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1

Haiti - OECD  

...en Haïti Also Available Building a Coherent Approach to Evaluating the Haiti Earthquake Response 15-April-2010 English Building a Coherent Approach to Evaluating the Haiti ... Earthquake Response There will be strong pressure to account for the results of the massive aid effort that is currently being delivered and that ...Haiti 2-April-2010 English, , 215kb BUILDING A COHERENT APPROACH TO EVALUATING THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE Working together to ensure a coherent and collaborative approach to ... As a result of the earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010, the volume of aid provided to this country in the ...

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Haiti - OECD  

... Related Documents Charts, tables and databases 14-November-2011 English, , 1,564kb Assisting Earthquake Victims: Evaluation of Dutch Cooperating Aid Agencies (SHO) Support ...lessons from a selection of available evaluations of the response to Haiti’s earthquake in January 2010. 2-February-2011 English, , 149kb Haiti ... Earthquake Response: Mapping and analysis of gaps and duplications in evaluations The Haiti earthquake humanitarian response has generated a sizeable evaluative effort, ...2-February-2011 English, , 149kb Réponse au tremblement de terre en Haïti The Haiti earthquake humanitarian response has generated a sizeable evaluative effort, not unlike ...

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A New Era for Justice Sector Reform in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the months before the January earthquake, Haiti and its criminal justice institutions were the subject of an unprecedented effort by two UN agencies to measure the state of the Rule of Law. Drawing on the results of that pre-quake assessment as well as on post-quake assessments of the justice sector, this paper raises four questions that should guide recovery and further development of the police, courts, and prisons in Haiti—questions that focus attention on the meaning of justice secto...

Stone, Christopher

2010-01-01

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Orthopedic Anesthesia in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare practitioners from around the world responded almost immediately in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. This article reports on the efforts of an orthopedic trauma team in Haiti and its efforts in providing surgery without general anesthesia.

Osteen, Kristie D.

2011-01-01

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Helping Haiti’s transportation issues: Increasing Haiti’s medical liabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti has experienced an explosion of the use of motorcycles by young, inexperienced drivers fueled by the departure of aid workers leaving them behind after assisting with disaster relief. The consequence is a strain on Haiti’s already fragile medical system due to the overwhelming number of traumas presenting for treatment. The motorcycles have become an indispensible form of transportation but lack of governmental oversight predisposes an environment that is primed to strain the country?...

Nancy McLaughlin; Hannah Rogers

2013-01-01

6

The naming of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

David Geggus

1997-01-01

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The Haiti House Project  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake hit the small country of Haiti, reducing buildings and homes to piles of rubble and killing thousands of people. Immediately, the people of the United States and of just about every country in the world began to devise ways to help the victims of this tragedy. After seeing a presentation that showed…

Ayers, Ann; McMillan, Ellen; McMillan, Liberty

2010-01-01

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Fundraising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! 58 750 CHF collected for Haiti! Following the appeal launched on 15 February, the CERN Management and Staff Association would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and thank the whole of the CERN community for its generosity towards the victims of the Haiti earthquake. This is a record, an unprecedented show of solidarity at CERN, equal to the immense needs following this catastrophe. Thank you on behalf of the Haitians, they will most certainly need it in the coming months.   The donations will be shared out among various institutions and associations in both Host States, in accordance with the established practice in the event of a catastrophe hitting a non-Member State. The size and activities of each of them have been taken into account. After studying the various requests for aid, the beneficiaries are now known and will receive:     - IFRC - International Federation of Red Cross   and Red&...

2010-01-01

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Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar  

CERN Document Server

In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument shows that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-induced energy conversion from seismic vibrations to magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetar.

Bastrukov, S; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I

2011-01-01

10

Thanks from Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

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Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haiti maavärinas on süüdistatud nii USA-d kui ka üleloomulikke jõude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste võlg!" ütleb autor, et päästetööd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

2010-01-01

12

Solar flare leaves sun quaking  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

1998-05-01

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Fund Raising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

Association du personnel

2010-01-01

14

QuakeSim 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

2012-01-01

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Vibration Powered Radiation of Quaking Magnetar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In juxtaposition with the standard model of rotation powered pulsar, the model of vibration powered magnetar undergoing quake-induced torsional Alfven vibrations in its own ultra strong magnetic field experiencing decay is considered. The presented line of argument suggests that gradual decrease of frequencies (lengthening of periods) of long-periodic pulsed radiation detected from a set of X-ray sources can be attributed to magnetic-field-decay induced energy conversion fro...

Bastrukov, S.; Yu, J. W.; Xu, R. X.; Molodtsova, I.

2011-01-01

16

Haiti: uma reconstrução em pedaços  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O fantasma do passado colonial, juntamente com o oportunismo e o pragmatismo da ajuda humanitária internacional produzem ações desencontradas no processo de reconstrução do Haiti após o terremoto.

Thiago Gehre Galvão

2010-03-01

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Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water resources in Haiti need a more rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be described as follows: the country receives as annual precipitation about 40 billion m3 of water. However, 70% of this water is lost by evapotranspiration and of the remaining fraction, considered as a renewable resource, about 20% drains through rivers and discharges into the sea. The remaining 10 % infiltrates into local aquifers. In Haiti water is not always available in the place where it is needed, depending on the precipitation regime, geography, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, most difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of the available resources. Since each economic sector in Haiti has specific needs, water resources management becomes a very important issue to provide access to water of sufficient quality and quantity to the population. This point is also relevant for adequate preservation of natural ecosystems and other uses. In Haiti there are many areas which contain aquifers: Plaine de l'Arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives and Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is heavily exploited due to its geographical location. In fact, since 1980, many studies, using isotope hydrology tools, have been carried out on this aquifer. Almost all studies conducted in the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac showed the same conclusion: the aquifer system is overexploited. Some recommendations have been made, but the anarchical exploitation of this a but the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer still continues. Many years after these studies were conducted, the situation has not changed. In 2001, a project dealing with the integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac aquifer was initiated with the cooperation of the IAEA. Despite the difficulties, it is considered that this is the best way to solve this water resources problem. (author)

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Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

Vosman, Hendrik

2010-01-01

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Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water in Haiti needs a rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be resumed in this manner: The country receives by means 40 milliards cubic meters of water. However, 70% of this water was lost by evapotranspiration and the other part which shows the renewable water is distributed like that: 20% of amount drain along of the surface through the river and go to the sea and 10% filters through the aquifer. In Haiti water is not always on the use place it varies in an area to the other depending of some factors like: precipitation, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, some difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of this resource. Whereas, different needs of utilization sectors, water resources management become a need so as to be able to settle water in quality and in quantity sufficiently for natural preservation, ecosystem and else. In Haiti, we have many plains which contain aquifer. We can name them: Plaine de l'arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives et Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is the most exploited because of geographical position. In fact, since 1980 many studies on isotope hydrology have been realized on these. About Plaine du Cul-de-Sac all studies realized show almost the same result: The exploitation limit of this aquifer. Some recommendations have been done in spite of, they still continue with the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer. Many years have been passed but nothing changed. In 2001, with the coopet nothing changed. In 2001, with the cooperation of IAEA, the project aquifer integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac has been started. We have some difficulties but I think it's the one of the best ways in order to solve this problem. (author)

20

Linear slices close to a Maskit slice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider linear slices of the space of Kleinian once-punctured torus groups; a linear slice is obtained by fixing the value of the trace of one of the generators. The linear slice for trace 2 is called the Maskit slice. We will show that if traces converge `horocyclically' to 2 then associated linear slices converge to the Maskit slice, whereas if the traces converge `tangentially' to 2 the linear slices converge to a proper subset of the Maskit slice. This result will be...

Ito, Kentaro

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Haiti: Between Emergency and Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editor’s notes : This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and policy makers.Authored by Jean-Marc Biquet, Research Officer at Doctors without Borders (MSF, the paper focuses on the failure of the aid system in Haiti. The country has been struck by two disasters in a raw: the January 2010 earthquake and a cholera epidemic starting in October the same year. Despite repeated requests to - and commitments from - the UN (UNOCHA in particular to provide a response, we did unfortunately not get any written reaction to MSF's article. But we did receive critical comments by Andrea Binder, Associate Director of the Global Public Policy Institute (GPPi in Berlin ‘Is the Humanitarian Failure in Haiti a System Failure?’, which we publish together with Mr Biquet's initial contribution. Dr. Biner has been involved in the Inter-Agency Real-Time Evaluation of the disaster response to the Haiti Earthquake.download the whole dabate in.pdf on http://poldev.revues.org/pdf/1600

Jean-Marc Biquet

2014-01-01

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Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

2014-01-01

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Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

2014-09-01

24

Haiti Earthquake, Deforestation Heighten Landslide Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This photo from National Geographic shows the difference in deforestation between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The accompanying article describes the increased risk of earthquake-related landslides such deforestation carries.

Geographic, National

25

AIDS in Haiti: a bibliometric analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: In Haiti, AIDS has become the leading cause of death in sexually active adults. Increasingly, AIDS has become a disease of women and children. Previous bibliometric studies have shown the emergence of Haiti as a leading country in the production of AIDS literature in the Latin American and Caribbean regions. No information exists, however, regarding the type of publications produced, the collaboration patterns used, or the subject content analysis of this production. The purpose o...

Macias-chapula, Ce?sar A.

2000-01-01

26

The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART.

Fitzgerald Daniel W; Atwood Sidney; Severe Patrice; Leger Paul; Riviere Cynthia; Koenig Serena P; Pape Jean W; Schackman Bruce R

2008-01-01

27

U.S. in the World: Vermont/Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Vermont and Haiti were both born of tumultuous revolutions, as Vermont formed an independent republic in the late 1700s, and Haiti won independence from France after a 12-year revolution in 1804. Read about how although geographically the same size, Haiti's population is nearly ten times as great as Vermont's, contributing to deforestation and soil erosion, and thus creating many challenges.

Bureau, Population R.

28

Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

2010-01-01

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Securing peace in Haiti :an assessment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on assessing the role of the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH) in providing stability, security and respect for human rights and the rule of law in Haiti. The proposition is that the efforts have been ineffective and goes on to ask the question whether such an outsider-initiative intervention really advances political order and stability. The study also attempts to illustrate Haitian society’s perception of the peace keeping operations in Haiti thus far. Th...

Cei?de, Edwin Luc

2008-01-01

30

Securing peace in Haiti : an assessment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on assessing the role of the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH) in providing stability, security and respect for human rights and the rule of law in Haiti. The proposition is that the efforts have been ineffective and goes on to ask the question whether such an outsider-initiative intervention really advances political order and stability. The study also attempts to illustrate Haitian society’s perception of the peace keeping operations in Haiti thus far. Th...

Cei?de, Edwin Luc

2008-01-01

31

ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2006-01-01

32

Special Event Page: August 17, 1999: Turkey Quake  

Science.gov (United States)

On August 17, 1999, an Earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale devastated Northwest Turkey. With the United Nations estimating final death tolls to top 40,000, this quake is proving to be one of the worst natural disasters in recent history. Immediately following news of the quake, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a consortium of United States Universities, posted a special event page to provide links to sites, graphics, general and technical information, and news on the recent seismic event in Turkey. Contributions made by IRIS consortium members include US Geological Survey reports, data from data stations in Poland, and links to the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Turkish Press Review.

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Historical patterns in lichen communities of montane quaking aspen forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate shifts and resource exploitation in Rocky Mountain forests have caused profound changes in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) structure and function since Euro-American settlement. It therefore seems likely that commensurate shifts in dependent epiphytes would follow major ecological transitions. In the current study, we merge several lines of inquiry to investigate historical changes using lichens as bioindicators of forest structure, air quality, and community composition. T...

Rogers, Paul C.; Bartos, Dale L.; Ryle, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

34

Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow-Induced Vibration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. In tall and narrow silos, the latter is produced by stickslip friction between the wall and the granular material. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence of flow pulsations is determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating motion ofthe granular materia...

Muite, Benson K.; Quinn, Shandon F.; Sundaresan, Sankaran; Rao, Kesava K.

2004-01-01

35

Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow Induced Vibration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. The latter is produced by stick-slip friction between the wall and the granular material in tall narrow silos. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence and frequency of flow pulsations are determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating ...

Muite, Benson K.; Quinn, Shandon F.; Rao, K. Kesava; Sundaresan, Sankaran

2003-01-01

36

The many faces of quaking aspen: Biogeography meets resilience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Managers and scientists alike commonly practice quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) management with a 'one-size-fits-all approach' based a simple successional model: aspen as the "pioneer" species is overtaken by locally dominant confers as time increases post-disturbance. We now know that aspen reacts to disturbance, at various scales, along multiple pathways. How might this realization affect a more informed management/restoration approach? We examine a variety of aspen types as ecol...

Roger, Paul

2013-01-01

37

QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

2010-05-01

38

Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been cause...

Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

2013-01-01

39

Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries.

Harinder Singh Chahal

2013-12-01

40

Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries.

Harinder Singh Chahal; Nazaire St. Fort; Lisa Bero

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cholera Management and Prevention at Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 2010, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer Haiti treated some of the first patients with cholera in Haiti. Over the following 10 months, a strategic plan was developed and implemented to improve the management of cases at the hospital level and to address the underlying risk factors at the community level.

Ernst, Silvia; Weinrobe, Carolyn; Bien-aime, Charbel; Rawson, Ian

2011-01-01

42

Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in rural Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Since the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there has been increased international attention to mental health needs throughout the country. The present study represents one of the first epidemiologic studies of depression symptomatology, suicidal ideation, and associated factors in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, zone-stratified household survey of 408 adults in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Depression symptomatology w...

Wagenaar Bradley H; Hagaman Ashley K; Kaiser Bonnie N; McLean Kristen E; Kohrt Brandon A

2012-01-01

43

The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting both the increased number of travelers arriving from Haiti and the increased risk of acquiring malaria infection in Haiti. The demographics of travelers and the proportion of severe cases are similar...

Agarwal, Aarti; Mcmorrow, Meredith; Arguin, Paul M.

2012-01-01

44

Influence of Weather Conditions on the Surface Morphology and Wetting Behaviour of Superhydrophobic Quaking Aspen Leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of different environmental conditions on the wetting properties and surface morphology of surperhydrophobic quaking aspen leaves harvested during the 2011 growth season are examined. During this particular season quaking aspen leaves were not able to retain their superhydrophobic properties and associated surface structure features as they

Victor, J. J.; Erb, U.

2013-01-01

45

Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

2013-05-01

46

Improved Perfect Slice Sampling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perfect slice sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random variates. The originally proposed method is rather slow and thus several improvements have been suggested. However, two of them are erroneous. In this article we give a short introduction to perfect slice sampling, point out incorrect methods, and give a new improved version of the original algorithm. (author's abstract)

Ho?rmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

2003-01-01

47

Hearth nutrition model : applications in Haiti, Vietnam, and Bangladesh.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compilation of presentations concerning three hearth programs: USAID project in Bangladesh through Christian Service Society and World Relief Corporation; Hopital Albert Schweitzer in Haiti; and the Poverty Alleviation and Nutrition Program of Save the Children Foundation in Vietnam.

48

The Environmental History of the Republic of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides a collection of articles about the environmental and economic decline of Haiti. The articles document the effects of deforestation and ensuring erosion and erosion-related problems. .

Brown, Haines; Publishing, Hartford W.

49

Slicing Softly with Shear  

Science.gov (United States)

A soft solid is more easily sliced using a combination of normal and shearing deformations rather than diced by squeezing down on it normally with the same knife. To explain why this is so, we experimentally probe the slicing and dicing of a soft agar gel with a wire, and complement this with theory and numerical simulations of cutting of a highly deformable solid. We find that purely normal deformations lead to global deformations of the soft solid, so that the blade has to penetrate deeply into the sample, well beyond the linear regime, to reach the relatively large critical stress to nucleate fracture. In contrast, a slicing motion leads to fracture nucleation with minimal deformation of the bulk and thus a much lower barrier. This transition between global and local deformations in soft solids as a function of the angle of shear explains the mechanics of the paper cut and design of guillotine blades.

Reyssat, E.; Tallinen, T.; Le Merrer, M.; Mahadevan, L.

2012-12-01

50

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six ch...

Nancy Golden; Russell Kempker; Parul Khator; Robert Summerlee; Arthur Fournier

2002-01-01

51

Aftershocks to Philippine quake found within nearby megathrust fault  

Science.gov (United States)

On 31 August 2012 a magnitude 7.6 earthquake ruptured deep beneath the sea floor of the Philippine Trench, a powerful intraplate earthquake centered seaward of the plate boundary. In the wake of the main shock, sensors detected a flurry of aftershocks, counting 110 in total. Drawing on seismic wave observations and rupture mechanisms calculated for the aftershocks, Ye et al. found that many were located near the epicenter of the main intraplate quake but at shallower depth; all involved normal faulting. Some shallow thrusting aftershocks were located farther to the west, centered within the potentially dangerous megathrust fault formed by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Philippine microplate, the piece of crust housing the Philippine Islands.

Schultz, Colin

2013-02-01

52

Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

1993-01-01

53

IMPROVED COOK STOVES FOR HAITI USING THERMOELECTRICS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is plagued with continual problems due to severe deforestation throughout the country. Haiti was once nearly completely covered by lush forest, but now less than three percent of Haiti is forested. This environmental cala...

54

The need for dialysis in haiti: dream or reality.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the World Health Organization reports, nowadays burden of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is well documented. The high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which are the main causes of CKD, is a big concern in the world health scenario [1]. These NCD can progress slowly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the low-middle income countries (LMIC) like Haiti are not left unscathed by this worldwide scourge. Several well-known public health issues prevalent in Haiti such as acute diarrheal infections, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), can also impair the function of the kidney. Dialysis, a form of renal replacement therapy (RRT), represents a life-saving therapy for all patients affected with impaired kidney. In Haiti, few patients have access to health insurance or disability financial support. Considering that seventy-two percent (72%) of Haitians live with less than USD 2 per day [2], survival with CKD can be quite stressful for them. Data on the weight of the dialysis and its management are scarce. Addressing the need for dialysis in Haiti is an important component in decision-making and planning processes in the health sector. This paper is intended to bring forth discussion on the use of this type of renal replacement therapy in Haiti: the past, the present, and the challenges it presents. We will also make some recommendations in order to manage this serious problem. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25672966

Exantus, Judith; Desrosiers, Florence; Ternier, Alexandra; Métayer, Audie; Abel, Gérard; Buteau, Jean-Hénold

2015-01-01

55

QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

Joachim Saul

2011-04-01

56

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti?This article discusses the relations between the...

Louis Auguste Joint

2008-01-01

57

Deformity correction in Haiti with the Taylor Spatial Frame.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is an external-fixator that corrects deformities in 6 axes, and can successfully manage disorders involving multiplanar deformities. In the developing-world, orthopaedic surgeons are often faced with deformities from neglected trauma and birth defects more severe than those typically seen in developed-countries. This article evaluates the applicability of TSF in the challenging medical environment of Haiti. At Haiti Adventist Hospital, the authors treated 80 cases using the TSF with a minimum follow-up of 1-year. Good results were observed in 99% of the cases (79 out of 80), approaching similar outcomes than those described in literature. PMID:25435031

Alexis, Francel; Herzenberg, John E; Nelson, Scott C

2015-01-01

58

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sit [...] es, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

María del, Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint, Jean; Carlos A, Fuster Callaba; Lorenzo, Somarriba López.

2012-03-01

59

Non-Seismology Seismology: Using QuakeCatchers to Analyze the Frequency of Bridge Vibrations  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an experiment to test the feasibility of measuring seismic waves generated by traffic near James Madison University. We used QuakeCatcher seismometers (originally designed for passive seismic measurement) to measure vibrations associated with traffic on a wooden bridge as well as a nearby concrete bridge. This experiment was a signal processing exercise for a student research project and did not draw any conclusions regarding bridge safety or security. The experiment consisted of two temporary measurement stations comprised of a laptop computer and a QuakeCatcher - a small seismometer that plugs directly into the laptop via a USB cable. The QuakeCatcher was taped to the ground at the edge of the bridge to achieve good coupling, and vibrational events were triggered repeatedly with a control vehicle to accumulate a consistent dataset of the bridge response. For the wooden bridge, the resulting 'seismograms' were converted to Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format and analyzed in MATLAB. The concrete bridge did not generate vibrations significant enough to trigger the recording mechanism on the QuakeCatchers. We will present an overview of the experimental design and frequency content of the traffic patterns, as well as a discussion of the instructional benefits of using the QuakeCatcher sensors in this non-traditional setting.

Courtier, A. M.; Constantin, C.; Wilson, C. F.

2013-12-01

60

Seismic Hazard in Haiti: A Geologic Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are young folds likely underlain by blind thrust faults. Reconnaissance field observations show that the hills are cored by folded alluvial-fan deposits of probable Quaternary age and that the folding defeated north-flowing drainages and ponded lacustrine sediment on the south flank of the folds. Radiocarbon analyses of charcoal samples collected from ponded sediments will help to constrain the age of recent deformation. These blind thrust faults are potentially additional earthquake sources that should be included in seismic hazard assessments for PaP. In our reconnaissance along the Matheux-Neiba fault north of PaP we found only weak evidence of recent deformation, and while this fault system may also be a potential earthquake source, its rate of activity is much lower than the rate on the EPGF. Because the EPGF adjacent to PaP did not rupture in 2010, and has not ruptured in at least 240 years, considerable strain remains to be released in a future earthquake, and this fault still poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

The KH domain protein encoded by quaking functions as a dimer and is essential for notochord development in Xenopus?embryos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutations in the mouse indicate that quaking gene function is essential for both embryogenesis and for development of the nervous system. Recent isolation of the mouse quaking gene identified a putative RNA-binding protein containing a single KH domain. We have previously isolated the Xenopus homolog of quaking, Xqua, and shown that the sequence is highly conserved through evolution. Here, we report experimental data on the biochemical function of the quaking protein and its role during devel...

Zorn, Aaron M.; Krieg, Paul A.

1997-01-01

62

Influence of Weather Conditions on the Surface Morphology and Wetting Behaviour of Superhydrophobic Quaking Aspen Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different environmental conditions on the wetting properties and surface morphology of surperhydrophobic quaking aspen leaves harvested during the 2011 growth season are examined. During this particular season quaking aspen leaves were not able to retain their superhydrophobic properties and associated surface structure features as they have usually been able to do in other years. Representative scanning electron microscopy images and wetting property measurements of quaking aspen leaf surfaces harvested throughout this season are presented and discussed with the objective of linking weather induced environmental stresses that occurred in 2011 to the sudden and unusual reduction in non-wetting properties and drastic changes in leaf surface structure. Erosion and regeneration rates of leaf wax crystals and the impact that environmental factors can have on these are considered and used to explain the occurrence of these unexpected changes.

J. J. Victor

2013-05-01

63

Elevated temperature during slicing enhances acute slice preparation quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We demonstrate that brain dissection and slicing using solutions warmed to near-physiological temperature (~ +34?C, greatly enhance slice quality without affecting intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the neurons. Improved slice quality is seen not only when using young (< 1 month, but also mature (>2.5 month mice. This allows easy in vitro patch-clamp experimentation using adult deep cerebellar nuclear slices, which until now have been considered very difficult. As proof of the concept, we compare intrinsic properties of cerebellar nuclear neurons in juvenile (< 1 month and adult (up to 7 months mice, and confirm that no significant developmental changes occur after the fourth postnatal week. The enhanced quality of brain slices from old animals facilitates experimentation on age-related disorders as well as optogenetic studies requiring long transfection periods.

MarylkaYoeUusisaari

2013-04-01

64

Digital Globe sample imagery gallery: Port au Prince, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewer presents imagery produced by Digital Globe of Haiti both before and after the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Users can select "before" imagery, select a particular day's views to see, or pick the most recent imagery which is automatically updated.

65

Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2010-01-01

66

Researching Diverse Learners from Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…

Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

67

Constitution without constitutionalism : Haiti and the vagaries of democratization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the role that constitution and constitutionalism play in the making of polyarchical rule. Author also examines their relationship to class power, political institutions, culture, and leadership. He argues that constitution does not make for an effective form of constitutionalism. Concludes that meaningful democratization in Haiti is difficult if class relations do not change drastically and are equalized.

Robert Fatton Jr.

2000-01-01

68

Constitution without constitutionalism : Haiti and the vagaries of democratization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the role that constitution and constitutionalism play in the making of polyarchical rule. Author also examines their relationship to class power, political institutions, culture, and leadership. He argues that constitution does not make for an effective form of constitutionalism. Concludes that meaningful democratization in Haiti is difficult if class relations do not change drastically and are equalized.

Robert Fatton Jr.

2000-01-01

69

RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS  

CERN Document Server

The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

Rudolph, J

2011-01-01

70

OpenQuake, a platform for collaborative seismic hazard and risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, tools and models for global seismic hazard and risk assessment, within the context of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and international organisations, all contributions are being integrated into OpenQuake: a web-based platform that - together with other resources - will become accessible in 2014. With OpenQuake, stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualize and investigate earthquake hazard and risk, capture new data and share findings for joint learning. The platform is envisaged as a collaborative hub for earthquake risk assessment, used at global and local scales, around which an active network of users has formed. OpenQuake will comprise both online and offline tools, many of which can also be used independently. One of the first steps in OpenQuake development was the creation of open-source software for advanced seismic hazard and risk calculations at any scale, the OpenQuake Engine. Although in continuous development, a command-line version of the software is already being test-driven and used by hundreds worldwide; from non-profits in Central Asia, seismologists in sub-Saharan Africa and companies in South Asia to the European seismic hazard harmonization programme (SHARE). In addition, several technical trainings were organized with scientists from different regions of the world (sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Asia-Pacific) to introduce the engine and other OpenQuake tools to the community, something that will continue to happen over the coming years. Other tools that are being developed of direct interest to the hazard community are: • OpenQuake Modeller; fundamental instruments for the creation of seismogenic input models for seismic hazard assessment, a critical input to the OpenQuake Engine. OpenQuake Modeller will consist of a suite of tools (Hazard Modellers Toolkit) for characterizing the seismogenic sources of earthquakes and their models of earthquakes recurrence. An earthquake catalogue homogenization tool, for integration, statistical comparison and user-defined harmonization of multiple catalogues of earthquakes is also included in the OpenQuake modeling tools. • A data capture tool for active faults; a tool that allows geologists to draw (new) fault discoveries on a map in an intuitive GIS-environment and add details on the fault through the tool. This data, once quality checked, can then be integrated with the global active faults database, which will increase in value with every new fault insertion. Building on many ongoing efforts and the knowledge of scientists worldwide, GEM will for the first time integrate state-of-the-art data, models, results and open-source tools into a single platform. The platform will continue to increase in value, in particular for use in local contexts, through contributions from and collaborations with scientists and organisations worldwide. This presentation will showcase the OpenQuake Platform, focusing on the IT solutions that have been adopted as well as the added value that the platform will bring to scientists worldwide.

Henshaw, Paul; Burton, Christopher; Butler, Lars; Crowley, Helen; Danciu, Laurentiu; Nastasi, Matteo; Monelli, Damiano; Pagani, Marco; Panzeri, Luigi; Simionato, Michele; Silva, Vitor; Vallarelli, Giuseppe; Weatherill, Graeme; Wyss, Ben

2013-04-01

71

International cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti: the role of community radios in strengthening social mobilization in the public health context in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion. PMID:25650614

Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro

2015-01-01

72

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas / The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que [...] se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti? Abstract in english This article discusses the relations between the educational system and social inequalities in Haiti. A case study of catholic schools helps to understand how the Haitian educational system was built and how socio-educational inequalities can be produced and maintained by this system. At the end, is [...] discussed also how schools can contribute to social change in Haiti.

Louis Auguste, Joint.

2008-08-01

73

Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficien...

Knebel Elisa; Puttkammer Nancy; Demes Adrien; Devirois Ruth; Prismy Mona

2008-01-01

74

Cientometria: a produção científica de Haity Moussatché / Scientometrics: Haity Moussatché's scientific production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa aqui relatada é um estudo exploratório sobre a produção científica do Laboratório de Fisiologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, no período 1934-1998, com foco na análise da produção científica de Haity Moussatché, líder desse laboratório, até o ano de 1965. O trab [...] alho visa aferir um possível impacto na produção científica do laboratório depois que seu líder foi cassado pelo Ato Institucional n.5, ocorrido em 1970. Para tanto, foi realizado o mapeamento da produção científica e sua análise bibliométrica, a partir de busca bibliográfica em bases de dados internacionais e pesquisa documental nos acervos da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz e na Biblioteca de Ciências Biomédicas, com o objetivo de colher indícios dos reflexos e das consequências do chamado Massacre de Manguinhos na dinâmica da produção científica do laboratório. Uma característica importante da produção científica do pesquisador aponta para um padrão consistente de publicação em coautoria, desde o início de sua carreira acadêmica. Possivelmente, esse foi o ponto principal que permitiu que ele continuasse ativo na pesquisa, mesmo após cassado e fora do Brasil. Este trabalho contribui para escrever parte da história da ciência no campo da saúde, proporcionando novas leituras desse episódio, em diversos campos disciplinares acadêmicos. Abstract in english This is an exploratory study about an episode which came to be known as "Manguinhos massacre", when ten leading researchers had their political rights suspended. From the viewpoint of the scientific production of the Laboratory of Physiology at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz [...] , Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, between 1934-1998, we focused on the scientific production of Haity Moussatche, laboratory chief until 1965. We mapped and analyzed the scientific production retrieved through searches in international databases and from the documentary research conducted at the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and Library of Biomedical Sciences of Fiocruz, in order to collect evidence of the consequences of the political event on the scientific production of the laboratory. An important feature of the scientific production of the researcher points to a consistent pattern of co-authored publication since the beginning of his academic career. Possibly, this was the main factor which allowed him to remain active in his research even after he had been persecuted and exiled from Brazil. This work contributes to the understanding of the scientific history in the field of health, providing new interpretations of this episode in several academic fields.

Elaine Kabarite, Costa; Maria Cristina Soares, Guimarães; Cícera Henrique da, Silva.

2015-04-01

75

Convergence of Voevodsky's slice tower  

CERN Document Server

We consider Voevodsky's slice tower for a finite spectrum E in the motivic stable homotopy category over a perfect field k. In case k has finite cohomological dimension (in characteristic two, we also require that k is infinite), we show that the slice tower converges, in that the induced filtration on the bi-graded homotopy sheaves for each term in the tower for E is finite, exhaustive and separated at each stalk. This partially verifies a conjecture of Voevodsky.

Levine, Marc

2012-01-01

76

Measles eradication in the Americas: experience in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

On 8 March 2000 a case of laboratory-confirmed measles was detected in Haiti. Over the ensuing months, an explosive epidemic occurred that spread to 8 of the 9 departments of Haiti, including the nation's capital, Port au Prince. After peaking in the last half of November 2000, the epidemic began a rapid decline. The date of onset for the last confirmed case was 26 September 2001. During the 18 months of the epidemic, 1149 cases were confirmed. To control the epidemic, various strategies were employed, including vaccination campaigns that used fixed posts and door-to-door activities. Critical factors in the success of these campaigns were thorough training and supervision of field staff; a high-quality door-to-door vaccination strategy; multiple visits to homes; and monitoring of vaccine coverage by household during the course of the campaigns. PMID:12721903

Venczel, Linda; Dobbins, James; André, Jean; Laender, Fernando; Izurieta, Héctor; Delorme, Patrick; Voltaire, Henri-Claude

2003-05-15

77

Epidemiologic survey of Mansonella ozzardi in Corail, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiologic (cross-sectional study) survey on 462 inhabitants in Corail, Haiti showed that 16.5% were infected with Mansonella ozzardi. This finding was determined from a single 20-?L sample of finger prick blood from each person. Among children, 15 years of age, the prevalence of infection for males and females was 23% and 21%, respectively. In general, the microfilaremias were low and 70% of positive persons had microfilariae per 20 ?L of blood; only 5% had > 50 microfilariae. This study shows that persons living near mangrove marshes that are breeding sites for Culicoides furens and C. barbosai biting midges, which are recognized vectors of M. ozzardi in Haiti, are consequently more frequently infected than those living in downtown area of Corail or inland. PMID:24710617

Raccurt, Christian P; Brasseur, Philippe; Cicéron, Micheline; Boncy, Jacques

2014-06-01

78

Predictability of population displacement after the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most severe disasters cause large population movements. These movements make it difficult for relief organizations to efficiently reach people in need. Understanding and predicting the locations of affected people during disasters is key to effective humanitarian relief operations and to long-term societal reconstruction. We collaborated with the largest mobile phone operator in Haiti (Digicel) and analyzed the movements of 1.9 million mobile phone users during the period from 42 d before, ...

Lu, Xin; Bengtsson, Linus; Holme, Petter

2012-01-01

79

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste thro...

Jason Jawidzik; Meegoda, Jay N.; Paul Rodriguez; Hsin-Neng Hsieh

2012-01-01

80

Hypertension in Haiti: the challenge of best possible practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the fourth anniversary, it is impossible to discuss hypertension in Haiti without acknowledging the almost incalculable negative impact of the January 12, 2010 earthquake. It was catastrophic not only in terms of death and physical injury, but also the widespread destruction of a tenuous infrastructure and public health system. Yet, paradoxically, this virtual blank slate could be an opportunity to develop an innovative pragmatic approach to the equally devastating problem of hypertension as the most common contributing cause of death in Haiti. Rising Phoenix-like literally from the ashes and rubble, there are lessons to be learned from the Haiti experience, as a potential model for the management of hypertension in the community in low resource venues in the Caribbean and beyond. Haiti has very poor comparative outcomes, and specific challenges related to high prevalence stroke, renal failure, and heart failure as negative prognostic consequences of undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension. There are severe public health challenges related to salt education, as well as societal challenges related to negative social determinants of health and disease, and the structural violence of overwhelming poverty. Pragmatism is necessary as we attempt to combine the tenets of evidence based medicine with reality based medicine restrictions imposed by low resource. It is through the generation of Best Possible Practice (BPP) models of care that colleagues can develop systems of mutual knowledge sharing, service, and support. This approach extends to screening and diagnosis, where there is no electricity for semi- or automatic manometric devices and requisite need to train in manual/ auscultatory technique, to education and curricula built specifically around a flexible hypertension community management guideline as the accepted standard to aspire to. A successful approach requires solid guiding principles, including a commitment to best attainable quality and value(s). It also requires standing together as a community of dedicated medical professionals. PMID:24400884

Kenerson, John G

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti / Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niño [...] s discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país. Abstract in english Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti [...] that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Nancy, Golden; Russell, Kempker; Parul, Khator; Robert, Summerlee; Arthur, Fournier.

2002-10-01

82

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niños discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país.

Nancy Golden

2002-10-01

83

Haiti Earthquake Underscores Need for Better Use of Seismic Information  

Science.gov (United States)

When Eric Calais, professor of geophysics in Purdue University's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, first learned about the 12 January strikeslip earthquake along a portion of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) in Haiti, he knew right away that it would be a shallow event and a large event, very close to the capital city of Port-au-Prince. Having worked in Haiti, he also was aware that the poor nation lacks seismic and building construction codes. “My immediate reaction was, ‘This is going to be a total nightmare and a huge disaster for Haiti,’” Calais, who also is a researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research, told Eos. The main earthquake, currently estimated at magnitude 7.0, occurred at 2153:10 UTC at a depth of 13 kilometers, just 25 kilometers outside of Port-au-Prince, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports. Since then, there have been dozens of aftershocks, many of them above magnitude 5.0; these aftershocks could continue for weeks or even months, according to USGS (see Figure 1). In recent decades, there had not been a major earthquake along the approximately 600-kilometer-long EPGFZ (named after the end points in Jamaica and the Dominican Republic), although seismologists indicate that large earthquakes in 1860, 1770, and earlier likely originated along that system.

Showstack, Randy

2010-01-01

84

On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

2014-05-01

85

Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

2011-12-01

86

The Equivariant Slice Filtration: a Primer  

CERN Document Server

We present an introduction to the equivariant slice filtration. After reviewing the definitions and basic properties, we determine the slice dimension of various families of naturally arising spectra. This leads to an analysis of pullbacks of slices defined on quotient groups, producing new collections of slices. Building on this, we determine the slice tower for the Eilenberg-Mac Lane spectrum associated to a Mackey functor for a cyclic $p$-group. We then relate the Postnikov tower to the slice tower for various spectra. Finally, we pose a few conjectures about the nature of slices and pullbacks.

Hill, Michael A

2011-01-01

87

The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been installed by other regional seismic networks - all communicating via the common NetQuakes servers.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2012-12-01

88

QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

2008-12-01

89

Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

2010-12-01

90

Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulas for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasiperiodic oscillations of the x-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored by Lorentz force of magnetic field stresses.

91

Trumpet Slices in Kerr Spacetimes  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a new time-independent family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a (2 +1 )+1 formalism for the characterization of trumpet geometries. Applying this formalism to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological constant. We present results for metric functions in this slicing and analyze the geometry of the rotating trumpet surface.

Dennison, Kenneth A.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Montero, Pedro J.

2014-12-01

92

Trumpet Slices in Kerr Spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a formalism that allows for a characterization of trumpet geometries in the absence of spherical symmetry. Applying these notions to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological constant. We present results for metric functions in this slicing and analyze the geometry of the rotating trumpet surface.

Dennison, Kenneth A; Montero, Pedro J

2014-01-01

93

Mesoscale synchrony in quaking aspen establishment across the interior western US  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concern and debate about the condition of quaking aspen in the intermountain West of North America have led to many studies examining aspen recruitment at local to landscape scales. Patterns of aspen mortality and recruitment may reflect local conditions, or may show broad synchrony if regional-scale drivers are important. This paper aggregates historical aspen establishment data from 12 case studies from nine locations in a meta-analysis of emergent patterns of aspen dynamics at sub-continen...

Kaye, Margot W.

2011-01-01

94

Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the dampi...

Bastrukov, S.; Molodtsova, I.; Takata, J.; Chang, H. -k; Xu, R. X.

2010-01-01

95

QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

Joachim Saul; Philipp Kästli; Fabian Euchner; Danijel Schorlemmer

2011-01-01

96

Slice it hot: acute adult brain slicing in physiological temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present a protocol for preparation of acute brain slices. This procedure is a critical element for electrophysiological patch-clamp experiments that largely determines the quality of results. It has been shown that omitting the cooling step during cutting procedure is beneficial in obtaining healthy slices and cells, especially when dealing with highly myelinated brain structures from mature animals. Even though the precise mechanism whereby elevated temperature supports neural health can only be speculated upon, it stands to reason that, whenever possible, the temperature in which the slicing is performed should be close to physiological conditions to prevent temperature related artifacts. Another important advantage of this method is the simplicity of the procedure and therefore the short preparation time. In the demonstrated method adult mice are used but the same procedure can be applied with younger mice as well as rats. Also, the following patch clamp experiment is performed on horizontal cerebellar slices, but the same procedure can also be used in other planes as well as other posterior areas of the brain. PMID:25406663

Ankri, Lea; Yarom, Yosef; Uusisaari, Marylka Y

2014-01-01

97

Understanding Earthquake Fault Systems Using QuakeSim Analysis and Data Assimilation Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

We are using the QuakeSim environment to model interacting fault systems. One goal of QuakeSim is to prepare for the large volumes of data that spaceborne missions such as DESDynI will produce. QuakeSim has the ability to ingest distributed heterogenous data in the form of InSAR, GPS, seismicity, and fault data into various earthquake modeling applications, automating the analysis when possible. Virtual California simulates interacting faults in California. We can compare output from long time history Virtual California runs with the current state of strain and the strain history in California. In addition to spaceborne data we will begin assimilating data from UAVSAR airborne flights over the San Francisco Bay Area, the Transverse Ranges, and the Salton Trough. Results of the models are important for understanding future earthquake risk and for providing decision support following earthquakes. Improved models require this sensor web of different data sources, and a modeling environment for understanding the combined data.

Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Granat, Robert; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Al-Ghanmi, Rami; Grant, Lisa

2008-01-01

98

Slice regular functions of several Clifford variables  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a class of slice regular functions of several Clifford variables. Our approach to the definition of slice functions is based on the concept of stem functions of several variables and on the introduction on real Clifford algebras of a family of commuting complex structures. The class of slice regular functions include, in particular, the family of (ordered) polynomials in several Clifford variables. We prove some basic properties of slice and slice regular functions and give examples to illustrate this function theory. In particular, we give integral representation formulas for slice regular functions and a Hartogs type extension result.

Ghiloni, R.; Perotti, A.

2012-11-01

99

Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.

2013-05-01

100

External Interferences and Maintenance of Public Order in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will discuss which characters interfered in internal affairs in Haiti over the history, especially in the 1990's. We will analyze the profile of the military and police forces which established in the country, as an important element to understand that, many times, instead of protecting citizens, the same forces helped to have oppression, instability and insecurity for most of Haitian population. Finally, we will hold the balance of the activities promoted by international organizations in the 1990's.

VANESSA BRAGA MATIJASCIC

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Use of Damage Data for Calibration of GMPE's in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 12 January 2010 earthquake that occurred in the south of Haiti, the Earthquake Engineering Researching Group (GIIS) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM, Spain) set up a cooperative line with the National Observatory of the Environment and Vulnerability of Haiti (ONEV), under the Ministry of the Environment. Within the frame of that working line, the project SISMO-HAITI was launched to estimate the seismic hazard in the country and the seismic risk in Port-au-Prince, the capital city. It was financed by the UPM. In the frame of the seismic risk study, an approach aimed at calibrating the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE`s) using damage data, was proposed and applied. This approach is presented here and may be useful in absence of strong motion data. The seismic risk estimation was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires two main inputs: classification of the building stock into predominant building typologies and a ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) to estimate the seismic demand. We found six building typologies in the city, and were assigned capacity and fragility curves (damage functions) taken from HAZUS and RISK-UE, which account for their vulnerability. Regarding the GMPE, as there are not relationships developed specifically for Haiti, we decided to use the next four: Boore & Atkinson (2008-2011), Abrahamson & Silva, (2008), Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008), Chiou & Youngs (2008). All of them belong to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models and allow including several parameters to define the seismic scenario, the source and the soil geotechnical characteristics. In this paper we present the results of the GMPE's calibration, a step aimed at figure out which is the most suitable relationship for the study area. We could not use acceleration records, since there were no accelerometers at the moment of the earthquake occurrence. Instead, we used data on the damage caused by the earthquake provided by the Haitian Ministry of Public Works. To achieve that, we simulated the earthquake in SELENA and compared our results with the observed damage. Through an iterative process based on minimizing the residuals, we calibrated both, the GMPE and the damage functions associated with the building typologies. We found that Boore & Atkinson and Campbell & Bozorgnia are the models that yield the lowest root mean square (RMS) error; hence, these GMPS's could be considered as the models that better predict the damage, together with the calibrated set of damage functions. Accordingly, we propose them to be used in future seismic risk assessments in the city.

Torres, Y.; Molina, S.; Navarro, M.; Benito, B.

2013-05-01

102

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou [...] tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica. Abstract in english Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated wit [...] h incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Dale, Tomich.

2009-04-01

103

Literature Survey on Model based Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software testing is an activity which aims at evaluating an feature or capability of system and determining that whether it meets required expectations. One way to ease this program slicing technique is to break down the large programs into smaller ones and into other is model based slicing that break down the large software architecture model into smaller models at the early stage of SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle. This is the novel methodology to extract the sub model from a big model diagrams on the basis of slicing criteria. The proposed procedure used the concept of model based slicing to slice the sequence diagram to extract the desired lump.This literature survey presents an overview of Model based slicing, including the various general approaches and techniques used to compute slices. General Terms: UML Models, Slicing

Sneh Krishna*,

2014-10-01

104

Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010 / Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sinto [...] mas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the developm [...] ent of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Melissa Simon, Guimaro; Milton, Steinman; Ana Merzel, Kernkraut; Oscar Fernando Pavão dos, Santos; Shirley Silva, Lacerda.

2013-03-01

105

The (Impossibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2010. xx + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 34.95

Landon Yarrington

2012-12-01

106

Peace-building in Haiti:An actor-oriented analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti?s conflict is not a civil war in the traditional sense. Nevertheless, extreme poverty, socio-economic inequalities, insecurity due to gang activity and a general state of turbulence and instability has characterised the situation in the country since the fall of the Duvaliers in 1986. The aim of this thesis is to assess the prospects for successful peace-building in Haiti. ?Peace-building? is understood as a process that puts an end to the violent conflict and political collapse in ...

Wøien, Anne Kirsti Tobro

2007-01-01

107

The (Im)possibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99)Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95)Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University ...

Landon Yarrington

2012-01-01

108

On Multiple Slice Turbo Code  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main problem with the hardware implementation of turbo codes is the lack of parallelism in the MAP-based decoding algorithm. This paper proposes to overcome this problem with a new family of turbo codes, called Slice Turbo Codes. This family is based on two ideas: the encoding of each dimension with P independent tail-biting codes and a constrained interleaver structure that allows parallel decoding of the P independent codewords in each dimension. The optimization of the interleaver is d...

Gnaedig, David; Boutillon, Emmanuel; Jezequel, Michel; Gaudet, Vincent; Glenn Gulak, P.

2003-01-01

109

HSV-1 Cgal+ infection promotes quaking RNA binding protein production and induces nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of quaking I-5 isoform in human hepatoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpesvirus type 1 (HSV-1) based oncolytic vectors arise as a promising therapeutic alternative for neoplastic diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms mediating the host cell response to such treatments are not completely known. It is well established that HSV-1 infection induces functional and structural alterations in the nucleus of the host cell. In the present work, we have used gel-based and shotgun proteomic strategies to elucidate the signaling pathways impaired in the nucleus of human hepatoma cells (Huh7) upon HSV-1 Cgal(+) infection. Both approaches allowed the identification of differential proteins suggesting impairment of cell functions involved in many aspects of host-virus interaction such as transcription regulation, mRNA processing, and mRNA splicing. Based on our proteomic data and additional functional studies, cellular protein quaking content (QKI) increases 4 hours postinfection (hpi), when viral immediate-early genes such as ICP4 and ICP27 could be also detected. Depletion of QKI expression by small interfering RNA results in reduction of viral immediate-early protein levels, subsequent decrease in early and late viral protein content, and a reduction in the viral yield indicating that QKI directly interferes with viral replication. In particular, HSV-1 Cgal(+) induces a transient increase in quaking I-5 isoform (QKI-5) levels, in parallel with an enhancement of p27(Kip1) protein content. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy showed an early nuclear redistribution of QKI-5, shuttling from the nucleus to the cytosol and colocalizing with nectin-1 in cell to cell contact regions at 16-24 hpi. This evidence sheds new light on mechanisms mediating hepatoma cell response to HSV-1 vectors highlighting QKI as a central molecular mediator. PMID:21467216

Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Mora, María I; Segura, Victor; Greco, Anna; Epstein, Alberto L; Foschini, Maria Giovanna; Dayon, Loïc; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J; Santamaría, Enrique

2011-06-01

110

Virtual Slice Extraction Based on Hermite Interpolation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Owing to the one-time scanning direction’s oneness and the limited slices’ number of the current CT imaging equip­ment, we propose an extraction algorithm of any angle virtual slice on 3D medical image based on the Hermite interpolation. In view of the large slice thickness, we first use the Hermite interpolation algorithm to interpolate the data between layers, and then by setting a virtual plane of normal vector and the interior point, combin­ed with improved three-dimensional linear interpolation algorithm for image sequence to be cut we obtain a virtual slice, finally we observe the extraction with a three-dimensional reconstruction of the virtual slices. Experimental result shows that the extracted virtual slice is close to the actual slice, it can be used for computer-aided diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and it compens­ates for the CT imaging equipment on the lack of imaging.

FAN Wen-guang

2012-10-01

111

Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Syphilis Screening in Prenatal HIV Testing Programs in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyzing data from Haiti, Bruce Schackman and colleagues report that scale-up of prenatal HIV testing programs provides a cost-effective opportunity to prevent congenital syphilis through rapid testing.

Schackman, Bruce R.; Neukermans, Christopher P.; Fontain, Sandy N. Nerette; Nolte, Claudine; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

2007-01-01

112

Eigenfrequency of nodeless elastic vibrations locked in the crust of quaking neutron star  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of non-compressional spheroidal and torsional nodeless elastic vibrations in the homogenous crust model of a quaking neutron star is developed and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Particular attention is given to the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into ques...

Bastrukov, S.; Chang, H-k; Chen, G. -t; Molodtsova, I.

2008-01-01

113

Eigenfrequency of nodeless elastic vibrations locked in the crust of quaking neutron star  

CERN Document Server

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of non-compressional spheroidal and torsional nodeless elastic vibrations in the homogenous crust model of a quaking neutron star is developed and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Particular attention is given to the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that unspecified QPOs are due to nodeless dipole torsional and dipole spheroidal elastic shear vibrations.

Bastrukov, S; Chen, G -T; Molodtsova, I

2008-01-01

114

Self-sustained oscillator as a model for explosion quakes at Stromboli Volcano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze seismic signals produced by explosion-quakes at Stromboli Volcano. We use standard nonlinear procedures to search a low-order effective dynam-ics. The dimension of the reconstructed phase space depends on the number of samples. Namely larger time lengths cor-respond to dynamical systems of different complexity. If we restrict the analysis to the signal associated directly to the source (Chouet et al., 1997, we obtain a phase space dimen-sion equal to two. We reproduce this part of the signal with a simple single self-sustained oscillator.

S. De Martino

2002-01-01

115

Self-sustained oscillator as a model for explosion quakes at Stromboli Volcano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze seismic signals produced by explosion-quakes at Stromboli Volcano. We use standard nonlinear procedures to search a low-order effective dynam-ics. The dimension of the reconstructed phase space depends on the number of samples. Namely larger time lengths cor-respond to dynamical systems of different complexity. If we restrict the analysis to the signal associated directly to the source (Chouet et al., 1997), we obtain a phase space dimen-sion equal to two. We reproduce this ...

Martino, S.; Godano, C.; Falanga, M.

2002-01-01

116

An evaluation of seismic hazard in La Hispaniola, after the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An evaluation of the seismic hazard in La Hispaniola Island has been carried out, as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and developed by several Spanish Universities, the National Observatory of Environment and Vulnerability) ONEV of Haiti, and with contributions from the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) and University Seismological Institute of Dominican Republic (ISU). The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for sei...

Benito Oterino, Belen; Belizaire, Dwinel; Torres Ferna?ndez, Yolanda; Marti?nez Di?az, Jose? Jesu?s; Hue?rfano, Vi?ctor; Polanco, Eugenio; Garcia, R.; Gonza?lez?crende, Pilar; Serna Marti?nez, Ana Rita; Zevallos, F.

2012-01-01

117

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hur...

Jeffrey McNeely; Mainka, Susan A.

2011-01-01

118

Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012–March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was iso...

Alam, Meer T.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Weber, Chad D.; Johnson, Judith A.; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Birch, Catherine S.; Brumback, Babette A.; Beau Rochars, Valery E. Madsen; Glenn, J.; Ali, Afsar

2015-01-01

119

High Depth, Whole-Genome Sequencing of Cholera Isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. ch...

Sealfon Rachel; Gire Stephen; Ellis Crystal; Calderwood Stephen; Qadri Firdausi; Hensley Lisa; Kellis Manolis; Ryan Edward T; LaRocque Regina C; Harris Jason B; Sabeti Pardis C

2012-01-01

120

Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast global conformational change that arises within picoseconds and precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This provides direct structural evidence for a 'protein quake': the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake-like structural motions.

Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast global conformational change that arises within picoseconds and precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This provides direct structural evidence for a 'protein quake': the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake-like structural motions. PMID:25108686

Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P; Shoeman, Robert L; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Doak, R Bruce; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S; Kirian, Richard A; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M Marvin; Sjöhamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Spence, John C H; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sébastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N; Neutze, Richard

2014-09-01

122

Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmen...

Wampler Peter J; Rediske Richard R; Molla Azizur R

2013-01-01

123

[Medical care provision to the victim children of Haiti].  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment and diagnostic measures, including anesthesia during catastrophes and natural disasters are a world known problem. The paper presents the experience of anesthetic care provision during specialized surgical care to the victim children of the earthquake in Haiti. The materials of analysis were 529 anesthesias conducted to 72 children, who were in the treatment for crush syndrome, skeletal and concomitant injury. The peculiarities of anesthesia during the treatment of wound process depending on the stage of surgery are brought into view. During the preparatory phase the optimal type of anesthesia is inhalation and intravenous anesthesia, whereas for the defect closure (main stage) all types of anesthesia, including balanced endotracheal and combined anesthesia were used. PMID:21510063

Bagaev, V G; Saratovski?, A S; Mitish, V A; Puzhitski?, L B; Medinski?, P A; Zhuravlev, N A; Basargin, D Iu; Vorob'ev, D A

2011-01-01

124

Predictability of population displacement after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most severe disasters cause large population movements. These movements make it difficult for relief organizations to efficiently reach people in need. Understanding and predicting the locations of affected people during disasters is key to effective humanitarian relief operations and to long-term societal reconstruction. We collaborated with the largest mobile phone operator in Haiti (Digicel) and analyzed the movements of 1.9 million mobile phone users during the period from 42 d before, to 341 d after the devastating Haiti earthquake of January 12, 2010. Nineteen days after the earthquake, population movements had caused the population of the capital Port-au-Prince to decrease by an estimated 23%. Both the travel distances and size of people's movement trajectories grew after the earthquake. These findings, in combination with the disorder that was present after the disaster, suggest that people's movements would have become less predictable. Instead, the predictability of people's trajectories remained high and even increased slightly during the three-month period after the earthquake. Moreover, the destinations of people who left the capital during the first three weeks after the earthquake was highly correlated with their mobility patterns during normal times, and specifically with the locations in which people had significant social bonds. For the people who left Port-au-Prince, the duration of their stay outside the city, as well as the time for their return, all followed a skewed, fat-tailed distribution. The findings suggest that population movements during disasters may be significantly more predictable than previously thought. PMID:22711804

Lu, Xin; Bengtsson, Linus; Holme, Petter

2012-07-17

125

Anesthetic practice in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 M(L) earthquake devastated Haiti, the most impoverished nation in the Western hemisphere with extremely limited health care resources. We traveled to Milot, Haiti situated north of Port-au-Prince, to care for injured patients at Hôpital Sacré Coeur, an undamaged hospital with 74 beds and 2 operating rooms. The massive influx of patients brought by helicopter from the earthquake zone transformed the hospital to >400 beds and 6 operating rooms. As with the 2005 Kashmir and 2008 China earthquake, most victims suffered from extremity injuries, encompassing crush injuries, lacerations, fractures, and amputations with associated dehydration and anemia. Preoperative evaluation was limited by language issues requiring a translator and included basic questions of fasting status, allergies, and coexisting conditions. Goals included adequate depth of anesthesia, while avoiding apnea/airway manipulation. These goals led to frequent use of midazolam and ketamine or regional anesthesia. Although many medications were present under various names and concentrations, the absence of a central gas supply proved troublesome. Postoperative care was limited to an 8-bed postanesthesia care unit/intensive care unit caring for patients with tetanus, diabetic ketoacidosis, pulmonary aspiration, acute renal failure due to crush, extreme anemia, sepsis, and other illnesses. Other important aspects of this journey included the professionalism of the health care personnel who prioritized patient care, adaptation to limited laboratory and radiological services, and provision of living arrangements. Although challenging from many perspectives, the experience was emotionally enriching and recalls the fundamental reasons why we selected medicine and anesthesiology as a profession. PMID:20889938

Rice, Mark J; Gwertzman, Alan; Finley, Timothy; Morey, Timothy E

2010-12-01

126

Robust reflective pupil slicing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly applicable to multi-fiber spectrometers to achieve similar enhancement. HTVS also provides the ability to anamorphically "stretch" the slit image in long-slit spectrometers, allowing the instrument designer to optimize the plate scale in the dispersion axis and cross-dispersion axes independently without sacrificing spatial information. This allows users to widen the input slit, with the associated gain of throughput and loss of spatial selectivity, while maintaining the spectral resolution of the spectrometer system. This "stretching" places increased requirements on detector focal plane height, as with image slicing techniques, but provides additional degrees of freedom to instrument designers to build the best possible spectrometer systems. We discuss the details of this technology for an astronomical context, covering the applicability from small telescope mounted spectrometers through long-slit imagers and radial-velocity engines. This powerful tool provides additional degrees of freedom when designing a spectrometer, enabling instrument designers to further optimize systems for the required scientific goals.

Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

2014-07-01

127

Applying Slicing Technique to Software Architectures  

CERN Document Server

Software architecture is receiving increasingly attention as a critical design level for software systems. As software architecture design resources (in the form of architectural specifications) are going to be accumulated, the development of techniques and tools to support architectural understanding, testing, reengineering, maintenance, and reuse will become an important issue. This paper introduces a new form of slicing, named architectural slicing, to aid architectural understanding and reuse. In contrast to traditional slicing, architectural slicing is designed to operate on the architectural specification of a software system, rather than the source code of a program. Architectural slicing provides knowledge about the high-level structure of a software system, rather than the low-level implementation details of a program. In order to compute an architectural slice, we present the architecture information flow graph which can be used to represent information flows in a software architecture. Based on the...

Zhao, J

2001-01-01

128

Improved technique for cutting brain slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

When two disposable serological pipettes with an external diameter of 1 cm are placed on the cutting surface on either side of the brain and the knife rides across them, it will cut even slices precisely 1 cm thick. Both coronal and horizontal slices can be cut as well as oblique slices for comparison with computerized tomographic scan roentgenograms although for the latter the initial cut will have to be made freehand. For practical purposes, brain slices obtained by this simple technique are as good as those made with a mechanical jig or electric machine and are superior to those made freehand. PMID:365130

Kaufmann, J C

1979-01-01

129

The NetQuakes Project - Research-quality Seismic Data Transmitted via the Internet from Citizen-hosted Instruments (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS seeks accelerograph spacing of 5-10 km in selected urban areas of the US to obtain spatially un-aliased recordings of strong ground motions during large earthquakes. These dense measurements will improve our ability to make rapid post-earthquake assessments of expected damage and contribute to the continuing development of engineering standards for construction. To achieve this goal the USGS and its university partners are deploying “NetQuakes” seismographs, designed to record moderate to large earthquakes from the near field to about 100 km. The instruments have tri-axial Colibrys 2005SF MEMS sensors, clip at 3g, and have 18-bit resolution. These instruments are uniquely designed for deployment in private homes, businesses, public buildings and schools where there is an existing Broadband connection to the Internet. The NetQuakes instruments connect to a local network using WiFi and then via the Internet to USGS servers to a) upload triggered accelerograms in miniSEED format, P arrival times, and computed peak ground motion parameters immediately after an earthquake; b) download software updates; c) respond to requests for log files, execute UNIX scripts, and upload waveforms from long-term memory for quakes with peak motions below the trigger threshold; d) send state-of-health (SOH) information in XML format every 10 minutes; and e) synchronize instrument clocks to 1ms accuracy using the Network Time Protocol. NetQuakes instruments cost little to operate and save about $600/yr/site compared to instruments that transmit data via leased telemetry. After learning about the project through press releases, thousands of citizens have registered to host an instrument at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/netquakes using a Google Map interface that depicts where we seek instrument sites. The website also provides NetQuakes hosts access to waveform images recorded by instruments installed in their building. Since 3/2009, the NetQuakes project has installed over 100 instruments in the San Francisco Bay area, over 30 in the Seattle region, and 20 elsewhere in the US. Five instruments are also deployed in the San Francisco Bay region on San Pablo Dam, operated by the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). These instruments provide cost-effective monitoring for EBMUD through free Internet telemetry, and because the USGS monitors instrument SOH, performs all data processing and archiving, and transmits recorded shaking levels to the dam operators via ShakeCast. EBMUD allows the strong motion data from their instruments to be freely available for use by the seismological and engineering communities. The NetQuakes project expects to install 350 instruments by the end of 2011.

Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Hamilton, J.

2010-12-01

130

Characterization of inequality and poverty in the Republic of Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Después de aproximadamente veinte años de estancamiento económico acompañado de disturbios políticos, la república de Haití, exhibiendo un PIB per capita en paridad de poder de compra de 1,470 dólares estadounidenses, es actualmente el país más pobre del hemisferio occidental y uno de los más pobres [...] del mundo. El presente trabajo de investigación también revela que es el país más desigual en la región más desigual del mundo, a saber, América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Amén del carácter endémico de la pobreza en este país, el problema de la distribución de la renta puede representar un verdadero escollo a las perspectivas de crecimiento y, por ende, debería constituir una de las principales preocupaciones de los responsables políticos en sus programas de lucha contra este flagelo. Para trabajo se utiliza la Encuesta sobre las Condiciones de Vida en Haití para estimar el estado de la pobreza y la desigualdad para el periodo 2000/2001. Los primeros resultados destacan, sin sorpresa, que la pobreza es más generalizada en la zona rural mientras la zona metropolitana de Puerto Príncipe acusa las tasas más bajas. El acceso a ciertos factores de producción, tales como la tierra agrícola, no constituye una vía de escape a la pobreza. También se propone una descomposición de la desigualdad en varios ámbitos vía la estimación de mínimos cuadrados ponderados para encuestas complejas. Finalmente, se estima un logit policotómico ordenado para investigar la probabilidad de un hogar de ser pobre o indigente. Abstract in english After nearly twenty years of stagnation and economic decline coupled with political upheavals, the Republic of Haiti, with a GDP per capita of approximately 1,470 USD (expressed in Purchasing Power Parity) in the year 2000, is at this date the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere and one of the [...] poorest of the world. The present research reveals that this country is also where income is worst distributed in the most unequal region of the world, viz., Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Thus, besides the pervasive nature of poverty, income distribution also emerges as a potential stumbling block to growth prospects and should be of high concern for policy makers, let alone be part of a global policy to tackle the poverty scourge. The present research uses the 2001 Haiti Living Conditions Survey, the most recent multi-topic survey for the Republic of Haiti, for distributive analysis and absolute poverty assessment. Preliminary results show that poverty, as expected, is more widespread in the rural area while the Metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince is where the incidence of poverty is the lowest. Surprisingly, access to physical productive asset, such as land, does not help the peasant escape poverty. In addition to the derivation of inequality and poverty profiles, a weighted least square with proper design based for stratified, multistage, and probability cluster sampling is used to additively decompose inequality by multiple factor components. Also, a polychotomous ordered logit is estimated to investigate the risk of being indigent or poor.

Evans, Jadotte.

2007-06-01

131

Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo

Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

2013-12-01

132

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do século XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais.THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo. James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a consequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Jacob Gorender

2004-04-01

133

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do sécu [...] lo XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais. Abstract in english THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo). James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a con [...] sequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Jacob, Gorender.

2004-04-01

134

Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

Beck, Jon

1993-01-01

135

Exploring Unintended Social Side Effects of Tent Distribution Practices in Post-Earthquake Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s social, economic and health infrastructure, leaving 2 million persons—one-fifth of Haiti’s population—homeless. Internally displaced persons relocated to camps, where human rights remain compromised due to increased poverty, reduced security, and limited access to sanitation and clean water. This article draws on findings from 3 focus groups conducted with internally displaced young women and 3 focus groups with internally displaced young men (aged 18–24 in Leogane, Haiti to explore post-earthquake tent distribution practices. Focus group findings highlighted that community members were not engaged in developing tent distribution strategies. Practices that distributed tents to both children and parents, and linked food and tent distribution, inadvertently contributed to “chaos”, vulnerability to violence and family network breakdown. Moving forward we recommend tent distribution strategies in disaster contexts engage with community members, separate food and tent distribution, and support agency and strategies of self-protection among displaced persons.

Carmen Helen Logie

2013-09-01

136

Magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

We compute characteristic parameters of magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about axis of dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After brief outlook of general theoretical background of the model of vibration powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as the oscillation frequency, lifetime, luminosity of radiation, and investigate their time dependence upon magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitoring AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by vibration powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I V

2011-01-01

137

Magnitude scale for LP events: a quantification scheme for volcanic quakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The peculiar source characteristics of long-period seismic events (time persistency of the source, low-frequency peaks in the source spectrum, absence of high-frequency radiation) prevent the formation of a definite high-frequency coda in the seismograms. In contrast, this is well formed in volcano-tectonic quakes. For this reason, the widely used duration magnitude scale that is based on the proportionality between the energy and the coda duration cannot be used for long-period estimation. In observatory practice, the long-period magnitude is sometimes estimated using the same duration magnitude scale, leading to confusing results. In this report, we show a new method to estimate the magnitude of long-period events that generally occur for volcanoes, with some application examples from data for Mt Etna (Italy), Colima Volcano (Mexico) and Campi Flegrei (Italy).

Del Pezzo, E.; Bianco, F.; Borgna, I.

2013-08-01

138

Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Infrared  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

2010-01-01

139

Tungiasis in rural Haiti: a community-based response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a disease endemic to poor communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. It is caused by the female flea, Tunga penetrans, which burrows into the skin of its host to feed while producing and extruding eggs. Consequent lesions may be painful and even crippling with damage ranging from mild erythema and swelling to necrosis. Superinfection of lesions can be serious and may result in auto-amputation or death from tetanus. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in rural Haiti and a community-based intervention used to address it. Of 177 patients assessed, 132 (47 female, 85 male, 23 children) had tungiasis lesions. Forty-four patients had clinical signs of superinfection; 15 had ectopic lesions. Community health workers cleaned and disinfected patients' feet and any parts of the body with ectopic lesions, and then extracted fleas from existing lesions. Patients with superinfections were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Over 1000 pairs of shoes were distributed in the villages. Over 400 adults were given tetanus vaccinations during follow-up visits. Patients who had been treated reported feeling better and those who had received shoes indicated they had not developed new lesions. All superinfections were resolved. We concluded that community-based care can treat tungiasis effectively. PMID:16516941

Joseph, J Keith; Bazile, Junior; Mutter, Justin; Shin, Sonya; Ruddle, Andrew; Ivers, Louise; Lyon, Evan; Farmer, Paul

2006-10-01

140

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

Jason Jawidzik

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Haiti Earthquake Damage Assessment: Review of the Remote Sensing Role  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake on 12 January 2010. The immediate response to the disaster was a real turning point concerning the availability, dissemination and licensing of a huge quantity of geospatial data. Timely triggering of the Earth Observation satellites, and absence of cloud cover, allowed to acquire very high-resolution optical satellite imagery (spatial resolution up to 0.5m) over the main affected areas within a few hours of the disaster, while the whole country coverage was completed in a very short time span. Furthermore in the following days aerial imagery, high resolution SAR radar imagery as well as thermal and LiDAR data were widely acquired. The paper will show how well established remote sensing techniques allowed to carry out earthquake damage assessment in a very short time, exploiting the synergic capabilities of geospatial tools and instruments such as EO satellites, Web mapping, GIS software and volunteer mapping. In a few days several map products based on the aforementioned analysis were delivered to end users: a review of the different types and purposes of this products will be provided and discussed. An assessment of the thematic accuracy of remotely sensed based products will be carried out on the basis of a review of the several available studies focused on this issue, including the main outcomes of a validation based on a comparison with in-situ data performed by the authors.

Boccardo, P.; Tonolo, F. G.

2012-08-01

142

Proposed Method for Computing Interprocedure Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Program slicing was originally introduced by Mark Weiser, is useful in program debugging, automatic parallelization, software aintenance, program integration etc. It is a method for automatically decomposing programs by analyzing their data flow and control flow reduces the program to a minimal form called “slice” which still produces that behavior. Interprocedure slicing is the slicing of multiprocedure program .In this paper a new method or algorithm (IP algorithm is introduced for the interprocedure static slicing of structured programs. The most time consuming part of the interprocedure slicing methods is the computation of transitive dependences (i.e. summary edgesdue to the procedure calls. Horowitz et al. [8] introduced an algorithm based on attribute grammar for computing summary edges. Reps et al. [7] and Istavan [9] defined an improved algorithm for computing summary edges representing interprocedural dependences at procedure calls. Here in this paper we discuss the improved interprocedure slicing algorithm (IP algorithm, which is faster than previous algorithm and takes less memory space

Dr. K.S. Patnaik

2013-01-01

143

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

Jeffrey McNeely

2011-03-01

144

Testicular swelling due to lymphatic filariasis after brief travel to Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

After 6 months of a trip to Haiti, a 25-year-old healthy man presented with a 6-week history of a very slow progressive intermittent bilateral testicular pain and swelling. The biopsies in both testicles revealed the presence of a dead filarial parasite. Polymerase chain reaction products of the DNA from the biopsy were shown to have a 100% identity to Wuchereria bancrofti. Despite being uncommon in travelers, this presentation of W. bancrofti highlights the possibility of acquiring W. bancrofti during short-term trips to highly endemic regions of the world (i.e., Haiti). PMID:24865674

Marcos, Luis A; Shapley, Nathan P; Eberhard, Mark; Epstein, Jonathan I; Fox, LeAnne M; Magill, Alan; Nutman, Thomas B

2014-07-01

145

The impact of the Haiti earthquake on Haitian immigration to the Dominican Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When the earthquake of 7.0 on the Richter scale struck Haiti on January 12, 2010, the forcibly displaced on and off the island were the object of emergency planning, but so too were the host populations in Haiti and the neighbouring Dominican Republic. This article seeks to examine the emergency response to the earthquake and ongoing challenges through the lens of critical mobilities, with special reference to forced migration island-wide. Who (men, women, boys and girls) is able to move, how...

Wooding, Bridget

2011-01-01

146

Outline and handling manual of experimental data time slice monitoring software 'SLICE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a software 'SLICE' which maps various kinds of plasma experimental data measured at the different geometrical position of JT-60U and JFT-2M onto the equilibrium magnetic configuration and treats them as a function of volume averaged minor radius ?. Experimental data can be handled uniformly by using 'SLICE'. Plenty of commands of 'SLICE' make it easy to process the mapped data. The experimental data measured as line integrated values are also transformed by Abel inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the database 'MAPDB'. 'SLICE' can read the data from 'MAPDB' and re-display and transform them. Still more 'SLICE' creates run data of orbit following Monte-Carlo code 'OFMC' and tokamak predictive and interpretation code system 'TOPICS'. This report summarizes an outline and the usage of 'SLICE'. (author)

147

Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsitus Green, in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsitus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), very likely originated from Asia and was first observed in the Western Hemisphere in 1994 on the island of Grenada. Since then, the insect has spread to over 31 Caribbean Islands, plus countries in South America, Central America and North America. The PHM is very polyphagous and associated with some 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and trees, and very prolific with up to 500-600 eggs/female. This mealybug was introduced into the American continent without its natural enemies and has the potential of rapidly becoming a very serious threat to the agricultural industry and the environment of the region. In Haiti, the PHM was observed for the first time in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the capital, in May 2002. In July 2002, in a cooperative effort between the Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, and International Services (USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS), the International Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a biological control programme was developed for Haiti. The first action for the management of the PHM in Haiti was to initiate a public awareness campaign and train local technicians. The PHM biological control programme started with the technical assistrogramme started with the technical assistance of the USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS, and the support of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture (PRDA), which managed the insectary operation and provided two exotic parasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). From July 2002 to January 2004 Haiti received 180,000 parasitoids from PRDA. In April 2003 the National Association of Mango Exporters of Haiti (ANEM) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) representative in Haiti collectively developed support through the Haiti Ministry of Agriculture in order to establish an insectary to mass-produce locally the exotic parasitoids A. kamali and G. indica. From October 2003 to November 2004, 265,000 parasitoids were mass-produced at the Haiti insectary. These parasitoids were released in Haiti in PHM infested areas at the rate of 200 to 400 individuals per species per site and a distance of about one mile between releases. Six study sites were selected using infested hibiscus plants as field hosts and sampled for about one year in order to monitor the impact of the parasitoids on the population density of PHM. The results of the study indicated a 98% reduction in the PHM population density by the parasitoids, which maintained an average of 14% parasitisation following the mealybug population decline. The PHM has the capability of spreading across the country, but at a reduced rate of distribution since the implementation of this successful biological control programme. The Haiti Ministry of Agriculture continues to survey for new PHM infested areas and is prepared to release parasitoids as necessary to ensure the continued success of the PHM biological control programme. (author)

148

Pulsating magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star at the expense of energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

The impact of magnetic field decay on radiative activity of quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is studied. We found that monotonic depletion of internal magnetic field pressure is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Particular attention is given to the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfven vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples of magnetic field decay illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods produced by quaking neutron star are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Yu, J W; Xu, R X

2010-01-01

149

Extending the viability of acute brain slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

2014-01-01

150

Comparison between the performance of multi-slice CT and single-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a conventional single-slice helical CT apparatus was compared with a newly developed multi-slice helical CT apparatus. The SSPz (slice-sensitive profile) and image noise of single-slice CT and multi-slice CT were compared in non-helical scan. Sufficiently thin and satisfactorily rectangular SSPz were acquired without making an effort to stop down the beam in the multi-slice helical CT apparatus. This means that it is a satisfactorily effective apparatus that allows the high resolution with low exposure doses. Comparison of the SSPz showed that the multi-slice helical CT provided slightly poorer resolution than the single-slice helical CT, but according to the results of this study the former would be superior to the latter if the optimal the helical pitch were selected. Multi-slice CT reduced the image noise and provided better noise quality. Additionally, multi-slice CT had better resolution at low contrast. It is important to understand that the low contrast resolution is greatly influenced by the reconstruction method, X-ray detection capacity of the detectors, and differences in the apparatus itself. Under the same X-ray conditions (tube voltage and the tube current), the exposure dose increased, but by changing the analysis conditions, it was possible to reduce the dose. In clinical practice, multi-slice helical CT provides good resolution, but there were some problems with scanning. In conclusion, multi-slice CT can detect 3-D images of vessels inice CT can detect 3-D images of vessels in a short time, however, the short scanning time makes the contrast medium injection technique more difficult. Automated methods of timing the injections are needed. (K.H.)

151

Model for a national radiation protection infrastructure in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation controls took an increasing trend in Haiti. The corresponding trend is in the making of a national authority that will oversee all private and public establishments where ionizing radiation sources are being used on a diagnostic basis or for therapeutic purposes. The primary purpose of this authority is to improve regulatory framework for radiation protection but also to layout mechanisms for controlling sources. With IAEA helps and expertise a national programme is being implemented that will reflect priorities of the international Basic Safety Standard. Our goal in this paper was to provide a model authority based on the legal culture of the country and mindset of healthcare worker. The unique feature of this proposed model is that it places greater emphasis on responding to a health priority, and greater government willingness to have and independent body to regulate every single user of ionizing radiations and this flexible model can be implemented with minimal expenditures for our national budget. The following key services have been identified to provide the needed control mechanism for the Authority: Administrative Affairs Services; Personal Dosimetry Services; Nuclear and Radiological Safety Services; Legal Affairs Services. The possibility to achieve reduction of the exposed x ray workers and to establish a greater discipline in the use nuclear and radiological technology and availability of state of the art technology can be reached only if such a technology can be reached only if such a national body is effectively implemented by mean of a national decree therefore abiding all citizens. A basic inventory model is annexed for the purposes of assessing current needs in radiation protection. (author)

152

Program Slicing Based Buffer Overflow Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of the information technology has brought threats to human society when it has influenced seriously the global politics, economics and military etc. But among the security of information system, buffer overrun vulnerability is undoubtedly one of the most important and common vulnerabilities. This paper describes a new technology, named program slicing, to detect the buffer overflow leak in security-critical C code. First, we use slicing technology to analyze the variables whic...

Yingzhou Zhang; Wei Fu; Xiaofei Qian; Wei Chen

2010-01-01

153

Applying Slicing Technique to Software Architectures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software architecture is receiving increasingly attention as a critical design level for software systems. As software architecture design resources (in the form of architectural specifications) are going to be accumulated, the development of techniques and tools to support architectural understanding, testing, reengineering, maintenance, and reuse will become an important issue. This paper introduces a new form of slicing, named architectural slicing, to aid architectural u...

Zhao, Jianjun

2001-01-01

154

Slicing Techniques for Handheld Augmented Reality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manipulating slice planes is an important task for exploring volumetric datasets. Since this task is inherently 3D, it is difficult to accomplish with standard 2D input devices. Alternative interaction techniques have been proposed for direct and natural 3D manipulation of slice planes. However, they also require bulky and dedicated hardware, making them inconvenient for everyday work. To address this issue, we adapted two of these techniques for use in a portable and self-contained handheld ...

Issartel, Paul; Gue?niat, Florimond; Ammi, Mehdi

2014-01-01

155

Black hole initial data on hyperboloidal slices  

CERN Document Server

We generalize Bowen-York black hole initial data to hyperboloidal constant mean curvature (CMC) slices which extend to future null infinity. We solve this initial value problem numerically for several cases, including unequal mass binary black holes with spins and boosts. The singularity at null infinity in the Hamiltonian constraint associated with a CMC hypersurface does not pose any particular difficulties. The inner boundaries of our slices are minimal surfaces. Trumpet configurations are explored both analytically and numerically.

Buchman, Luisa T; Bardeen, James M

2009-01-01

156

Nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking neutron star  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The two-component, core-crust, model of a neutron star with homogenous internal and dipolar external magnetic field is studied responding to quake-induced perturbation by substantially nodeless differentially rotational Alfv\\'en oscillations of the perfectly conducting crustal matter about axis of fossil magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. The energy variational method of the magneto-solid-mechanical theory of a viscoelastic perfectly conducting medium pervaded by ma...

Bastrukov, S. I.; Chang, H. -k; Molodtsova, I. V.; Takata, J.

2008-01-01

157

On the Reliability of the Geomagnetic Quake as Short Time Earthquake Precursor for Sofia Region- 2002, 2003  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local when earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic quakes and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately +/-1 day and for the maximum- +/-2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2003 for Sofia region i...

Mavrodiev, S. Cht

2004-01-01

158

On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region...

Cht Mavrodiev, S.

2004-01-01

159

Skopje and Sofia 2005 Earthquake and Geomagnetic data and the Geomagnetic Quake as Imminent Reliable Earthquakes Precursor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The imminent WHEN earthquake predictions are based on the correlation between geomagnetic quakes and the incoming minimum (or maximum) of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the incoming earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately one day and for the maximum- two days. The statistic evidence for reliability is based on of distributions of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2005 for Sofia region...

Mavrodiev, S. Cht; Pekevski, L.

2006-01-01

160

Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

 
 
 
 
161

Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

Elizabeth Wickstrom

2007-10-01

162

Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

163

Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling), we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and ...

Barr Graham; Oxlade Olivia; Schwartzman Kevin; Morose Willy; Jacquet Vary; Grimard Franque; Menzies Dick

2006-01-01

164

Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (d) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (e) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5-min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior. PMID:25488925

Murphy, Nora A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A; Frauendorfer, Denise; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Roter, Debra L; Nguyen, Laurent

2015-02-01

165

Zoneless and Mixture techniques applied to the Integrated Brazilian PSHA using GEM-OpenQuake  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work is to propose some variations to the classic Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) calculations, on one hand, applying the zoneless methodology to seismic source activity characterization and, on the other hand, using the gaussian mixture models to mix Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) models onto a mixed model. Our actual knowledge of the Brazilian intraplate seismicity does not allow us to identify the causative neotectonic active faults with confidence. This issue makes difficult the characterization of main seismic sources and the computation of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Indeed seismic zonings made by different specialist could have big differences, while the zone less approach imposes a quantitative method to seismic source characterization, avoiding the subjective source zone definition. In addition, the low seismicity rate and the limited coverage in space and time of the seismic networks, do not offer enough observations to fit a confident GMPE to this region. In this case, our purpose was use a Gaussian Mixture Model to estimate a composed model from pre-existents well-fitted GMPE models which better describes the observed peak ground motion data. The other methodological evaluation is to use the OpenQuake engine (a Global Earthquake Model's initiative) for the hazard calculation. The logic tree input will allow us, in near future, to combine with weights, other hazard models from different specialists. We expect that these results will offer a new and solid basis to upgrade the brazilian civil engineering seismic rules.

Pirchiner, M.; Drouet, S.; Assumpcao, M.

2013-12-01

166

The effects of slice thickness and reconstructive parameters on VR image quality in multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the effects of slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval on VR image quality in multi-slice CT, in order to select the best slice thickness and reconstructive parameters for the imaging. Methods: Multi-slice CT scan was applied on a rubber dinosaur model with different slice thickness. VR images were reconstructed with different reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval. Five radiologists were invited to evaluate the quality of the images without knowing anything about the parameters. Results: The slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval did have effects on VR image quality and the effective degree was different. The effective coefficients were V1=1413.033, V2=563.733, V3=390.533, respectively. The parameters interacted with the others (P<0.05). The smaller of those parameters, the better of the image quality. With a small slice thickness and a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness, the image quality had no obvious difference when the reconstructive interval was 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 of the slice thickness. Conclusion: A relative small scan slice thickness, a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness and a reconstructive interval 1/2 of the slice thickness should be selected for the best VR image quality. The image quality depends mostly on the slice thickness. (authors)

167

Coseismic slip distribution of the 2010 m7.0 Haiti earthquake and resulting stress changes on regional faults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mw 7.0 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake ruptured the previously unmapped Léogâne Fault, a secondary transpressional fault located close to the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), the major fault system assumed to be the primary source of seismic hazard for southern Haiti. In the absence of a precise aftershock catalog, previous estimations of coseismic slip had to infer the rupture geometry from geodetic and/or seismological data. Here we use a catalog of precisely relocated afte...

Symithe, Steeve Julien

2012-01-01

168

A variational formulation of vertical slice models  

CERN Document Server

A variational framework is defined for vertical slice models with three dimensional velocity depending only on x and z. The models that result from this framework are Hamiltonian, and have a Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem that results in a conserved potential vorticity in the slice geometry. These results are demonstrated for the incompressible Euler--Boussinesq equations with a constant temperature gradient in the $y$-direction (the Eady--Boussinesq model), which is an idealised problem used to study the formation and subsequent evolution of weather fronts. We then introduce a new compressible extension of this model. Unlike the incompressible model, the compressible model does not produce solutions that are also solutions of the three-dimensional equations, but it does reduce to the Eady--Boussinesq model in the low Mach number limit. This means that this new model can be used in asymptotic limit error testing for compressible weather models running in a vertical slice configuration.

Cotter, C J

2012-01-01

169

Dynamic Backward Slicing of Rewriting Logic Computations  

CERN Document Server

Trace slicing is a widely used technique for execution trace analysis that is effectively used in program debugging, analysis and comprehension. In this paper, we present a backward trace slicing technique that can be used for the analysis of Rewriting Logic theories. Our trace slicing technique allows us to systematically trace back rewrite sequences modulo equational axioms (such as associativity and commutativity) by means of an algorithm that dynamically simplifies the traces by detecting control and data dependencies, and dropping useless data that do not influence the final result. Our methodology is particularly suitable for analyzing complex, textually-large system computations such as those delivered as counter-example traces by Maude model-checkers.

Alpuente, María; Espert, Javier; Romero, Daniel

2011-01-01

170

Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

171

Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

172

Slice knots which bound punctured Klein bottles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the properties of knots in S^3 which bound Klein bottles, such that a pushoff of the knot has zero linking number with the knot, i.e. has zero framing. This is motivated by the many results in the literature regarding slice knots of genus one, for example, the existence of homologically essential zero self-linking simple closed curves on genus one Seifert surfaces for algebraically slice knots. Given a knot K bounding a Klein bottle F with zero framing, we sho...

Ray, Arunima

2012-01-01

173

High-resolution multi-slice PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

174

Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming  

CERN Document Server

Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional multiplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmability of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired 'random' logic. (2 refs).

Van Dam, A

1981-01-01

175

Advantages to Geoscience and Disaster Response from QuakeSim Implementation of Interferometric Radar Maps in a GIS Database System  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution maps of earth surface deformation are available in public archives for scientific interpretation, but are primarily available as bulky downloads on the internet. The NASA uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) archive of airborne radar interferograms delivers very high resolution images (approximately seven meter pixels) making remote handling of the files that much more pressing. Data exploration requiring data selection and exploratory analysis has been tedious. QuakeSim has implemented an archive of UAVSAR data in a web service and browser system based on GeoServer (http://geoserver.org). This supports a variety of services that supply consistent maps, raster image data and geographic information systems (GIS) objects including standard earthquake faults. Browsing the database is supported by initially displaying GIS-referenced thumbnail images of the radar displacement maps. Access is also provided to image metadata and links for full file downloads. One of the most widely used features is the QuakeSim line-of-sight profile tool, which calculates the radar-observed displacement (from an unwrapped interferogram product) along a line specified through a web browser. Displacement values along a profile are updated to a plot on the screen as the user interactively redefines the endpoints of the line and the sampling density. The profile and also a plot of the ground height are available as CSV (text) files for further examination, without any need to download the full radar file. Additional tools allow the user to select a polygon overlapping the radar displacement image, specify a downsampling rate and extract a modest sized grid of observations for display or for inversion, for example, the QuakeSim simplex inversion tool which estimates a consistent fault geometry and slip model.

Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Glasscoe, Margaret; Fox, Geoffrey; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Ma, Yu

2014-07-01

176

Program Slicing Based Buffer Overflow Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the information technology has brought threats to human society when it has influenced seriously the global politics, economics and military etc. But among the security of information system, buffer overrun vulnerability is undoubtedly one of the most important and common vulnerabilities. This paper describes a new technology, named program slicing, to detect the buffer overflow leak in security-critical C code. First, we use slicing technology to analyze the variables which may be with vulnerability and extract the expressions which will bring memory overflow. Secondly, we utilize debug technology to get the size of memory applied by the variable and the size of memory used for these code segments (the slicing result further. Therefore we can judge whether it will overflow according to the analysis above. According to the unique excellence of program slicing performing in the large-scale program’s debugging, the method to detect buffer overrun vulnerability described in this paper will reduce the workload greatly and locate the code sentences affected by corresponding variable set quickly, particularly including the potential vulnerability caused by parameter dependence among the subroutines.

Yingzhou Zhang

2010-10-01

177

Eigenmodes of elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional of elastic seismic vibrations trapped in the crust of a quaking neutron star is outlined and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis relies heavily on the Samuelsson-Andersson identification of the QPOs frequency from the range 30-200 Hz with those for torsi...

Bastrukov, Sergey; Chang, Hsiang-kuang; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-ting

2007-01-01

178

On the powerful use of simulations in the quake-catcher network to efficiently position low-cost earthquake sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) uses low-cost sensors connected to volunteer computers across the world to monitor seismic events. The location and density of these sensors' placement can impact the accuracy of the event detection. Because testing different special arrangements of new sensors could disrupt the currently active project, this would best be accomplished in a simulated environment. This paper presents an accurate and efficient framework for simulating the low cost QCN sensors and identifying their most effective locations and densities. Results presented show how our simulations are reliable tools to study diverse scenarios under different geographical and infrastructural constraints. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Benson, K.; Estrada, T.; Taufer, M.; Lawrence, J.; Cochran, E.

2011-01-01

179

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeir [...] os dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia. Abstract in english The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that f [...] ollowed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Omar Ribeiro, Thomaz.

2010-03-01

180

Dengue among United Nations mission in Haiti personnel, 1995: implications for preventive medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of dengue infections has been increasing in the Caribbean, and cases have been identified among successive deployments of multinational peacekeepers to Haiti (1994-1997). In the absence of an effective vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to prevent dengue fever, vector-control operations and use of personal protection measures to prevent arthropod bites are the most effective means of limiting disease transmission. During our 5-month deployment as part of the United Nations Mission in Haiti, 79 cases of recent dengue fever were identified among 249 patients (32%) presenting with febrile illness to the 86th Combat Support Hospital. Further investigation revealed low unit readiness to perform standard vector-control activities and poor individual adherence to measures to prevent arthropod bites. Command enforcement of existing field preventive medicine doctrine is essential to prevent casualties caused by dengue, other arthropod-borne infections, and nuisance arthropod bites during military deployments. PMID:10226460

Gambel, J M; Drabick, J J; Swalko, M A; Henchal, E A; Rossi, C A; Martinez-Lopez, L

1999-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Forward slicing of functional logic programs by partial evaluation  

CERN Document Server

Program slicing has been mainly studied in the context of imperative languages, where it has been applied to a wide variety of software engineering tasks, like program understanding, maintenance, debugging, testing, code reuse, etc. This work introduces the first forward slicing technique for declarative multi-paradigm programs which integrate features from functional and logic programming. Basically, given a program and a slicing criterion (a function call in our setting), the computed forward slice contains those parts of the original program which are reachable from the slicing criterion. Our approach to program slicing is based on an extension of (online) partial evaluation. Therefore, it provides a simple way to develop program slicing tools from existing partial evaluators and helps to clarify the relation between both methodologies. A slicing tool for the multi-paradigm language Curry, which demonstrates the usefulness of our approach, has been implemented in Curry itself.

Silva, J; Silva, Josep; Vidal, Germ\\'an

2006-01-01

182

Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10?days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were mor...

Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

2010-01-01

183

New concepts in post-disaster development: Learning from social entrepreneurs in Northern Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research Objective This research studies social entrepreneurship as a development tool. The motivation stems from the low ability of the hundreds of international organizations to provide tangible solutions for a better life for the local population in the post-disaster situation. The question raised is how social entrepreneurs can support the development of post-disaster Haiti. Social entrepreneurship seems a promising way to acknowledge social opportunities, while applying business pract...

Farny, Steffen

2012-01-01

184

Food Security in Haiti After the 2010 Earthquake: Analysis and Evaluation of NGO Relief Efforts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti suffered an earthquake in January of 2010, bringing instability and widespread hunger. Even after two years, many Haitians lack food security, and one must look at the failings of the Haitian government and those who attempted to provide aid. Major aid organizations such as the Red Cross, World Food Program, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization stepped in to provide disaster assistance. Unfortunately, these organizations failed to effectively coor...

Mcgaughey, Katie

2012-01-01

185

The Cluster Approach for Organizing Emergency Response: A case study of Myanmar and Haiti (2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the formal organization of the cluster approach and how it is in practice in the after math of natural disasters. The cyclone Nargis that hit Myanmar in 2008 and the tropical storms and hurricane season in Haiti in 2008 are used as examples for how the cluster approach has been applied in practice. The empirical data is described and structured through four key variables: specialization, coordination, leadership and accountability. To understand ...

Ulleland, Trude Kvam

2013-01-01

186

The Cluster Approach for Organizing Emergency Response:A case study of Myanmar and Haiti (2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the formal organization of the cluster approach and how it is in practice in the after math of natural disasters. The cyclone Nargis that hit Myanmar in 2008 and the tropical storms and hurricane season in Haiti in 2008 are used as examples for how the cluster approach has been applied in practice. The empirical data is described and structured through four key variables: specialization, coordination, leadership and accountability. To understand and describe the cluster ap...

Ulleland, Trude Kvam

2013-01-01

187

Design of Public-Private Partnership for Waste Management in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste management is a growing concern in rapidly urbanizing developing countries and Haiti is noexception. Excessive amounts of improperly discharged waste endangers unique tropical environment, appears to bea reason of fast spread of epidemic diseases, increases risk of floods during the hurricane season and contributes toclimate change. Due to various historical, economic, natural and socio-political reasons, public sector of Haitianstate is not able to provide decent waste management servi...

Bessonova, Ekaterina

2012-01-01

188

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30

189

Determinants of primary school enrollment in Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education is considered an important means of alleviating poverty and of improving an individual's job and earnings prospects. Nevertheless, in Haiti and the Dominican Republic school enrollment is far from complete and shows notable regional variation. This paper analyzes determinants of primary school enrollment and investigates to what extent differences in schooling are due to individual factors compared to family or community influences. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys...

Go?nsch, Iris

2011-01-01

190

Idioms of distress, ethnopsychology, and the clinical encounter in Haiti's Central Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti's 2010 earthquake mobilized mental health and psychosocial interventions from across the globe. However, failure to understand how psychological distress is communicated between lay persons and health workers in rural clinics, where most Haitians access care, has been a major limitation in providing mental health services. The goal of this study was to map idioms of distress onto Haitian ethnopsychologies in a way that promotes improved communication between lay persons and clinicians in rural Haiti. In Haiti's Central Plateau, an ethnographic study was conducted in May and June 2010, utilizing participant observation in rural clinics, 31 key informant interviews, 11 focus groups, and four case studies. Key informants included biomedical practitioners, traditional healers, community leaders, and municipal and religious figures. Deductive and inductive themes were coded using content analysis (inter-rater reliability > 0.70). Forty-four terms for psychological distress were identified. Head (tèt) or heart (kè) terms comprise 55% of all qualitative text segments coded for idioms of distress. Twenty-eight of 142 observed patient-clinician contacts involved persons presenting with tèt terms, while 29 of the 142 contacts were presentations with kè terms. Thus, 40% of chief complaints were conveyed in either head or heart terms. Interpretations of these terms differed between lay and clinical groups. Lay respondents had broad and heterogeneous interpretations, whereas clinicians focused on biomedical concepts and excluded discussion of mental health concerns. This paper outlines preliminary evidence regarding the psychosocial dimensions of tèt and kè-based idioms of distress and calls for further exploration. Holistic approaches to mental healthcare in Haiti's Central Plateau should incorporate local ethnopsychological frameworks alongside biomedical models of healthcare. PMID:22595073

Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

2012-08-01

191

Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care...

van Herp Michel; Ford Nathan; Ponsar Frédérique; Mancini Silvia; Bachy Catherine

2009-01-01

192

Vocational Training Policy and Employment in Haiti : the Case of the Tourism Sector (1980-2010)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study on vocational training policy and employment in Haiti focuses on the tourism industry taking into account the strengths and geographic position. Join in the tradition of human capital theory of Becker G. and linking the issues of training and low level of development, the work explores the main brake material and immaterial acts negatively on the tourism sector and subsequently the country's socioeconomic development. Adopting an approach based on systems analysis of Mélèze J. sup...

Dore?, Guichard

2010-01-01

193

Long-Term Recording of LTP in Cultured Hippocampal Slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) was elicited by high frequency stimulation in hippocampal slices cultured on multi-electrode arrays. LTP lasting more than 1 h was recorded in 75% of slices, and a significant number of slices exhibited a non-decaying LTP that lasted more than 48 h. LTP induction was completely and reversibly blocked by an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, APV. Our results suggest the possibility of using chronic recording in hippocampal slices culture...

Shimono, Ken; Baudry, Michel; Ho, Lam; Taketani, Makoto; Lynch, Gary

2002-01-01

194

A Simple Method for Measuring Organotypic Tissue Slice Culture Thickness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when ...

Guy, Yifat; Rupert, Amy; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

195

Letter to the Editor : Rapidly-deployed small tent hospitals: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The damage to medical facilities resulting form the January 2010 earthquake in haiti necessitated the establishment of field tent hospitals. Much of the local medical infrastructure was destroyed or limited operationally when the Fast Israel Rescue and Search Team (FIRST) arrived in Haiti shortly after the January 2010 earthquake. The FIRST deployed small tent hospitals in Port-au-Prince and in 11 remote areas outside of the city. Each tent was set up in less than a half hour. The tents were staffed with an orthopedic surgeon, gynecologists, primary care and emergency care physicians, a physician with previous experience in tropical medicine, nurses, paramedics, medics, and psychologists. The rapidly deployable and temporary nature of the effort allowed the team to treat and educate, as well as provide supplies for, thousands of refugees throughout Haiti. In addition, a local Haitian physician and his team created a small tent hospital to serve the Petion Refugee Camp and its environs. FIRST personnel also took shifts at this hospital.

Rosen, Y.; Gurman , P.; Verna, E.; Elman , N.; Labor, E. (Materials Science Division); (Superior NanoBioSystems LLC); (Fast Israeli Rescue & Search Team); (Clinique Adonai); (Mass. Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Haifa)

2012-06-01

196

High-Frequency Rugose Exopolysaccharide Production by Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S–R) phenotype, 80 (46.5%) of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010) were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R) differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R) by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental) strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype. PMID:25390633

Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Azarian, Taj; Salemi, Marco; Sakharuk, Ilya A.; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Johnson, Judith A.; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar

2014-01-01

197

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti. PMID:24891465

Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

2014-08-01

198

Précis of nutrition of children and women in Haiti: analyses of data from 1995 to 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1995 and 2012, many surveys including child and maternal nutrition indicators were conducted in Haiti. While many questions emerged from the results of those surveys, they have remained unanswered, in particular as they pertain to the determinants of poor children's and women's nutrition in Haiti. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap and provide policymakers, program managers, and readers interested in nutrition issues in Haiti with information on (1) the trends and determinants of infant and young child feeding and food practices; (2) micronutrient deficiencies among children and women; (3) the status of severe acute malnutrition in children; (4) associations among women's empowerment, access to health care, water, and sanitation and child nutrition; (5) the current community-based early child care and nutrition initiatives; and (6) the status of nutrition governance in the country. By looking at many sources of data, including previously published and new data, we provide insight into major predictors of child malnutrition and associations among child feeding practices, maternal nutrition, and child growth outcomes. We also show that important progress has been made recently in the governance of nutrition programs and in child and maternal nutrition indicators, a result of effective evidence-based advocacy, partnerships, and design, implementation, and scale-up of nutrition-specific and sensitive interventions. PMID:24571256

Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Daniel, Eddy Felix; Durandisse, Emmanuela Blain; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Beaulière, Jean Max; Koita, Youssouf; M'mbakwa, Bienfait Eca; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Pierre, Joseline Marhone

2014-02-01

199

In the Aftermath of Haiti's Earthquake: A Discussion of Lessons Learned  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti brought massive devastation to that country (see Figure 1). In this week's issue of Eos, three noted seismologists respond to questions from Eos senior writer Randy Showstack in a news roundtable format. Paul Mann, senior research scientist with the Institute for Geophysics at the University of Texas at Austin, has just returned from Haiti, where he and a colleague worked on a fault rupture survey; they plan to conduct an offshore fault survey soon. Glen Mattioli, professor of geosciences at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, has been part of a team conducting a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Haiti to measure ground deformation following the earthquake and to install a number of continuous GPS sites to examine after slip, viscoelastic relaxation, and the time return to interseismic deformation (see Figure 2). Work by Mann, Mattioli, and their colleagues has been supported through a U.S. National Science Foundation Rapid Response Research (RAPID) proposal grant provided to Purdue University, with Eric Calais serving as principal investigator. Carol Prentice, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Team, has been conducting paleoseismic research on the active faults in the Caribbean region since 1991, including projects on Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Jamaica.

Showstack, Randy

2010-02-01

200

Explanatory models and mental health treatment: is vodou an obstacle to psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti?  

Science.gov (United States)

Vodou as an explanatory framework for illness has been considered an impediment to biomedical psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti by some scholars and Haitian professionals. According to this perspective, attribution of mental illness to supernatural possession drives individuals to seek care from houngan-s (Vodou priests) and other folk practitioners, rather than physicians, psychologists, or psychiatrists. This study investigates whether explanatory models of mental illness invoking supernatural causation result in care-seeking from folk practitioners and resistance to biomedical treatment. The study comprised 31 semi-structured interviews with community leaders, traditional healers, religious leaders, and biomedical providers, 10 focus group discussions with community members, community health workers, health promoters, community leaders, and church members; and four in-depth case studies of individuals exhibiting mental illness symptoms conducted in Haiti's Central Plateau. Respondents invoked multiple explanatory models for mental illness and expressed willingness to receive treatment from both traditional and biomedical practitioners. Folk practitioners expressed a desire to collaborate with biomedical providers and often referred patients to hospitals. At the same time, respondents perceived the biomedical system as largely ineffective for treating mental health problems. Explanatory models rooted in Vodou ethnopsychology were not primary barriers to pursuing psychiatric treatment. Rather, structural factors including scarcity of treatment resources and lack of psychiatric training among health practitioners created the greatest impediments to biomedical care for mental health concerns in rural Haiti. PMID:22544545

Khoury, Nayla M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Brewster, Aimee-Rika T; Kohrt, Brandon A

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Pulmonary vein varix: diagnosis with multi-slice helical CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis of a pulmonary vein varix with a recently introduced new CT technology, multi-slice helical CT, is discussed. The advantage of multi-slice helical CT lies in increased thin-slice coverage during a single breath hold, which is the predominant factor limiting scan time. This CT technique facilitates the diagnosis of vascular pulmonary pathology. (orig.)

202

Visible Human Slice Web Server: a first assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Visible Human Slice Server started offering its slicing services at the end of June 1998. From that date until the end of May, more than 280,000 slices were extracted from the Visible Man, by layman interested in anatomy, by students and by specialists. The Slice Server is based one Bi-Pentium PC and 16 disks. It is a scaled down version of a powerful parallel server comprising 5 Bi-Pentium Pro PCs and 60 disks. The parallel server program was created thanks to a computer-aided parallelization framework, which takes over the task of creating a multi-threaded pipelined parallel program from a high-level parallel program description. On the full blown architecture, the parallel program enables the extraction and resampling of up to 5 color slices per second. Extracting 5 slice/s requires to access the disks and extract subvolumes of the Visible Human at an aggregate throughput of 105 MB/s. The publicly accessible server enables to extract slices having any orientation. The slice position and orientation can either be specified for each slice separately or as a position and orientation offered by a Java applet and possible future improvements. In the very near future, the Web Slice Server will offer additional services, such as the possibility to extract ruled surfaces and to extract animations incorporating slices perpendicular to a user defined trajectory.

Hersch, Roger D.; Gennart, Benoit A.; Figueiredo, Oscar; Mazzariol, Marc; Tarraga, Joaquin; Vetsch, S.; Messerli, Vincent; Welz, R.; Bidaut, Luc M.

1999-12-01

203

The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are similar to those reported in regional and global catalogs. As the network expands, it will become increasingly important to provide volunteers access to the data they collect, both to encourage continued participation in the network and to improve community engagement in scientific discourse related to seismic hazard. In the future, we hope to provide access to both images and raw data from seismograms in formats accessible to the general public through existing seismic data archives (e.g. IRIS, SCSN) and/or through the QCN project website. While encouraging community participation in seismic data collection, we can extend the capabilities of existing seismic networks to rapidly detect and characterize strong motion events. In addition, the dense waveform observations may provide high-resolution ground shaking information to improve source imaging and seismic risk assessment.

Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

2010-12-01

204

Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

2014-01-01

205

Optimizing a lactic fermentation of sliced carrots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Response surface methods were utilized in the statistical optimization of several quality factors pertaining to the preservation of carrot slices using a brine containing lactic acid produced by in situ fermentation. These factors were the concentrations of salt, acid, and reducing sugars, and the texture of the carrot material, and the pH, concentrations of acid, reducing sugars, and biomass (at two different times) of the brine. the processing variables considered were the temperature, the ...

Nabais, Regina M.; Malcata, F. Xavier

1995-01-01

206

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering ma...

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; Schaik, Andre?; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

207

Sliced Inverse Regression for big data analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modem advances in computing power have greatly widened scientists' scope in gathering and investigating information from many variables. We describe sliced inverse regression (SIR), for reducing the dimension of the input variable x without going through any parametric or nonparametric model-fitting process. This method explores the simplicity of the inverse view of regression. Instead of regressing the univariate output variable y against the multivariate x, we regress x against y. Forward r...

Kevin, Li

2014-01-01

208

Slice of a LEP bending magnet  

CERN Multimedia

This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

209

slice of a LEP bending magnet  

CERN Multimedia

This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

210

TRANSFORM DOMAIN SLICE BASED DISTRIBUTED VIDEO CODING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distributed video coding depends heavily on the virtual channel model. Due to the limitations of the side information estimation one stationary model does not properly describe the virtual channel. In this work the correlation noise is modelled per slice to obtain location-specific correlation noise model. The resulting delay from the lengthy Slepian-Wolf (SW) codec input is also reduced by reducing the length of SW codec input. The proposed solution does not impose any extra complexity, it u...

SAMIR BELHOUARI; VARUN JEOTI; Elamin, A.

2011-01-01

211

Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes  

CERN Multimedia

A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners.

1995-01-01

212

3D surface reconstruction from range slices  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction from range slices obtained from range-gated laser imaging system is of significance. 3D surfaces reconstructed based on existing binarization method or centroid method are rough or discontinuous in some circumstances. In this paper we address these problems and develop a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm based on the idea that combining the centroid method with weighted linear interpolation and mean filter. The algorithm consists of three steps. In the first step, interesting regions are extracted from each range slice based on mean filter, and then are merged to derive a single range image. In the second step, the derived range image is denoised and smoothed based on adaptive histogram method, weighted linear interpolation and mean filter method respectively. Finally, nonzero valued pixels in the after processed range image are converted to point cloud according to the range-gated imaging parameters, and then 3D surface meshes are established from the point cloud based on the topological relationship between adjacent pixels in the range image. Experiment is conducted on range slices generated from range-gated laser imaging simulation platform, and the registration result of the reconstructed surface of our method with the original surface of the object shows that the proposed method can reconstruct object surface accurately, so it can be used for the designing of reconstruction and displaying of range-gated laser imaging system, and also can be used for 3D object recognition.

Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Ying-ming

2014-11-01

213

Exploiting similarity in adjacent slices for compressed sensing MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to fundamental characteristics of MRI that limit scan speedup, sub-sampling techniques such as compressed sensing (CS) have been developed for rapid MRI. Current CS MRI approaches utilize sparsity of the image in the wavelet or other transform domains to speed-up acquisition. Another drawback of MRI is its poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is proportional to the image slice thickness. In this paper, we use the difference between adjacent slices as the sparse domain for CS MRI. We propose to acquire thick MRI slices and to reconstruct the thin slices from the thick slices' data, utilizing the similarity between adjacent thin slices. The acquisition of thick slices, instead of thin ones, improves the total SNR of the reconstructed image. Experimental results show that the image reconstruction quality of the proposed method outperforms existing CS MRI methods using the same number of measurements. PMID:25570266

Weizman, Lior; Rahamim, Ohad; Dekel, Roey; Eldar, Yonina C; Ben-Bashat, Dafna

2014-08-01

214

An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program  

CERN Document Server

Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a method to dynamically slice object-oriented (00) programs based on dependence analysis. It uses the Control Dependency Graph for object program and other static information to reduce the information to be traced during program execution. In this paper we present a method to find the dynamic Slice of object oriented programs where we are finding the slices for object and in case of function overloading.

Pani, Santosh Kumar

2010-01-01

215

Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions.

Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur

1993-01-01

216

Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE. PMID:20941112

Kozicki, Bart?omiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

2010-10-11

217

The 2010 Haiti earthquake sequence: new insight of the tectonic pattern from aftershocks and marine geophysical data : Haiti-OBS cruise  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake ruptured only a relatively short segment (~50km) of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF) a 600km long strike-slip fault running onland and offshore from Jamaica to Dominican Republic, with apparently no major surface rupture in the epicentral area. Considering the general behavior of such strike-slip fault (i.e. North Anatolian fault, San Andreas fault), we can expect that, following the 2010 earthquake, other large earthquakes will occur in the near future on adjacent segments. To contribute to the multinational scientific effort for a better understanding of the rupture process and the stress relaxation of this earthquake, we organized the Haiti-OBS cruise of the R/V L'Atalante few weeks after the catastrophe (Feb.5 to Feb.15, 2010, from and to Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe). Our goal was 1) to deploy a temporary network of seismologic stations -21 OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometer, and 4 onland stations- and 2) to survey the detailed sea-floor features in relation with the deformation pattern of the area (multibeam bathymetry and mud-penetrator). We show that the distribution pattern of the aftershocks as well as the compressive surface structures observed in the geology and onshore/offshore morphology of the area are consistent with a deformation model implying a major left-lateral component along the EPGF, and a strong reverse component. The January 12, 2010 mainshock has been shown as very complex. However, in the first order, the mainshock and the distribution of the aftershocks, better localized by our temporary network, can be explained by the interaction between the strike-slip EPGF system and a blind folds-and-thrusts system. Thus, the general geological setting shows a southern extension until the southern part of the Canal du Sud area of the well-known fold and thrust system of the Hispaniola main block.

Mercier de Lepinay, B. F.; Mazabraud, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Clouard, V.; Hello, Y.; Graindorge, D.; Marcaillou, B.; Crozon, J.; Saurel, J.; Charvis, P.; Mildor, B. S.; Deschamps, A.; Bouin, M.; Perrot, J.

2010-12-01

218

Torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking neutron star restored by combined forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses  

CERN Document Server

Within the framework of Newtonian magneto-solid-mechanics, relied on equations appropriate for a perfectly conducting elastic continuous medium threaded by a uniform magnetic field, an asteroseismic model of a neutron star undergoing global differentially rotational, torsional, nodeless vibrations under the combined action of Hooke's elastic and Lorentz magnetic forces is considered with emphasis on toroidal Alfven mode. The obtained spectral equation for frequency is applied to l-pole identification of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux during flare of SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. Our calculations suggest that detected QPOs can be consistently interpreted as produced by global torsional nodeless vibrations of quaking magnetar if they are considered to be restored by joint action of bulk forces of shear elastic and magnetic field stresses.

Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Molodtsova, I V; Podgainy, D V

2008-01-01

219

Pulsating magneto-dipole radiation of a quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the characteristic parameters of the magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about an axis of a dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After a brief outline of the general theoretical background of the model of a vibration-powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as frequency, lifetime and luminosity, and investigate their time dependence on magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that a gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitored AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by the vibration-powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

220

Quaking neutron star deriving radiative power of oscillating magneto-dipole emission from energy of Alfv\\'en seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that depletion of the magnetic field pressure in a quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Highlighted is the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfv\\'en vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods due to magnetic field decay are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Yu, J W

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

On the reliability of the geomagnetic quake as a short time earthquake's precursor for the Sofia region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The local 'when' for earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic 'quakes' and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately ±1 day and for the maximum ±2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002-2003 for the Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local 'when, where' earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth's surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information, as well as other precursory information, is essential.

S. Cht. Mavrodiev

2004-01-01

222

On the Reliability of the Geomagnetic Quake as Short Time Earthquake Precursor for Sofia Region- 2002, 2003  

CERN Document Server

The local when earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic quakes and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is for the tidal minimum approximately +/-1 day and for the maximum- +/-2 days. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between occurred and predicted earthquakes for the period 2002- 2003 for Sofia region is given. The possibility for creating a local when, where earthquake research and prediction NETWORK is based on the accurate monitoring of the electromagnetic field with special space and time scales under, on and over the Earth surface. The periodically upgraded information from seismic hazard maps and other standard geodetic information as well as other precursory information is essential.

Mavrodiev, S C

2004-01-01

223

High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x; four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961, 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

Sealfon Rachel

2012-09-01

224

Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado / Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado [...] algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH) que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional. Abstract in english This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the countr [...] y. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

ANDREAS, FELDMANN; JUAN ESTEBAN, MONTES.

225

Two cutoff phase space slicing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase space slicing method of two cutoffs for next-to-leading-order Monte Carlo style QCD corrections has been applied to many physics processes. The method is intuitive, simple to implement, and relies on a minimum of process dependent information. Although results for specific applications exist in the literature, there is not a full and detailed description of the method. Herein such a description is provided, along with illustrative examples; details, which have not previously been published, are included so that the method may be applied to additional hard scattering processes

226

TRANSFORM DOMAIN SLICE BASED DISTRIBUTED VIDEO CODING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed video coding depends heavily on the virtual channel model. Due to the limitations of the side information estimation one stationary model does not properly describe the virtual channel. In this work the correlation noise is modelled per slice to obtain location-specific correlation noise model. The resulting delay from the lengthy Slepian-Wolf (SW codec input is also reduced by reducing the length of SW codec input. The proposed solution does not impose any extra complexity, it utilizes the existing resources. The results presented here support the proposed algorithm.

SAMIR BELHOUARI

2011-10-01

227

Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

2012-01-01

228

Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

2010-10-01

229

Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

2014-08-01

230

TEC anomalies before the Haiti Jan. 12, 2010 and China May 12, 2008 earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The anomalous TEC (total electron content) variations as seismo-ionospheric earthquake signa-tures have been investigated for the cases of a) China (Eastern Sichuan) earthquake of May 12, 2008, M 7.9 (31.0° N; 103.4° E) and b) Haiti seismic event of Jan. 12, 2010, M 7.0 (18.46° N; 72.5° W). The anomalies look like strong local long-living TEC enhancements relative to the non-disturbed level linked to the near-epicenter area. They are followed by similar effects at the magnetically conjugated regions. The geomagnetic conditions are quiet for the considered periods, i.e. those anomalies are not caused by the solar or geomagnetic activity. To analyze those disturbances we have calculated differential TEC maps for a few days before the earthquakes using Ionospheric TEC Maps provided by the NASA in IONEX file format. The background TEC levels are calculated as a) running median for 3 days before and 7 days after the current calculation moment and as b) running median for 7-days before the calculation moment. Both seismic events show the very similar to each other pre-earthquake TEC anomalies mani-festations independently on the background level calculations: a) the enhancement area is of ˜10° in latitude, ˜40° in longitude for the Chinese earthquake and ˜15° in latitude and ˜25° in longitude for the Haiti earthquake; b) TEC deviation maximum reaches more than 60% in magnitude for the Chinese earthquake and than 40% for the Haiti case; c) the enhancements area existed from 06UT till 12UT May 9, 2008 for the Chinese earthquake and from Jan. 10, 22UT till Jan. 12, 08UT, 2010 for the Haiti one; d) the TEC enhancements were observed at the magnetically conjugated areas in both cases. Magnetic conjugation of the observed anomalies strongly evidences in favour of the hypothesis of the F2-region ionospheric plasma vertical drift under influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin as the principle reason of the observed phenomena. The work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant No. 08-05-98830.

Zolotov, Oleg; Prokhorov, Boris; Namgaladze, Alexander; Martynenko, Oleg

231

Stark effect on a geometry defined by a cake' slice  

CERN Document Server

By using a variational calculation, we study the effect of an external applied electric field on the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum box with a geometry defined by a slice of a cake. This geometry is a first approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). By modeling the tip with the slice, we calculate the electronic ground state energy as function of the slice's diameter, its angular aperture, its thickness and the intensity of the external electric field applied along the slice. For the applied field pointing to the wider part of the slice, a confining electronic effect in the opposite side is clearly observed. This effect is sharper as the angular slice's aperture is smaller and there is more radial space to manifest itself.

Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

2005-01-01

232

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion ...

Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

2011-01-01

233

An approach to find dynamic slice for C++ Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object-oriented programming has been considered a most promising method in program development and maintenance. An important feature of object-oriented programs (OOPs) is their reusability which can be achieved through the inheritance of classes or reusable components.Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowing the errors to the relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dynamic slice contains only those statements that act...

Pani, Santosh Kumar; Arundhati, Priya

2010-01-01

234

Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction with Noise Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants is often hampered by severe metal artifacts. To obtain distortion-free MR images near metallic implants, SEMAC (Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction) corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of excited slices against metal-induced field inhomogeneities, followed by combining the data resolved from multiple SEMAC-encoded slices. However, as many of the resolved data elements only contain noise, SEMAC-corrected images can suffe...

Lu, Wenmiao; Pauly, Kim B.; Gold, Garry E.; Pauly, John M.; Hargreaves, Brian A.

2011-01-01

235

The identification of a Pliocene time slice(s) for data/model comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma BP) have been examined using geological proxies and climate models. Whilst there is agreement between models and data, details of regional climate differ. Uncertainties in prescribed forcings and in proxy data, limit the utility of the interval to understand the dynamics of a warmer than present climate or evaluate models. This uncertainty comes, in part, from the reconstruction of a time slab rather than a time slice, where forcings required by climate models can be more adequately constrained. Here we describe the rationale and approach for identifying a time slice(s) for Pliocene environmental reconstruction. A time slice centred on 3.205 Ma BP (3.204 to 3.207 Ma BP) has been identified as a priority for investigation. It is a warm interval characterised by a negative benthic oxygen isotope excursion (0.21-0.23‰) centred on Marine Isotope Stage KM5c (KM5.3). It occurred during a period of orbital forcing which was very similar to present-day. Climate model simulations indicate that proxy temperature estimates are unlikely to be significantly affected by orbital forcing for at least a precession cycle centred on the time slice, with the North Atlantic being an important exception. As a result, uncertainties in the chronological control of proxy records will only be moderately detrimental to the synthesis of temperature data. Furthermore, proxy estimates are already able to restrict the carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere to <120 ppmv above the pre-industrial concentration, and sea-level rise to ~22 m ± 10 m higher than present-day.

Haywood, A. M.; Dolan, A. M.; Pickering, S.; Dowsett, H. J.; McClymont, E. L.; Prescott, C.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, D. J.; Hunter, S. J.; Lunt, D. J.; Pope, J. O.; Valdes, P. J.

2012-12-01

236

Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

Heinzle, J Mark

2011-01-01

237

A simple method for measuring organotypic tissue slice culture thickness.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when it makes contact with the insert membrane on which the tissue grows, thus yielding a thickness measurement. The method does not reduce the viability of slice cultures. Thicknesses of the slice cultures were measured under a number of culturing protocols. An initial drop in thickness occurred between 0 and 4 days in culture. Thicknesses are rather constant thereafter. The type of culture medium and the initial thickness of the tissue explant influence the thickness. Slice thicknesses were compared to a known technique by using optical measurements of slice cross-sections to obtain thicknesses. In contrast to this known technique, the proposed method does not sacrifice the slice culture for measurement purposes. The proposed measurement technique described is straightforward and rapid, about 1 min per culture. PMID:21497166

Guy, Yifat; Rupert, Amy E; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G

2011-07-15

238

Active shape models exploiting slice-to-slice correlation in segmentation of 3D CTA AAA images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An automated method for the segmentation of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) from CTA data is presented. Three segmentation schemes, inspired by Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation, were investigated. (1) The original ASM scheme as proposed by Cootes and Taylor [1], applied to sequential slices, using the contour obtained in one slice as the initial contour in the adjacent slice. (2) A similar approach, steered by profile greyvalue correlation with adjace...

Bruijne, M.; Ginneken, B.; Niessen, W. J.; Maintz, J. B. A.; Viergever, M. A.

2001-01-01

239

A 10,300 14C yr Record of Climate and Vegetation Change from Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation dynamics in the American tropics are inferred largely from pollen in continental lake sediments. Maritime influences may have moderated climate and vegetation changes on Caribbean islands. Stable isotope (?18O) study of a 7.6-m core from Lake Miragoane, Haiti, provided a high-resolution record of changing evaporation/precipitation (E/P) since ?10,300 14C yr B.P. The Miragoane pollen record documents climate influences and human impacts on vegetation in Hispaniola. The ?18O and pollen data near the base of the core indicate cool, dry conditions before ?10,000 14C yr B.P. Lake Miragoane filled with water in the early Holocene as E/P declined and the freshwater aquifer rose. Despite increasing early Holocene moisture, shrubby, xeric vegetation persisted. Forest expanded ?7000 14C yr B.P. in response to greater effective moisture and warming. The middle Holocene (?7000-3200 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by high lake levels and greatest relative abundance of pollen from moist forest taxa. Climatic drying that began ?3200 14C yr B.P. may have driven some mesophilic animal species to extinction. The pollen record of the last millennium reflects pre-Columbian (Taino) and European deforestation. Long-term, Holocene vegetation trends in southern Haiti are comparable to trends from continental, lowland circum-Caribbean sites, suggesting a common response to regional climate change.

Higuera-Gundy, Antonia; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Leyden, Barbara W.; Binford, Michael W.

1999-09-01

240

Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10 days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were more than 99.9%. Patient movements within the hospital were noted, and an online command dashboard screen was generated. Patient care was delivered using the electronic medical record. Digital radiographs were acquired and transmitted to stations throughout the hospital. The system helped to introduce order in an otherwise chaotic situation and enabled adequate utilization of scarce medical resources by continually gathering information, analyzing it, and presenting it to the decision-making command level. The establishment of electronic medical records promoted the adequacy of medical treatment and facilitated continuity of care. This experience in Haiti supports the feasibility of deploying information technologies within a field hospital operation. Disaster response teams and agencies are encouraged to consider the use of information technology as part of their contingency plans. PMID:20962123

Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict. PMID:19836120

James, Erica Caple

2010-01-01

242

[What is the real cost of universal health care in Haiti?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas and continues to suffer from glaring inequalities. 75 % of Haitians live on less than $2.50 a day [1]. Half the population has no access to formal health care because of the financial barriers created by the direct payment system at the point of delivery [2]. The earthquake of January 12, 2010 only compounded the problem, destroying 60 % of hospitals in the three affected departments. The Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP) policy is based on the values of equity, solidarity and social justice [3]. Compliance with these commitments requires the introduction of universal health care, which remains a distant prospect. The objective of universal health care will only be achieved when all Haitians have access to a comprehensive range of high-quality health services in a system in which the ability to pay is not a barrier to access. The real cost of the various policy options for introducing free health care is not known. There is an urgent need to focus the attention of the scientific community on this issue in order to provide better guidance to policy-makers. Cost analysis is a key step in the introduction of universal health care, particularly in Haiti, where resources are limited. PMID:23472986

Alfred, Jean-Patrick

2012-01-01

243

Impact of Land Use on Cloud Properties Over the Haiti/Dominican Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study is the effect of land use characteristics and surface properties on the preferential formation of cloudiness, especially cumulus cloudiness over Haiti and Dominican Republic for the year 2001. A combination of satellite imagery and numerical modeling is used in this study. Satellite data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite are used to retrieve surface properties such as land surface temperature, albedo, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The satellite data is then used to retrieve available soil moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes using the Soil Vegetation Atmospheric Transfer (SVAT) model. Cloud properties such as cloud optical thickness and effective radii are also retrieved over this region. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis is derived from Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Rainfall over this region is examined using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. Correlations between the various surface characteristics, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall are examined as a function of ecosystem and topography in this region. Finally, the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to selected regions of Haiti and Dominican Republic to simulate the rainfall and cloudiness patterns and to understand the interactions between the land use, cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall.

Welch, R. M.; Nair, U. S.; Ray, D. K.; Sanchez, A.; Perez, M.

2002-12-01

244

Haití: huracanes en un año de calma / Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH) y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de [...] estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental. Abstract in english Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabi [...] lization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

JUAN ESTEBAN, MONTES; ANDREAS, FELDMANN; SANDRA, PIRACÉS.

245

TEC variations over the near-epicentral region before the Haiti earthquake of Jan. 12, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the investigation of the anomalous TEC increase relative to the quiet conditions for the near-epicentral region as possible earthquake precursors for the case of Haiti strong seismic event (Jan. 12, 2010, 21:53UT; 18.46N, 72.5W; M7.0). We defined seismically-induced anomaly as strong deviation from the quiet background level derived from differential TEC maps built on the basis of NASA IONEX product. We defined background level as running median for 7 days before the current calculation's moment. The anomalies of the TEC disturbances were observed 3 days before the Haiti earthquake of Jan. 12, 2010 and looked like the strong TEC increase for more than ~40% in magnitude. They were elongated ~15 deg. in latitudinal direction and ~25 deg. in longitude at the near-epicentral region and existed from Jan. 10, 22UT till Jan. 12, 08UT, 2010. Similar effects took place at the magnetically conjugated area too. The magnetic conjugation of the observed phenomena strongly evidences in favor of the hypothesis of the F2-region ionospheric plasma vertical drift under influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin as the principal reason of the phenomena. Geomagnetic situation for the considered period was relatively quiet. Thus, the anomalies are not due to the solar or geomagnetic activity. All the mentioned above allow us to treat such anomalous deviations as ionospheric seismo-precursors.

Namgaladze, A. A.; Zolotov, O.; Prokhorov, B. E.

2010-12-01

246

Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

Clover, A James P

2011-06-01

247

Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Introduction to Volume 1: Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, & U.S. Virgin Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this project, now in its first volume, is to identify and list all available information on the art-music tradition of the Caribbean region - starting with the countries of Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica and the US Virgin Islands. It will, ultimately, form a comprehensive document of value to musicians, ethnomusicologists, historians, researchers, educators and students.

Gangelhoff, Christine

2011-10-01

248

Quadrature multiplexed RF excitation in NMR imaging. Application to slice by slice and chunk 3-D techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous RF pulse excitation with a quadrature multiplexing technique has been proposed to double the magnetic resonance signal information in a given imaging time. This method uses two selective RF pulses with 900 phase difference to excite two slice spins to real and imaginary domains. With a proper phase correction, this scheme doubles the number of slices or the imaging region in a given data acquisition time as the conventional case. An implementation of this technique to slice by slice and chunk 3-D imaging methods is done for human head using the 1.5 T superconducting magnet imaging system

249

Optimization in spectrum-sliced optical networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Current communication in optical networks presents a wide range of granularities, making it hard to use the optical spectrum efficiently under the WDM framework. In Spectrum Sliced Optical Networks, the WDM rigid frequency grid is replaced by a more flexible structure, in which the spectrum is organized in frequency slots, and each traffic flow is assigned to an appropriate set of contiguous slots. The classical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is then replaced by a Routing and Spectrum assignment (RSA) problem. This paper addresses an iterativa approach to balance the network load during the routing decision in Spectrum-Elastic Optical Path Networks. We have built numerical examples to illustrate the performance of our routing approach. Comparisons to other routing techniques show that our approach mitigates the lightpath requests blocking probability.

Day Rosario Assis, Karcius; Ferreira dos Santos, Alex; Almeida, Raul C.

2013-12-01

250

Web Service Generation through Program Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the development of web service (WS, applications based on web services (WS, which are convent and platform-independent, have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, how to identify, generate and compose services has become an open issue recently. This paper proposes a method based on program slicing to realize the generation and composition of web services. This paper introduces the method about how to generate a WSDL file and a SOAP message from source codes as well as the theory of function dependence graph (FDG. In addition, this paper gives the way to generate a proxy service for each service, which allows users to easily call a service. The results of experiments show that our generation and composition methods of WS are feasible and flexible.

Yingzhou Zhang

2010-11-01

251

Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars  

CERN Document Server

Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate "obscuring torus", that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the "torus" into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

Elvis, Martin

2012-01-01

252

Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate 'obscuring torus', that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the 'torus' into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

253

Development of a plantain slicing device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantains are usually processed after harvesting in order to increase its shelf life. However, the human cost of such processing is enormous and impacts negatively on the economic benefits derivable from plantain production. Therefore, the development of appropriate, low-cost, easy to operate and maintain plantain slicer is long overdue. This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a highly efficient device that simulates the traditional method of cutting plantain pulp transversely. The machine achieves, respectively, 90.7% and 92.6% efficiency, when used to make a 5 mm cut in moderately ripe and unripe matured plantain pulps. Furthermore, efficiency based on the rate of slices production per time was measured to be 90% and 91%, respectively, for moderately ripe and unripe matured plantain pulps. This design apart from increasing the shelf life of plantains will increase the economic benefits for local plantain processors. PMID:24966424

Obayopo, S O; Taiwo, K A; Owolarafe, O K; Adio, S A

2014-07-01

254

Review of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the western United States and a new tool for surveying aspen decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted a literature review of the effects of climate on the distribution and growth of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the Western United States. Based on our review, we summarize models of historical climate determi- nants of contemporary aspen distribution. Most quantitative climate-based models linked aspen presence and growth to moisture availability and solar radiation. We describe research results pertaining to global climate change effects on aspen distribution a...

Morelli, Toni L.; Carr, Susan C.

2011-01-01

255

Post-1935 changes in forest vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA: Part 2—Mixed conifer, spruce-fir, and quaking aspen forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined changes in never-harvested mixed conifer (MCF), spruce-fir (SFF), and quaking aspen forests (QAF) in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), Arizona, USA based on repeat sampling of two sets of vegetation study plots, one originally sampled in 1935 and the other in 1984. The 1935 plots are the earliest-known, sample-intensive, quantitative documentation of forest vegetation over a Southwest USA landscape. Findings documented that previously described increases in densities and ...

Vankat, John L.

2011-01-01

256

Socio-cultural characteristics and policies vis-à-vis seismic risk reduction throught post-quake rural reconstruction : a case study of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is aimed at exploring the relation of socio-cultural characteristics and policies with post-quake reconstruction of rural areas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. The primary concern of the study is limited to examine the traditional architectural practice ; dhajji-dewari and social composition of the community during and after reconstruction. It is analyzed that how the socio-cultural aspects of rural communities are affected by the policies, how policies are affected by the soci...

Abidi, Syeda Raaeha Tuz Zahra

2013-01-01

257

A survey of program slicing for software engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

Beck, Jon

1993-01-01

258

Comparison of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) generated from 4-slice and 64-slice helical CT scanners, a phantom study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated from CT data sets and playa vital role for verifying patient position for many radiotherapy treatments. The present study aimed to investigate the impact on the image quality of DRRs due to changes in the original CT data acquisition; specifically a 4-slice CT scanner and a 64-slice CT scanner have been considered. A specifically designed CT simulation phantom (Nuclear Associates Model 76--417) with test patterns to measure low contrast and modulation transfer function (MTF) was used to evaluate DRR characteristics for Siemens Somatom Sensation 4 and Sensation 64 CT scanners. The phantom was scanned as described in the manufacturer's manual, using the departmental protocol for head CT. The CT images were obtained with 120 kV, 300 mAs, a scanning and reconstruction pitch of I and collimation of I mm. Each of the test patterns from the DRRs was compared for the 4-slice and the 64-slice helical scans. Results The calculated relative MTF (RMTF) showed higher spatial resolution for DRRs generated from 64-slice scans compared with 4-slice scans, Fig. 1. The low contrast values for hole diameter patterns on the DRRs ranged from 0.01-8.04% for 64 slice scans and 0.06-6.15% for 4 slice scans.

259

Perpetuate Data Report based on the Slicing Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anonymization is a technique preserving privacy on micro data, we have so many anonymization techniques like generalization, bucketization all these are privacy preserving on sensitive data, with these techniques there is no security for the data, generalization loses the important data and bucketization is not preventing membership disclosure and does not apply on the data for clear separation in quasi identifiers and sensitive attributes. In this paper we are proposing a novel technique providing privacy on sensitive data is called Slicing, this technique divides the particular data into horizontally and vertically. Here we are showing that slicing is better data utility technique compare with generalization and this can provide membership disclosure protection. Alternative major advantage of slicing is it can handle high-dimensional data. We exhibits how slicing provide membership disclosure protection and it develop an efficient algorithm for computing sliced data which are required l - diversity. Our works confirm that slicing is better preserve data utility concept compare with generalization and more effective than bucketization, our workload involves the sensitive attributes. Our experiment also described that slicing is used to prevent membership disclosure protection

G. Sai Raghunath

2014-10-01

260

Introducing cholera vaccination in Asia, Africa and Haiti: A meeting report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orally-administered cholera vaccine (OCV) has been increasingly examined as an additional tool to intervene against endemic and epidemic cholera. In 2013, short- and long-term field experience with OCV under nine distinctive field settings was reported from India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Guinea, Haiti, and Thailand. Lead investigators from each of these projects presented their findings at a symposium chaired by Drs. David A. Sack and Robert H. Hall at the Vaccines for Enteric Diseases (VED) Conference in Bangkok on November 7, 2013. The objective of the symposium was to describe the unique features of each setting and project, share field experience of implementing cholera vaccination, discuss results, and identify constraints to the wider use of OCV. The VED provided a forum where >200 attendees engaged with this exciting and potentially decisive new development in the cholera field. PMID:25437100

Hall, Robert H; Sack, David A

2015-01-15

 
 
 
 
261

Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

262

A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

Taylor, George C., Jr.

1949-01-01

263

The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault in Haiti: Holocene Offsets and Seismic Hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

The catastrophic M 7.0 Léogâne earthquake of 12 January 2010 in Haiti highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Although the location of the epicenter and preliminary seismologic data suggested the earthquake was likely due to slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault zone (EPGFZ), more detailed analysis and modeling of data show that most, and possibly all, of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, blind thrust fault north of the EPGFZ (Hayes et al., in press; Calais et al., in press). This result implies that only a part of the accumulated plate-boundary strain was released by this earthquake, and that significant hazard still remains associated with the EPGFZ, the primary, plate-boundary strike-slip fault adjacent to Port-au-Prince in southern Haiti. Prior to the 2010 earthquake, this fault zone was known to be a significant plate-boundary fault, but no detailed Quaternary studies of the fault had been done. Geodetic models suggested that it accommodates 7±2 mm/yr of left-lateral slip, and historical accounts suggest it may be the source of at least three major historical earthquakes. Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary fault traces using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LIDAR data. We also conducted a detailed ground-based assessment of the fault in the epicentral area and an aerial reconnaissance of the entire fault in Haiti. The geomorphic expression of the EPGFZ is especially prominent east of the 2010 epicenter where the Rivière Momance and Rivière Froide flow along strike valleys about 10 km south of Port-au-Prince (PAP). Here, the EPGFZ has an average strike of 085 degrees and a near-surface dip of 60-80 degrees south, which contrasts with the 50 degree north-dipping modeled fault for the 12 January earthquake. Along the EPGFZ, we found left-lateral stream offsets that range up to 160 m, indicating repeated left-lateral surface rupture in the Quaternary. We also found a set of nine small left-lateral offsets that range from 1.3-3.3 m along a 12-km-long section of the fault near Port-au-Prince, which are not visible on high-resolution imagery including LiDAR. We associate these small offsets with the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake, which is likely one of two historical earthquakes, in 1770 or 1751. The size range of the offsets implies that the earthquake was larger than M7.0. The lack of surface rupture in 2010 coupled with other seismologic, geologic, and geodetic observations suggest that the 2010 earthquake occurred on a previously unrecognized structure, now referred to as the Léogâne fault, and that the EPGFZ east of the 12 January epicenter remains a significant seismic hazard. Because the main EPGFZ closest to Port-au-Prince did not rupture in 2010, considerable strain remains to be released in an earthquake that poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Mann, P.; Gold, R. D.; Hudnut, K. W.; Jean, P.; Briggs, R. W.

2010-12-01

264

The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

Applegate, D.

2010-12-01

265

Quantitative assessment of prion infectivity in tissues and body fluids by real-time quaking-induced conversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving the templated conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to a pathogenic misfolded conformation. Templated conversion has been modelled in several in vitro assays, including serial protein misfolding amplification, amyloid seeding and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). As RT-QuIC measures formation of amyloid fibrils in real-time, it can be used to estimate the rate of seeded conversion. Here, we used samples from deer infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) in RT-QuIC to show that serial dilution of prion seed was linearly related to the rate of amyloid formation over a range of 10(-3) to 10(-8) µg. We then used an amyloid formation rate standard curve derived from a bioassayed reference sample (CWD+ brain homogenate) to estimate the prion seed concentration and infectivity in tissues, body fluids and excreta. Using these methods, we estimated that urine and saliva from CWD-infected deer both contained 1-5 LD50 per 10 ml. Thus, over the 1-2 year course of an infection, a substantial environmental reservoir of CWD prion contamination accumulates. PMID:25304654

Henderson, Davin M; Davenport, Kristen A; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Mathiason, Candace K; Hoover, Edward A

2015-01-01

266

Eigenmodes of seismic elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares  

CERN Document Server

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional seismic elastic vibrations trapped in the crust of quaking neutron star is outlined. The spectral equations for the frequency of these modes are obtained and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis is heavily relied on the currently accepted identification of the QPOs frequency from the range [30-200] Hz with those for torsional nodeless vibrations. Based on this identification, which is used to fix the input parameters entering the obtained spectral formulae, we compute frequency spectrum of nodeless spheroidal elastic vibrations. Focus is placed on the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that QPOs with frequencies 18 Hz and 26 Hz are due to dipole spheroidal and dipole torsional shear vibrations of the crust a...

Bastrukov, Sergey; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-Ting

2007-01-01

267

Structural bases for central nervous system malfunction in the quaking mouse: dysmyelination in a potential model of schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dysmyelinating mouse mutant quaking (qk) is thought to be a model of schizophrenia based on diminution of CNS myelin (Andreone et al., 2007) and downregulation of the Qk gene (Haroutunian et al., 2006) in the brains of schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to identify specific structural defects in the qk mouse CNS that could compromise physiologic function and that in humans might account for some of the cognitive defects characteristic of schizophrenia. Ultrastructural analysis of qk mouse CNS myelinated fibers shows abnormalities in nodal, internodal, and paranodal regions, including marked variation in myelin thickness among neighboring fibers, spotty disruption of paranodal junctions, abnormal distribution of nodal and paranodal ion channel complexes, generalized thinning and incompactness of myelin, and on many axonal profiles complete absence of myelin. These structural defects are likely to cause abnormalities in conduction velocity, synchrony of activation, temporal ordering of signals, and other physiological parameters. We conclude that the structural abnormalities described are likely to be responsible for significant functional impairment both in the qk mouse CNS and in the human CNS with comparable myelin pathology. PMID:23224912

Rosenbluth, J; Bobrowski-Khoury, N

2013-03-01

268

Human rights assessment in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response," identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as "key indicators" for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. PMID:21178190

Cullen, Kimberly A; Ivers, Louise C

2010-01-01

269

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira.The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its foreign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan Bracey

2011-12-01

270

Taxonomic remarks on the genus Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) and description of C. vodou sp. nov. from Haiti / Notas taxonômicas sobre o gênero Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) e descrição de C. vodou sp. nov. do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, é removido da sinonímia de Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) e transferido para o gênero Cupiennius Simon, 1891, no qual é considerado sinônimo sênior de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. São apresentados novos registros para C. bimaculatus (Taczanowski, 1874 [...] ) e uma nova espécie, C. vodou, é descrita para o Haiti. Abstract in english Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, is removed from the synonymy of Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) and transferred to the genus Cupiennius Simon, 1891, in which it is placed as a senior synonym of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. New records are presented for C. bimaculatus (TACZANOWSKI 187 [...] 4) and a new species, C. vodou, is described from Haiti.

Antonio D., Brescovit; Daniele, Polotow.

2005-09-01

271

Psychological work in humanitarian emergencies in Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo: some considerations based on two work experiences Intervenção psicológica em emergências humanitárias no Haiti e na República Democrática do Congo: considerações baseadas em duas experiências de trabalho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the description of two examples of psychological interventions in humanitarian emergencies, this article aims to problematize the work of the psychologist in those situations. The concepts of "humanitarianism" and "emergency" are discussed based on two interventions made in Haiti and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In both countries the mental health interventions happened inside a humanitarian organization and the objective of those interventions was to offer psychosocial suppor...

Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub

2011-01-01

272

Low detection of Vibrio cholerae carriage in healthcare workers returning to 12 Latin American countries from Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY This investigation was undertaken to characterize the prevalence of intestinal Vibrio cholerae in healthcare workers (HCWs) returning from Haiti due to the ongoing cholera epidemic. Eight hundred and fifty asymptomatic HCWs of the Cuban Medical Brigade, who planned to leave Haiti, were studied by laboratory screening of stool culture for V. cholerae. A very low percentage (0·23%) of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa was found. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest reported screening study for V. cholerae infection in asymptomatic HCWs returning from a cholera-affected country. Cholera transmission to health personnel highlights a possible risk of transmitting cholera during mobilization of the population for emergency response. Aid workers are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk for acquiring cholera and special care should be taken by consuming safe water and food and practising regular hand washing. PMID:25016919

Llanes, R; Somarriba, L; Hernández, G; Bardaji, Y; Aguila, A; Mazumder, R N

2014-07-14

273

Pizza Takes a Slice Out of Kids' Health, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pizza Takes a Slice Out of Kids' Health, Study ... HealthDay News) -- On the days your kids eat pizza, they likely take in more calories, fat and ...

274

Architectural Slicing : Towards Automatic Harvesting of Architectural Prototypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

2013-01-01

275

Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector. PMID:25494725

Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H; Li, Wen

2014-12-14

276

Multi-slice computed tomography manifestations of hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To explore the characteristics of multi-slice computed tomography (CT) manifestations of hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma (HEA), improve the rate of accurate diagnosis, and reduce the misdiagnostic rate.

Dai, Chun-lai; Xue, Li-ping; Li, Yu-mei

2014-01-01

277

64-slice MSCT diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To detect the value of 64-slice multiple slice CT (MSCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. Methods: Data of 64-slice MSCT for 7 patients with pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma confirmed by operation and pathology was retrospectively analyzed. the 2 male and 4 female patients ranged in age from 17 to 66 (average age was 43.4). Both plain and contrast volume scan were performed on all patients. Results: In the group, 5 cases of lesion were found in periphery of lung especially near pleura. Vessels-close-to-lesions'-periphery-sign was observed in 6 patients, air crescent sign in 1 patient and obvious homogeneous enhancement was noticed in all the patients. Conclusion: 64-slice MSCT could play an important role in the evaluation of location, margin, peripheral relation and the enhancement of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. It could be effective in prompting diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. (authors)

278

Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector.

Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

2014-12-01

279

Investigation of slice characteristics in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of images and the accuracy of extracted relaxation time (T1 and T2) values in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is dependent on the characteristics of the slice. It is therefore important that the slice profile can be measured and to know how it behaves under different experimental conditions. Slice shape is determined in conventional selective excitation systems by the spectrum of the radiofrequency pulse used and the nature of the magnetic field gradient which is applied simultaneously. The effectiveness of the selection is also influenced by the subsequent rephasing gradient. Various methods have been used to investigate the slice shape in a practical situation using a 0.1 T resistive magnet NMR scanner and comparisons drawn with the predictions of theory. (author)

280

Continuous slice functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this work is to define a continuous functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces, starting from basic issues regarding the notion of spherical spectrum of a normal operator. As properties of the spherical spectrum suggest, the class of continuous functions to consider in this setting is the one of slice quaternionic functions. Slice functions generalize the concept of slice regular function, which comprises power series with quaternionic coefficients on one side and that can be seen as an effective generalization to quaternions of holomorphic functions of one complex variable. The notion of slice function allows to introduce suitable classes of real, complex and quaternionic $C^*$--algebras and to define, on each of these $C^*$--algebras, a functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators. In particular, we establish several versions of the spectral map theorem. Some of the results are proved also for unbounded operators. However, the mentioned continuous functional calculi are defined o...

Ghiloni, Riccardo; Perotti, Alessandro

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff c...

Ruth Damuse; Jean Hamiltong-Pierre; Jordan Pyda; Ong, Cecilia T.; Ainhoa Costas; Ketan Sharma; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Meara, John G.

2013-01-01

282

Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

Xin Chen

2012-11-01

283

Imaging of glutamate release from the goldfish retinal slice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluorometric procedure to image release of the neurotransmitter glutamate from living retinal slices is described. Patterns of endogenous glutamate efflux were imaged with a cooled CCD camera in goldfish retinal slices as NADH fluorescence produced by a cycling glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Basal and potassium evoked glutamate effluxes were strongly localized to the outer and inner plexiform layers, supporting the model that photoreceptors and bipolar cells release glutamate as their prime fast neurotransmitter. PMID:9797987

Ayoub, G S; Dorst, K

1998-10-01

284

Notes on maximal slices of five-dimensional black holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider maximal slices of the Myers-Perry black hole, the doubly spinning black ring, and the Black Saturn solution. These slices are complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with inner boundaries corresponding to black hole horizons. Although these spaces are simply connected as a consequence of topological censorship, they have non-trivial topology. In this note we investigate the question of whether the topology of spatial sections of the horizon uniquely de...

Alaee, Aghil; Kunduri, Hari K.; Marti?nez-pedroza, Eduardo

2013-01-01

285

Inactivation of nitric oxide by rat cerebellar slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitric oxide (NO) functions as an intercellular messenger throughout the brain. For this role to be performed efficiently, there must be a mechanism for neutralizing NO, but whether an active biological process exists, or whether NO is lost mainly through diffusion is unclear. To investigate this issue, rat cerebellar slices were exposed to constant levels of NO and the cGMP generated within the slice used as an indicator of NO concentrations therein. NO was about 1000-fold less potent in sli...

Hall, C. N.; Garthwaite, J.

2006-01-01

286

Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

1989-01-01

287

Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain slices from 8-day old (P8) mouse pups. Fluorescence microscopic monitoring of GFP was utilized as an indicator of tissue viability. The final format of the developed system, featuring ”plug-and-play”...

Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.; Hansen, J.; Sabourin, David; Dimaki, Maria; Kokaia, M.; Dufva, Martin; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Emne?us, Jenny; Heiskanen, Arto

2012-01-01

288

Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1989-01-01

289

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger. Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers. Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v sugar, the second portion was treated with sodium metabisulphite solution 2000 p.p.m concentration and the third portion was left without any treatment (control. Mango slices of each treatment were speeded on aluminum trays with an equal distribution and dried at room temperature under moving fan for seven days and then the dried products were packed in (polythene plastic socks then placed inside cartoons and stored at room temperature for nine months. The results showed that the treatment with sodiummetabisulphite solution was the best in keeping the nutritive value of mango slices (ascorbic acid. The results indicated that the best treatment which prevented browning was Gum Arabic addition. The study of the effect of storage periods at room temperature on some properties of mango slices (fingers showed there was a marked loss of some nutrients (e.g. ascorbic acid, sugars.

Inaam Awad Ismail

2011-01-01

290

64-slice Computed Tomography Assessment of Coronary Artery Stents: a Phantom Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare the use of a new 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner with 16-slice CT in the visualization of coronary artery stent lumen. Material and Methods: Eight different coronary artery stents, each with a diameter of 3 mm, were placed in a static chest phantom. The phantom was positioned in the CT gantry at an angle of 0 deg and 45 deg towards the z-axis and examined with both a 64-slice and a 16-slice CT scanner. Effective slice thickness was 0.6 mm with 64-slice CT and 1 mm with 16-slice CT. A reconstruction increment of 0.3 mm was applied in both scanners. Image quality was assessed visually using a 5-point grading scale. Stent diameters were measured and compared using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results: Artificial lumen reduction was significantly less with 64-slice than with 16-slice CT. Average visible stent lumen was 53.4% using 64-slice CT and 47.5% with 16-slice MSCT. Most severe artifacts were seen in stents with radiopaque markers. Using 64-slice CT, image noise increased by approximately 30% due to thinner slice thickness. Conclusion: Improved spatial resolution of 64-slice CT resulted in superior assessment of coronary artery stent lumen compared to 16-slice CT. However, a relevant part of the stent lumen is still not assessable with multi-slice CT

291

Radiation exposure in multi-slice versus single-slice spiral CT: results of a nationwide survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-slice (MS) technology increases the efficacy of CT procedures and offers new promising applications. The expanding use of MSCT, however, may result in an increase in both frequency of procedures and levels of patient exposure. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to gain an overview of MSCT examinations conducted in Germany in 2001. All MSCT facilities were requested to provide information about 14 standard examinations with respect to scan parameters and frequency. Based on this data, dosimetric quantities were estimated using an experimentally validated formalism. Results are compared with those of a previous survey for single-slice (SS) spiral CT scanners. According to the data provided for 39 dual- and 73 quad-slice systems, the average annual number of patients examined at MSCT is markedly higher than that examined at SSCT scanners (5500 vs 3500). The average effective dose to patients was changed from 7.4 mSv at single-slice to 5.5 mSv and 8.1 mSv at dual- and quad-slice scanners, respectively. There is a considerable potential for dose reduction at quad-slice systems by an optimisation of scan protocols and better education of the personnel. To avoid an increase in the collective effective dose from CT procedures, a clear medical justification is required in each case. (orig.)

292

Radiation exposure in multi-slice versus single-slice spiral CT: results of a nationwide survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-slice (MS) technology increases the efficacy of CT procedures and offers new promising applications. The expanding use of MSCT, however, may result in an increase in both frequency of procedures and levels of patient exposure. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to gain an overview of MSCT examinations conducted in Germany in 2001. All MSCT facilities were requested to provide information about 14 standard examinations with respect to scan parameters and frequency. Based on this data, dosimetric quantities were estimated using an experimentally validated formalism. Results are compared with those of a previous survey for single-slice (SS) spiral CT scanners. According to the data provided for 39 dual- and 73 quad-slice systems, the average annual number of patients examined at MSCT is markedly higher than that examined at SSCT scanners (5500 vs 3500). The average effective dose to patients was changed from 7.4 mSv at single-slice to 5.5 mSv and 8.1 mSv at dual- and quad-slice scanners, respectively. There is a considerable potential for dose reduction at quad-slice systems by an optimisation of scan protocols and better education of the personnel. To avoid an increase in the collective effective dose from CT procedures, a clear medical justification is required in each case. (orig.)

Brix, G. [Division of Medical Radiation Hygiene and Dosimetry, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Department of Science and Technology, Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany); Manufacturers' Association of Electromedical Equipment (ZVEI), Frankfurt (Germany); Stamm, G. [Department of Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Veit, R.; Lechel, U.; Griebel, J. [Division of Medical Radiation Hygiene and Dosimetry, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Galanski, M. [Department of Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Quality Assurance Committee, German Roentgen Society (Germany)

2003-08-01

293

Organ doses in CT of thorax: Sequential slices versus helical slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helical scanning introduces additional choices in technical parameters and has an impact on how much radiation dose a patient receives. Helical scanning allows the entire thorax to be scanned within a single breathold, reducing slice registration due to breathing artifacts. Organ doses from thoracic computed tomography have been estimated in an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters. With very similar radiological techniques in helical and axial scanning, the absorbed organ dose measured were more relevant in lung 12,0 ± 2,0 mGy and 11,0 ± 2,0 mGy respectively; and in heart 9,0 ± 4,0 mGy and 9,0 ± 5,0 mGy. Our results show that contiguous helical CT scans acquired with the same technical factors as contiguous axial scans, imply approximately the same radiation dose. (author)

294

Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

2011-03-28

295

Conformal Parameterizations of Slices of Flat Kasner Spacetimes  

CERN Document Server

The Kasner metrics are among the simplest solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, and we use them here to examine the conformal method of finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. After describing the conformal method's construction of constant mean curvature (CMC) slices of Kasner spacetimes, we turn our attention to non-CMC slices of the smaller family of flat Kasner spacetimes. In this restricted setting we obtain a full description of the construction of certain $U^{n-1}$ symmetric slices, even in the far-from-CMC regime. Among the conformal data sets generating these slices we find that most data sets construct a single flat Kasner spacetime, but that there are also far-from-CMC data sets that construct one-parameter families of slices. Although these non-CMC families are analogues of well-known CMC one-parameter families, they differ in important ways. Most significantly, unlike the CMC case, the condition signaling the appearance of these non-CMC families is not naturally detected fro...

Maxwell, David

2014-01-01

296

Constant mean curvature slices in the Kerr space-time  

CERN Document Server

Recently, there have been efforts to solve Einstein's equation in the context of a conformal compactification of space-time. Of particular importance in this regard are the so called CMC-foliations, characterized by spatial hyperboloidal hypersurfaces with a constant extrinsic mean curvature K. However, although of interest for general space-times, CMC-slices are known explicitly only for the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild metric. This work is devoted to numerically determining CMC-slices within the Kerr solution. We construct such slices outside the black hole horizon through an appropriate coordinate transformation in which an unknown auxiliary function A is involved. The condition K=const throughout the slice leads to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the function A, which is solved with a pseudo-spectral method. The results exhibit exponential convergence, as is to be expected in a pseudo-spectral scheme for analytic solutions. As a by-product, we identify CMC-slices of the Schwarzschild ...

Schinkel, David; Ansorg, Marcus

2013-01-01

297

Prolonged plume volcanism in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province: New insights from Curaçao and Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

We present 36 new 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating age determinations from the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) providing evidence for extended periods of volcanic activity and suggest a new tectonomagmatic model for the province's timing and construction. These new 40Ar-39Ar ages for the Curaçao Lava Formation (CLF) and Haiti's Dumisseau Formation show evidence for active CLIP volcanism from 94 to 63 Ma. No clear changes in geochemical character are evident over this period. The CLF has trace element signatures (e.g., Zr/Nb = 10-20) and flat rare earth element (REE) trends consistent with plume volcanism. The Dumisseau Formation also has plume-like geochemistry and steeper REE trends similar to ocean island basalts. Volcanism in the Dumisseau Formation appears to have largely ceased by 83 Ma while at Curaçao it continued until 63 Ma. A rapidly surfacing and melting plume head alone does not fit this age distribution. Instead, we propose that the residual Galapagos plume head, following initial ocean plateau construction, was advected eastward by asthenospheric flow induced by subducting oceanic lithosphere. Slab rollback at the Lesser Antilles and Central America subduction zones created an extensional regime within the Caribbean plate. Mixing of plume with upwelling asthenospheric mantle provided a source for intermittent melting and eruption through the original plateau over a ˜30 Ma period.

Loewen, Matthew W.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Krawl, Kyle

2013-10-01

298

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01

299

[Poliomyelitis outbreak caused by vaccine-derived virus in Haiti and the Dominican Republic].  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2000, the Ministries of Health of the Dominican Republic and Haiti notified two cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in rural areas, one of them in a 9-month-old female, and the other in a 2-year-old female, respectively. Stool samples that were obtained from these cases, which occurred in July and August 2000, after a 9-year interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in the Western Hemisphere, revealed the presence of type 1 poliovirus. Genetic sequencing, which was later performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, revealed an atypical descendant of the virus used in the manufacture of the oral polio vaccine (OPV), but with 3% genetic divergence with respect to the parent strain. Normally, viral isolates that derive from vaccine components show 99.5% genetic agreement with the parent strain; in wild polioviruses, on the other hand, this agreement is usually less than 82.0%. Thus, the 3% genetic divergence detected in this study suggests that, in areas with low vaccine coverage, the virus used in the vaccine remained in circulation for at least two years, during which it recovered the neurovirulence and communicability of wild poliovirus type 1. This report describes the characteristics and results of the active search for cases of AFP that was sparked by the detection of the two index cases. It also looks at the public health implications of this outbreak for the entire Region of the Americas. PMID:11418973

Landaverde, M; Venczel, L; de Quadros, C A

2001-04-01

300

Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Natural Color  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

2010-01-01

302

HAITÍ: CUANDO EL PASADO ES DEMASIADO PESADO / Haiti: When the Past Becomes too Heavy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Roces constantes entre el presidente y la oposición, escándalos políticos a repetición, sucesivos cambios ministeriales, un crecimiento económico mediocre y continuos lanzamientos de nuevos programas sociales por parte del gobierno de Michel Joseph Martelly han marcado el año 2012 en Haití. La princ [...] ipal muestra de las vicisitudes políticas experimentadas durante el año se materializa en la incapacidad del presidente para conformar el organismo electoral, que debe organizar las elecciones intermedias para reemplazar a los senadores cuyo mandato llegó a término en 2012. Abstract in english Constant frictions between the President and the Opposition, repetitive political scandals, frequent changes in the Cabinet, a mediocre economic growth and continuous launch of new Social Programs have marked the year of 2012 in Haiti. A good example of the political problems that the country faced [...] during 2012 is the incapacity of the president to form the Electoral Council that has to organize midterm elections for the replacement of senators whose mandate has ended in 2012.

ROODY, RESERVE.

303

Flood mapping of the trans-boundary river Soliette (Haiti and the Dominican Republic)  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decades, Isla Hispaniola (i.e. the territory shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been sadly affected by several hydro-geological disasters. In fact, the island has been involuntary protagonist of the international chronicles for being hit by the passage of several devastating hurricanes. Incalculable damages to structures and environment and thousand fatalities are the results of such events. A recent and glaring example is that of May 2004, when extreme and intense precipitations, originated by a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea, occurred over the island, producing a devastating flash-flooding of the river Soliette trans-boundary catchment. The flooding destroyed most of the cities of Jimaní and Fond Verrettes and killed over 1,000 Haitian and Dominican people. The same event also killed 414 people in the Dominican Republic. This presentation shows the analysis of the hydrological and hydraulic behaviour of the river Soliette aimed at modelling the flood event of May 2004 and formulating a trans-boundary flood mitigation plan.

Brandimarte, L.

2009-04-01

304

Subsistence Songs: Haitian téat Performances, Gendered Capital, and Livelihood Strategies in Jean Makout, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines how sexual and gender values in rural Haiti are expressed through 'téat', theatrical, songs and performances among girls from 10 to 20 years. Author describes how these sexual values relate to a concept of gendered capital, or what he calls a "sexual-moral economy", whereby men who want sex with women need to provide material rewards for this sexual access. He explains how this combines with certain gender socializations and views of men, unlike women, really needing sex, and socialized toward this, also by women, and thus from an early age to aggressively pursue women, and women on the other hand toward restraint, and to require material rewards. Author illustrates, through examples, how téat songs reflect and refer to these values, often through sexual metaphors. In addition, he shows how they relate to the wider social and gender context of matrifocality and subsistence strategies, notably the household, wherein women tend to be dominant over men, who supplied the house as expected price for her sex, manages production and reproduction of her daughters in it, instilling them also with the said sexual values, and with children seen as necessary for household work, as the women also engage in market activities outside of the house.

Timothy T. Schwartz

2008-12-01

305

Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care. Household heads from 945 households (corresponding to 4,763 people in Cité Soleil and 1,800 household (9,539 people in Martissant provided information on household members. The average recall period was 579 days for Cité Soleil and 601 days for Martissant. Results In Cité Soleil 120 deaths (21 children were reported (CMR 0.4 deaths/10,000 people/day; Discussion Extrapolating to the total population of these two districts some 2,000 violent deaths occurred over the recall period. Among the survivors, violence had lasting effects in terms of physical and mental health and loss of property and possessions.

Van Herp Michel

2009-03-01

306

Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

307

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that have been recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12/1/2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46o and Longitude 287.47o, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal keeping only the very low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the strong earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory e...

Athanasiou, M; Iliopoulos, A; Pavlos, G; David, K

2010-01-01

308

On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

Slabý, Ji?í; Trtík, Marek

2012-01-01

309

Halogenated compounds as inducers of lipid peroxidation in tissue slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven halogenated compounds were screened as potential inducers of lipid peroxidation in rat liver, kidney, spleen, and testes slices. In addition to the known lipid peroxidation inducers--carbon tetrachloride and bromotrichloromethane--the novel compounds carbon tetrabromide, p-bromobenzyl bromide, and benzyl bromide increased lipid peroxidation in each of the tissues studied. Lipid peroxidation was measured by release of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) from the tissue slices. The amount of TBARS released from liver slices incubated with bromotrichloromethane, carbon tetrabromide, dichloromethane, bromobenzene, chloroform, bromoform, benzyl chloride, bromochloromethane, and carbon tetrabromide correlated with the lethality of these compounds as evaluated by their oral LD50 in rats. The lethality of a number of the compounds tested did not correlate with their capacity to induce lipid peroxidation. PMID:3666515

Fraga, C G; Leibovitz, B E; Tappel, A L

1987-01-01

310

Trumpet slices of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetime  

Science.gov (United States)

We study families of time-independent maximal and 1+log? foliations of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetime, the spherically symmetric vacuum black hole solution in D spacetime dimensions, for D?4. We identify special members of these families for which the spatial slices display a trumpet geometry. Using a generalization of the 1+log? slicing condition that is parameterized by a constant n we recover the results of Nakao, Abe, Yoshino, and Shibata in the limit of maximal slicing. We also construct a numerical code that evolves the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura equations for D=5 in spherical symmetry using moving-puncture coordinates and demonstrate that these simulations settle down to the trumpet solutions.

Dennison, Kenneth A.; Wendell, John P.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Brown, J. David

2010-12-01

311

Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer with a Windows operating system (Mac users can use a Windows emulator); and (3) our free QCN game software (available from http://quakeinfo.ucsd.edu/ dkilb/WEB/QCN/Downloads.html).

Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.

2011-12-01

312

High-affinity consensus binding of target RNAs by the STAR/GSG proteins GLD-1, STAR-2 and Quaking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background STAR/GSG proteins regulate gene expression in metazoans by binding consensus sites in the 5' or 3' UTRs of target mRNA transcripts. Owing to the high degree of homology across the STAR domain, most STAR proteins recognize similar RNA consensus sequences. Previously, the consensus for a number of well-characterized STAR proteins was defined as a hexameric sequence, referred to as the SBE, for STAR protein binding element. C. elegans GLD-1 and mouse Quaking (Qk-1 are two representative STAR proteins that bind similar consensus hexamers, which differ only in the preferred nucleotide identities at certain positions. Earlier reports also identified partial consensus elements located upstream or downstream of a canonical consensus hexamer in target RNAs, although the relative contribution of these sequences to the overall binding energy remains less well understood. Additionally, a recently identified STAR protein called STAR-2 from C. elegans is thought to bind target RNA consensus sites similar to that of GLD-1 and Qk-1. Results Here, a combination of fluorescence-polarization and gel mobility shift assays was used to demonstrate that STAR-2 binds to a similar RNA consensus as GLD-1 and Qk-1. These assays were also used to further delineate the contributions of each hexamer consensus nucleotide to high-affinity binding by GLD-1, Qk-1 and STAR-2 in a variety of RNA contexts. In addition, the effects of inserting additional full or partial consensus elements upstream or downstream of a canonical hexamer in target RNAs were also measured to better define the sequence elements and RNA architecture recognized by different STAR proteins. Conclusions The results presented here indicate that a single hexameric consensus is sufficient for high-affinity RNA binding by STAR proteins, and that upstream or downstream partial consensus elements may alter binding affinities depending on the sequence and spacing. The general requirements determined for high-affinity RNA binding by STAR proteins will help facilitate the identification of novel regulatory targets in vivo.

Lehmann-Blount Katrina A

2010-06-01

313

Inactivation of nitric oxide by rat cerebellar slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) functions as an intercellular messenger throughout the brain. For this role to be performed efficiently, there must be a mechanism for neutralizing NO, but whether an active biological process exists, or whether NO is lost mainly through diffusion is unclear. To investigate this issue, rat cerebellar slices were exposed to constant levels of NO and the cGMP generated within the slice used as an indicator of NO concentrations therein. NO was about 1000-fold less potent in slices (EC50, 1 microM) than in separated cells from the same tissue (EC50, 1.6 nM), consistent with access of NO to the slice interior being greatly hindered by inactivation. Supporting this interpretation, immunohistochemical analysis indicated a marked concentration gradient of cGMP across the thickness of slices exposed to subsaturating NO concentrations, signifying a marked NO gradient. Several known NO-degrading processes, including reaction with lipid peroxyl radicals, erythrocytes and superoxide ions, were eliminated as contributing factors, indicating a novel mechanism. A diffusion-inactivation model was used to estimate the kinetics of NO consumption by the slices. The best fits to experimental data indicated a Michaelis-Menten-type reaction having a Vmax of 1-2 microM s-1 and a Km of around 10 nM. The rates predict that inactivation would impose a very short half-life (<10 ms) on NO in physiological concentrations (up to 10 nM) and that it would play an important role in shaping the NO concentration profiles when it is synthesized by multiple nearby sites. PMID:16973697

Hall, C N; Garthwaite, J

2006-12-01

314

Contract-based slicing helps on safety reuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this poster we describe a work in progress aimed at using a variant of specification-based slicing to improve the reuse of annotated software components, developed under the so called design-by-contract approach. We have named this variant as contract-based because we use the annotations, more precisely the pre and post-conditions, to slice programs intra and inter-procedures. The idea, expressed in the poster, is to take the pre-condition of the reused annotated co...

Areias, Se?rgio; Cruz, Daniela Da; Pinto, Jorge Sousa

2011-01-01

315

Rapid prototyping using robot welding : slicing system developmens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With direct deposition of metal a new Rapid Prototyping process had been developed at Cranfield University in the last couple of years. The process entails the use of a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. First, a solid model is drawn using a CAD system, then data indicating the kind of layers and dimension is incorporated and the solid is automatically sliced. This slicing routine also generates reports ...

Ribeiro, Anto?nio Fernando; Norrish, John

1996-01-01

316

Notes on maximal slices of five-dimensional black holes  

CERN Document Server

In this note we study the geometry and topology of maximal slices of certain stationary black hole solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations in five dimensions. These slices are complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with inner boundaries corresponding to black hole horizons. Although these spaces are simply connected as a consequence of topological censorship, they may have non-trivial topology. As much of the investigation is at the topological level, we can also extend this analysis to solutions for which explicit geometries are not yet known.

Alaee, Aghil; Martínez-Pedroza, Eduardo

2013-01-01

317

High resolution multiple slice SPECT for head, SET-080 Alpha  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the outline and clinical images of SET-080 Alpha. A high resolution, high sensitivity and high speed processing multiple slice SPECT SYSTEM SET-080 Alpha has been developed for brain imaging. This system has a circular detector array which consists of 96 NaI bar crystals and 120 PMT's, and it can make 32 slice images with 5 mm thickness simultaneously. The 'TURBO-FAN collimator' is adopted in the SET-080 Alpha, which offers excellent spatial resolution and sensitivity. (author)

318

Potassium-stimulated release of nitric oxide from cerebellar slices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study shows that nitric oxide release can be evoked from intact neuronal tissue. Stimulation of rat cerebellar slices for 4 min with 50 mM potassium significantly increased the release of nitric oxide and glutamate and was associated with a rise in the guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) content of the tissue. Nitric oxide levels in the perfusate increased from 160 to 262 parts per billion. It is suggested that an increased release of endogenous glutamate in the slice, indu...

Dickie, B. G.; Lewis, M. J.; Davies, J. A.

1990-01-01

319

Emission-line galaxies in the Slice of the Universe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relative spatial distributions of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) and normal galaxies that lie in the sky area covered by the 'Slice' survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986) are considered. ELGs follow the same spatial distribution as found for the Slice galaxies, with the exception that they avoid the Coma cluster. It is pointed out that although the present ELGs are not shown to occur in regions of very low density, the luminosity distribution of the sample is such that luminosity/mass-dependent effects on the spatial distribution would not be noticeable. 60 references

320

Slicing the Fock space for state production and protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this letter we present a protocol to engineer interactions confined to subspaces of the Fock space in trapped ions: we show how to engineer upper-, lower-bounded and sliced Jaynes-Cummings (JC) and anti-Jaynes-Cummings (AJC) Hamiltonians. The upper-bounded (lower-bounded) interaction acting upon Fock subspaces ranging from $\\left\\vert 0\\right\\rangle $ to $\\left\\vert M\\right\\rangle $ ($\\left\\vert N\\right\\rangle $ to$\\ \\infty$), and the sliced one confined to Fock subspace ...

Rossetti, R. F.; Neto, G. D. Moraes; Prado, F. O.; Brito, F.; Moussa, M. H. Y.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

(Non)perturbative gravity, nonlocality, and nice slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perturbative dynamics of gravity is investigated for high-energy scattering and in black hole backgrounds. In the latter case, a straightforward perturbative analysis fails, in a close parallel to the failure of the former when the impact parameter reaches the Schwarzschild radius. This suggests a flaw in a semiclassical description of physics on spatial slices that intersect both outgoing Hawking radiation and matter that has carried information into a black hole; such slices are instrumental in a general argument for black hole information loss. This indicates a possible role for the proposal that nonperturbative gravitational physics is intrinsically nonlocal

322

Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti. PMID:24681219

von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

2014-07-01

323

Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

2014-12-01

324

Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones--the case of post-earthquake Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. PMID:25058930

Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

2014-10-15

325

Quantitative multi-slice imaging of perfusion of the brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To develop an MR pulse sequence that allows the determination of the quantitative perfusion of the brain by imaging the passage of a contrast agent bolus with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: An EPI sequence, EPIDET (Echo Planar Imaging using Different Echo Times), was developed that allows the acquisition of different slices at different echo times. The passage of a contrast agent bolus was recorded in a slice through the large brain feeding arteries at a short echo time (TE1=17 ms), while brain parenchyma was imaged in up to nine additional slices at a long echo time (TE2=34 ms). Results: The different echo times allowed the determination of the arterial input function (signal decrease to 32%-59% of baseline intensity) and gave a sufficient signal reduction (14-22%) for reliable quantification of perfusion in brain parenchyma. Conclusion: The combination of different echo times of the DUAL-FLASH sequence and the multislice capability of EPI sequences in the EPIDET sequence enables the quantification of multi-slice perfusion examinations. Compared to the DUAL-FLASH sequence EPIDET improves spatial and temporal resolution. (orig.)

326

Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [3H]norepinephrine or [3H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

327

Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

328

Hexose transport by brain slices: further studies on energy dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose [(3H]2DG) by slices of rat cerebral cortex in vitro as a model of glucose transport by brain. Slices were incubated with [3H]2DG, or with L-[3H]glucose as a marker for diffusion; the difference between [3H]2DG uptake and L-[3H]glucose uptake was defined as net [3H]2DG transport. Net [3H]2DG transport was a function of incubation temperature, with an estimated temperature coefficient of 1.87 from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The net uptake of [3H]2DG was not inhibited by phlorizin or phloretin in concentrations well above the reported Ki of these inhibitors for hexose uptake in other systems. To examine the hypothesis that [3H]2DG transport by brain slices is dependent on mitochondrial energy, we studied net [3H]2DG uptake by slices which had been preincubated in media designed to alter intracellular ATP stores. The transport process was very sensitive to inhibition by DNP, but the correlation between [3H]2DG transport and ATP levels was unclear. In contrast to our published hypothesis that the transport process required mitochondrial energy, these data indicate that dependence on energy is not absolute

329

Earthquake behavior of the Enriquillo fault zone, Haiti revealed by interactive terrain visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mw 7.0 January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake ended 240 years of relative quiescence following earthquakes that destroyed Port-au-Prince in 1751 and 1770. We place the 2010 rupture in the context of past earthquakes and future hazards by using remote analysis of airborne LiDAR to observe the topographic expression of active faulting and develop a new conceptual model for the earthquake behavior of the eastern Enriquillo fault zone (EFZ). In this model, the 2010 event occupies a long-lived segment boundary at a stepover within the EFZ separating fault segments that likely ruptured in 1751 and 1770, explaining both past clustering and the lack of 2010 surface rupture. Immediately following the 2010 earthquake, an airborne LiDAR point cloud containing over 2.7 billion point measurements of surface features was collected by the Rochester Inst. of Technology. To analyze these data, we capitalize on the human capacity to visually identify meaningful patterns embedded in noisy data by conducting interactive visual analysis of the entire 66.8 GB Haiti terrain data in a 4-sided, 800 ft3 immersive virtual-reality environment at the UC Davis KeckCAVES using the software tools LiDAR Viewer (to analyze point cloud data) and Crusta (for 3D surficial geologic mapping on DEM data). We discovered and measured landforms displaced by past surface-rupturing earthquakes and remotely characterized the regional fault geometry. Our analysis of the ~50 km long reach of EFZ spanning the 2010 epicenter indicates that geomorphic evidence of active faulting is clearer east of the epicenter than to the west. West of the epicenter, and in the region of the 2010 rupture, the fault is poorly defined along an embayed, low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. In contrast, landform offsets of 6 to 50 m along the reach of the EFZ east of the epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes here. Specifically, we found and documented offset landforms including fluvial terrace risers near Dumay (6.3 +0.9/-1.3 m) and Chauffard/Jameau (32.2 +1.8/-3.1 m), a channel (52 +18/-13 m) ~500 m east of the Chauffard/Jameau site, and an alluvial fan near Fayette (8.6 +2.8/-2.5 m). Based on the fault-trace morphology and distribution of sites where we see 6-8 m offsets, we estimate the probable along-strike extent of past surface rupture was 40 to 60 km along this fault reach. Application of moment-rupture area relationships to these observations suggest that an earthquake similar to, or larger than the Mw 7.0 2010 event is possible along the Enriquillo fault near Port-au-Prince. We deduce that the 2010 earthquake was a relatively small event on a boundary between fault segments that ruptured in 1751 and 1770, based on new analysis of historical damage reports and the gap of well-defined fault-zone morphology where the 2010 earthquake occurred.

Cowgill, E.; Bernardin, T. S.; Oskin, M. E.; Bowles, C. J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kreylos, O.; Elliott, A. J.; Bishop, M. S.; Gold, R. D.; Morelan, A.; Bawden, G. W.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

2010-12-01

330

HAITÍ: ¿LA MISIÓN DE LA ÚLTIMA OPORTUNIDAD? / Haiti: The Mission of Last Opportunity?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En términos de los procesos sociales y políticos, 2013 terminó de la misma manera que lo hizo 2012: sin elecciones, protestas populares cotidianas y un enfrentamiento, a ratos incluso sangriento, entre partidarios y detractores de oposición y oficialista. El Diálogo Político entre haitianos, iniciad [...] o a mediados de enero de 2014 y auspiciado por los obispos católicos, intenta encontrar una solución al atasco político y hartazgo social. Este artículo hace un recuento de los principales acontecimientos sociales, económicos y políticos de 2013. Muestra que el voluntarismo desde la sociedad civil ha sido el camino elegido para desenmarañar los hilos del atascado proceso político. Subraya la novedad y muestra a la misma vez las limitaciones del llamado proceso de Diálogo Político Nacional. Abstract in english In terms of its political and social processes 2013 ended the same way 2012 did. Elections were not held; there were massive and quotidian political protests, and street fighting took place between opponents and partisans of the president. The National Political Dialogue, held in the presence of the [...] Episcopal Commision, tried to quell the violence and look for a solution to the social and political problems of the country. This article looks back at the political, social and economic events that took place during 2013. It shows that actors from the civil society have been very active in the search for a solution to the turmoil faced by Haiti during the year. They have sought, by means of voluntarism, to solve the problems of a stuck political process. The article shows both the merits and limits of the solutions they offered.

ROODY, RESERVE.

331

Bacterial enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in a rural population of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John C Jackson, Anthony L Farone, Mary B Farone Biology Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA Purpose: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. To further understand the epidemiology of diarrheal disease among a rural population surrounding Robillard, Haiti, fecal swabs from patients with diarrhea were screened for the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. Patients and methods: Fecal swabs were collected from 34 patients with signs and symptoms of diarrhea and stored in BBLTM Cary-Blair transport medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD until transit to the USA. Swab material was inoculated on to different enrichment and selective agars for incubation. Fermenting and nonfermenting bacteria that grew on the enteric selection media were identified by the BBLTM CrystalTM Enteric/Nonferementing Identification system (Becton, Dickinson and Company. Organisms identified as Escherichia coli were further screened for the presence of virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 34 patients, no Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Vibrio spp. were isolated from swabs transported to the USA for culture. Of 73 E. coli isolates cultured from the swabs, one enteropathogenic strain of E. coli was identified by multiplex PCR. Escherichia fergusonii and Cronobacter sakazakii, both potential gastrointestinal pathogens, were also isolated from patient stools. Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine if bacterial enteropathogens could be detected in the stools of patients suffering from diarrhea or dysentery and, in the absence of sufficient facilities, rectal swabs could be transported to the USA for culture. Although several genera of overt enteropathogens were not detected, one enteropathogenic E. coli and other pathogenic enterobacteriaceae were successfully cultured and identified. Keywords: Escherichia, Cronobacter, diarrheagenic, stool

Jackson JC

2011-09-01

332

Vertical Deformation of Late Quaternary Features Across Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a project that investigated the underwater impacts of the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti, we surveyed offshore structures that may have been activated during that earthquake or that might become activated in future earthquakes. Part of that survey focused on the shallow shelf area that extends north of the segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault that just ruptured. This area is occupied by an elongated depression, 25 km long, 10 km wide, and 140 m deep. The NW-SE axis of that shallow basin is sub-parallel to that of the NW-SE anticlines that bounds Port-au-Prince Bay. The shallow basin is also rimmed by a carbonate platform that is 5-10 km-wide and ~30m deep. New multibeam bathymetric and sidescan sonar data collected across that platform highlight a series of circular dissolution structures 1-2 km across and ~80 m deep. We interpret that morphology to indicate antecedent karst topography that developed during previous glacial maxima. According to that scenario, the shallow basin off Port-au-Prince would have been isolated from the Caribbean Sea by the continuous platform, and would probably have been occupied by a lagoon. Indeed, a few high-resolution chirp profiles image what may be a paleoshoreline at about 80m depth, buried beneath a 5-8 m thick, acoustically transparent, presumably Holocene layer. Preliminary analysis indicates that the basin floor and the base of the presumably Holocene layer are perfectly horizontal in the center of the basin, but tilted down to the south at its northern edge. The presumed paleoshoreline is also shallower to the north of the basin. We propose that this tilt is driven by contraction across the NW-SE fold-and-thrust belt that runs across Hispaniola. This hypothesis remains to be tested with a more thorough geophysical and coring survey in Port-au-Prince Bay.

Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.; Gulick, S. P.; Braudy, N.; Davis, M. B.; Diebold, J. B.; Dieudonne, N.; Douilly, R.; Hornbach, M. J.; Johnson, H. E.; Mishkin, K.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Symithe, S. J.; Templeton, J.

2010-12-01

333

Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Southwestern Haiti: The Grand'Anse Women's Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old). PMID:25200263

Jobe, Kathleen A; Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A

2014-11-01

334

An epidemic model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to December 2011, climb to 522,000 cases and 7,000 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan project). The model directly accounts for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. To this end, we generate realistic scenario of future precipitation in order to forecast possible epidemic paths up to the end of the 2013. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2012-04-01

335

A spatially explicit model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to July 2011, climb to 385,000 cases and 5,800 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of textit{Vibrio cholera}, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan texttrademark project). The model directly account for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

336

Slip partitioning on the Enriquillo and Lamentin faults during the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

A general consensus has emerged from the study of the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake: the coseismic rupture was complex, portraying both reverse and strike-slip motion, but lacking unambiguous surface break. Based on seismological, geodetic and geologic data, numerous slip models have been proposed for that event. However, using an incomplete fault map, the latter models were preliminary, proposing a rupture on unmapped buried faults. Here, using bathymetric data offshore Port-au-Prince along with a digital elevation model derived from LiDAR on-land, we identified the south-dipping Lamentin thrust in the Bay of Port-au-Prince. The fault prolongs on-land where it deforms active alluvial fans in the city of Carrefour. The geometry and distribution of the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake and the analysis of the regional geology allow us to place constraints on the connection at depth between the Lamentin thrust and the sinistral strike-slip Enriquillo -Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Inversion of geodetic data suggests that both faults may have broken in 2010, consistently with the regional geodynamical setting. The rupture initiated along the Lamentin thrust and further propagated along the EPGF due to instantaneous unclamping at depth. The corals uplifted around the Léogâne Delta Fan, contributing to the build-up of long-term topography between the Lamentin thrust and the EPGF. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on unruptured EPGF segments as well as on the thrust fault sitting in the middle of the city of Carrefour, in the direct vicinity of Port-au-Prince, thereby increasing the seismic hazard in these areas.

Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël; Jacques, Éric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann

2014-05-01

337

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti / Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping) das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as [...] contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira. Abstract in english The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its fo [...] reign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan, Bracey.

2011-12-01

338

The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first two pairs of horizontal vibrational frequencies, which are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. The approach has been applied to a CSN-instrumented 12-story reinforced concrete building near downtown Los Angeles. The frequencies were identified directly from spectra of the 8 August 2012 M4.5 Yorba Linda, California earthquake acceleration time series. When the basic dimensions and the first two frequencies are input into a prismatic Timoshenko beam model of the building, the model yields mode shapes that have been shown to match well with densely recorded data. For the instrumented 12-story building, comparisons of the predictions of responses on other floors using only the record from the 9th floor with actual data from the other floors shows this method to approximate the true response remarkably well.

Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

339

MicroRNA-155 promotes the proliferation and invasion abilities of colon cancer cells by targeting quaking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing expression of microRNA?155 (miR?155) and decreasing expression of RNA?binding protein quaking (QKI) in colon cells have been observed previously. In this study, we attempted to establish the correlation between miR?155 and QKI. In addition, we assessed whether the expression of miR?155 and QKI is linked to the proliferation and invasion capabilities of colon cells. Firstly, nineteen tumor samples, divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of lymphatic metastasis, were obtained from colon cancer patients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. The expression level of miR?155 and QKI was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Secondly, the GES?1, SW480 and COLO205 cell lines were cultured and the expression level of QKI and miR?155 was also assessed by qPCR. Thirdly, a luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to detect the association between miR?155 and QKI, and qPCR and western blot analysis were performed to confirm the effects of miR?155 on the expression of QKI at the mRNA and protein level. Subsequently, the SW480 cells were used in the following experiments. Following treatment with miR?155 inhibitor and QKI overexpression vector, western blot analysis, propidium iodide (PI) staining and a cell scratch assay were carried out to assess the effects of miR?155 on the proliferation and invasion potential of colon cancer cells. qPCR findings revealed higher miR?155 expression and lower QKI expression in colon cancer tissues as well as the colon cancer cell lines SW480 and COLO205. The relative luciferase activity of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) was decreased by approximately 45% when SW480 cells stimulated by mimic?miR?155 were combined with the wild?type 3'UTR constructs. In addition, when the cells were treated with mimic?miR?155, QKI expression was significantly decreased at the mRNA and protein level. These outcomes revealed that miR?155 decreased the production of QKI by acting on the 3'UTR of the QKI gene. Furthermore, PI staining and the cell scratch assay revealed that miR?155 influenced the cell cycle and invasion abilities of colon cancer cells by directly targeting QKI and decreased the production of QKI by acting on the 3'UTR of the QKI gene. This study has demonstrated the correlation between miR?155 and QKI, in which miR?155 regulates the cell cycle and invasion ability of colon cancer cells via the modulation of QKI expression. Our study provides novel therapeutic strategies for colon cancer therapy. PMID:25420938

He, Bin; Gao, Sheng-Qiang; Huang, Li-Dong; Huang, Yue-Han; Zhang, Qi-Yu; Zhou, Meng-Tao; Shi, Hong-Qi; Song, Qi-Tong; Shan, Yun-Feng

2015-03-01

340

Forensic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes from two rural communities in Haiti reflects their population history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very little genetic data exist on Haitians, an estimated 1.2 million of whom, not including illegal immigrants, reside in the United States. The absence of genetic data on a population of this size reduces the discriminatory power of criminal and missing-person DNA databases in the United States and Caribbean. We present a forensic population study that provides the first genetic data set for Haiti. This study uses hypervariable segment one (HVS-1) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequences from 291 subjects primarily from rural areas of northern and southern Haiti, where admixture would be minimal. Our results showed that the African maternal genetic component of Haitians had slightly higher West-Central African admixture than African-Americans and Dominicans, but considerably less than Afro-Brazilians. These results lay the foundation for further forensic genetics studies in the Haitian population and serve as a model for forensic mtDNA identification of individuals in other isolated or rural communities. PMID:22583388

Wilson, Jamie L; Saint-Louis, Vertus; Auguste, Jensen O; Jackson, Bruce A

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Phylodynamic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Haiti Reveals Diversification Driven by Positive Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Phylodynamic analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is a powerful tool to investigate underlying evolutionary processes of bacterial epidemics. The method was applied to investigate a collection of 65 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti collected between 2010 and 2012. Characterization of isolates recovered from environmental samples identified a total of four toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates, four non-O1/O139 isolates, and a novel nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate with the classical tcpA gene. Phylogenies of strains were inferred from genome-wide SNPs using coalescent-based demographic models within a Bayesian framework. A close phylogenetic relationship between clinical and environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains was observed. As cholera spread throughout Haiti between October 2010 and August 2012, the population size initially increased and then fluctuated over time. Selection analysis along internal branches of the phylogeny showed a steady accumulation of synonymous substitutions and a progressive increase of nonsynonymous substitutions over time, suggesting diversification likely was driven by positive selection. Short-term accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions driven by selection may have significant implications for virulence, transmission dynamics, and even vaccine efficacy. PMID:25538191

Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Mohr, David; Prosperi, Mattia; Veras, Nazle M.; Jubair, Mohammed; Strickland, Samantha L.; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Alam, Meer T.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Katz, Lee S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Colwell, Rita R.

2014-01-01

342

Beyond command and control: USSOUTHCOM's use of social networking to 'connect and collaborate' during Haiti relief operations  

Science.gov (United States)

On 12 January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti killing over 230,000 unsuspecting victims, injuring tens of thousands more and displacing over 1.1 million people. The physical damage was so severe that over 50 percent of buildings in and near the affected areas were completely destroyed or damaged. After struggling for decades with adversity, and besieged by a myriad of social, economic and political challenges, Haiti, its government, and its people were by most accounts already in a state of crisis. The earthquake's devastation and its aftermath shocked the world and prompted a global response. Over 800 institutions and organizations representing the whole of society - governments and their militaries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, public institutions, academia, corporations, and private citizens - mobilized to provide aid and relief. However, coordinating and managing their activities seemed a daunting, if not impossible, task. How could a global response achieve "unity of effort" when "unity of command" was not feasible? To provide a solution, US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) looked beyond traditional Command and Control systems for collaboration with non-traditional partners and implemented the All Partners Access Network (APAN) in order to "Connect and Collaborate."

Arias, Ricardo

2011-06-01

343

Submarine Paleoseismology Along Populated Transform Boundaries: The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault, Canal du Sud, Haiti, and the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions and are associated with destructive earthquakes worldwide. The devastating 1999 Turkey earthquakes and the offshore 2010 Haiti earthquake emphasized the urgent need to study the submerged segments of continental transforms. In response, the rapidly evolving field of submarine paleoseismology is focusing its attention on understanding the relationships between sedimentation, seafloor ruptures, and earthquake recurrence intervals along submarine faults. In Canal du Sud, Haiti, the 2010 earthquake-triggered sedimentation events were documented from nearshore to the deep basin by measuring the excess 234Th in sediment cores. This radioisotope, with a half-life of 24 days, tracked mass wasting, turbidites, turbidite-homogenite units, and a sediment plume that remained in the water column for at least two months after the earthquake. However, the turbidite units in Canal du Sud, Haiti, provide an incomplete record of the region's earthquake history, likely because sedimentation rates are too low for sedimentation events to be triggered by all earthquakes. In contrast, in the Marmara Sea basins, there is very good correlation between turbidites and the historical record of earthquakes dating back 2,000 years. The difference between these correlations is likely related to both sedimentation rates and particulars of the ruptures. Future research along the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden fault in Haiti and along similar low sedimentation plate boundaries should focus on multiple fault segments in order to obtain complete earthquake recurrence histories.

Cecilia McHugh

2014-06-01

344

Application of the device of slices for automation of matrix calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic concepts of the device of slices for the processing of multidimensional numerical arrays are represented. The data on the developed matrix component supporting the concept of simple and generalized slices are given. The application efficiency of the slicing device and matrix components in industrial automation at the stages of matrix computation automation is shown.

Romanovsky, E. A.

2014-12-01

345

The Future of Effective Nuclear Regulatory Control in Third World Countries. The case of Haiti: Thoughts and Ideas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Haiti is the poorest country in America with 75% of the population living under the poverty line and 56% in an extreme situation. Under UN classification, the country ranked 154 on a total of 193. Haiti is an IAEA member since 1958, after a few years of non active participation in agency's activities for nations members , except for signing one agreement on physical protection, the country had become involved at various level of technical cooperation. In 2003 Haiti paid in full its arrears in membership contributions to IAEA sending a clear signal to its good to renew with technical cooperation. At the same time Agency renewed its technical cooperation with the country at various level mainly in : 1. Isotopes hydrology Applications of isotopes radiation in Industry 2. Radiation medicine and Health 3. Nuclear radiation safety and nuclear Security 4. General Atomic Development. As a third country, Haiti is clearly dependent on international cooperation resources. A fundamental challenge for its National Regulatory board is to insure availability of optimum quantities of resources with national and foreign partners, to establish the culture of regular control regulatory activities, safety culture and improve the quality of human and training assistance for its technical entities. National Regulatory authority faces a range of important challenges in all sectors, just to mention some of them: Improve coordination with technical ministries and other technical enechnical ministries and other technical entities in related nuclear field within a clear plan of action; Advocate introduction of teaching safety and security culture and radiological protection at university level and in secondary education; Strengthen the training of the personnel in the field of radioprotection along with customs and border officers; Scale up the number of trained people in physics and nuclear techniques in medicine and industry; Scale up the use of new and reliable detectors to better detect sources and include all in - country sources a national database as recommended by Agency; Scale up participation of participation of dosimetric unit of the national authority in various regional inter-comparative studies; Advocate full use scrap metal control to prevent malicious activities, develop regulation regarding the disposal of unused sealed sources; Promote cooperation with other advanced National Regulatory authority at regional and Caribbean levels; Consolidate the legal and regulatory framework by providing Haiti with the necessary technical legal assistance. While it remains to be seen if the Regulatory Board will become a full independent entity with its own budget, human resources development in radioprotection will continue to be one the pillars of Board activity. In this regard, NRB and its technical unit must continue to work with regional board to acquire more training and collaborate with the Ministry of Finance and lawmakers to address its adequate financial and material resources. (author)

346

Solar disinfection (SODIS): simulation of solar radiation for global assessment and application for point-of-use water treatment in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti and other developing countries do not have sufficient meteorological data to evaluate if they meet the solar disinfection (SODIS) threshold of 3-5 h of solar radiation above 500 W/m2, which is required for adequate microbial inactivation in drinking water. We have developed a mathematical model based on satellite-derived daily total energies to simulate monthly mean, minimum, and maximum 5-h averaged peak solar radiation intensities. This model can be used to assess if SODIS technology would be applicable anywhere in the world. Field measurements were made in Haiti during January 2001 to evaluate the model and test SODIS efficacy as a point-of-use treatment option. Using the total energy from a measured solar radiation intensity profile, the model recreated the intensity profile with 99% agreement. NASA satellite data were then used to simulate the mean, minimum, and maximum 5-h averaged peak intensities for Haiti in January, which were within 98.5%, 62.5%, and 86.0% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Most of the discrepancy was attributed to the heterogeneous nature of Haiti's terrain and the spatial resolution of the NASA data. Additional model simulations suggest that SODIS should be effective year-round in Haiti. Actual SODIS efficacy in January was tested by the inactivation of total coliform, E. coli, and H2S-producing bacteria. Exposure period proved critical. One-day exposure achieved complete bacterial inactivation 52% of the time, while a 2-day exposure period achieved complete microbial inactivation 100% of the time. A practical way of providing people with cold water every morning that has undergone a 2-day exposure would be to rotate three groups of bottles every morning, so two groups are out in the sun and one is being used for consumption. PMID:12465787

Oates, Peter M; Shanahan, Peter; Polz, Martin F

2003-01-01

347

The value of 16 slice spiral CT detecting tracheobronchial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of 16 slice spiral CT detecting tracheobronchial tumors. Methods: Twenty-eight cases with suspected tracheobronchial principalis tumors undertook GE Light speed 16 CT scan. The original data were processed and reconstructed at AW4.2 workstation. The images of trachea and bronchial tumors were reviewed and compared with pathologic results after operation. Results: Out of the 28 cases with tracheobronchus principalis tumors, the CT detected 16 with trachea tumors and 12 with bronchial tumors (6 on the right and 6 on the left). Among them, 23 were squamous carcinoma with 2 adenocarcinoma, 1 leiomyoma, 1 adenoma and 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, which were consistent with pathologic results after operation. Conclusion: The 16 slice spiral CT scan combining reconstruction techniques can detect the location of the tracheobronchial tumors and make qualitation and quantitation diagnosis, which is an accurate and noninvasive diagnosis method. It is important in clinical diagnosis. (authors)

348

ERTS-1 image enhancement by optically combining density slices  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of density slicing using a photographic film and its application to enhancement of ERTS-1 imagery has proved to be useful for mapping varigated areal phenomena and provides a useful supplement ot the I2S MiniAddcol viewing system. The intial experiments conducted with this film were encouraging, and indicated that this technique of density slicing using readily accessible darkroom facilities and simple darkroom procedures allows rapid, accurate, and facile interpretation of certain areal phenomena to be made from the imagery. The distribution of the tree yucca, Yucca brevifolia Jaegeriana, in the eastern Mojave Desert of Southern California and southern Nevada was used as an example to test the accuracy of the technique for mapping purposes. The distribution was mapped at a relatively high level of accuracy.

Tapper, G. O.; Pease, R. W.

1973-01-01

349

Identity Disclosure Protection in Slicing for Privacy Preservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years privacy preservation micro data publishing has gained wide popularity. Two of the most widely used anonymization techniques are generalization and bucketization. Bucketization doesn’t prevent membership disclosure and it doesn’t apply for data that don’t have a clear distinction between quasi-identifiers and sensitive attribute. On the other hand, generalization loses high amount of data. A combination of both i.e., slicing provides better data utility but still its prone to attacks. Slicing protects the data against membership and attribute disclosure but it doesn’t provide any details about identity disclosure. To overcome this we apply k-anonymity through ranging which will improve the overall utility and privacy of data. Here the data is not lost as well as it doesn’t result in inference attacks.

M. Senthil Raja

2013-07-01

350

16-slices helical CT features of torsion of ovarian tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the CT 16-slices helical features of torsion of ovarian tumor. Methods: CT manifestations of torsion of ovarian tumor in 12 cases proven by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of 12 cases, the tube thickening was found on the twisted side in 9. Ten of the ovarian tumors were cystic or cystic-solid, which proved eccentric wall thickening in 7 cases. Five cystic or cystic-solid tumors were lack of enhancement after contrast administration. No enhancement was seen after injecting contrast agent in 2 solid masses. Ascites was present in 5 patients. Deviation of uterus to the side of the twisted ovarian was noted in 7 patients. Conclusion: Three findings (tube thickening, smooth wall thickening and lack of contrast enhancement of the internal solid component or the thickened wall) seem to be diagnostic for the twisted ovarian tumor. 16-slices helical CT imaging may be more helpful in detecting a thickened tube. (authors)

351

Technical advances in multi-slice spiral CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray computerised tomography (CT) scanning with continuous patient transport has been established under the name Spiral CT since several years as the standard clinical examination procedure. This technique has been improved continuously with respect to scan speed, temporal response and z-axis resolution by the use of latest technical developments: Rotation times up to 0.5 s and multi-row detector array systems. Today detector systems with M + 4 simultaneously measured slices are available. We report about recent progress of spiral CT reconstruction algorithms that are based on multi-slice data. It is demonstrated that the new technology not only provides significant reduction in overall scan times and thereby of the CT scanner?s X-ray tube load; beyond that, the new technology allows CT imaging of the beating heart with high level image quality in standard clinical routine

352

Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

353

Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6% were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verificada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6% resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas. Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P < 0,0001. La tasa estimada de sífilis congénita en la zona fue de 767 por 100000 nacidos vivos. CONCLUSIONES: La sífilis materna es frecuente en las zonas rurales de Haití, lo que combinado con la entrada tardía a los servicios de atención prenatal, contribuye a los desenlaces adversos de los embarazos y a la alta tasa estimada de sífilis congénita. Se requieren más estudios sobre la sífilis congénita y los hábitos de búsqueda de atención prenatal de las mujeres de zonas rurales de Haití para comprender el impacto de la sífilis materna en esta parte del país y mejorar el desenlace de los embarazos.

Chaylah J. Lomotey

2009-09-01

354

Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti / Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verifi [...] cada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6%) resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas). Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's pub [...] lic health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6%) were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P

Chaylah J., Lomotey; Judy, Lewis; Bette, Gebrian; Royneld, Bourdeau; Kevin, Dieckhaus; Juan C., Salazar.

2009-09-01

355

Mortality, violence and access to care in two districts of Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Towards the end of 2006 open conflict broke out between United Nations forces and armed militia in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Fighting was most intense in the district of Cité Soleil. Methods A cross-sectional, random-sample survey among the conflict-affected populations living in Cité Soleil and Martissant was carried out over a 4-week period in 2006 using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess exposure to violence and access to health care. Household heads from 945 households (corresponding to 4,763 people) in Cité Soleil and 1,800 household (9,539 people) in Martissant provided information on household members. The average recall period was 579 days for Cité Soleil and 601 days for Martissant. Results In Cité Soleil 120 deaths (21 children) were reported (CMR 0.4 deaths/10,000 people/day; <5 MR 0.5 deaths/10,000/day) while in Martissant 165 deaths (8 children) were reported (CMR 0.3/10,000 people/day; <5 MR 0.2/10,000 people/day). Violence was reported as the main cause of adult mortality in both locations (mainly gunshot wounds) accounting for 29.2% of deaths in Cité Soleil and 23% of deaths in Martissant. 22.9% of families in Cité Soleil and 18.6% in Martissant reported at least one victim of violence. Destruction of property and belongings was common in both Cité Soleil (52.4% of families) and Martissant (14.9%). Access to health services was limited, with 11% (22/196) of victims of violence in Cité Soleil and 23% (49/212) in Martissant unable to access care due to insecurity or lack of money. Discussion Extrapolating to the total population of these two districts some 2,000 violent deaths occurred over the recall period. Among the survivors, violence had lasting effects in terms of physical and mental health and loss of property and possessions. PMID:19317910

Ponsar, Frédérique; Ford, Nathan; Van Herp, Michel; Mancini, Silvia; Bachy, Catherine

2009-01-01

356

Nódulos parotídeos: experiencia en la República de Haití / Parotid nodules: experience in the Republic of Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. Las enfermedades de las glándulas salivales ocupan un lugar relevante entre las patologías quirúrgicas de la cabeza y el cuello. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar la experiencia del tratamiento quirúrgico de tumores parotídeos benignos del lóbulo superficial, mediante anestesia [...] local, en pacientes de la Republica de Haití atendidos como parte de la colaboración médica cubana en ese país. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con nódulos parotídeos, atendidos en la República de Haití entre los años 2005 y 2006. Según su naturaleza, los nódulos fueron agrupados en inflamatorios, neoplásicos y otros. Para el tratamiento quirúrgico se utilizó la anestesia local con lidocaína al 1 %, combinando el método infiltrativo y el bloqueo de campo. Se consultaron 149 pacientes con nódulos parotídeos, el mayor porcentaje de los cuales correspondió a procesos inflamatorios (68,0 %) y en 29 pacientes (19,0 %) se comprobó la presencia de nódulos neoplásicos. Las complicaciones fueron seroma (3 casos; 33,3 %), hematoma (2 casos; 22,2 %), y 4 pacientes no presentaron complicaciones. CONCLUSIONES. El abordaje quirúrgico con anestesia local probó ser una alternativa válida cuando el cirujano no cuenta con los recursos que convencionalmente se movilizan para el tratamiento quirúrgico de estos casos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The diseases of the salivary glands occupy an important place among the surgical pathologies of the neck and the head. The aim of this paper was to present the experience of the surgical treatment of benign parotid tumors of the superficial lobule by local anesthesia in Haitian patient [...] s attended as part of the Cuban medical collaboration in this country. METHODS. A prospective study was carried out in patients with parotid nodules attended in the Republic of Haiti from 2005 to 2006. According to their nature, the nodules were grouped into inflammatory, neoplastic and others. Local anesthesia with lidocaine 1 % was used for the surgical treatment, combining the infiltrative method and the field block. 149 patients with parotid nodules were seen. The highest percentage corresponded to inflammatory processes (68.0 %). The presence of neoplastic nodules was confirmed in 29 patients (19.0 %). The complications were seroma (3 cases; 33.3 %) and hematoma (2 cases; 22.2 %). Four patients did not present complications. CONCLUSIONS. The surgical approach with local anesthesia proved to be a valid alternative when the surgeon does not have the resources that are usually used for the surgical treatment of these cases.

Moraima, Valles Gamboa; Carlos, Zamora Linares; Orlando, Expósito Reyes; Julio, Vázquez Polanco; Roberto, Frías Banqueris.

2008-12-01

357

Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which...

Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva; Lum, Cheemun

2011-01-01

358

Metabelian representations, twisted Alexander polynomials, knot slicing, and mutation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a knot complement X and its p-fold cyclic cover X_p, we identify twisted polynomials associated to 1-dimensional linear representations of the fundamental group of X_p with twisted polynomials associated to related p-dimensional linear representations of the fundamental group of X. This provides a simpler and faster algorithm to compute these twisted polynomials, allowing us to prove that 16 (of 18 previously unknown) algebraically slice knots of 12 or fewer crossings ...

Herald, Chris; Kirk, Paul; Livingston, Charles

2008-01-01

359

Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

Nabais, R. M.; Malcata, F. X.

1997-01-01

360

Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to sta...

Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B.; Staley, Kevin J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Experimental Analysis of Potato Slices Drying Characteristics using Solar Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the study was to investigate the drying characteristic curves and the drying duration when potato slices dried using natural convection solar dryer. For that sake an experimental setup was developed. Measurements of total solar radiation on the plane of the collector, ambient air temperature and humidity, drying air temperature and relative humidity inside the dryer as well as solid’s moisture loss-in-weight were collected. A data logger was used for data acquisition of all...

Aklilu Tesfamichael; Abebayehu Assefa

2013-01-01

362

Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10-10 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

363

CONDITIONED SLICING FOR EFFICIENT MULTIWAY DECISION GRAPHS MODEL-CHECKER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating formal verification techniques into the hardware design process provides the means to rigorously prove critical properties. However, most automatic verification techniques, such as model checking, are only effectively applicable to designs of limited sizes due to the state explosion problem. The Multiway Decision Graphs (MDG method is an efficient method to define hardware designs into more abstract environments; however, the MDG model checker (MDG-MC still suffers from the state explosion problem. Furthermore, all the backward reduction algorithms cannot be used in MDG, due to the presence of abstract state variables. In this study, an efficient extractor for MDG Hardware Descrpiton Languge (MDG-HDL is introduced based on static (SS-MDG and conditioned (CS-MDG program slicing techniques. The techniques can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. The main advantages of these techniques are: It has no MDG-HDL coding style limitation, it is accurate and it is competent in dealing with various MDG-HDL constructions. The main motivation for introducing this approach is to tackle the state explosion problem of MDG-MC that big MDG-HDL may cause. We apply our proposed techniques on different MDG-HDL designs and our analyses have shown that the proposed reduction techniques resulted in significantly improved performance of the MDG-MC. In this study, we present a general idea of program slicing, a discussion of how to slice MDG-HDL programs, implementation of the tool and a brief overview of some applications and experimental results. The underlying method and the tool based on it need to be empirically evaluated when applying to various applications.

Saad Elmansori

2013-01-01

364

Paired whole cell recordings in organotypic hippocampal slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pair recordings involve simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling not only direct electrophysiological characterization of the synaptic connections between individual neurons, but also pharmacological manipulation of either the presynaptic or the postsynaptic neuron. When carried out in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, the probability that two neurons are synaptically connected is significantly increased. This preparation readily enables identification of cell types, and the neurons maintain their morphology and properties of synaptic function similar to that in native brain tissue. A major advantage of paired whole cell recordings is the highly precise information it can provide on the properties of synaptic transmission and plasticity that are not possible with other more crude techniques utilizing extracellular axonal stimulation. Paired whole cell recordings are often perceived as too challenging to perform. While there are challenging aspects to this technique, paired recordings can be performed by anyone trained in whole cell patch clamping provided specific hardware and methodological criteria are followed. The probability of attaining synaptically connected paired recordings significantly increases with healthy organotypic slices and stable micromanipulation allowing independent attainment of pre- and postsynaptic whole cell recordings. While CA3-CA3 pyramidal cell pairs are most widely used in the organotypic slice hippocampal preparation, this technique has also been successful in CA3-CA1 pairs and can be adapted to any neurons that are synaptically connected in the same slice preparation. In this manuscript we provide the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology. PMID:25285945

Fourie, Chantelle; Kiraly, Marianna; Madison, Daniel V; Montgomery, Johanna M

2014-01-01

365

System identification using a linear combination of cumulant slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we develop a new linear approach to identify the parameters of a moving average (MA) model from the statistics of the output. First, we show that, under some constraints, the impulse response of the system can be expressed as a linear combination of cumulant slices. Then, this result is used to obtain a new well-conditioned linear method to estimate the MA parameters of a non-Gaussian process. The proposed method presents several important differences with existing l...

Rodri?guez Fonollosa, Jose? Adria?n; Vidal Manzano, Jose?

1991-01-01

366

Determination of trace element distribution in human bone slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Even though the distribution of trace elements - in particular Pb - in human bone is not clearly resolved, differences in Pb concentrations have been documented between the outer and the inner bone region. Preliminary investigations in hip bone slices have qualitatively shown that Pb and Ca were higher in the cortical bone (substantia compacta, SC) than in trabecular bone (substantia spongiosa, SS). These investigations were done in bone slices of the knee and hip with a thickness of about 4 mm. Since 4 mm thickness of the samples and the principal in-homogeneity of bone structure reduce the precision of interpretation of result, bone slices of 150-200 ?m thickness have therefore been prepared for the investigation of trace elements in cortical and trabecular bone. Measurements were done at the micro x-ray fluorescence facility at the bending magnet Beamline L at HASYLAB/ DESY, Hamburg. Depending on the sample thickness two different double monochromator units (Si (111) crystal channel cut for thick samples, W/C multilayer for thin samples were used. By installing x-ray polycapillary half lens optics, a spot size of 13 ?m FWHM vertically and horizontally was achieved. Analyzed samples showed consistent results: Both Pb and Zn concentrations were found to be mostly located at the distal SC, as was the Ca distribution. Moreover, Zn correlated directly with Pb distribution. By reducing the sample thickness to 200 ?m the observed geometrical effects could hae observed geometrical effects could have been nearly removed. Synchrotron p-XRF is suitable to investigate the distribution of Pb and other trace elements in human bone. The upgraded ?-beam setup at HASYLAB, Beamline L offers sufficient photon flux, even in bone slices of 200 ?m thickness. This is of importance for precise localization of the measurements. The reduction of the sample thickness leads moreover to a reduction of self absorption effects and is therefore absolutely necessary for future quantification. (author)

367

Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

2011-07-01

368

Dopaminergic toxicity of the herbicide atrazine in rat striatal slices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A possible link between Parkinson’s disease and pesticide exposure has been suggested, and recently it was shown that the herbicide atrazine (ATR) modulates catecholamine metabolism in PC12 cells and affects basal ganglia function in vivo. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: (i) determine if ATR is capable of modulating dopamine (DA) metabolism in striatal tissue slices in vitro and (ii) to explore possible mechanisms of its effects. Striatal tissues from adult male Sprague Dawley ...

Filipov, Nikolay M.; Stewart, Molly A.; Carr, Russell L.; Sistrunk, Shannon C.

2006-01-01

369

Dihydropyridines alter adenosine sensitivity in the rat hippocampal slice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The effects of adenosine and a range of adenosine analogues, which are resistant to uptake processes, were studied in the presence of dihydropyridines and verapamil on the population spike potential recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampal slice. 2. Nifedipine and Bay K 8644, a calcium channel antagonist and activator respectively, enhanced the inhibitory action of adenosine in a concentration-dependent manner. This was in contrast to their effect on adenosine analogues where the inhi...

Bartrup, J. T.; Stone, T. W.

1990-01-01

370

Pediatric 16-slice CT Protocols: Radiation Dose and Image Quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess radiation dose and image quality of our pediatric 16-slice CT protocols and to compare them with published standards. For 540 weight-based pediatric 16-slice CT examinations in six anatomic regions, CTDIvol, DLP, effective dose, and image noise were determined. Two radiologists evaluated the visual quality of CT images by consensus. We analyzed the relationship of CTDIvol and image noise with body diameter. Our results were compared with published data. The average CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy·cm), effective dose (mSv), and image noise (HU) were as follows: 4.1/125.5/1.6/16.2 for chest CT, 3.3/54.2/1.2/13.7 for heart CT, 5.8/256.6/3.8/13.0 for abdomen-pelvis CT, 6.8/318.7/5.9/12.0 for dynamic abdomen CT, 3.5/86.2/0.35/7.9 for neck CT and 25.4/368.0/1.6/3.7 for brain CT, respectively. All CT images were diagnostic upon visual analysis. The CTDIvol and image noise were proportional to body diameter. Our dose parameters were comparable to the first quartile of the cited German survey, whereas image noise in our study was similar to published data. Our pediatric CT dose is at the lower end of published standards and our image noise can be used as a target noise for each protocol in developing better pediatric multi-slice CT protocols

371

Fast and precise thermoregulation system in physiological brain slice experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a fast and precise thermoregulation system incorporated within a physiological experiment on a brain slice. The thermoregulation system is used to control the temperature of a recording chamber in which the brain slice is placed. It consists of a single-chip microcomputer, a set command module, a display module, and an FLC module. A fuzzy control algorithm was developed and a fuzzy logic controller then designed for achieving fast, smooth thermostatic performance and providing precise temperature control with accuracy to 0.1 °C, from room temperature through 42 °C (experimental temperature range). The fuzzy logic controller is implemented by microcomputer software and related peripheral hardware circuits. Six operating modes of thermoregulation are offered with the system and this can be further extended according to experimental needs. The test results of this study demonstrate that the fuzzy control method is easily implemented by a microcomputer and also verifies that this method provides a simple way to achieve fast and precise high-performance control of a nonlinear thermoregulation system in a physiological brain slice experiment.

Sheu, Y. H.; Young, M. S.

1995-12-01

372

Linear slices of the quasifuchsian space of punctured tori  

CERN Document Server

After fixing a marking (V, W) of a quasifuchsian punctured torus group G, the complex length l_V and the complex twist tau_V,W parameters define a holomorphic embedding of the quasifuchsian space QF of punctured tori into C^2. It is called the complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates of QF. For a complex number c, let Q_gamma,c be the affine subspace of C^2 defined by the linear equation l_V=c. Then we can consider the linear slice L of QF by QF \\cap Q_gamma,c which is a holomorphic slice of QF. For any positive real value c, L always contains the so called Bers-Maskit slice BM_gamma,c. In this paper we show that if c is sufficiently small, then L coincides with BM_gamma,c whereas L has other components besides BM_gamma,c when c is sufficiently large. We also observe the scaling property of L.

Komori, Yohei

2011-01-01

373

Infrared microspectrometric characterizations and thermoluminescent properties for natural quartz slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blue thermoluminescence (BTL) phenomena from natural quartz have been attributed to the recombination of Al-hole centers with electrons released from trapped sites. The Al-impurity contents, however, inversely correlate with the BTL-intensity. To approach this interesting correlation, two kinds of quartz slice samples have been studied by the two-dimensional distribution of OH impurity: color center (CC) patterns and thermoluminescence color images (TLCI). Microscopically scanning infrared-spectroscopy showed the presence of Al-OH and Li dependent Al-OH species in natural quartz slice. Brazilian quartz gave a relatively homogeneous distribution of Al-OH as well as CC and BTL patterns. On the other hand, a Madagascan quartz slice offered heterogeneous growth patterns of Al-OH and Li-dependent Al-OH impurity contents, reflecting on unexpectedly inverse correlation of the CC and BTL distributions. These results suggest that mobile hydrogen atoms or hydrogen radicals, produced from the radiolysis of the Al-OH, could operate as a quencher of Al-hole centers for radiation-induced phenomena in quartz. The effects of the Al-hole center influenced by active hydrogen radicals were also confirmed from the difference of the Al-OH concentrations between room-temperature and liquid-nitrogen-temperature irradiations. (author)

374

Impairment of glycoprotein secretion by phenobarbital in rat liver slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of phenobarbital on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Phenobarbital (2 mM) decreased [14C]glucosamine and [14C]leucine incorporation into liver proteins and markedly inhibited their incorporation into medium (secretory) proteins. The inhibitory effect of phenobarbital was dose dependent and not reversible under the conditions of this study. In the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of peptide synthesis, phenobarbital still inhibited the release of glycoproteins into the medium; however, the specific activity of liver glycoproteins was increased. The effects of phenobarbital on hepatic macromolecular secretion, independent of its effects on synthesis, were determined by prelabeling proteins in a liver slice system with either [14C]leucine or [14C]glucosamine. When phenobarbital was present, the secretion of these prelabeled proteins into the medium was inpaired. 12 h after intraperitoneal injections of phenobarbital, glycoprotein secretion was inhibited from liver slices prepared from the pretreated rats. This inhibition of secretion occurred even though protein synthesis was stimulated and intracellular glycosylations unaffected. The results of this study indicate that phenobarbital impairs the secretion of glycoproteins by the liver. PMID:718993

Tuma, D J; Jennett, R B; Sorrell, M F

1978-11-15

375

Scanning and contrast enhancement protocols for multi-slice CT in evaluation of the upper abdomen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advent of multi-slice CT is one of the quantum leaps in computed tomography since the introduction of helical CT. Multi-slice CT can rapidly scan a large longitudinal (z-axis) volume with high longitudinal resolution and low image artifacts. The rapid volume coverage speed of multi-slice CT can increase the difficulty in optimizing the delay time between the beginning of contrast material injection and the acquisition of images and we need accurate knowledge about optimal temporal window for adequate contrast enhancement. High z-axis resolution of multi-slice can improve the quality of three-dimensional images and MPR images and we must select adequate slice thickness and slice intervals in each case. We discuss basic considerations for adequate contrast enhancement and scanning protocols by multi-slice CT scanner in the upper abdomen. (author)

Awai, Kazuo; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Takada, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Eguchi, Nobuko; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Hori, Shinichi [Rinku General Medical Center, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan)

2000-07-01

376

The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

1992-01-01

377

Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9?km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10?days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

Wampler Peter J

2013-01-01

378

Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the response and recovery phases. Our team consists of experts in natural hazards, public health, shelter and infrastructure, education, and security. We are performing a network analysis based on the content of news and situation reports in media and from UN and aid agencies, field reports by academics and organizations like EERI, and discussions with agencies in Haiti. During three trips to Haiti, we have documented what information was being collected by key stakeholders including government, United Nations, non-governmental organizations, and both domestic and international educational institutions. Insights gained from this analysis of disaster response and recovery operations are invaluable in informing the next state of risk reduction, the transition to a sustainable recovery in a damaged region.

McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

2010-12-01

379

CONTESTED STATEHOOD AND STATE-BUILDING IN HAITI / Estatalidad en disputa y construcción del Estado en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiende un puente entre los debates globales y específicos de Haití sobre estatalidad, la economía política de la (de)formación del Estado y la conceptualización y medición de dichosfenómenos. Basándose en datos y literatura secundaria sobre Haití, pero sin circunscribirse a este [...] caso, el presente artículo sostiene que a pesar de los rasgos característicos del Estado extremadamente débil de Haití, dicho caso puede ser comparado productivamente con una serie de otros estados, que van desde estados débiles a relativamente fuertes, en América Latina y el Caribe. En el proceso, el artículo sugiere considerar a los niveles de soberanía como una dimensión integral de la estatalidad en la región, pero también en otras partes del mundo. El artículo demuestra la relevancia de conceptos utilizados en otros artículos de este volumen, como el de "debilidad por diseno", para el caso de Haití. El artículo concluye sugiriendo que sería útil ir más allá de las teorías neoweberianas, por ejemplo incorporando análisis críticos feministas, para entender las diferentes caras de la debilidad estatal y su construcción social en la región. Abstract in english This article bridges global and Haiti-specific debates on statehood, the political economy of state and state (de)formation, as well as the conceptualization and measurement of those phenomena. Drawing on data sets and secondary literatures from Haiti and beyond, it argues that despite the unique fe [...] atures of the extremely weak state in Haiti, that case can usefully be compared to the range of weak to fairly strong states in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the process, the article makes a case for considering degrees of sovereignty as an integral dimension of statehood in the region and elsewhere. It demonstrates the relevance of concepts used in other articles in this volume, such as 'weakness by design', in the Haitian case. The article ends by suggesting that it would be useful to look beyond neo-Weberian theories, for example by incorporating critical feminist analysis, to understand the different faces of state weakness and their social construction in the region.

STEPHEN, BARANYI.

380

Psychological work in humanitarian emergencies in Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo: some considerations based on two work experiences Intervenção psicológica em emergências humanitárias no Haiti e na República Democrática do Congo: considerações baseadas em duas experiências de trabalho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the description of two examples of psychological interventions in humanitarian emergencies, this article aims to problematize the work of the psychologist in those situations. The concepts of "humanitarianism" and "emergency" are discussed based on two interventions made in Haiti and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In both countries the mental health interventions happened inside a humanitarian organization and the objective of those interventions was to offer psychosocial support to the population of concern through a national mental health team. Cultural specificities, as well as theoretical and methodological challenges to the work of the psychologist in those situations are presented, especially those related to moral issues, to gender-based conflicts and to the insertion of the psychological work in a context where there is very little institutional support. Considerations related to theories and techniques of the area are presented, emphasizing the importance of interpreting the contents of the discourses taking into account the culture from where each person comes.Por meio da descrição de dois exemplos de intervenções de saúde mental em emergências humanitárias, esta reflexão visa problematizar o trabalho do psicólogo nestas situações. Os conceitos de "humanitário" e de "emergência" são discutidos à luz dos trabalhos realizados na República Democrática do Congo e no Haiti. Em ambos os países, as intervenções de saúde mental se deram por meio de uma organização humanitária internacional e nos dois casos, o objetivo era oferecer apoio psicológico à população em conjunto com uma equipe nacional formada por profissionais de diferentes áreas. Em ambos os casos, as especificidades culturais, assim como os desafios teóricos e metodológicos da ação do psicólogo são apresentados, notadamente as questões morais, de gênero e de inscrição do trabalho psicológico em contextos de grande carência de redes e de seguridade social. Por fim, são apresentadas considerações a respeito de algumas teorias e técnicas já descritas para este tipo de atuação psicológica, enfatizando-se a importância da escuta e da ressignificação dentro do contexto cultural de cada sujeito.

Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center database. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti. Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed. This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broad based view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti to access and benefit of a high level te

382

The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the iti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of information, there's a growing interest now for nuclear issues in Haiti. But Haiti need to go further than that. It means by example establishing a true national policy for nuclear issues. In this perspective some requirements are needed: a strong and sustainable human base in nuclear area by example. In this context the Government of Haiti has presented a project to the Agency related to the installation of an INIS National Center data base. This project will contribute in depth to the implementation of a national nuclear knowledge management programme. The general purpose of this project is: 'to interest young people in Haiti to studying nuclear science'. That means introducing nuclear sciences in the universities in Haiti in order to create a 'critical mass' that will allow Haiti to take off from here to 15 years in the nuclear sciences. Such a consideration means that the Government will have to apply a very strong and clear knowledge management policy. Will it be fruitful to begin such a strategy with the installation of an INIS data base center? We don't know yet. But the implementation of the INIS national data center project will give a clear idea about the success of a NKM policy in Haiti.Future is not a well given fact; it has to be constructed.This is the meaning of the hope Haiti's Government has placed in this planned project that will serve as a platform to launch a national long term nuclear knowledge management policy and programme. As an LDC searching his way toward sustainable development, Haiti needs more than ever a nuclear knowledge management policy and a well definite strategy to implement it. This policy will take in consideration the broadbased view articulated in his report by the IAEA June 2001 special mission. His short term outcome will be to securing a material and human base in order to spread nuclear sciences and technologies at the level of the university. In this sense the universities will be at the core of this knowledge management policy because that will allow young generations in Haiti t

383

The barriers to environmental sustainability in post-disaster settings: a case study of transitional shelter implementation in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disaster recovery operations that do not account for environmental sustainability (ES) risk exacerbating the impact of the disaster and hindering long-term recovery efforts. Yet aid agencies do not always consider ES. This research is a case study of the recovery that followed the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Using timber and concrete procurement as proxies for broader post-disaster operations, research examined perceptions of ES as well as attempts at and barriers to incorporating it into programming. Identified barriers can be grouped into two categories: (1) prioritisations and perceptions within the disaster response sector that resulted in limited enthusiasm for incorporating ES into programming, and (2) structural and organisational barriers within the disaster response framework that impeded ES attempts and served as a further disincentive to incorporating ES into programming. As a result of those barriers, incorporation of ES was sporadic and inconsistent and often depended on the capacity and motivation of specific implementers. PMID:24601931

Abrahams, Daniel

2014-04-01

384

Revision of the geological context of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, metropolitan area: implications for seismic microzonation  

Science.gov (United States)

A geological study has been conducted in the framework of the microzonation of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. It reveals the deposit of Miocene and Pliocene formations in a marine environment and the impact on these deposits of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden N80° E fault system and of N110° E faults. The tectonic and morphological analysis indicates motion during the Quaternary along several mapped reverse left-lateral N110° E faults affecting the capital. Assessing ground-movement hazards represents an integral component of seismic microzonation. The geological results have provided essential groundwork for this assessment. Seismic microzonation aims to take seismic risk more fully into account in the city's urbanization and development policies. To this end, assumptions are made as to risks induced by surface rupture and ground movement from active faults.

Terrier, M.; Bialkowski, A.; Nachbaur, A.; Prépetit, C.; Joseph, Y. F.

2014-02-01

385

Building damage assessment after the earthquake in Haiti using two post-event satellite stereo imagery and DSMs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a novel disaster building damage monitoring method is presented. This method combines the multispectral imagery and DSMs from stereo matching to obtain three kinds of changes. The proposed method contains three basic steps. The first step is to segment the panchromatic images to get the smallest possible homogeneous regions. In the second step, based on a rule based classification using change information from Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) and height, the changes are classified to ruined buildings, new buildings, and changes without height change (mainly temporary residential area, etc. tents). In the last step, a region based grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measurement is used to refine the third change class. The method is applied to building change detection after the Haiti earthquake.

Reinartz, Peter; Tian, Jiaojiao

2013-01-01

386

Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient screening of genome supercontig assemblies. These loci are suitable for genetic and population studies using multiplex-PCR.

Streit Thomas G

2009-12-01

387

The multisectoral approach to HIV/AIDS program in Haiti: a critical review of the actors involved in its governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SummaryAim: The multisectoral approach is often adopted in national policies of fight against AIDS. This article analyzes the characteristics of the actors’ network and their influence on the governance of the HIV program in Haiti.Methods: The qualitative data comes from interviews, observations and documentation. For their analysis, two techniques are used: namely thematic and structural analysis. The interpretation of results is based on the theory of the strategic actor (Crozier M, et al. L’acteur et le système : les contraintes de l’action collective. Paris : Ed. du Seuil ; 1977 [1] and the theory of network governance. These concepts allow to study and have an insight on the participants’ potential power, their strategies and interactions within the network. Results: These actors, with their diversity, the resources they control, and the nature of their interactions, determine the challenges regarding governance. There is a gap between the leadership role attributed to the national coordinating body and the true and actual nature of its influence within the network. This discrepancy is mainly attributable to the fact that its potential power, defined by available resources, places it in a weak position, which as a result translates into its incapacity to effectively impact the situations at hand. The study reveals the links between the actors’ characteristics and their ability to influence the process of governance through the web of relationships and the structure of power game. Conclusion: In Haiti, many actors are involved in the fight against HIV. The analysis of the complex network they operate within has shown that their potential to influence the program were uneven. This constitutes an important challenge for the national coordinating body. Prat Organ Soins. 2012;43(2:131-141

Foro A

2012-04-01

388

Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64% (average value) in comparison with control chips at the three oil temperatures tested. For the two pre-treatments studied, average acrylamide content increased -58 times as the frying temperature increased from 120 to 180degreesC. There was a linear correlation between acrylamide content of potato chips and their color represented by the redness component a(*) in the range of the temperatures studied.

Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro

2005-01-01

389

Characterization of motion artifacts in multi-slice spiral CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Motion artifacts in multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) resulting from object motion in and against the table feed direction (z-direction) are examined using a spherical phantom. For image interpretation of complex anatomic structures, qualitative reference points are, also applicable to selected, which are ECG-gated cardiac imaging. In this case the motion of the coronary vessels in phase with the cardiac contraction must be considered. Methods: Measurements are obtained with a multi-slice spiral CT with a rotation time of 500 ms for 4 x 1.0 mm and 2 x 0.5 mm collimation. The phantom consists of an acrylic glass body with imbedded glass beads of 1, 2, and 3 mm diameter. The object motion is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 5 mm and frequencies of 60/min and 90/min. Compensation of the table feed by object motion is examined as a special case. Results: Small parameter changes can induce a strikingly different image quality, and the moving objects emerge in different slices. Depending on the phase of the movement with respect to the CT scan, objects up to a size of 3 mm can vanish completely or appear hyperintense in the image. The model investigated is also applicable to ECG-gated cardiac imaging for the detection of stenosis. It can explain variations in the reproducibility and absolute score values of the calcium scoring. Conclusion: The presented considerations and results must be taken into account in image interpretation with possible object motion in the z-dire with possible object motion in the z-direction. Variations in the determination of the degree of stenosis or in calcium score measurements can be explained by different vessel motion during the diastolic heart phase. (orig.)

390

Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of {approx}5 ns out of a cloud stretched to Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H{sub 2}S, and the CH{sub 2}OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from <0.4 eV to >3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (United States)

2013-04-14

391

Slice-selective excitation with B1+-insensitive composite pulses  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially selective excitation pulses have been designed to produce uniform flip angles in the presence of the RF and static field inhomogeneities typically encountered in MRI studies of the human brain at 7 T. Pulse designs are based upon non-selective, composite pulses numerically optimized for the desired performance over prescribed ranges of field inhomogeneities. The non-selective pulses are subsequently transformed into spatially selective pulses with the same field-insensitive properties through modification of the spectral composition of the individual sub-pulses which are then executed in conjunction with an oscillating gradient waveform. An in-depth analysis of the performance of these RF pulses is presented in terms of total pulse durations, slice profiles, linearity of in-slice magnetization phase, sensitivity to RF and static field variations, and signal loss due to T2? effects. Both simulations and measurements in phantoms and in the human brain are used to evaluate pulses with nominal flip angles of 45° and 90°. Target slice thickness in all cases is 2 mm. Results indicate that the described class of field-insensitive RF pulses is capable of improving flip-angle uniformity in 7 T human brain imaging. There appears to be a subset of pulses with durations ?10 ms for which non-linearities in the magnetization phase are minimal and signal loss due to T2? decay is not prohibitive. Such pulses represent practical solutions for achieving uniform flip angles in the presence of the large field inhomogeneities common to high-field human imaging and help to better establish the performance limits of high-field imaging systems with single-channel transmission.

Moore, Jay; Jankiewicz, Marcin; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.

2012-01-01

392

Fourier analysis of heart SPECT slices: from remodelation to function?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine character of the spatial distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers, lungs and great blood vessels in relation to function of the left and right heart. Investigation included total of 142 subjects, 28 of which were without subjective and clinical signs of heart disease as well as 56 after myocardial infarction (30 of anterior localization, 26 of inferior infarction), 35 with predominant left heart disease (aortic valve disease, dilatative myocardiopathy, etc.) and 23 with predominant right heart disease (atrial septal defect, mitral valve disease). Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) at rest, and thorax SPECT were performed in all subjects with 740 MBq Tc-99m after in vivo erythrocyte labelling with pyrophosphate. Ultrasound investigation was performed on all the subjects with heart disease and 87 of them underwent invasive cardiac investigation. RNV analysis revealed scintigraphic data on left and right ventricle: global ejection fraction (GEF), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), fast tilling rate (FFR), fast emptying rate (FER) as well as regional wall motion shortening. Reconstruction of 64x64x8 SPECT images resulted in 3x64 slices (transversal, coronal and sagittal slices). Fourier analysis of 20-32 reconstructed slices in all three dimensions gave amplitude image of the intensity distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers lungs and great blood vessels as well as phase display of spatial localization of regional amplitude values. Results of joint ROC curves constructed for detection, localization and character of heart disease in all subjects revealed significant clinical information content of SPECT data. Evaluation of RI retention using amplitude images in 3D provides insight in regional changes of volume, particular for atrial and lung involvement. (author)

393

Virtual colonoscopy with multi-slice computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subject: Using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) large body areas can scanned with high spatial resolution. In this study, MSCT was employed for virtual colonoscopy in various pathologies of the colon. Results: Nine polyps and four of five colon carcinomas were detected using MSCT virtual colonoscopy. In three patients with ulcerative colitis virtual coloscopy revealed morphological alterations compatible with this disease. In two of four patients with multiple diverticula of the colon the true extent of the disorder could be assessed in virtual colonoscopy. (orig.)

394

Response surface optimization of osmotic dehydration process for aonla slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of sugar concentration (50-70° Brix), solution temperature (30-60°C), solution to fruit ratio (4:1-8:1) and immersion time (60-180 min) on the water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, vitamin-C loss, colour change and sensory overall acceptability of Indian gooseberry (aonla) slices. The optimum process parameters obtained by computer generated response surfaces, canonical analysis and contour plot interpretation were: sugar concentration, 59° Brix solution temperature 51°C, solution to fruit ratio 4:1 and immersion time of 60 min. PMID:23572600

Alam, Md Shafiq; Amarjit, Singh; Sawhney, B K

2010-01-01

395

Measurement of Slice-Emmittance using Transverse Deflecting Structure  

CERN Document Server

Among the very critical parameters for the operation of the VUV-FEL at DESY are the slice-emmittance and beam optics matching of the current peak in the electron bunch. Conventional tools for measuring the beam size are sensitive to the projected properties of the bunch only and hence suffer from mixing of different parts of the bunch. A combination of streaking with a transverse deflecting rf structure (LOLA) and a quadrupole scan allowed to measure the spike separate from the rest of the bunch. Indeed significant differences in terms of emmittance and optical functions have been found.

Roehrs, M; Hüning, M; Schlarb, H

2005-01-01

396

Spectral slicing x-ray telescope with variable magnification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system and to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning moving frame

397

Tracks in a small slice of the NA49 TPC  

CERN Multimedia

An event display of the data recorder by the six readout chambers of the Vertex TPC. After amplification the drifting ionization is detected in small pads of 3x20 mm (small rectangles in the six readout chambers) at 10 nanosecond intervals. Only a two centimeter slice of the data is projected here while the full depth of the TPC is about 80 cm. A complicated analysis on those data aims into ``reconstructing'' the real trajectories of the charged particles that crossed the TPC.

1996-01-01

398

Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To examine the demethylation reaction of methylmercury (MeHg) in rat liver, slices prepared from MeHg-treated rats were incubated in L-15 medium under 95% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} atmosphere. During the incubation, the amount of inorganic Hg in the slices markedly increased in a time-dependent manner, although the concentration of total Hg remained unchanged. Since the C-Hg bond in MeHg was demonstrated to be cleaved by the action of some reactive oxygen species, the effects on MeHg demethylation of several reagents that could modify reactive oxygen production were examined in the present system. Methylviologen was found to be an effective enhancer of the demethylation reaction with only a minor effect on lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, ferrous ion added to the medium showed no effect on demethylation in the presence or absence of methylviologen, although lipid peroxide levels were increased significantly by ferrous ion. Similarly, deferoxamine mesylate, which effectively suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide levels, also had no effect on demethylation. Furthermore, hydroxy radical scavengers, such as mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide, had no effect on inorganic Hg production. Rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system, increased levels of both inorganic Hg and lipid peroxide. However, other inhibitors, such as antimycin A, myxothiazole and NaCN, significantly suppressed the demethylation reaction. Cell fractionation of the MeHg-treated rat liver revealed that the ratio of inorganic Hg to total Hg was highest in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, superoxide anion could degrade MeHg in an organic solvent but not in water. These results suggested that the demethylation of MeHg by the liver slice would proceed with the aid of superoxide anion produced in the electron transfer system at the hydrophobic mitochondrial inner membrane. Furthermore, the involvement of hydroxy radicals, which have been demonstrated to be effective in cleaving the C-Hg bond in the aqueous media, might be minimal. Here, we also demonstrated that liver slices are a useful experimental model for mimicking the MeHg biotransformation reaction. (orig.)

Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

2001-09-01

399

Slicing: A New Approach to Privacy Preserving Data Publishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have several anonymization techniques like Generalization and Bucketization which was designed for privacy preserving microdata publishing. But recent experiments had proved that using generalization we may lose considerable amount of data especially for the data which has high dimension. And coming with Bucketization, It does not apply for the data that do not have a clear separation between quasi-identifying attributes and sensitive attributes.So due to having these disadvantages for both generalization and bucketization, we present a novel technique called Slicing which partitions the data in both horizontally and vertically.

B Ganga Dhara Rao1 , PROF.S.V.Achuta Rao

2013-08-01

400

Transverse-Longitudinal Coupling Effect in Laser Bunch Slicing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report turn-by-turn observation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by the laser bunch slicing technique at an electron storage ring operated with a small momentum compaction factor. CSR emission was intermittent, and its interval depended strongly on the betatron tune. This peculiar behavior of the CSR could be interpreted as a result of coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of the electrons. This is the first observation of such an effect, which would be important not only for controlling the CSR emission but also for generating and transporting ultrashort electron bunches or electron bunches with microdensity structures in advanced accelerators.

 
 
 
 
401

On the Maskit slice of 4-dimensional Kleinian punctured torus groups  

CERN Document Server

Let $\\Gamma$ be a 3-dimensional Kleinian punctured torus group with accidental parabolics. The deformation space of $\\Gamma$ in the group of M\\"{o}bius transformations on the 2-sphere is well-known as the Maskit slice of punctured torus groups. In this paper, we study the deformation space of $\\Gamma$ in the group of M\\"{o}bius transformations on the 3-sphere, where $\\Gamma$ is naturally regarded as a 4-dimensional Kleinian group. We will show that this space is realized as a domain of 3-space $\\mathbb{R}^3$, which contains the original Maskit slice as a slice through a plane. Furthermore, we will show that the space also contains the Maskit slice of fourth-punctured sphere groups as a slice through another plane. Some of another slices of the space will be also studied.

Araki, Yoshiaki; Komori, Yohei

2007-01-01

402

Rapid ultrathin slice plastination of embalmed specimens with minimal tissue loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified technique of producing 1 mm (ultrathin) E12 plastinated slices of tissue specimens from embalmed cadavers for anatomical teaching and research is described. Specimens up to 150 mm in length and width were embedded in polyurethane foam and serially sectioned using an OMAS C300 food slicer. Individual slices were then processed by cold dehydration, degreasing, resin impregnation, mounting and curing. Bone-containing specimens were first decalcified. Tissue slices could be cut with remarkable accuracy (0.98 +/- 0.01 mm per slice) and minimal tissue loss (less than 2% per slice). The entire production process could be achieved in 25 days and was associated with tissue volume shrinkage of no more than 6%. These results demonstrate a relatively rapid method of producing ultrathin E12 slices with minimal tissue loss. The technique may be particularly applicable to submacroscopic morphologic studies and three-dimensional reconstruction in clinical anatomy. PMID:20235170

Soal, S; Pollard, M; Burland, G; Lissaman, R; Wafer, M; Stringer, M D

2010-07-01

403

Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying  

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Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO), while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with ...

Zhenqiang Xia

2013-01-01

404

Design modifications for contiguous-slice sampling on a dynamic SPECT system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain perfusion imaging with xenon-133 is performed on an increasing scale with dedicated tomographic instruments. Most devises currently in operation obtain 3 non-contiguous brain images. We describe a method to modify the existing 3-slice instruments for complete brain imaging in 5 or 6 contiguous slices. The modification rearranges the existing detector units without requiring new components. Existing software are utilized and compatibility with older 3-slice formats is retained. (orig.)

405

Blockade of GABA Synthesis Only Affects Neural Excitability Under Activated Conditions in Rat Hippocampal Slices  

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The primary goal of this study was to establish whether inhibition of GABA synthesis was sufficient to induce network hyperexcitability in a rat hippocampal slice model comparable to that seen with GABA receptor blockade. We used field and intracellular recordings from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices to determine the physiological effects of blocking GABA synthesis with the convulsant, 3-mercaptoproprionic acid (MPA). We measured the rate of synthesis of GABA and glutamate in slices ...

Dericioglu, Nese; Garganta, Cheryl L.; Petroff, Ognen A.; Mendelsohn, Dara; Williamson, Anne

2008-01-01

406

Interictal spikes precede ictal discharges in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model of epileptogenesis  

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In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, principal neurons form aberrant excitatory connections with other principal cells in response to slicing-induced deafferentation, similar to mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis in post-traumatic epilepsy. To investigate the consequences of this synaptogenesis, we recorded field potential activity from area CA3 during perfusion with the complete growth medium used during incubation. At 7 days in vitro (DIV), slice cultures only displayed multi-unit ...

Dyhrfjeld-johnsen, J.; Berdichevsky, Y.; Swiercz, W.; Sabolek, H.; Staley, K. J.

2010-01-01

407

Rapid slice excitation without B0 gradients using large array coils  

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In a large transmit planar pair phased array with the same power level in each channel, it is shown that controlling the phase shift between neighboring channels can yield different transmit slice thickness. Similarly, variation of the power level can move the slice less or further into the subject for imaging. The technique may be of particular interest as it allows curved slice excitation. These excitation patterns are achieved without complicated RF pulse sequences, i.e., without the use o...

Feng, Ke; Wright, Steven M.

2014-01-01

408

Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases?  

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The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women’s health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability place...

Fawzi, M. C. Smith; Lambert, W.; Singler, J. M.; Tanagho, Y.; Le?andre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M. S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Mukherjee, J. S.; Goldie, S.; Salazar, J. J.; Farmer, P. E.

2005-01-01

409

Estudo da fonte do sismo do Haiti de 12 de janeiro de 2010 a partir de combinação de dados sísmicos e geodésicos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma metodologia baseada no cruzamento de técnicas e dados sísmicos (ondas de volume com registo telessísmico por estações de banda larga) e geodésicos (SAR - Radar de Abertura Sintética) com o intuito de estudar o complexo processo de ruptura do sismo do Haiti de 12 de Janeiro de 2010. Esta metodologia baseia-se: 1) na análise da diretividade para estimar a direção e a velocidade média de ruptura; b) inversão de ondas de volume para reconstituição d...

Santos, R. J. G.; Borges, J. F.; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

2013-01-01

410

Seroprevalence of antibodies against rubella virus in pregnant women in Haiti Seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de la rubéola en mujeres embarazadas de Haití  

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence of immunity to the rubella virus in pregnant women in Haiti attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the State University Hospital, in the capital city of Port-au-Prince, in order to help with the introduction of the rubella vaccine for the population and provide protection for women of reproductive age in the country. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done between February 2002 and May 2002. A total of 503 pregnant women were tested ...

De?sinor, Olbeg Y.; Anse?lme, Renette J. P.; Fernando Laender; Calerbe Saint-Louis; Jean Eddy Bien-Aimé

2004-01-01

411

Finding One’s Place: Shifting Ethnic Identities of Recent Immigrant Children from China, Haiti, and Mexico in the United States  

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Abstract This article examines the ethnic identity adaptations of recently-arrived immigrant children from China, Haiti, and Mexico. Overall, three main types of ethnic identity categories emerged: country of origin (e.g., Chinese), hyphenated (e.g., Chinese American), and pan-ethnic (e.g., Asian or Asian American). These three ethnic identities were examined to assess their relationships with various social and structural variables. While most of the participants retained their ...

Song, Steve

2010-01-01

412

PACAP – Melatonin Interaction in Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Slice Cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal indoleamine-hormone melatonin elicits a wide variety of physiological actions across vertebrate species. Mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN has high density of melatonin receptors that plays important role in the entrainment of the circadian pacemaker. SCN of the mammalian hypothalamus serves as the central biological clock, controlling circadian rhythms that are synchronized with the external light/dark cycle by retinal photoreception and transmission of light information via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT. RHT has recently been shown to contain pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. In the present study we cultured hypothalamic brain slices that included the region of the SCN on multi-microelectrode arrays to study in long-duration recordings simultaneously the electrical activity of SCN neurons and their possible target neurons in the hypothalamus. The extracellular recordings from the acute and ? or organotypic hypothalamic slices mainly exhibited multi-unit activity often without the possibility to discriminate single unit activity. Application of melatonin (1nM for 50 min at CT 10 shifted served the circadian rhythm in the firing rate and caused a phase-advance of 4 hours. Application of PACAP (100nM for 25 min at CT6 evoked phase-advance of 2-3 hours while application of PACAP at CT10 had no effect on the circadian rhythm. Co-application of PACAP together with melatonin at CT 10 completely blocked the phase-advance normally induced by melatonin.

Ehab TOUSSON

2010-09-01

413

Brivaracetam inhibits spreading depression in rat neocortical slices in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epilepsy and migraine are episodic neurological disorders with marked co-morbidity, making migraine common among epileptic patients. Conversely, several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used as migraine-preventive medication. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) represents a transient suppression of bioelectric activity and is considered a key event in migraine and stroke. This study assessed the novel AED candidate brivaracetam (BRV) vs. the chemically related AED levetiracetam in a rat neocortical slice model allowing consistent quantification of drug effects on CSD. CSD episodes were regularly elicited on slices upon delivery of calibrated KCl drops and were recorded via two micropipette electrodes. After control CSDs, the drug was added to the perfusion and five subsequent CSDs were elicited during drug perfusion. Effects were assessed via CSD amplitude (Ampl) and duration at half-amplitude (D(1/2)). BRV, 10 and 32 microM reduced the Ampl and transiently the D(1/2). Levetiracetam, 32 and 100 microM had no effect on either Ampl or D(1/2). The anti-CSD effect of BRV in this in vitro model might suggest a potential anti-migraine activity of this compound, which warrants further investigation. PMID:19211275

Margineanu, Doru Georg; Klitgaard, Henrik

2009-07-01

414

X-radiography of slices of the Allende Meteorite  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2.2 kg fragment of the Allende Meteorite was derinded and sliced by bandsawing. Several X-radiographs were made of all slices. The following features are resolved: grains of blocky troilite (bright spots), troilite rimmed chondrules (bright halos), chondrules with central vugs (dim halos), white aggregates (dark patches), and dark inclusions (medium dark patches). The number of FeS grains larger than about 0.5 mm is one per 6 + or - 1 gram of this fragment. Their concentration appears to be uniform at the 1 kg weight level, but is not uniform at the 100 g level. The number of FeS rimmed chondrules is one per 10 g. Their concentration is also nonuniform at the 100 g weight level. The number of white aggregates is roughly one per 20 g. These disc shaped objects show a distinct preferred orientation of the axis orthogonal to the plane of the disc. Chondrules with central vugs are numerous. Linear and curved arrays of chondrules, up to a few cm long, were observed. An interpretation of the observed features is given.

Smith, M. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Heymann, D.

1984-01-01

415

Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

2006-01-01

416

Stenoser i koronararterierne påvist med 64-slice-computertomografi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of 64-slice computed tomography of the coronary arteries (CTCA) with invasive coronary angiography (CA) as reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 194 patients (mean age: 62.7 ± 9.5 years, males: 97) with symptoms suggesting angina who had been referred for CA according to usual criteria. We excluded patients with known ischaemic heart disease and patients with an unstable heart rhythm. CTCA was analysed without knowledge of CA and vice versa. Stenoses > 50% were considered significant. The effective radiation (mSv) was measured with both methods. RESULTS: In 17 patients (8.8%), the CT-angiogram was not assessable. In 177 patients (91.2%) with assessable CT-angiogram, the sensitivity of CTCA was 97%, the specificity 63%, the predictive value of a positive test 58%, and the predictive value of a negative test 97%. In the 174 patients in whom CTCA was performed using retrospective technique, the effective radiation was 14.0 ± 2.3, versus 4.9 ± 2.6 at CA (p < 0.0005). In the 20 patients in whom CTCA was performed using prospective technique, the effective radiation was 5.4 ± 1.2 versus 5.9 ± 3.6 at CA (non-significant) CONCLUSION: CTCA with 64-slice scanner has a high sensitivity for demonstration coronary artery stenoses. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Oct-11

Rasmussen, Klaus; Tilsted, Hans Henrik

2010-01-01

417

Quantification and elimination of windmill artifacts in multi slice CT  

Science.gov (United States)

In multi-slice cone beam CT imaging, there are artifacts known as windmill artifacts. These artifacts are due to not satisfying the Nyquist criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. This paper quantifies and compares these artifacts as a function of the number of rows, pitch, collimation, and image thickness of the CT scanner. Scanners with rows of 16, 64 and 128 are measured and compared with simulated data, using both Helical and Axial scanning modes. In addition three focal spot switching modes are compared: the traditional within image plane mode; diagonal mode; and quad mode. All images are compared via four criteria: artifacts, MTF, SSP and noise. Results show that the frequency of the artifact, or number of blades on the windmill and magnitude of each blade, is dependent on the rate at which the rows are crossed for an image. For example, for a given pitch, doubling the rows doubles the frequency of the artifact, with each artifact approximately the magnitude. A similar result can be obtained by keeping the number of rows constant and varying the pitch. The artifact disappears as the Nyquist criteria is satisfied by either increasing the slice thickness or incorporating one of the focal spot switching modes that switch in the patient longitudinal direction. For a given MTF and SSP, the diagonal focal spot switching mode has slightly more noise while the other two are approximately equal. The artifact varies with the quad mode being the best and traditional mode being the worse.

Utrup, Steven J.; Brown, Kevin M.

2008-03-01

418

High resolution multiple slice SPECT SET-050 (HEADTOME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution multiple slice SPECT SET-050 has been developed for brain imaging. This system has a circular detector array which consists of 96 NaI bar crystals and 96 PMT's and it can make 20 slice images simultaneously. The 'TURBO-FAN collimator' is adopted in the SET-050, which offers excellent spatial resolution and sensitivity. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view is 6.6 mm FWHM for ultra high resolution (UHR) mode, 9.5 mm FWHM for high resolution (HR) mode and 15.6 mm FWHM for high sensitivity (HS) mode. System sensitivity for 90mTc i