minerals in a thin marl bed that marks the K-T boundary on Haiti. The presence of these three impact-produced materials at the precise K-T boundary enormously strengthens the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis. The Haitian tektites are the first datable impact products in K-T boundary rocks, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of the glass show that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 Ma. -from Author

  19. Using high resolution satellite multi-temporal interferometry for landslide hazard detection in tropical environments: the case of Haiti

    Wasowski, Janusz; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Piard, Boby Emmanuel; Mondesir, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) is one of the most promising satellite-based remote sensing techniques for fostering new opportunities in landslide hazard detection and assessment. MTI is attractive because it can provide very precise quantitative information on slow slope displacements of the ground surface over huge areas with limited vegetation cover. Although MTI is a mature technique, we are only beginning to realize the benefits of the high-resolution imagery that is currently acquired by the new generation radar satellites (e.g., COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X). In this work we demonstrate the potential of high resolution X-band MTI for wide-area detection of slope instability hazards even in tropical environments that are typically very harsh (eg. coherence loss) for differential interferometry applications. This is done by presenting an example from the island of Haiti, a tropical region characterized by dense and rapidly growing vegetation, as well as by significant climatic variability (two rainy seasons) with intense precipitation events. Despite the unfavorable setting, MTI processing of nearly 100 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mages (2011-2013) resulted in the identification of numerous radar targets even in some rural (inhabited) areas thanks to the high resolution (3 m) of CSK radar imagery, the adoption of a patch wise processing SPINUA approach and the presence of many man-made structures dispersed in heavily vegetated terrain. In particular, the density of the targets resulted suitable for the detection of some deep-seated and shallower landslides, as well as localized, very slow slope deformations. The interpretation and widespread exploitation of high resolution MTI data was facilitated by Google EarthTM tools with the associated high resolution optical imagery. Furthermore, our reconnaissance in situ checks confirmed that MTI results provided useful information on landslides and marginally stable slopes that can represent a considerable hazard to the local population and infrastructure. The case of Haiti suggests that in the future MTI applications can become increasingly more important in cases where little or no conventional monitoring is feasible because of limited funds. Acknowledgements The Italian Spatial Agency (ASI) provided CSK imagery of Haiti in the framework of a scientific collaboration between the Centre National de l'Information Géo-Spatiale (CNIGS), Haiti and the Department of Physics of the Politecnico di Bari, Italy. We also thank Aldo Giovacchini (Consorzio ITA) and Luciano Guerriero for their help with the project.

  20. Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones--the case of post-earthquake Haiti.

    Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

    2014-10-15

    Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. PMID:25058930

  1. Optical Sectioning and High Resolution in Single-Slice Structured Illumination Microscopy by Thick Slice Blind-SIM Reconstruction.

    Jost, Aurélie; Tolstik, Elen; Feldmann, Polina; Wicker, Kai; Sentenac, Anne; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The microscope image of a thick fluorescent sample taken at a given focal plane is plagued by out-of-focus fluorescence and diffraction limited resolution. In this work, we show that a single slice of Structured Illumination Microscopy (two or three beam SIM) data can be processed to provide an image exhibiting tight sectioning and high transverse resolution. Our reconstruction algorithm is adapted from the blind-SIM technique which requires very little knowledge of the illumination patterns. It is thus able to deal with illumination distortions induced by the sample or illumination optics. We named this new algorithm thick slice blind-SIM because it models a three-dimensional sample even though only a single two-dimensional plane of focus was measured. PMID:26147644

  2. Status of post-quake reconstruction project and scheduled introduction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at the multi tandem accelerator facility, the University of Tsukuba

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. We have mapped out a strategy for the post-quake reconstruction project. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator at the 2nd experimental room instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. A new accelerator system will consist of a horizontal type 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources and the polarized ion source which will be moved from the 9th floor to a new experimental booth on the ground, an accelerator mass spectrometry system and an ion beam analysis system. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the 2nd experimental room to the present experimental facilities at the 1st experimental room. The new AMS system will be capable of measuring environmental levels for long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I. The new IBA system will be equipped with a high-precision five-axis goniometer. The 6 MV tandem accelerator will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The beam delivery will start on September 2014. (author)

  3. The Virtual Quake earthquake simulator: a simulation-based forecast of the El Mayor-Cucapah region and evidence of predictability in simulated earthquake sequences

    Yoder, Mark R.; Schultz, Kasey W.; Heien, Eric M.; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Parker, Jay W.; Donnellan, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this manuscript, we introduce a framework for developing earthquake forecasts using Virtual Quake (VQ), the generalized successor to the perhaps better known Virtual California (VC) earthquake simulator. We discuss the basic merits and mechanics of the simulator, and we present several statistics of interest for earthquake forecasting. We also show that, though the system as a whole (in aggregate) behaves quite randomly, (simulated) earthquake sequences limited to specific fault sections exhibit measurable predictability in the form of increasing seismicity precursory to large m > 7 earthquakes. In order to quantify this, we develop an alert-based forecasting metric, and show that it exhibits significant information gain compared to random forecasts. We also discuss the long-standing question of activation versus quiescent type earthquake triggering. We show that VQ exhibits both behaviours separately for independent fault sections; some fault sections exhibit activation type triggering, while others are better characterized by quiescent type triggering. We discuss these aspects of VQ specifically with respect to faults in the Salton Basin and near the El Mayor-Cucapah region in southern California, USA and northern Baja California Norte, Mexico.

  4. Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (haiti). a Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning

    Molina-Palacios, S.; Torres-Fernandez, Y.; Moise, J.; Benito-Oterino, B.; Haiti Working Group

    2011-12-01

    The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital. The earthquake occurred in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North American plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward with respect to the North American plate (DeMets et al., 2000). Initially the location and focal mechanism of the earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system (EPGFZ), however Hayes et al., (2010) combined seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process involved slip on multiple faults. Besides, the authors showed that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGFZ. On December 2010, a Spanish cooperation project financed by the Politechnical University of Madrid started with a clear objective: Evaluation of seismic hazard and risk in Haiti and its application to the seismic design, urban planning, emergency and resource management. One of the tasks of the project was devoted to vulnerability assessment of the current building stock and the estimation of seismic risk scenarios. The study was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires a detailed classification of the building stock in predominant building typologies (according to the materials in the structure and walls, number of stories and age of construction) and the use of the building (residential, commercial, etc.). Later, the knowledge of the soil characteristics of the city and the simulation of a scenario earthquake will provide the seismic risk scenarios (damaged buildings). The initial results of the study show that one of the highest sources of uncertainties comes from the difficulty of achieving a precise building typologies classification due to the craft construction without any regulations. Also it is observed that although the occurrence of big earthquakes usually helps to decrease the vulnerability of the cities due to the collapse of low quality buildings and the reconstruction of seismically designed buildings, in the case of Port-au-Prince the seismic risk in most of the districts remains high, showing very vulnerable areas. Therefore the local authorities have to drive their efforts towards the quality control of the new buildings, the reinforcement of the existing building stock, the establishment of seismic normatives and the development of emergency planning also through the education of the population.

  5. Slip partitioning on the Enriquillo and Lamentin faults during the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël; Jacques, Éric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann

    2014-05-01

    A general consensus has emerged from the study of the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake: the coseismic rupture was complex, portraying both reverse and strike-slip motion, but lacking unambiguous surface break. Based on seismological, geodetic and geologic data, numerous slip models have been proposed for that event. However, using an incomplete fault map, the latter models were preliminary, proposing a rupture on unmapped buried faults. Here, using bathymetric data offshore Port-au-Prince along with a digital elevation model derived from LiDAR on-land, we identified the south-dipping Lamentin thrust in the Bay of Port-au-Prince. The fault prolongs on-land where it deforms active alluvial fans in the city of Carrefour. The geometry and distribution of the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake and the analysis of the regional geology allow us to place constraints on the connection at depth between the Lamentin thrust and the sinistral strike-slip Enriquillo -Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Inversion of geodetic data suggests that both faults may have broken in 2010, consistently with the regional geodynamical setting. The rupture initiated along the Lamentin thrust and further propagated along the EPGF due to instantaneous unclamping at depth. The corals uplifted around the Léogâne Delta Fan, contributing to the build-up of long-term topography between the Lamentin thrust and the EPGF. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on unruptured EPGF segments as well as on the thrust fault sitting in the middle of the city of Carrefour, in the direct vicinity of Port-au-Prince, thereby increasing the seismic hazard in these areas.

  6. Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti

    Jackson JC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 34 patients with signs and symptoms of diarrhea and stored in BBLTM Cary-Blair transport medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD until transit to the USA. Swab material was inoculated on to different enrichment and selective agars for incubation. Fermenting and nonfermenting bacteria that grew on the enteric selection media were identified by the BBLTM CrystalTM Enteric/Nonferementing Identification system (Becton, Dickinson and Company. Organisms identified as Escherichia coli were further screened for the presence of virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 34 patients, no Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Vibrio spp. were isolated from swabs transported to the USA for culture. Of 73 E. coli isolates cultured from the swabs, one enteropathogenic strain of E. coli was identified by multiplex PCR. Escherichia fergusonii and Cronobacter sakazakii, both potential gastrointestinal pathogens, were also isolated from patient stools. Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine if bacterial enteropathogens could be detected in the stools of patients suffering from diarrhea or dysentery and, in the absence of sufficient facilities, rectal swabs could be transported to the USA for culture. Although several genera of overt enteropathogens were not detected, one enteropathogenic E. coli and other pathogenic enterobacteriaceae were successfully cultured and identified. Keywords: Escherichia, Cronobacter, diarrheagenic, stool

  7. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti

    Michelle R. Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective: We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design: We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results: The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of ‘real-time’ medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055, respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, p<0.0001, respectively. The PCIP allows the hospital staff to identify and order medications with a critically low supply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions: An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital.

  8. Rapid monitoring in vaccination campaigns during emergencies: the post-earthquake campaign in Haiti

    Jeanette J Rainey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused 1.5 million people to be displaced to temporary camps. The Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population and global immunization partners developed a plan to deliver vaccines to those residing in these camps. A strategy was needed to determine whether the immunization targets set for the campaign were achieved. Approach Following the vaccination campaign, staff from the Ministry of Public Health and Population interviewed convenience samples of households in specific predetermined locations in each of the camps regarding receipt of the emergency vaccinations. A camp was targeted for mop-up vaccination i.e. repeat mass vaccination if more than?25% of the children aged 9months to 7years in the sample were found not to have received the emergency vaccinations. Local setting Rapid monitoring was implemented in camps located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. Camps that housed more than?5000 people were monitored first. Relevant changes By the end of March 2010, 72 (23% of the 310 vaccinated camps had been monitored. Although 32 (44% of the monitored camps were targeted for mop-up vaccination, only six of them had received such repeat mass vaccination when checked several weeks after monitoring. Lessons learnt Rapid monitoring was only marginally beneficial in achieving immunization targets in the temporary camps in Port-au-Prince. More research is needed to evaluate the utility of conventional rapid monitoring, as well as other strategies, during post-disaster vaccination campaigns that involve mobile populations, particularly when there is little capacity to conduct repeat mass vaccination.

  9. An epidemic model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-04-01

    As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to December 2011, climb to 522,000 cases and 7,000 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan project). The model directly accounts for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. To this end, we generate realistic scenario of future precipitation in order to forecast possible epidemic paths up to the end of the 2013. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

  10. A spatially explicit model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to July 2011, climb to 385,000 cases and 5,800 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of textit{Vibrio cholera}, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan texttrademark project). The model directly account for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

  11. Impact glass spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration patterns

    Ritter, Xenia; Deutsch, Alexander; Berndt, Jasper; Robin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated six impact glass spherules from the K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti, using optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe and in situ laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 37 trace elements, spot size 90-35 ?m), in order to understand geochemical changes during alteration. The mm-sized glass spherules are partly or totally altered to smectite, but original textural features are preserved. The average trace-element composition of glass matches that one of the upper continental crust. Hints for a "meteoritic component" are lacking (Ni/Cr glass, smectites are strongly depleted in trace elements, except for Li, Sc, V, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are flat with subchondritic abundances, related to their very low degree of crystallinity. We observe a positive Eu and a strong negative Ce anomaly; the latter is explained by formation of an organic Ce4+-complex, soluble under reducing conditions. Zr/Hf of glasses and smectites is chondritic to superchondritic (35-40), whereas Nb/Ta in smectite is subchondritic (5-12) compared to Nb/Ta in the glass (~14-18). The low Nb/Ta is due to the low Nb concentrations in the smectite. Using in situ techniques with high spatial resolution, we have documented for the first time the significant changes in diagnostic elemental ratios during alteration of glass spherules. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of geochemical data of not only impact materials but also volcanic glass, especially if bulk rock methods are used.

  12. RIO SOLIETTE (HAITI: AN INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE FOR FLOOD-HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION

    S. Gandolfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic, one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach, and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique. This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTMs of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk.

  13. O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti

    Djuan Bracey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira.The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its foreign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

  14. A Construção da Desigualdade no Haiti: experiências históricas e situações atuais - 10.5102/uri.v4i2.160

    Renata de Melo Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo discute os supostos das desigualdades sociais/raciais no Haiti contemporâneo, a partir da observação dos processos históricos de formação das elites e sua gravitação em torno do poder do Estado. Para análise dos mecanismos de construção da desigualdade no Haiti contemporâneo, a pesquisa foi dividida em três momentos: a) pesquisa bibliográfica; b) entrevistas com haitianos residentes no Brasil e na República Dominicana, brasileiros recém-chegados do Haiti com alguma participa...

  15. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency. PMID:25833376

  16. Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens

    Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

    2014-01-01

    Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports…

  17. Von bsen Schulden und globaler Verantwortung. Das Beispiel Haiti zeigt, wie das System der Auslandsschulden die Menschen schutzlos einer Katastrophe ausliefert

    Thomas Gebauer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Von bsen Schulden und globaler Verantwortung. Das Beispiel Haiti zeigt, wie das System der Auslandsschulden die Menschen schutzlos einer Katastrophe ausliefert This commentary was originally published in the Medico Rundschreiben January 2010 and is reprinted here in the original German with the kind permission of the author.

  18. Republic of Haiti - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review (PEMFAR) : Improving Efficiency of the Fiscal System and Investing in Public Capital to Accelerate Growth and Reduce Poverty

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    After the lost decade 1994-2004, marked by political instability and economic decline, Haiti has reformed significantly and revived growth, especially in the past three years. Macroeconomic policies implemented since mid-2004 helped restart economic growth, reestablish fiscal discipline, reduce inflation and increase international reserves. Financial sector stability has been maintained th...

  19. The January 12, 2010, Mw 7.0 earthquake in Haiti: context and mechanism from an integrated geodetic study

    Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Amelung, F.; Jonsson, S.; Jansma, P. E.; Dixon, T. H.; Prepetit, C.; Momplaisir, R.

    2010-12-01

    On January 12, 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and causing an estimated 8 billion in damages, ˜120% of the country's GDP. Understanding this earthquake and its tectonic context is key to future hazard assessment and robust rebuilding in the region. The earthquake was originally thought to have ruptured the Enriquillo fault of the Southern Peninsula of Haiti, one of two main strike-slip faults accommodating the relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates. Here we provide slip rates on major active faults from the first comprehensive Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field for Hispaniola. These rates, together with the ˜250 years elapsed since a major event in southern Hispaniola, imply that the Southern Peninsula fault zone was indeed capable of a Mw7.1, consistent with previous estimates. We show that coseismic deformation from GPS and InSAR data is consistent with rupture on an unmapped north-dipping fault, which is subparallel to -- but different from -- the Enriquillo fault. The earthquake involved a combination of left-lateral strike-slip and reverse fault slip, consistent with the transpressional nature of regional interseismic strain accumulation. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the interpretation of the January 12 earthquake and future seismic hazard in the region.

  20. Food Insecurity, Dietary Diversity, and Body Mass Index of HIV-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Haiti.

    Rebick, Gabriel W; Franke, Molly F; Teng, Jessica E; Gregory Jerome, J; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Food rations are increasingly offered as part of HIV programs in resource-poor settings, often targeted solely to those with under-nutrition by low body mass index (BMI). This practice does not consider food insecurity, another important risk factor for poor outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). We analyzed factors associated with low BMI and severe food insecurity in 523 PLWH receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural Haiti using logistic regression. Food insecurity was present in 89 % of individuals. Among those with severe food insecurity, 86 % had a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2). Severe food insecurity was associated with illiteracy [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.79, p = 0.005], having no income (AOR 1.58, p = 0.04), and poverty (p Haiti. Using BMI as a sole criterion for food supplementation in HIV programs can exclude highly vulnerable individuals who may benefit from such support. PMID:26350637

  1. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Furio Massolino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  2. Seismotectonics of southern Haiti: A new faulting model for the 12 January 2010 M7.0 earthquake

    Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël.; Jacques, Eric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing consensus is that the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake left the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden strike-slip fault (EPGF) unruptured but broke unmapped blind north dipping thrusts. Using high-resolution topography, aerial images, bathymetry, and geology, we identified previously unrecognized south dipping NW-SE striking active thrusts in southern Haiti. One of them, Lamentin thrust, cuts across the crowded city of Carrefour, extends offshore into Port-au-Prince Bay, and connects at depth with the EPGF. We propose that both faults broke in 2010. The rupture likely initiated on the thrust and propagated further along the EPGF due to unclamping. This scenario is consistent with geodetic, seismological, and field data. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on the unruptured segments of the EPGF and on neighboring thrusts, significantly increasing the seismic hazard in the Port-au-Prince urban area. The numerous active thrusts recognized in that area must be considered for future evaluation of the seismic hazard.

  3. Solidarity and humanitarian intervention: a brazilian action in Haiti as a new legal paradigm of international solidarism

    Geovane Machado Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, considering the exponential growth of the human knowledge, undeniably due to the proliferation of academic disciplines, any deeper analysis of society becomes more and more impossible, viewing it only from an individualist look and distant from the other branches and dimensions of knowledge. Therefore, the present study aims to formulate new concepts and perspectives, able, in turn, to foster the development of new theoretical nuances and models of observation of reality, and having, as an essential assumption, the examination of the elements necessary for the construction of a new legal paradigm of humanitarian intervention. At first, we will analyze the elements that are part of the concept of solidarity so that, afterwards, we can propose their application to the humanitarian international law, considering, at this point, the specificities surrounding the Brazilian action in Haiti. Thus, this approach on the issue of international humanitarian aid aims at proposing the inauguration of a new kind of international solidarity, which will conceive the international humanitarian intervention not as a mere sending of troops or supplies, but as the necessary moment for the formulation of transnational public policies. Key-words: Solidarity; Humanitarian intervention; Solidarism; Public policy; Haiti

  4. Laboratory-confirmed cholera and rotavirus among patients with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in Haiti, 2012-2013.

    Steenland, Maria W; Joseph, Gerard A; Lucien, Mentor Ali Ber; Freeman, Nicole; Hast, Marisa; Nygren, Benjamin L; Leshem, Eyal; Juin, Stanley; Parsons, Michele B; Talkington, Deborah F; Mintz, Eric D; Vertefeuille, John; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Boncy, Jacques; Katz, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of cholera began in Haiti in October of 2010. To understand the progression of epidemic cholera in Haiti, in April of 2012, we initiated laboratory-enhanced surveillance for diarrheal disease in four Haitian hospitals in three departments. At each site, we sampled up to 10 hospitalized patients each week with acute watery diarrhea. We tested 1,616 specimens collected from April 2, 2012 to March 28, 2013; 1,030 (63.7%) specimens yielded Vibrio cholerae, 13 (0.8%) specimens yielded Shigella, 6 (0.4%) specimens yielded Salmonella, and 63 (3.9%) specimens tested positive for rotavirus. Additionally, 13.5% of children < 5 years old tested positive for rotavirus. Of 1,030 V. cholerae isolates, 1,020 (99.0%) isolates were serotype Ogawa, 9 (0.9%) isolates were serotype Inaba, and 1 isolate was non-toxigenic V. cholerae O139. During 1 year of surveillance, toxigenic cholera continued to be the main cause of acute diarrhea in hospitalized patients, and rotavirus was an important cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in children. PMID:24106190

  5. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed. PMID:24784976

  6. Inhibition of intermediary metabolism by amiodarone in dog thyroid slices

    Amiodarone, an iodine-containing antiarrhythmic drug, has been reported to interfere with thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism. We studied the effects of amiodarone on basal and agonist [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), phorbol ester, or carbachol]-stimulated glucose oxidation, 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids, and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) concentration in dog thyroid slices. Slices were preincubated with amiodarone at 37 degrees C for 1 h before the addition of agonist and the appropriate radioisotope. cAMP stimulation was measured after 20 min, glucose oxidation for 45 min, and 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids for 2 h. Amiodarone (0.5 mM) had no effect on basal 14CO2 formation or 32PO4 incorporation into phospholipids but significantly inhibited TSH, phorbol ester, and carbachol stimulation of these parameters. It also inhibited cAMP stimulation by TSH. Inhibition of TSH-stimulated [14C]glucose oxidation was also obtained with another iodide-containing compound, iopanoic acid (0.5 mM), but not with iothalamate (up to 10 mM). Inhibition by amiodarone was still present, but to a lesser extent, when it was added at the same time as the agonist. Inhibition of stimulated [14C]glucose oxidation persisted even after the slices were incubated without amiodarone for 6 h. Inhibition by amiodarone, in contrast to that by inorganic iodide, was not prevented by 1 mM methimazole added at the same time as amiodarone. These results indicate that the inhibitory effects of amiodarone on thyroid function are not due to dissociation of iodide from the molecule

  7. Spectral slicing x-ray telescope with variable magnification

    A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system and to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning moving frame

  8. Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864

    2011-01-01

    We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.

  9. Tracks in a small slice of the NA49 TPC

    1996-01-01

    An event display of the data recorder by the six readout chambers of the Vertex TPC. After amplification the drifting ionization is detected in small pads of 3x20 mm (small rectangles in the six readout chambers) at 10 nanosecond intervals. Only a two centimeter slice of the data is projected here while the full depth of the TPC is about 80 cm. A complicated analysis on those data aims into ``reconstructing'' the real trajectories of the charged particles that crossed the TPC.

  10. Refactoreo de diagramas de clases UML empleando slicing de modelos

    Cheda, Diego A.; Cavadini, Salvador V.

    2006-01-01

    El refactoreo es un proceso que permite mejorar la estructura interna de un sistema sin modificar su comportamiento. Su aplicación sobre diagramas UML es actualmente campo de investigación. Por otra parte, el slicing constituye una técnica ampliamente usada en diversas áreas de la ingeniería de software (como ser debugging, testing, reuso, mantenimiento, etc.) y más recientemente ha encontrado aplicación en el campo de los modelos UML. Sin embargo, la combinación de ambos procedimientos en...

  11. Dynamic Bowtie Filter for Cone-Beam/Multi-Slice CT

    LIU, FENGLIN; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    A pre-patient attenuator (“bowtie filter” or “bowtie”) is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuati...

  12. Paracetamol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in murine spinal cord slices

    Godfrey, L; I. Bailey; Toms, NJ; Clarke, GD; Kitchen, I; Hourani, SMO

    2007-01-01

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic but its mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the effect of paracetamol and the analgesic adjuvant caffeine on the activity of NO synthase in mouse spinal cord and cerebellar slices in vitro, by measuring the conversion of [3H]arginine to [3H]citrulline. Paracetamol (100 μM) had no effect on NO synthase activity in cerebellum, but in the spinal cord both paracetamol (100 μM) and caffeine (30 μM) attenuated glutamate (5 mM)-induced [3H]citrulline...

  13. Reachability in graph transformation systems and slice languages

    de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus

    Cham : Springer, 2015 - (Parisi-Presicce, F.; Westfechtel, B.), s. 121-137 ISBN 978-3-319-21144-2. ISSN 0302-9743. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9151). [International Conference on Graph Transformation, ICGT 2015. L'Aquila (IT), 21.06.2015-23.06.2015] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : graph transformation systems * reachability * slice languages Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-21145-9_8

  14. A Note on Sliced Inverse Regression with Regularizations

    Bernard-Michel, Caroline; Girard, Stphane

    2011-01-01

    In "Li, L. and Yin, X. (2008). Sliced Inverse Regression with Regularizations. Biometrics, 64(1):124--131" a ridge SIR estimator is introduced as the solution of a minimization problem and computed thanks to an alternating least-squares algorithm. This methodology reveals good performance in practice. In this note, we focus on the theoretical properties of the estimator. Is it shown that the minimization problem is degenerated in the sense that only two situations can occur: Either the ridge SIR estimator does not exist or it is zero.

  15. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  16. Reachability in graph transformation systems and slice languages

    de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus

    Cham : Springer, 2015 - (Parisi-Presicce, F.; Westfechtel, B.), s. 121-137 ISBN 978-3-319-21144-2. ISSN 0302-9743. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science . 9151). [International Conference on Graph Transformation, ICGT 2015. L'Aquila (IT), 21.06.2015-23.06.2015] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : graph transformation systems * reachability * slice languages Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-21145-9_8

  17. Nuclear spin magnetic resonance force microscopy using slice modulation

    We report a Boltzmann polarization nuclear spins detection of cycle adiabatic inversion based on resonance slice thickness modulation. The nano-scale localized spin scanning NMRFM is applied using spins locked and anti-locked in the cycling frame. We also create a number of polarization spins among 1012 observing the spin relaxation and dipole-dipole interaction at gradient field 1520 T/m. The changes of nuclear spin signal intensity and relaxation time could be evidence for the nuclear collective excitation and predictions of nuclear spin collective excitation energy

  18. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center data base. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti.Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed.This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broadbased view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level teaching in nuclear techniques and sciences. The definition and implementation of a nuclear knowledge management policy in Haiti will allow also the sustainability of the results of the cooperation between Haitian Government and the IAEA. Cooperation in general concern mainly transfer of technology and this transfer should be embodied strongly in the mind of the scientists, technicians and decisions makers. This is why a clear and sound information management policy will be implemented all along with a nuclear knowledge management policy and that synergy will begin on the field straight after the installation of a national INIS Data Center at the end of the year 2004. (author)

  19. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center database. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti. Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed. This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broad based view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level teaching in nuclear techniques and sciences. The definition and implementation of a nuclear knowledge management policy in Haiti will allow also the sustainability of the results of the cooperation between Haitian Government and the IAEA. Cooperation in general concern mainly transfer of technology and this transfer should be embodied strongly in the mind of the scientists, technicians and decisions makers. This is why a clear and sound information management policy will be implemented all along with a nuclear knowledge management policy and that synergy will begin on the field straight after the installation of a national INIS Data Center at the end of the year 2004. (author)

  20. Multispot multiphoton Ca2+ imaging in acute myocardial slices

    Borile, Giulia; de Mauro, Claudio; Urbani, Andrea; Alfieri, Domenico; Pavone, Francesco S.; Mongillo, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become essential for dynamic imaging in thick living tissues. High-rate, full-field image acquisition in multiphoton microscopy is achievable by parallelization of the excitation and detection pathways. We developed our approach via a diffractive optical element which splits a pulsed laser into 16 beamlets and exploits a descanned detection system consisting of an array of beamlet-associated photomultiplier tubes. The optical performance of the multiphoton multispot system (MCube) has been characterized in cardiac tissue sections and subsequently used for the first time for fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte Ca2+ dynamics in viable acute cardiac slices. Multispot multiphoton microscopy (MMM) has never been used before to monitor Ca2+ dynamics in thick, viable tissue samples. Acute heart slices are a powerful close-to-in vivo model of Ca2+ imaging allowing the simultaneous observation of several cells in their own tissue environment, exploiting the multiphoton excitation ability to penetrate scattering tissues. Moreover, we show that the concurrent high spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by the parallel scanning in MMM can be exploited to simultaneously assess subcellular Ca2+ dynamics in different cells in the tissue. We recorded local Ca2+ release events including macrosparks, travelling waves, and rotors.

  1. Quantification and elimination of windmill artifacts in multi slice CT

    Utrup, Steven J.; Brown, Kevin M.

    2008-03-01

    In multi-slice cone beam CT imaging, there are artifacts known as windmill artifacts. These artifacts are due to not satisfying the Nyquist criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. This paper quantifies and compares these artifacts as a function of the number of rows, pitch, collimation, and image thickness of the CT scanner. Scanners with rows of 16, 64 and 128 are measured and compared with simulated data, using both Helical and Axial scanning modes. In addition three focal spot switching modes are compared: the traditional within image plane mode; diagonal mode; and quad mode. All images are compared via four criteria: artifacts, MTF, SSP and noise. Results show that the frequency of the artifact, or number of blades on the windmill and magnitude of each blade, is dependent on the rate at which the rows are crossed for an image. For example, for a given pitch, doubling the rows doubles the frequency of the artifact, with each artifact approximately the magnitude. A similar result can be obtained by keeping the number of rows constant and varying the pitch. The artifact disappears as the Nyquist criteria is satisfied by either increasing the slice thickness or incorporating one of the focal spot switching modes that switch in the patient longitudinal direction. For a given MTF and SSP, the diagonal focal spot switching mode has slightly more noise while the other two are approximately equal. The artifact varies with the quad mode being the best and traditional mode being the worse.

  2. Warping, extra dimensions, and a slice of AdSd

    Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum framework we consider a number of phenomenologically relevant model-building questions on a slice of compactified AdSd for d>5. Such spaces are interesting as they enable one to realize the weak scale via warping. We perform the Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction for gravitons and bulk vectors in these spaces, and for the case of AdS6 consider the KK spectrum of gauge scalars. We further obtain the KK towers for bulk fermions on a slice of AdS7 and AdS9 and show that the Randall-Sundrum approach to flavor generalizes to these spaces with the localization of chiral zero-mode fermions controlled by their bulk Dirac mass parameters. However, for the phenomenologically interesting case where the transverse radius is R-1∼TeV, we show that bulk standard model fields are not viable due to a resulting volume suppression of the gauge-coupling constants. A similar suppression occurs for the case of UV localization. Thus it seems that the standard model fields should be confined to the infrared brane in such spaces. Sterile fields and extended gauge sectors may propagate in the bulk, with the gauge-coupling volume suppression experienced by the latter motivating a weak coupling to standard model fields. We also discuss some issues regarding the effective 4D theory description in these spaces.

  3. Incorporation of fluorescently-labeled lipids into living brain slices

    Lester, David S.

    1994-08-01

    In order to identify neuronal networks, it is generally required to fix tissue followed by some specific staining procedure. A new procedure is described in this manuscript that labels brain slices that are routinely used for electrophysiological analyses. Fluorescently-labeled lipids can be incorporated into brain slices via passive exchange from exogenously applied vesicles. The labeled lipid is distributed throughout distinct cellular structures of the hippocampus and cerebellum. High resolution images of cells can be obtained and as the labeling process does not affect the electrical properties of the labeled cells, further electrophysiological analyses can be made of identifiable cells. The distribution of the lipid depends on the labeled phospholipid species. One of the lipids analyzed has been previously used for in vitro phospholipase analyses. Addition of phospholipase activating agents resulted in identification with high spatial and temporal resolution of activation of this enzyme in specific cell types. The cells affected correlated with previously identified regions of relevant pharmacological activity. This procedure shows considerable promise for monitoring biochemical changes due to physiological, toxicological, or pathological changes in intact neuronal networks.

  4. Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration

    van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2007-03-01

    In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.

  5. Pulmonary nodules in spiral volumetric and single slice computed tomography.

    Friese, S A; Rieber, A; Fleiter, T; Brambs, H J; Claussen, C D

    1994-02-01

    Single slice acquisition of conventional CT and volume scanning of spiral volumetric CT are compared in terms of detection and assessment of pulmonary nodules. Spiral CT is supposed to be superior to conventional CT in detecting all lung nodules by scanning the complete lung volume, while conventional CT may miss nodules due to inconsistent levels of inspiration for single slices. Different technical procedures of spiral CT may change the imaging of nodules and other findings. Fifty-two patients with known or suspected lung nodules were examined by conventional CT and spiral CT. Number and size of lung nodules and imaging of other pulmonary findings were registered independently by two radiologists. Spiral CT showed 15 lung nodules not seen on conventional CT, and missed one nodule. Spiral CT imaging of nodules was superior in some cases (characterisation of benign nodules) because complete scanning provided more information than conventional CT. It was worse in some cases (small nodules, fibrosis, small pleural effusion) due to the greater partial volume effect and less mAs. Technically improved spiral CT with longer scanning facilities and a 180-degree algorithm may be able to replace conventional CT for this indication. PMID:8168582

  6. Colchicine induces apoptosis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Noer, Helle; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Zimmer, Jens; Noraberg, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine is known to be particular toxic for certain types of neurons, including the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In this study we investigated whether colchicine could induce such neuron-specific degeneration in developing (1 week in vitro) and mature (3...... brain slice cultures, but the apoptotic cell death is highly dependent on the developmental stage of the cultures....... weeks in vitro) organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and whether the induced cell death was apoptotic and/or necrotic. When applied to 1-week-old cultures for 48 h, colchicine induced primarily apoptotic, but also a minor degree of necrotic cell death in the dentate granule cells, as investigated by...... similar time course and reached a maximum after 24 h of exposure, 24 h ahead of both PI uptake and Hoechst 33342 staining, which together displayed similar time profiles and a close correlation. In 3-week-old cultures, colchicine did not induce apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Attempts to interfere with...

  7. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  8. PACAP – Melatonin Interaction in Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Slice Cultures

    Ehab TOUSSON

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pineal indoleamine-hormone melatonin elicits a wide variety of physiological actions across vertebrate species. Mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN has high density of melatonin receptors that plays important role in the entrainment of the circadian pacemaker. SCN of the mammalian hypothalamus serves as the central biological clock, controlling circadian rhythms that are synchronized with the external light/dark cycle by retinal photoreception and transmission of light information via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT. RHT has recently been shown to contain pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. In the present study we cultured hypothalamic brain slices that included the region of the SCN on multi-microelectrode arrays to study in long-duration recordings simultaneously the electrical activity of SCN neurons and their possible target neurons in the hypothalamus. The extracellular recordings from the acute and ⁄ or organotypic hypothalamic slices mainly exhibited multi-unit activity often without the possibility to discriminate single unit activity. Application of melatonin (1nM for 50 min at CT 10 shifted served the circadian rhythm in the firing rate and caused a phase-advance of 4 hours. Application of PACAP (100nM for 25 min at CT6 evoked phase-advance of 2-3 hours while application of PACAP at CT10 had no effect on the circadian rhythm. Co-application of PACAP together with melatonin at CT 10 completely blocked the phase-advance normally induced by melatonin.

  9. Assessment of aec system response in ge 16 slices scanner

    Computed Tomography scanners equipped with system for Automatic Exposure Control ( AEC ) have been recently installed into clinical practice in Macedonia. Assessment of their AEC settings and performances is important task from patient doses and images quality point of view . This study was done by analyzing of CT examinations in patients in the City Hospital ' 8 September' in Skopje. The examinations were carried out by GE Bright Speed 16 slices scanner equipped with AEC system . In all patients were applied the same protocol with constant acquisition parameters was applied , and images were reconstructed by standard mode . Patient dimensions and image noise were measured from the scouts and axial images. From DICOM header the information related to dose, TCM and slice position were extracted . It was found that scanner automatic exposure system adjusts exposure mainly according to maximal patient lateral dimension (LR) and applying the same Noise Index (NI) value in patients with different size does not provides necessarily the same image noise level. In patients which LR dimension was less than 30 cm it was found that AEC adjusts tube current at the minimum of m A interval with no modulation throughout different body parts. (Author)

  10. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis. PMID:26865693

  11. Comparison of the low-cost MEMS accelerometers used by the Quake-Catcher Network and traditional strong motion seismic sensors

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Chung, A. I.; Evans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Accelerometers based on low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have improved swiftly, making the rapid deployment of dense seismic arrays possible. For example, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) makes use of MEMS-based tri-axial sensors installed in homes and businesses to record earthquakes, with almost 2000 participants worldwide. QCN utilizes an open-source distributed-computing system, called the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), to retrieve waveforms from continuous or triggered recordings back to the QCN server. Furthermore, the QCN approach can also be used to augment existing seismic networks for rapid-earthquake detection purposes, as well as studies on seismic source- and site-related phenomena. Following the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array to record the on-going aftershock sequence in and around the city of Christchurch. We examine the peak ground motions recorded during a M5.1 aftershock and find that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is spatially variable, but with a clear decay in amplitude with distance. In general, closely located GeoNet and QCN stations report similar PGA. Several QCN stations were located within 1 km of existing GeoNet stations, providing an opportunity to compare time series and amplitude spectra. For these closely spaced pairs of stations, the amplitude spectra observed from the horizontal components are highly correlated with average cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 or higher. In addition, we find the correlation coefficient decreases with increasing distance between station pairs. In future work we will compare the instrumental sensitivity between traditional and MEMS-based sensors by conducting shake table tests of five different types of MEMS sensors at the Albuquerque Seismic Lab.

  12. Short breath-hold MR cholangiopancreatography with single slice method using HASTE sequence

    About 20 to 30 seconds breath-holding is required to perform magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using fast spin echo or CE-FAST sequences. Newly developed HASTE (half-Fourier single shot turbo spin echo) sequence has dramatically shortened the image acquisition time to 1 or 2 seconds by using single slice method. A comparison of single slice MRCP (single slice method) with multi-slice maximum intensity projection technique MRCP (MIP method) showed nearly equal results in terms of visual scoring of image quality. Visibility of biliary and pancreatic ducts and background to contrast ratio (BGCR) were also nearly equal between single slice method and MIP method. Single slice method, which is easy to perform, can be applied to patients who cannot tolerate a long breath-holding time, and yields good quality images of biliary and pancreatic ducts. Because of very short imaging time, it can be performed to supplement routine MR images of the upper abdomen. (author)

  13. Oblique or orthoradial CBCT slices for preoperative implant planning: which one is more accurate?

    Frederico Sampaio, Neves; Taruska Ventorini, Vasconcelos; Anne Caroline Costa, Oenning; Sergio Lins, de-Azevedo-Vaz; Solange Maria de, Almeida; Deborah Queiroz, Freitas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess which slice inclination would be more accurate in measuring sites for implant placement: the oblique or the orthoradial slice. METHODS: Five regions of eight edentulous mandibles were selected (incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar). The mandibles were scanned [...] with a Next Generation i-CAT CBCT unit. Two previously calibrated oral radiologists performed vertical measurements in all the selected regions using both the oblique and orthoradial slices. The mandibles were sectioned in all the evaluated regions in order to obtain the gold standard. The Wilcoxon signed rank test compared the measurements obtained in the oblique and orthoradial slices with the gold standard. RESULTS: The bone height measurements for the first and second molar regions using the orthoradial slices were statistically different from the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: Using the orthoradial slices to obtain cross-sectional images may offer insufficient accuracy for implant placement in the posterior region.

  14. Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sfilis materna y congnita en zonas rurales de Hait

    Chaylah J. Lomotey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6% were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sfilis materna y estimar la tasa de sfilis congnita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Hait. MTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extrados de la base de datos de salud pblica de la Fundacin Haitiana de Salud y verificada con los registros clnicos originales en papel, los certificados de defuncin, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sfilis, 31 (7,6% resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacion con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atencin prenatal (23 semanas. Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P < 0,0001. La tasa estimada de sfilis congnita en la zona fue de 767 por 100000 nacidos vivos. CONCLUSIONES: La sfilis materna es frecuente en las zonas rurales de Hait, lo que combinado con la entrada tarda a los servicios de atencin prenatal, contribuye a los desenlaces adversos de los embarazos y a la alta tasa estimada de sfilis congnita. Se requieren ms estudios sobre la sfilis congnita y los hbitos de bsqueda de atencin prenatal de las mujeres de zonas rurales de Hait para comprender el impacto de la sfilis materna en esta parte del pas y mejorar el desenlace de los embarazos.

  15. I would hire you in a minute: Thin slices of nonverbal behavior in job interviews

    Nguyen, Laurent Son; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, judgments people make about others are based on brief excerpts of interactions, known as thin slices. Inferences stemming from such minimal information can be quite accurate, and nonverbal behavior plays an important role in the impression formation. Because protagonists are strangers, employment interviews are a case where both nonverbal behavior and thin slices can be predictive of outcomes. In this work, we analyze the predictive validity of thin slices of real job interv...

  16. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-01-01

    Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO), while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with ...

  17. Medical equipment donations in Haiti: flaws in the donation process Donaciones de equipo médico en Haití: fallas en el proceso de donación

    Roger Dzwonczyk; Chris Riha

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The area's hospitals suffered major structural damage and material losses. Project HOPE sought to rebuild the medical equipment and clinical engineering capacity of the country. A team of clinical engineers from the United States of America and Haiti conducted an inventory and assessment of medical equipment at seven public hospitals affected by the earthqu...

  18. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Rgis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio. PMID:20377948

  19. Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

    2010-12-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the response and recovery phases. Our team consists of experts in natural hazards, public health, shelter and infrastructure, education, and security. We are performing a network analysis based on the content of news and situation reports in media and from UN and aid agencies, field reports by academics and organizations like EERI, and discussions with agencies in Haiti. During three trips to Haiti, we have documented what information was being collected by key stakeholders including government, United Nations, non-governmental organizations, and both domestic and international educational institutions. Insights gained from this analysis of disaster response and recovery operations are invaluable in informing the next state of risk reduction, the transition to a sustainable recovery in a damaged region.

  20. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

  1. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants: detailed determination of safety margins and their scattering for buildings in case of earth quakes; Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse fuer Kernkraftwerke. Detaillierte Ermittlung der Sicherheitsreservefaktoren der Bauwerke und deren Streuung fuer Erdbeben

    Sadegh-Azar, H. [HOCHTIEF Consult IKS Energy (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants studies and evaluations of earth quake events have to be performed. The methodology is aimed to quantify the actual safety margins of the existing structures and their scattering. These data are essentially based on empirical values and results from US power plants. The authors discuss the accuracy and applicability of the simplified methodologies. It turns out that the simplified models can only roughly describe the complex non-linear behavior of buildings. Additional system engineering based effects on the safety reserves cannot be taken into account by the simplified modeling.

  2. Spectral decomposition of black-hole perturbations on hyperboloidal slices

    Ansorg, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a spectral decomposition of solutions to relativistic wave equations described on horizon penetrating hyperboloidal slices within a given Schwarzschild-black-hole background. The wave equa- tion in question is Laplace-transformed which leads to a spatial differential equation with a complex parameter. For initial data which are analytic with respect to a compactified spatial coordinate, this equation is treated with the help of the Mathematica-package in terms of a sophisticated Taylor series analysis. Thereby, all ingredients of the desired spectral decomposition arise explicitly to arbitrarily prescribed accuracy, including quasi normal modes, quasi normal mode amplitudes as well as the jump of the Laplace-transform along the branch cut. Finally, all contributions are put together to obtain via the inverse Laplace transformation the spectral de- composition in question. The paper explains extensively this procedure and includes detailed discussions of relevant aspects, such as the d...

  3. Integrated Strategies to Address Maternal and Child Health and Survival in Low-Income Settings: Implications for Haiti.

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals for improving maternal and child health globally were agreed on in 2000, and several monitoring and evaluation strategies were put in place, including "Countdown to 2015" for monitoring progress and intervention coverage to reach the goals. However, progress in achieving the goals has been slow, with only 13 of the 75 participating Countdown countries on track to reach the targets for reducing child mortality.An overview of child mortality rates in low-income countries is presented, followed by a discussion of evidenced-based interventions that can bridge the equity gaps in global health. Finally, comments are included on the companion article in this issue, "Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care" (page 59), and what is needed for that new project to succeed. PMID:27065474

  4. Uptake of household disinfection kits as an additional measure in response to a cholera outbreak in urban areas of Haiti.

    Gartley, M; Valeh, P; de Lange, R; Dicarlo, S; Viscusi, A; Lenglet, A; Fesselet, J F

    2013-12-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Amsterdam piloted the distribution of household disinfection kits (HDKs) and health promotion sessions for cholera prevention in households of patients admitted to their cholera treatment centres in Carrefour, Port au Prince, Haiti, between December 2010 and February 2011. We conducted a follow-up survey with 208 recipient households to determine the uptake and use of the kits and understanding of the health promotion messages. In 61% of surveyed households, a caregiver had been the recipient of the HDK and 57.7% of households had received the HDKs after the discharge of the patient. Among surveyed households, 97.6% stated they had used the contents of the HDK after receiving it, with 75% of these reporting using five or more items, with the two most popular items being chlorine and soap. A significant (p health promotion is easy, feasible, and valued by the target population. PMID:24334836

  5. Revision of the geological context of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, metropolitan area: implications for seismic microzonation

    Terrier, M.; Bialkowski, A.; Nachbaur, A.; Prpetit, C.; Joseph, Y. F.

    2014-02-01

    A geological study has been conducted in the framework of the microzonation of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. It reveals the deposit of Miocene and Pliocene formations in a marine environment and the impact on these deposits of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden N80 E fault system and of N110 E faults. The tectonic and morphological analysis indicates motion during the Quaternary along several mapped reverse left-lateral N110 E faults affecting the capital. Assessing ground-movement hazards represents an integral component of seismic microzonation. The geological results have provided essential groundwork for this assessment. Seismic microzonation aims to take seismic risk more fully into account in the city's urbanization and development policies. To this end, assumptions are made as to risks induced by surface rupture and ground movement from active faults.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of 4 rings/7 slices domestic PET scanner

    PURPOSE: To test the preliminary clinical performance of 4 rings/7 slices, AFOV 8 cm PET scanner made in China. METHODS: Based on phantom test and animal study, PET imaging were performed on a normal volunteer and 7 patients 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. The acquisition time of whole body imaging for adult was 1.5 hours (11 bed position), whereas myocardium and brain imaging was 0.5 hours (2?3 bed position). RESULTS: ?1?3 cm positive and negative foci could be displayed in phantom. 8 cases of coronal and sagittal whole body tomographic images were clearly demonstrated. Brain, myocardium and bladder were significantly displayed in normal volunteer with normal food and drink. 6 malignant lesions of 2 patients concentrated 18F-FDG significantly and 2 benign lesions of 2 patients did not concentrated it. Recurrence and metastasis were excluded in 2 patients with carcinoma after operation and chemotherapy. Whether normal myocardium display or not were dependent on glucose loading. 18F-FDG myocardium images matched well with 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion images in a patient with remote myocardial infarction. Cerebral cortex images well visualized in all subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of this PET scanner showed that it reached the level of middle stage of 8th decade's 4 rings/7 slices PET and possessed the coronal and sagittal whole body tomographic function of 9th decade's PET. It can be used in whole body tumor imaging, myocardial viability evaluation and preoperation localization of functional epileptic foci, but operating and software function should be improved

  7. Radiation exposure in multi-slice CT of the heart

    Purpose: To assess radiation exposure of patients undergoing Multi-Row Detector CT (Multi-Slice CT, MSCT) of the heart. Material and Methods: Four different cardiac MSCT protocols with changing slice collimation (4x1, and 4x2.5 mm), and pitch-factor (1.5, 1.8, and 4) were examined. An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with LiF-thermoluminescent dosimeters at several organ sites, and effective doses were calculated using ICRP-weighting factors. These data were compared to data from standard MSCT of chest and abdomen. Results: Effective dose in different protocols for cardiac MSCT varies from 2.8 to 10.3 mSv (male), and from 3.6 to 12.7 mSv (female). In protocols with thin collimation and low pitch or a combination of several heart examinations, radiation exposure may be comparable to the effective dose of standard MSCT of the chest (male: 11.9 mSv, female: 12.9 mSv) or the abdomen (male: 16.1 mSv, female: 15.7 mSv). Highest organ doses were found for the female breast (up to 46.6 mGy), and the lungs (up to 36.4 mGy) with surface doses as high as 54.3 mGy. Conclusions: Cardiac MSCT adds significantly to the radiation exposure of patients and can reach the effective dose applied by standard MSCT of chest or abdomen. (orig.)

  8. Ring artifacts removal from synchrotron CT image slices

    Ring artifacts can occur in reconstructed images from x-ray Computerized Tomography (CT) as full or partial concentric rings superimposed on the scanned structures. Due to the data corruption by those ring artifacts in CT images, qualitative and quantitative analysis of these images are compromised. In this paper, we propose to correct the ring artifacts on the reconstructed synchrotron radiation (SR) CT image slices. The proposed correction procedure includes the following steps: (1). transform the reconstructed CT images into polar coordinates; (2) apply discrete two-dimensional (2D) wavelet transform to the polar image to decompose it into four image components: low pass band image component, as well as the components from horizontal, vertical and diagonal details bands; (3). apply 2D Fourier transform to the vertical details band image component only, since the ring artifacts become vertical lines in the polar coordinates; (4). apply Gaussian filtering in Fourier domain along the abscissa direction to suppress the vertical lines, since the information of the vertical lines in Fourier domain is completely condensed to that direction; (5). perform inverse Fourier transform to get the corrected vertical details band image component; (6). perform inverse wavelet transform to get the corrected polar image; (7). transform the corrected polar image back to Cartesian coordinates to get the CT image slice with reduced ring artifacts. This approach has been successfully used on CT data acquired from the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline in Canadian Light Source (CLS), and the results show that the ring artifacts in original SR CT images have been effectively suppressed with all the structure information in the image preserved.

  9. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. PMID:26666973

  10. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-valueHaiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions. PMID:26612595

  11. An Exploratory Study of Acculturation and Reproductive Health Among Haitian and Haitian-American Women in Little Haiti, South Florida.

    Cyrus, E; Gollub, E L; Jean-Gilles, M; Neptune, S; Pelletier, V; Dévieux, J

    2016-06-01

    There is unmet contraceptive need among Haitian immigrants and Haitian-American women (Haitian women). The study explored associations of three measures of acculturation with contraceptive/reproductive health history among Haitian women residing in the Little Haiti community of Miami. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory study among 57 Haitian women. We conducted descriptive univariate analyses, then bivariate analyses to investigate the association of acculturation with reproductive health risk behavior including contraceptive use, tampon use, and parity, as well as interest in a female-initiated barrier contraceptive method. The most commonly ever-used contraceptive methods were male condoms (78.9 %) and oral contraceptives (OC 19.3 %). Women who primarily spoke Créole at home were less likely than those who did not to use OC (11.9 vs. 42.9 %, p = .01). Among women who resided in the U.S. ≥10 years, tampon use was 51.9 % compared to 16.7 % among those who were in the U.S. for less time (p = .005). Among U.S. born women, 60 % were tampon users compared to 22.7 % among those born in Haiti (p = .05). Women not speaking primarily Créole at home (p = .06) and those born in U.S. (p = .008) had fewer children. Contraceptive use was low among Haitian women but influenced by acculturation, where greater acculturation was associated with protective reproductive health behavior. Despite traditional norms discouraging contraceptive use, and little experience with female barriers, Haitian women indicated an interest in learning about and using a female-initiated barrier contraceptive. Increasing contraceptive uptake of potential multipurpose technologies is a potential point of intervention for decreasing HIV/STI transmission in this at-risk population. PMID:26087716

  12. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient screening of genome supercontig assemblies. These loci are suitable for genetic and population studies using multiplex-PCR.

  13. Haití: huracanes en un año de calma Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes

    JUAN ESTEBAN MONTES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental.Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabilization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

  14. The multisectoral approach to HIV/AIDS program in Haiti: a critical review of the actors involved in its governance

    Foro A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SummaryAim: The multisectoral approach is often adopted in national policies of fight against AIDS. This article analyzes the characteristics of the actors network and their influence on the governance of the HIV program in Haiti.Methods: The qualitative data comes from interviews, observations and documentation. For their analysis, two techniques are used: namely thematic and structural analysis. The interpretation of results is based on the theory of the strategic actor (Crozier M, et al. Lacteur et le systme : les contraintes de laction collective. Paris : Ed. du Seuil ; 1977 [1] and the theory of network governance. These concepts allow to study and have an insight on the participants potential power, their strategies and interactions within the network. Results: These actors, with their diversity, the resources they control, and the nature of their interactions, determine the challenges regarding governance. There is a gap between the leadership role attributed to the national coordinating body and the true and actual nature of its influence within the network. This discrepancy is mainly attributable to the fact that its potential power, defined by available resources, places it in a weak position, which as a result translates into its incapacity to effectively impact the situations at hand. The study reveals the links between the actors characteristics and their ability to influence the process of governance through the web of relationships and the structure of power game. Conclusion: In Haiti, many actors are involved in the fight against HIV. The analysis of the complex network they operate within has shown that their potential to influence the program were uneven. This constitutes an important challenge for the national coordinating body. Prat Organ Soins. 2012;43(2:131-141

  15. Geochemical Uniformity over 30 Million Years of Volcanic Activity in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province: Evidence from Curacao and Haiti

    Loewen, M. W.; Kent, A. J.; Duncan, R. A.; Krawl, K.; Michael, P. J.; Graham, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) lavas, dikes, and sills from Curacao and Haiti record almost 30 million years of volcanism, beginning at ~93 Ma and continuing until ~63 Ma, with peak activity at 93-90, 86-85, 80-76 and 66-63 Ma. A variety of rock types are apparent. Despite the significant age range evident in our sample set, which includes picritic to tholeitic pillow lavas, thick hyaloclastite sequences, and poikolitic sills, compositions show only subtle compositional differences between groups of different age. Most whole rock samples appear to derive from a similar mantle source peridotite and to have undergone a common set differentiation processes (primarily partial melting followed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase). The recognition of this range of ages and compositional similarities poses important questions for the extent and cause of CLIP magmatism. We present new 40Ar-39Ar ages and major and trace elements for whole rock, minerals and glass samples from throughout the exposed volcanic sections at the two locations. Hyaloclastite glasses have also been analyzed by FTIR for volatile abundances. Unlike major element compositions of whole rock samples, major element and volatile analyses of hyaloclastite glasses reveal the presence of at least three distinct magma series. In addition, variations in Cl and Cl/K suggest that differences exist in the degree to which magmatic systems interact with seawater-derived components. One He-isotopic analysis from a Haiti picrite (3He/4He = 12.3 Ra) is consistent with other isotopic evidence for a significant mantle plume contribution to CLIP construction. Future work will focus on trace element modeling to further constrain magma sources and extents of melting, and on expanding the number of samples for which we have age control.

  16. Before and after the earthquake: a case study of attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program in Haiti

    Nancy H. Puttkammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: On January 12, 2010, a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the West Department of Haiti, killing more than 200,000 people and injuring or displacing many more. This disaster threatened continuity of HIV care and treatment services. Objectives: This case study examined the effect of the devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti on attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART program. Design: The study triangulated retrospective data from existing sources, including: 1 individual-level longitudinal patient data from an electronic medical record for ART patients at two large public sector departmental hospitals differently affected by the earthquake; and 2 aggregate data on the volume of HIV-related services delivered at the two hospitals before and after the earthquake. Methods: The study compared ART attrition and service delivery in Jacmel, a site in the ‘very strong’ zone of earthquake impact, and in Jérémie, a site in the ‘light’ zone of earthquake impact. The analysis used time-to-event analysis methods for the individual-level patient data, and descriptive statistical methods for the aggregate service delivery data. Results: Adjusted ART attrition risk was lower at the hospital in Jacmel after vs. before the earthquake (HR=0.51; p=0.03, and was lower in Jacmel vs. Jérémie both before (HR=0.55; p=0.01 and after the earthquake (HR=0.35; p=0.001. The number of new ART patient enrollments, new HIV patient registrations, and HIV clinical visits dropped notably in Jacmel immediately after the earthquake, but then rapidly rebounded. On average, there was no change in new ART enrollments per month after vs. before the earthquake at either site. Conclusion: These findings underscore the resilience of Haitian ART providers and patients, and contribute evidence that it is possible to maintain continuity of ART services even in the context of a complex humanitarian crisis.

  17. A Seismo-Tectonic Signal From Offshore Sedimentation: The 2010 Haiti Earthquake and Prior Events

    McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Cormier, M.; Hornbach, M.; Momplaisir, R.; Waldhauser, F.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw 7.0 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti was one of the deadliest in history. It involved multiple faults along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). This left-lateral transform is a branch of the northern Caribbean plate boundary across southern Hispaniola. The main rupture was strike-slip but almost all aftershocks had thrust mechanisms, and surface deformation may have been concentrated on anticline forelimbs driven by blind thrust faults. Earthquake generated mass-wasting and turbidity currents were sampled from the Canal du Sud slope (~1000 m water depth), a basin at 1500 m, and the deepest part of the strait at 1700 m. The turbidites were strongly correlated by 234Th with a half-life of 24 days. In the deepest area, a turbidite-homogenite unit (T-H) extends over 50 km2 and is composed of basal sand beds 5 cm thick and 50 cm of mud above. The sedimentary structures in the sand were linked to oscillatory motions by internal seiches. The T-H units recovered from the slope and deep basin are similar in composition. The Leogane Delta, upslope from the sampling sites, is rich in this lithology that has been linked to oceanic basement rocks exposed on the southern Haitian peninsula. In contrast, the T-H unit recovered from the basin at 1500 m is perched behind a thrust anticline and has a greater concentration of Ca derived from Ca rich sources such as the Tapion Ridge on the southern peninsula. The Tapion Ridge is a compressional structure associated with a restraining bend along the EPGF. The T-H unit beneath the 2010 deposit has a 14C age of 2400 cal yrs BP, and interpreted as an earthquake triggered deposit. It is nearly identical in thickness, composition and fine structures to the 2010 T-H. Notably absent from the record are younger turbidites that could have been linked to the historic 1770 AD and other similar earthquakes expected from GPS rates across the EPGF. Two hypotheses are being considered for this long gap in T-H sedimentation. One proposes that during relative high stands of sea level fringing reefs are trapping sediment on the shelf and that a critical accumulation is needed to generate failure. Many large local earthquakes could have occurred before reaching this critical thickness. Low sedimentation rates (6 cm/1000 yrs) support this possibility. Our preferred hypothesis, alternatively, links T-Hs to earthquakes with a large thrust component such as the 2010 event in order to generate failure. This latter hypothesis accounts for some earthquakes producing no turbidites while others, such as the 2010 event, do. It also accounts for the fracturing sampled along 8 km of the perched basin. We propose that thrust earthquakes along the Tapion Ridge segment of the EPGF reoccur at ~2000-year intervals and this sedimentary signal is preserved in Canal du Sud.

  18. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  19. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  20. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P; Koudelka-Hep, M; Zimmer, J

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn...

  1. The anatomy and pathology of the brain stem demonstrated by thin slice CT cisternography

    We demonstrated normal CT anatomy of the brain stem and adjacent structures using this slice CT cisternography. Reducing the streak artifact caused by bony structures, thin slice CT cisternography can visualize the detailed features of the brain stem and its pathological changes. In addition, reconstructed images are also useful in diagnosis. (author)

  2. Performance analysis of generic vs. sliced tags in HepODBMS

    The author presents a performance analysis of accessing tag data clustered in two different ways, namely event-wise clustering (generic tag) vs. attribute-wise clustering (sliced tag). The results show that especially 'prefetch-optimisation' results in an additional performance gain of sliced tags over generic tags when only a subset of all the tag attributes is accessed

  3. Chopped and sliced cones and representations of Kac-Moody algebras

    Bliem, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a chopped and sliced cone in combinatorial geometry and prove two structure theorems for the number of integral points in the individual slices of such a cone. We observe that this notion applies to weight multiplicities of Kac-Moody algebras and Littlewood-Richardson coefficients of semisimple Lie algebras, where we obtain the corresponding results.

  4. Ex-vivo evaluation of gene therapy vectors in human pancreatic (cancer tissue slices

    Michael A van Geer, Koert FD Kuhlmann, Conny T Bakker, Fibo JW ten Kate, Ronald PJ Oude Elferink, Piter J Bosma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To culture human pancreatic tissue obtained from small resection specimens as a pre-clinical model for examining virus-host interactions.METHODS: Human pancreatic tissue samples (malignant and normal were obtained from surgical specimens and processed immediately to tissue slices. Tissue slices were cultured ex vivo for 1-6 d in an incubator using 95% O2. Slices were subsequently analyzed for viability and morphology. In addition the slices were incubated with different viral vectors expressing the reporter genes GFP or DsRed. Expression of these reporter genes was measured at 72 h after infection.RESULTS: With the Krumdieck tissue slicer, uniform slices could be generated from pancreatic tissue but only upon embedding the tissue in 3% low melting agarose. Immunohistological examination showed the presence of all pancreatic cell types. Pancreatic normal and cancer tissue slices could be cultured for up to 6 d, while retaining viability and a moderate to good morphology. Reporter gene expression indicated that the slices could be infected and transduced efficiently by adenoviral vectors and by adeno associated viral vectors, whereas transduction with lentiviral vectors was limited. For the adenoviral vector, the transduction seemed limited to the peripheral layers of the explants.CONCLUSION: The presented system allows reproducible processing of minimal amounts of pancreatic tissue into slices uniform in size, suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of gene therapy vectors.

  5. Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm

    14C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of 14C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in 14C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of 14C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue

  6. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 ?mol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 ?mol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  7. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Ibanez, Jose MarIa; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio, E-mail: isabel.cordero@uv.e, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.e, E-mail: antonio.morales@uv.e [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  8. UPTAKE OF INORGANIC LEAD IN VITRO BY ISOLATED MITOCHONDRIA AND TISSUE SLICES OF RAT RENAL CORTEX

    Slices of rat renal cortex were shown to take up Pb2+ during incubation in vitro; Pb2+ was also shown to enter mitochondria within the slices. The uptake of Pb2+ by isolated mitochondria was inhibited by N3-, La3+ and ruthenium red. A steady state of uptake was attained within 60...

  9. Extended coverage first-pass perfusion imaging using slice-interleaved TSENSE.

    Kellman, P; Derbyshire, J A; Agyeman, K O; McVeigh, E R; Arai, A E

    2004-01-01

    Parallel imaging applied to first-pass, contrast-enhanced cardiac MR can yield greater spatial coverage for a fixed temporal resolution. The method combines rate R=2 acceleration using TSENSE with shot-to-shot interleaving of two slices. The square root R SNR loss is largely compensated for by a longer effective repetition time (TR) and increased flip angle associated with slice interleaving. In this manner, increased spatial coverage is achieved while comparable or better image quality is maintained. Single-heartbeat temporal resolution was accomplished with spatial coverage of eight slices at heart rates up to 71 bpm, six slices up to 95 bpm, and four slices up to 143 bpm. Experiments in normal subjects (N=6) were performed to assess signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. PMID:14705062

  10. Physical performance evaluation of a 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional imaging

    We have developed a prototype 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional (4D) imaging that employs continuous rotations of a cone-beam. Since a cone-beam scan along a circular orbit does not collect a complete set of data to make an exact reconstruction of a volume [three-dimensional (3D) image], it might cause disadvantages or artifacts. To examine effects of the cone-beam data collection on image quality, we have evaluated physical performance of the prototype 256-slice CT-scanner with 0.5 mm slices and compared it to that of a 16-slice CT-scanner with 0.75 mm slices. As a result, we found that image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were independent of z coordinate. A Feldkamp artifact was observed in distortion measurements. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of slice sensitivity profiles (SSP) increased with z coordinate though it seemed to be caused by other reasons than incompleteness of data. With regard to low contrast detectability, smaller objects were detected more clearly at the midplane (z=0 mm) than at z=40 mm, though circular-band like artifacts affected detection. The comparison between the 16-slice and the 256-slice scanners showed better performance for the 16-slice scanner regarding the SSP, low contrast detectability, and distortion. The inferiorities of the 256-slice scanner in other than distortion measurement (Feldkamp artifact) seemed to be partly caused by the prototype nature of the scanner and should be improved in the future scanner. The image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were almost identical for both CTs. The 256-slice scanner was superior to the 16-slice scanner regarding the PSF, though it was caused by the smaller transverse beam width of the 256-slice scanner. In order to compare both scanners comprehensively in terms of exposure dose, noise, slice thickness, and transverse spatial resolution, K=Dσ2ha3 was calculated, where D was exposure dose (CT dose index), σ was magnitude of noise, h was slice thickness (FWHM of SSP), and a was transverse spatial resolution (FWHM of PSF). The results showed that the K value was 25% larger for the 16-slice scanner, and that the 256-slice scanner was 1.25 times more effective than the 16-slice scanner at the midplane. The superiority in K value for the 256-slice scanner might be partly caused by decrease of wasted exposure with a wide-angle cone-beam scan. In spite of the several problems of the 256-slice scanner, it took a volume data approximately 1.0 mm (transverse)x1.3 mm (longitudinal) resolution for a wide field of view (approximately 100 mm long) along the z axis in a 1 s scan if resolution was defined by the FWHM of the PSF or the SSP, which should be very useful to take dynamic 3D (4D) images of moving organs

  11. Slice image pretreatment for cone-beam computed tomography based on adaptive filter

    According to the noise properties and the serial slice image characteristics in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) system, a slice image pretreatment for CBCT based on adaptive filter was proposed. The judging criterion for the noise is established firstly. All pixels are classified into two classes: adaptive center weighted modified trimmed mean (ACWMTM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by Gauss noise and adaptive median (AM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by impulse noise. In ACWMTM filtering algorithm, the estimated Gauss noise standard deviation in the current slice image with offset window is replaced by the estimated standard deviation in the adjacent slice image to the current with the corresponding window, so the filtering accuracy of the serial images is improved. The pretreatment experiment on CBCT slice images of wax model of hollow turbine blade shows that the method makes a good performance both on eliminating noises and on protecting details. (authors)

  12. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S.E.; Hyer, M; Apte, A.; Deasy, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with 3D-CRT to either 74 Gy (N=159) or 78 Gy (N=159) @ 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3-mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and gEUD values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 Gy and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. PMID:24936956

  13. Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling and spatial distribution statistical analysis

    Xu, C.; J. B. H. Shyu; X.-W. Xu

    2014-01-01

    The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and their erosion thicknesses with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and their distance from roads. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of la...

  14. Multiplex Bead Assay for Serum Samples from Children in Haiti Enrolled in a Drug Study for the Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis

    Moss, Delynn M; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Boyd, Alexis; Weinkopff, Tiffany; Kucerova, Zuzana; Beach, Michael J.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A multiplex bead assay (MBA) was used to analyze serum samples collected longitudinally from children enrolled in a drug trial for treatment of filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Recombinant antigens Bm14 and Bm33 from Brugia malayi, third polar tube protein (PTP3) from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) from Plasmodium falciparum were coupled to carboxylated polystyrene microspheres. IgG responses to PTP3 and MSP-119 were not affected by albendazole (ALB), dieth...

  15. Detection of local site conditions influencing earthquake shaking and secondary effects in Southwest-Haiti using remote sensing and GIS-methods

    Theilen-Willige, B.

    2010-01-01

    The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in SW-Haiti in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a...

  16. Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití

    Chaylah J. Lomotey; Judy Lewis; Bette Gebrian; Royneld Bourdeau; Kevin Dieckhaus; Juan C. Salazar

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analys...

  17. Quakes in Solid Quark Stars

    Zhou, A Z; Wu, X J; Wang, N; Hong, X Y

    2004-01-01

    A starquake mechanism for pulsar glitches is developed in the solid quark star model. It is found that the general glitch natures (i.e., the glitch amplitudes and the time intervals) could be reproduced if solid quark matter, with high baryon density but low temperature, has properties of shear modulus \\mu = 10^{30~34} erg/cm^3 and critical stress \\sigma_c = 10^{18~24} erg/cm^3. The post-glitch behavior may represent a kind of damped oscillations.

  18. Fully programmable spectrum sliced chirped microwave photonic filter.

    Leitner, Peter; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Huang, Thomas X H

    2015-02-23

    A novel chirped microwave photonic filter (MPF) capable of achieving a large radio frequency (RF) group delay slope and a single passband response free from high frequency fading is presented. The design is based upon a Fourier domain optical processor (FD-OP) and a single sideband modulator. The FD-OP is utilized to generate both constant time delay to tune the filter and first order dispersion to induce the RF chirp, enabling full software control of the MPF without the need for manual adjustment. An optimized optical parameter region based on a large optical bandwidth >750 GHz and low slicing dispersion < 1 ps/nm is introduced, with this technique greatly improving the RF properties including the group delay slope magnitude and passband noise. Experimental results confirm that the structure simultaneously achieves a large in-band RF chirp of -4.2 ns/GHz, centre frequency invariant tuning and independent reconfiguration of the RF amplitude and phase response. Finally, a stochastic study of the device passband noise performance under tuning and reconfiguration is presented, indicating a low passband noise <-120 dB/Hz. PMID:25836442

  19. Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of carotid body tumor

    Objective: to explore the Multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) findings of carotid body tumor (CBT). Methods: Twelve cases of CBT proved by surgery were collected in this study and all patients accepted contrast-enhanced MSCT examination. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional post-processing were performed at diagnostic workstation using Aquilion 1.42. The CT features of CBT were analyzed. Results Each of 12 patients had one lesion. All lesions demonstrated well-marginated masses of homogeneous soft- tissue density with CT value within 29-48 HU on pre-enhanced images. All lesions were markedly enhanced with CT value over 200 HU on arterial-phase images, and the density of lesions decreased rapidly on delay- phase images. Twelve lesions were all located at the level of carotid artery bifurcation, 3 of them enveloping common carotid artery and internal/external carotid artery, and other 9 of them riding right on the carotid bifurcation. Internal carotid artery usually were shifted toward posterior-lateral, and external carotid artery toward anterior or anterior-medial. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT examination not only can make a qualitative diagnosis of CBT, but determine its accurate location. It plays an importantly instructional role in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  20. Improving the implementation of new approach data privacy preserving in data mining using slicing

    Ravindra S. Wanjari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several anonymization techniques, such as generalization and bucketization, have been designed for privacy preserving microdata publishing. Recent work has shown that generalization loses considerable amount of information, especially for high dimensional data. Bucketization, on the other hand, does not prevent membership disclosure and does not apply for data that do not have a clear separation between quasi-identifying attributes and sensitive attributes. In this paper, we present a novel technique called slicing, which partitions the data both horizontally and vertically. We show that slicing preserves better data utility than generalization and can be used for membership disclosure protection. Another important advantage of slicing is that it can handle highdimensional data. We show how slicing can be used for attribute disclosure protection and develop an efficient algorithm for computing the sliced data that obey the ℓ-diversity requirement. Our workload experiments confirm that slicing preserves better utility than generalization and is more effective than bucketization in workloads involving the sensitive attribute. Our experiments also demonstrate that slicing can be used to prevent membership disclosure.