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1

Haiti: From Charity to Justice  

Science.gov (United States)

It is not easy to learn the "real story" of Haiti; mainstream historical accounts are often told through a distorted lens of racism and colonial exploitation. Even today, in the aftermath of the quake, Haiti's poverty is blamed on poor leadership, a lack of democratic traditions, and isolation due to language. Commentators describe it as a…

LaMastra, Kevin

2010-01-01

2

A New Era for Justice Sector Reform in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the months before the January earthquake, Haiti and its criminal justice institutions were the subject of an unprecedented effort by two UN agencies to measure the state of the Rule of Law. Drawing on the results of that pre-quake assessment as well as on post-quake assessments of the justice sec...

Stone, Christopher

3

Quarks and Quakes  

CERN Multimedia

A quake model of bare strange stars for normal pulsar glitches is summarized. Three mechanisms being responsible for developing elastic stress energy are presented. It is suggested that other kinds of glitches (e.g, the frequency glitch in KS 1947+300 and in AXP/SGRs) could represent the bulk-strain-induced quakes. The apparent field increase of normal pulsars into ``magnetars'' could be the result of stellar catastrophic shrinking when the elastic force raises to a critical point.

Xu, R X

2004-01-01

4

Haiti: A Developing Nation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A proposal is made for creating a one-month study unit for the study of Haiti by eighth grade, social studies students. Background information on Haiti's geography, population, economy, culture, and history is provided. Ideas for three lesson plans on Haiti include the iron market in Haiti, Haitian history, and the role of voodoo in Haitian…

Kaufmann, Valerie

5

Orthopedic Anesthesia in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare practitioners from around the world responded almost immediately in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. This article reports on the efforts of an orthopedic trauma team in Haiti and its efforts in providing surgery without general anesthesia.

Osteen, Kristie D.

6

Orthopedic anesthesia in haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthcare practitioners from around the world responded almost immediately in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. This article reports on the efforts of an orthopedic trauma team in Haiti and its efforts in providing surgery without general anesthesia.

Osteen KD

2011-01-01

7

The naming of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

David Geggus

1997-01-01

8

NASA Imagery of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This page includes a collection of NASA images surrounding the Haiti Earthquake. Images include landslide risk maps, photos from the Terra Spacecraft, post-earthquake Port au Prince, Hispaniola topography map, anaglyph (3-D) map of southern Haiti, and 3-D topography of Port au Prince.

Nasa

9

Solar flare leaves sun quaking  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

1998-05-01

10

Citizen initiatives in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2010 earthquake in Haiti ushered in a new era for the role and power of technology and communication systems in disaster response – especially for how local responders used them.

Imogen Wall

2011-01-01

11

Haiti Crisis Map  

Science.gov (United States)

This map from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation Telascience is a mashup of satellite, topographic, and political maps, which can be toggled as overlays. All maps are of Port au Prince area, Haiti.

Schmidt, Chris; Foundation, Open S.

12

Psychological consequences of indirect exposure to disaster due to the Haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have focused on the mental health consequences of indirect exposure to disasters caused by naturally occurring hazards. The present study assessed indirect exposure to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti among Haitian-Americans now living in Miami; these subjects had no direct exposure to the earthquake, but retained their cultural identity, language, and connection to family and friends in Haiti. METHODS: Two months following the earthquake a sample of Haitian-Americans was surveyed inquiring about: (1) their psychological reactions to the quake; (2) types of exposures experienced by their family members and friends in Haiti; and (3) symptom levels of (a) major depression, (b) generalized anxiety disorder, (c) complicated grief, (d) mental health status, and (e) physical health status. RESULTS: Haitian-Americans living in Miami experienced a broad spectrum of indirect exposures to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. These exposures were strongly associated with psychological distress, trauma-related mental health consequences, and diminished health status. Most notable was the multiplicity of indirect exposures to the on-scene experiences of multiple family members and friends in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration should be given to the psychological impact and needs for support among indirectly-exposed populations with strong affiliation to directly-impacted victims.

Shultz JM; Besser A; Kelly F; Allen A; Schmitz S; Hausmann V; Marcelin LH; Neria Y

2012-08-01

13

Haiti Close to Eliminating Lymphatic Filariasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... 404) 639-3286 Haiti close to eliminating lymphatic filariasis Haiti’s public health experts are one step closer ... protected from the infectious, parasitic disease called lymphatic filariasis (LF). With some of the highest rates of ...

14

Teaching about Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

For a few harrowing weeks in January, the eyes of the world were on Haiti, struggling with the impact of a 7.0 magnitude earthquake. In the spotlight's glare, people saw the devastation wrought by the natural disaster. Viewers with a critical eye or access to alternative media also saw a U.S. military presence more focused on security than food…

Sokolower, Jody

2010-01-01

15

The Haiti House Project  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake hit the small country of Haiti, reducing buildings and homes to piles of rubble and killing thousands of people. Immediately, the people of the United States and of just about every country in the world began to devise ways to help the victims of this tragedy. After seeing a presentation that showed…

Ayers, Ann; McMillan, Ellen; McMillan, Liberty

2010-01-01

16

Reflections from Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

On Oct. 25 and 26, the authors took part in an unprecedented convening of higher education leaders in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Led by the University of Massachusetts Boston, representatives from 40 colleges and universities from across the U.S., Canada, Europe, and the Caribbean gathered with representatives from the Haitian Higher Education…

Joseph, Carole Berotte; Jenkins-Scott, Jackie

2010-01-01

17

Ionospheric anomalies associated with the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 observed by DEMETER satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the ionospheric anomalies around the time of a strong earthquake (M = 7.0) which occurred in Haiti region (18.457° N, 72.533° W) on 12 January 2010. DEMETER satellite data have been used to study the plasma parameters variation during the Haiti earthquake. One day (11 January 2010) before the earthquake there is a significant enhancement of electron density and electron temperature near the epicenter. Decrease of electron temperature is observed few days after the earthquake. Anomalous plasma parameter variations are detected both in day and nighttimes before the quake. Statistical processing of the DEMETER data demonstrates that satellite data can play an important role for the study of precursory phenomena associated with earthquakes.

S. Sarkar; S. Choudhary; A. Sonakia; A. Vishwakarma; A. K. Gwal

2012-01-01

18

Fundraising for Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! 58 750 CHF collected for Haiti! Following the appeal launched on 15 February, the CERN Management and Staff Association would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and thank the whole of the CERN community for its generosity towards the victims of the Haiti earthquake. This is a record, an unprecedented show of solidarity at CERN, equal to the immense needs following this catastrophe. Thank you on behalf of the Haitians, they will most certainly need it in the coming months.   The donations will be shared out among various institutions and associations in both Host States, in accordance with the established practice in the event of a catastrophe hitting a non-Member State. The size and activities of each of them have been taken into account. After studying the various requests for aid, the beneficiaries are now known and will receive:     - IFRC - International Federation of Red Cross   and Red&...

2010-01-01

19

Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, asses...

Piarroux, Renaud; Barrais, Robert; Faucher, Benoît; Haus, Rachel; Piarroux, Martine; Gaudart, Jean; Magloire, Roc

20

Tetanus in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1958-72, 985 cases of tetanus (excluding tetanus of the newborn) were admitted to a hospital in Haiti. Mortality was 22%, and in later years (1966-72) mortality fell. During this period the dosage of tetanus antitoxin was lowered to 10,000 units and, for sedation, diazepam has satisfactorily replaced multiple-drug regimens used in earlier years. However, good nursing, including close attention to breathing, is probably the most important item in treatment. As a result of a programme of maternal immunisation, admissions for neonatal tetanus have fallen, and mortality for this condition has been reduced to 26%.

Garnier MJ; Marshall FN; DAvison KJ; Lepreau FJ Jr

1975-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

[Disaster medicine: mission Haiti  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On January 12th, 2010, an earthquake of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale striked the southwest of Haiti, including the capital Port-au-Prince, and provoked immense human and material damages. Estimated number of victims is 300000 wounded, 230000 dead and 1000000 homeless. This disaster generated at once an immense and urgent need for sanitary resources. In this context, an emergency medical humanitarian mission was engaged by the Swiss Confederation (humanitarian aid depending on the Development and Cooperation Direction); this article describes this emergency mission, its progress, the committed staff and means, and the type of treated patients.

Gamulin A; Villiger Y; Hagon O

2010-05-01

22

Haiti, país mal dito  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay seeks to share critical reflection based on time spent in Haiti before the advent of the earthquake where the author participated on a humanitarian medical aid mission. After experiencing Haiti face to face, we came to question the superficial image that the public has about the country, disregarding both the state of human degradation present in the nation - partially revealed to the world after the earthquake - and the political forces and international economic interests that provoke and sustain this reality. The paper also reflects on the mystification processess in which international news agencies participate and the political evil that historically has kept this population in a state of neglect and exploitation as well as in a perpetual state of extreme psychic and human suffering far beyond the notion of discontentment. The mechanisms that solely blame the poor nations for their ills by hiding the real violators of human and economic rights are also pointed out from a Haitian point of view.

Christina Sutter

2010-01-01

23

Thanks from Haiti  

CERN Multimedia

Cessy, 7 September 2010 Subject: Thanks for the evening of solidarity in favour of the victims of the Haiti earthquake organised by the CERN Fitness Club. The "HAÏTI-ECOLES" Association wishes to thank everyone who took part in the event. The donation of 2080 CHF paid onto the Association's account will be transferred in its entirety to our partners in Haiti who are in charge of running the Verrettes and La Chapelle schools. They are responsible for meeting the needs of families affected by the earthquake: buying food, helping to pay the rent on small houses, payment of school fees when school starts again in September. The number of children enrolled in the schools has risen from 2300 to 2500 following the huge influx of families who fled Port au Prince in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Association's principal role is helping with the schooling of disadvantaged children in Verrettes and La Chapelle and keeping the school canteens running to make sure that the children ...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

24

Haiti: uma reconstrução em pedaços  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O fantasma do passado colonial, juntamente com o oportunismo e o pragmatismo da ajuda humanitária internacional produzem ações desencontradas no processo de reconstrução do Haiti após o terremoto.

Thiago Gehre Galvão; Rodrigo dos Santos Mota

2010-01-01

25

Haiti ja saatan / Mihhail Lotman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haiti maavärinas on süüdistatud nii USA-d kui ka üleloomulikke jõude. Vastuseks Abdul Turay artiklile "Kustutage haitilaste võlg!" ütleb autor, et päästetööd Haitil takerduvad mitte valitsuse rahapuudusesse, vaid olematusse infrastruktuuri

Lotman, Mihhail, 1952-

2010-01-01

26

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Golden Nancy; Kempker Russell; Khator Parul; Summerlee Robert; Fournier Arthur

2002-01-01

27

USGS-WHOI-DPRI Coulomb Stress-Transfer Model for the January 12, 2010, MW=7.0 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Using calculated stress changes to faults surrounding the January 12, 2010, rupture on the Enriquillo Fault, and the current (January 12 to 26, 2010) aftershock productivity, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University (DPRI) have made rough estimates of the chance of a magnitude (Mw)=7 earthquake occurring during January 27 to February 22, 2010, in Haiti. The probability of such a quake on the Port-au-Prince section of the Enriquillo Fault is about 2 percent, and the probability for the section to the west of the January 12, 2010, rupture is about 1 percent. The stress changes on the Septentrional Fault in northern Haiti are much smaller, although positive.

Lin, Jian; Stein, Ross S.; Sevilgen, Volkan; Toda, Shinji

2010-01-01

28

Probability of San Francisco quake increased  

Science.gov (United States)

The probability that a large earthquake (magnitude 7.0 or greater) will occur in the San Francisco Bay area in the next 30 years is 67%, according to a recent report by the U.S. Geological Survey. This is a substantial increase from the 50% probability estimated in a similar report released by the USGS in 1988.The new report also says that scientists estimate the probability of a M-7.0 or larger quake in the Bay area in the next 20 years is 50%, compared to 30% from the 1988 report. For the next 10 years, probability is 33%, compared with 20% in the 1988 report. The new probability estimates for the nine-county Bay area are the result of a 6-month study by the California Working Group on Earthquake Probabilities. The group consists of a 12-person panel of earthquake specialists from the USGS, the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, the University of Southern California, Stanford University, the Lamont-Doherty Geologic Observatory at Columbia University, and the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.

29

Seismic hazard maps for Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

2011-01-01

30

The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

Raviola G; Severe J; Therosme T; Oswald C; Belkin G; Eustache E

2013-09-01

31

The 2010 haiti earthquake response.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters. PMID:23954057

Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Father Eddy

2013-09-01

32

Silo Music and Silo Quake: Granular Flow Induced Vibration  

CERN Multimedia

Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. The latter is produced by stick-slip friction between the wall and the granular material in tall narrow silos. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence and frequency of flow pulsations are determined primarily by the surface properties of the granular material and the silo wall. The measurements show that the pulsating motion of the granular material drives the oscillatory motion of the silo and the occurrence of silo quake does not require a resonant interaction between the silo and the granular material.

Muite, B K; Rao, K K; Sundaresan, S; Muite, Benson K.; Quinn, Shandon F.; Sundaresan, Sankaran

2003-01-01

33

Brain gangliosides of quaking and shiverer mutants: qualitative and quantitative changes of monosialogangliosides in the quaking brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ganglioside compositions in the brains of the mutant mice quaking and shiverer were compared with those of their littermate controls, C57BL/6 and C3HSWV. Neither ganglioside content nor composition of shiverer brains differed from those of the control brains. Change in the ganglioside composition of the mutant brain from that of the control was observed only in the quaking mutant brain, in which monosialoganglioside GM1 was significantly reduced and GM4 was completely absent. The structures of the gangliosides were determined by negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and the GM3 and GM4 gangliosides in the quaking brain were found to be altered in regard to their long-chain base and fatty acid compositions when compared to the normal C57BL/6 brain.

Iwamori M; Harpin ML; Lachapelle F; Baumann N

1985-07-01

34

75 FR 3476 - Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...USCIS] RIN 1615-ZA96 Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status AGENCY...Homeland Security (Secretary) has designated Haiti for temporary protected status (TPS...nationality who last habitually resided in Haiti) who have continuously resided in...

2010-01-21

35

Haiti nutrition status survey, 1978*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Haiti National Nutrition Survey, conducted during June—September 1978, quantified the magnitude and distribution of malnutrition in young children and their mothers. Of the 5353 preschool children surveyed, 6.0% were severely wasted (less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height). Stun...

Graitcer, P. L.; Gedeon, M. A.; De Beausset, I.; Duckett, E. M.

36

Combating tropical deforestation in Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article outlines the findings of Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP), which was part of an international initiative on tropical deforestation. Ten specific recommendations are addressed. Haiti has lost more than 97% of its forestland, so emphasis should be placed on replenishing the forest cover.

Pellek, R.

1990-09-01

37

Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

Vosman, Hendrik

2010-01-01

38

Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation.

Rouzier V; Severe K; Juste MA; Peck M; Perodin C; Severe P; Deschamps MM; Verdier RI; Prince S; Francois J; Cadet JR; Guillaume FD; Wright PF; Pape JW

2013-10-01

39

Isotope hydrology evolution in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water in Haiti needs a rational management. In fact, the availability of water in Haiti can be resumed in this manner: The country receives by means 40 milliards cubic meters of water. However, 70% of this water was lost by evapotranspiration and the other part which shows the renewable water is distributed like that: 20% of amount drain along of the surface through the river and go to the sea and 10% filters through the aquifer. In Haiti water is not always on the use place it varies in an area to the other depending of some factors like: precipitation, geology, vegetation, etc. In fact, some difficulties lie in the regulation, protection and mobilization of this resource. Whereas, different needs of utilization sectors, water resources management become a need so as to be able to settle water in quality and in quantity sufficiently for natural preservation, ecosystem and else. In Haiti, we have many plains which contain aquifer. We can name them: Plaine de l'arbre, Cayes, Leogane, Gonaives et Plaine du Cul-de-Sac. The last one is the most exploited because of geographical position. In fact, since 1980 many studies on isotope hydrology have been realized on these. About Plaine du Cul-de-Sac all studies realized show almost the same result: The exploitation limit of this aquifer. Some recommendations have been done in spite of, they still continue with the anarchical exploitation of this aquifer. Many years have been passed but nothing changed. In 2001, with the cooperation of IAEA, the project aquifer integrated management of Plaine du Cul-de-Sac has been started. We have some difficulties but I think it's the one of the best ways in order to solve this problem. (author)

2007-01-01

40

Haiti, insecurity, and the politics of asylum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I seek to show how states of insecurity provoked by ongoing social, economic, and political ruptures in Haiti can disorder individual subjectivity and generate the flight of individuals seeking asylum within and across borders. Nongovernmental actors working in Haiti and with Haitia...

James, Erica C.

 
 
 
 
41

Special Event Page: August 17, 1999: Turkey Quake  

Science.gov (United States)

On August 17, 1999, an Earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale devastated Northwest Turkey. With the United Nations estimating final death tolls to top 40,000, this quake is proving to be one of the worst natural disasters in recent history. Immediately following news of the quake, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a consortium of United States Universities, posted a special event page to provide links to sites, graphics, general and technical information, and news on the recent seismic event in Turkey. Contributions made by IRIS consortium members include US Geological Survey reports, data from data stations in Poland, and links to the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Turkish Press Review.

42

QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

2010-05-01

43

Posttraumatic symptoms were worst among quake victims with injuries following the Chi-chi quake in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological health status among earthquake victims 1 year after the quake. METHOD: Two hundred and seventy-two quake victims from temporary housing units were interviewed. Posttraumatic symptoms was assessed using the Davidson Trauma Scale, Chinese version (DTS-C). Psychological health status was measured using the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ). RESULTS: The percentage of posttraumatic symptoms was 16.5%. Fifty-seven percent of the victims were found to have psychological problems using the CHQ. Posttraumatic symptoms and psychological problems were more prevalent among women (22.2% and 64%), compared with men (9.2% and 47.9%). Posttraumatic symptoms and CHQ total scores were highest among 25- to 44-year-olds, and lowest in the over-60-year group. Based on linear and logistic regression models, age and injury were the only two factors that significantly affected posttraumatic symptoms and CHQ total scores. CONCLUSION: Consistent with the previous studies, it is vitally important to continue providing psychological counseling and social support for quake victims, particularly victims who sustained an injury.

Kuo HW; Wu SJ; Ma TC; Chiu MC; Chou SY

2007-04-01

44

Special Report: Haiti. Hope for the Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

During Rene Preval's first year as president of Haiti, his country has witnessed the democratic election of a new parliament, the return of relative security, and the first hints of economic recovery. Still, massive problems remain to challenge Preval, th...

R. M. Perito

2007-01-01

45

Disseminating surgery effectively and efficiently in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for surgical care in Haiti remains vast despite the enormous relief efforts after the earthquake in 2010. As the poorest country in the Western hemisphere, Haiti lacks the necessary infrastructure to provide surgical care to its inhabitants. In light of this, a multidisciplinary approach led by Partners In Health and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center is improving the access to surgical care and offering treatment of a broad spectrum of pathology. This article discusses how postearthquake Haiti partnerships involving academic institutions can alleviate the surgical burden of disease and, in the process, serve as a profound educational experience for the academic community. The lessons learned from Haiti prove applicable in other resource-constrained settings and invaluable for the next generation of surgeons. PMID:23851780

Patel, Anup; Pfaff, Miles; Clune, James E; Mirensky, Tamar; Katona, Lindsay B; Geiling, James; Rosen, Joseph

2013-07-01

46

Disseminating surgery effectively and efficiently in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The need for surgical care in Haiti remains vast despite the enormous relief efforts after the earthquake in 2010. As the poorest country in the Western hemisphere, Haiti lacks the necessary infrastructure to provide surgical care to its inhabitants. In light of this, a multidisciplinary approach led by Partners In Health and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center is improving the access to surgical care and offering treatment of a broad spectrum of pathology. This article discusses how postearthquake Haiti partnerships involving academic institutions can alleviate the surgical burden of disease and, in the process, serve as a profound educational experience for the academic community. The lessons learned from Haiti prove applicable in other resource-constrained settings and invaluable for the next generation of surgeons.

Patel A; Pfaff M; Clune JE; Mirensky T; Katona LB; Geiling J; Rosen J

2013-07-01

47

Haiti Earthquake, Deforestation Heighten Landslide Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This photo from National Geographic shows the difference in deforestation between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The accompanying article describes the increased risk of earthquake-related landslides such deforestation carries.

Geographic, National

48

Laminated rubber for quake isolation. Menshin prime yo sekiso gomu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As an earthquake isolating technology for protecting buildings and equipment arranged therein from earthquake disasters, laminated rubber with a structure of alternately laminated thin rubber plates and iron plates is employed. The laminated rubber for earthquake isolation includes natural rubber series laminated rubber using natural rubber excellent in mechanical properties, and highly damping laminated rubber using rubber given a damping property in itself. This paper introduces the dynamic characteristics and quake isolating performance of such laminated rubber. As to the restoring characteristics, it is proved that the natural rubber series laminated rubber has little damping effect and exhibits a linear restoring force in a wide range from small deformation to large deformation, and the highly damping laminated rubber has non-linear restoring force and has a rigidity lowering with the increase in deformation, but has a damping performace, with a smooth and large histeresis loop. This paper further introduces actually demonstrated examples of the quake isolating performance of combined systems of the natural rubber series laminated rubber and various kinds of damping devices, and further introduces the structures of new multi-stage and composite types of laminated rubber. 20 refs., 18 figs.

Suzuki, S. (Bridgestone Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-02-15

49

Lipid and fatty acid composition of testes of quaking mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Testes of quaking mice (sterile mutants) and of controls were analyzed for major lipid classes and fatty acid composition. Of the main lipid classes, only cholesterol esters differed significantly in concentration between the two groups (1.01 for quakers vs 0.69 mg/g wet wt of tissue for controls). The concentration of triglycerides was 4.5-5.0 that of total phosphatides 18-19 and that of free cholesterol 1.9-2.0 mg/g for mutants and controls. The concentrations of phosphatidyl ethanolmanine and of sphingomyelin were both lower in quaking than in normal mice, but only the change in the former was statistically significant. Phosphatidyl choline was the major phosphatide (43-45% of total phosphatides) followed by phosphatidyl ethanolamine (24-26%) and sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidyl inositol (all ca. 7% of total phosphatides). Minor differences between the mutants and controls were observed in concentrations of fatty acids of major lipid classes. The mutants, sterile because of faulty spermatid differentiation, had normal quantities of 22:6 w3 and 22:5 w6. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the 22-carbon polyenes are associated with the formation of spermatids, rather than with their final differentiation into spermatozoa.

Coniglio JG; Grogan WM Jr; Harris DG; Fitzhugh ML

1975-02-01

50

Lipid and fatty acid composition of testes of quaking mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testes of quaking mice (sterile mutants) and of controls were analyzed for major lipid classes and fatty acid composition. Of the main lipid classes, only cholesterol esters differed significantly in concentration between the two groups (1.01 for quakers vs 0.69 mg/g wet wt of tissue for controls). The concentration of triglycerides was 4.5-5.0 that of total phosphatides 18-19 and that of free cholesterol 1.9-2.0 mg/g for mutants and controls. The concentrations of phosphatidyl ethanolmanine and of sphingomyelin were both lower in quaking than in normal mice, but only the change in the former was statistically significant. Phosphatidyl choline was the major phosphatide (43-45% of total phosphatides) followed by phosphatidyl ethanolamine (24-26%) and sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidyl inositol (all ca. 7% of total phosphatides). Minor differences between the mutants and controls were observed in concentrations of fatty acids of major lipid classes. The mutants, sterile because of faulty spermatid differentiation, had normal quantities of 22:6 w3 and 22:5 w6. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the 22-carbon polyenes are associated with the formation of spermatids, rather than with their final differentiation into spermatozoa. PMID:1117801

Coniglio, J G; Grogan, W M; Harris, D G; Fitzhugh, M L

1975-02-01

51

U.S. in the World: Vermont/Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Vermont and Haiti were both born of tumultuous revolutions, as Vermont formed an independent republic in the late 1700s, and Haiti won independence from France after a 12-year revolution in 1804. Read about how although geographically the same size, Haiti's population is nearly ten times as great as Vermont's, contributing to deforestation and soil erosion, and thus creating many challenges.

Bureau, Population R.

52

Haiti Unbound: A Spiralist Challenge to the Postcolonial Canon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Touching on the role and destiny of Haiti in the Americas, Haiti Unbound engages with long-standing issues of imperialism and resistance culture in the transatlantic world. Glover's timely project emphatically articulates Haiti's regional and global centrality, combining vital 'big picture' reflecti...

Glover, Kaiama L.

53

Haiti. Energy situation 1992/93. Haiti. Energiewirtschaft 1992/93  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Haiti is reviewed on the basis of selected data. This includes statistics on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. (UA)

1994-01-01

54

Slice thread feeding machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a slice silk feeding machine, which comprises a slice silk feeding lifting device and an air separation feeder, which are connected together. The slice silk feeding lifting device comprises a slice silk feed preparation unit and a slice silk lifting unit, which are connected together. By using the slice silk feeding machine provided in the utility model, the slice silk fed into the feeder can achieve qualified suspension velocity, and satisfy air separation requirement, so as to be effectively separated out.

XIAN ZHANG; YAN ZHANG

55

77 FR 76503 - Extension of the Re-registration Period for Haiti Temporary Protected Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...Extension of the Re-registration Period for Haiti Temporary Protected Status AGENCY: U...Secretary) extended the designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status (TPS...through this Notice. DATES: DHS extended Haiti TPS on October 1, 2012. The...

2012-12-28

56

Chloroquine susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In January and February 1982, in vivo and in vitro studies of the chloroquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum were conducted in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Of 19 infections tested in vivo using the WHO extended test, all but one were susceptible to the drug; the remaining case showed a recurrence of...

Magloire, Roc; Nguyen-Dinh, Phuc

57

Haiti MapServer - GIS data  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the University of Kansas provides links to GIS data from the Haiti Earthquake. The map is a georeferenced version of a 1994 Defense Mapping Agency 1:12,500 scale map of Port-au-Prince and surrounding area.

Kansas Biological Survey, University O.

58

Migration, remittances and children's schooling in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we focus on the use of remittances to school children remaining in migrant communities in Haiti. After addressing the endogeneity of remittance receipt, we find that remittances raise school attendance for all children in some communities regardless of whether they have household memb...

Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Georges, Annie; Pozo, Susan

59

In Haiti, a Rare Leg Up  

Science.gov (United States)

This article features Haitian Education & Leadership Program, Haiti's largest university-scholarship program, which provides merit scholarships to students in the top 10 percent of their high-school classes in the country's poorest areas. On average, the scholarships pay students $4,100, which covers tuition, textbooks, and school supplies, basic…

Campbell, Monica

2007-01-01

60

Neuronal avalanches, epileptic quakes and other transient forms of neurodynamics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Power-law behaviors in brain activity in healthy animals, in the form of neuronal avalanches, potentially benefit the computational activities of the brain, including information storage, transmission and processing. In contrast, power-law behaviors associated with seizures, in the form of epileptic quakes, potentially interfere with the brain's computational activities. This review draws attention to the potential roles played by homeostatic mechanisms and multistable time-delayed recurrent inhibitory loops in the generation of power-law phenomena. Moreover, it is suggested that distinctions between health and disease are scale-dependent. In other words, what is abnormal and defines disease it is not the propagation of neural activity but the propagation of activity in a neural population that is large enough to interfere with the normal activities of the brain. From this point of view, epilepsy is a disease that results from a failure of mechanisms, possibly located in part in the cortex itself or in the deep brain nuclei and brainstem, which truncate or otherwise confine the spatiotemporal scales of these power-law phenomena.

Milton JG

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Neuronal avalanches, epileptic quakes and other transient forms of neurodynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Power-law behaviors in brain activity in healthy animals, in the form of neuronal avalanches, potentially benefit the computational activities of the brain, including information storage, transmission and processing. In contrast, power-law behaviors associated with seizures, in the form of epileptic quakes, potentially interfere with the brain's computational activities. This review draws attention to the potential roles played by homeostatic mechanisms and multistable time-delayed recurrent inhibitory loops in the generation of power-law phenomena. Moreover, it is suggested that distinctions between health and disease are scale-dependent. In other words, what is abnormal and defines disease it is not the propagation of neural activity but the propagation of activity in a neural population that is large enough to interfere with the normal activities of the brain. From this point of view, epilepsy is a disease that results from a failure of mechanisms, possibly located in part in the cortex itself or in the deep brain nuclei and brainstem, which truncate or otherwise confine the spatiotemporal scales of these power-law phenomena. PMID:22805061

Milton, John G

2012-07-01

62

Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

Reimer AR; Van Domselaar G; Stroika S; Walker M; Kent H; Tarr C; Talkington D; Rowe L; Olsen-Rasmussen M; Frace M; Sammons S; Dahourou GA; Boncy J; Smith AM; Mabon P; Petkau A; Graham M; Gilmour MW; Gerner-Smidt P

2011-11-01

63

QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC), and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

Danijel Schorlemmer; Fabian Euchner; Philipp Kästli; Joachim Saul

2011-01-01

64

ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2006-01-01

65

Pseudo-slice knots  

CERN Document Server

For n >1, if the Seifert form of a knotted 2n-1 sphere K in S^{2n+1} has a metabolizer, then the knot is slice. Casson and Gordon proved that this is false in dimension three (n = 1). However, in the three dimensional case it is true that if the metabolizer has a basis represented by a strongly slice link then K is slice. The question has been asked as to whether it is sufficient that each basis element is represented by a slice knot to assure that K is slice. For genus one knots this is of course true; here we present a genus two counterexample.

Livingston, C

2000-01-01

66

The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Conclusion Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

Koenig Serena P; Riviere Cynthia; Leger Paul; Severe Patrice; Atwood Sidney; Fitzgerald Daniel W; Pape Jean W; Schackman Bruce R

2008-01-01

67

Influence of Weather Conditions on the Surface Morphology and Wetting Behaviour of Superhydrophobic Quaking Aspen Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different environmental conditions on the wetting properties and surface morphology of surperhydrophobic quaking aspen leaves harvested during the 2011 growth season are examined. During this particular season quaking aspen leaves were not able to retain their superhydrophobic properties and associated surface structure features as they have usually been able to do in other years. Representative scanning electron microscopy images and wetting property measurements of quaking aspen leaf surfaces harvested throughout this season are presented and discussed with the objective of linking weather induced environmental stresses that occurred in 2011 to the sudden and unusual reduction in non-wetting properties and drastic changes in leaf surface structure. Erosion and regeneration rates of leaf wax crystals and the impact that environmental factors can have on these are considered and used to explain the occurrence of these unexpected changes.

J. J. Victor; U. Erb

2013-01-01

68

Cholera Management and Prevention at Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 2010, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer Haiti treated some of the first patients with cholera in Haiti. Over the following 10 months, a strategic plan was developed and implemented to improve the management of cases at the hospital level and to address the underlying risk factors at the community...

Ernst, Silvia; Weinrobe, Carolyn; Bien-Aime, Charbel; Rawson, Ian

69

Microbiological laboratory results from Haiti: June-October 1995.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From June to October 1995, the U.S. Army's 86th Combat Support Hospital was deployed in Haiti in support of the United Nations peacekeeping mission. The hospital's mission was to provide comprehensive health care to United Nations military and civilian personnel in Haiti. The hospital's laboratory, ...

Drabick, J. J.; Gambel, J. M.; Huck, E.; De Young, S.; Hardeman, L.

70

Teachers' Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

After conducting a thorough review of the state of inclusion of students with disabilities in Haiti, the authors present a study that investigates the attitudes of urban and rural teachers in Haiti toward inclusion. Participants were administered the Opinions Relative to Integration (ORI) of Students with Disabilities instrument. Reliability of…

Dupoux, Errol; Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence; Wolman, Clara

2006-01-01

71

Cholera management and prevention at Hopital Albert Schweitzer, Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In October 2010, Hopital Albert Schweitzer Haiti treated some of the first patients with cholera in Haiti. Over the following 10 months, a strategic plan was developed and implemented to improve the management of cases at the hospital level and to address the underlying risk factors at the community level.

Ernst S; Weinrobe C; Bien-Aime C; Rawson I

2011-11-01

72

Securing peace in Haiti :an assessment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on assessing the role of the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH) in providing stability, security and respect for human rights and the rule of law in Haiti. The proposition is that the efforts have been ineffective and goes on to ask the question whether such an outsid...

Ceïde, Edwin Luc

73

Silicon slicing by fixed abrasive slicing technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major cost factors in silicon ingot technology adaptation for terrestrial photovoltaic application is in slicing boules into wafers. The most developed industrial practice is the Internal Diameter (ID) slicing. This method utilizes diamond cutting. The diamond stands up for long periods, hence, the cost of expendable materials is low. However, the ID technology as practiced today has poor material utilization. The Multiblade Slurry (MBS) method has low equipment and labor costs but its expendable material costs are high. Recently Multiwire Slurry (MWS) technology has shown very good material utilization, but its expendable material costs are even higher than MBS. The multiwire Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST) still in advanced development stage, combines the low expendable material costs of ID method, the low labor and equipment costs of MBS and high material utilization of MWS.

Schmid, F.; Khattak, C.P.

1982-12-01

74

Amorphous Program Slicing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper introduces amorphous program slicing.Like traditional slicing, amorphous slicing simplifiesa program while preserving a projection of its semantics.Unlike traditional slicing, amorphous slicingmay make use of any simplifying transformationwhich preserves this semantic projection, thereby improvingupon the simplification power of traditionalslicing and consequently its applicability to programcomprehension.The paper also introduces a theoretical frameworkof program projection. A projection is defined withrespect to an equivalence relation on programs togetherwith a simplicity measure (an ordering on programs). Having defined this framework, amorphousand traditional forms of static and conditioned sliceare defined by instantiating the definition of a projectionwith different equivalence and ordering relations.The projection framework helps to containthe potential explosion in slicing paradigms and facilitatescomparison across the boundaries of theseparadigms.1

Mark Harman; Sebastian Danicic; Eden Grove; N Db

75

Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () Haiti.

Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

2013-01-01

76

Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll  

Science.gov (United States)

Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

2013-05-01

77

The Environmental History of the Republic of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides a collection of articles about the environmental and economic decline of Haiti. The articles document the effects of deforestation and ensuring erosion and erosion-related problems. .

Brown, Haines; Publishing, Hartford W.

78

M7.0 Haiti Earthquake and Aftershocks  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the US Geological Survey shows the aftershocks of the Haiti Earthquake plotted on a Google Map. The size of each place marker corresponds to the magnitude of each aftershock. Click each one for additional information.

Survey, United S.

79

Haiti's adaptation practices to natural forces between 1850-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominic an Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominic an Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th and 20th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, migration and urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 have systematically exposed more people to natural forces, such as tropical storms an floods.

Klose, C. D.

2011-12-01

80

QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

New Constructions of Slice Links  

CERN Document Server

We use techniques of Freedman and Teichner to prove that, under certain circumstances, the multi-infection of a slice link is again slice (not necessarily smoothly slice). We provide a general context for proving links are slice that includes many of the previously known results.

Cochran, Tim D; Teichner, Peter

2007-01-01

82

On the Slice Spectral Sequence  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a variant of the slice spectral sequence which uses only regular slice cells, and state the precise relationship between the two spectral sequences. We analyze how the slice filtration of an equivariant spectrum that is concentrated over a normal subgroup is related to the slice filtration of its geometric fixed points, and use this to prove a conjecture of Hill on the slice filtration of an Eilenberg MacLane spectrum. We also show how the (co)connectivity of a spectrum results in the (co)connectivity of its slice tower, demonstrating the "efficiency" of the slice spectral sequence.

Ullman, John

2012-01-01

83

The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting bo...

Agarwal, Aarti; McMorrow, Meredith; Arguin, Paul M.

84

INCREASED DRINKING WATER SUPPLY THROUGH IMPROVED CISTERN CONSTRUCTION IN BARASA HAITI  

Science.gov (United States)

Barasa, Haiti is an extremely poor, isolated rural community located on the side of a mountain. Cisterns in Barasa, Haiti are the preferred method to collect and store water for household use. Local masons build cisterns in Haiti which provides jobs for local people. The local...

85

IMPROVED COOK STOVES FOR HAITI USING THERMOELECTRICS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, is plagued with continual problems due to severe deforestation throughout the country. Haiti was once nearly completely covered by lush forest, but now less than three percent of Haiti is forested. This environmental cala...

86

Slicing, skinning, and grafting  

CERN Multimedia

We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

Dumas, David

2007-01-01

87

A Case Study of the Desertification of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Haiti is one of the largest Caribbean nations only 20% of the land under cultivation is appropriate for agriculture. Once covered by forest, this country has been heavily logged and now mostly deforested. The majority of the arable land is being farmed beyond their carrying capacity.  The total area under agriculture production is 6 times greater than the estimated areas suitable for agriculture resulting in significant deterioration of the land. Both national  and international governments have made several attempts to combat desertification but few initiatives have been successful. This research will (1) review the current literature pertaining to desertification, with special emphasis on Haiti, (2) review the impact of internal and external programs designed to reverse the effects of desertification,  (3) compare the  indicators of desertification that exist on the island of Hispaniola, and (4) discuss the consequences of desertification for Haiti.                                           

Vereda Johnson Williams

2011-01-01

88

Hydro-Quebec line crew returns home from Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article recounted the experience of a 14-member Hydro-Quebec line crew and support group that travelled to Haiti in November 2004 to help re-establish essential electricity services. The work was conducted together with Electricite d'Haiti (EDH). The team installed 400 poles, 10 km of conductors and 85 transformers, restoring service to water pumps; La Providence and Raboteau hospitals; a centre housing Doctors without borders; a CARE distribution centre; and several convents and schools. The installation of street lights at strategic points allowed lighting to be restored in several districts of Gonaives. Hydro-Quebec was able to extend their mission to Haiti and purchase more poles and transformers with the help of a $500,000 contribution from the Canadian International Development Agency. Hydro-Quebec was the only company who came to the aid of EDH. The total budget for the project was $4 million. 2 figs.

Horne, D.

2005-04-01

89

Cholera in Haiti: reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (R(0)). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. R(0) varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an (R(0)) <1, which would suppress transmission. In the current debate on the use of cholera vaccines in endemic and non-endemic regions, our results suggest that moderate cholera vaccine coverage would be an important element of disease control in Haiti.

Mukandavire Z; Smith DL; Morris JG Jr

2013-01-01

90

On slicing invariants of knots  

CERN Document Server

The slicing number of a knot, $u_s(K)$, is the minimum number of crossing changes required to convert $K$ to a slice knot. This invariant is bounded above by the unknotting number and below by the slice genus $g_s(K)$. We show that for many knots, previous bounds on unknotting number obtained by Ozsvath and Szabo and by the author in fact give bounds on the slicing number. Livingston defined another invariant $U_s(K)$ which takes into account signs of crossings changed to get a slice knot, and which is bounded above by the slicing number and below by the slice genus. We exhibit an infinite family of knots $K_n$ with slice genus $n$ and Livingston invariant greater than $n$. Our bounds are based on restrictions (using Donaldson's diagonalisation theorem or Heegaard Floer homology) on the intersection forms of four-manifolds bounded by the double branched cover of a knot.

Owens, Brendan

2008-01-01

91

The Quake-Catcher Network: Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the Quake-Catcher Network is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. With greater understanding, teachers, students, and interested individuals can share their new knowledge, resulting in continued participation in the project, and better preparation for earthquakes in their homes, businesses, and communities. The primary educational outreach goals are 1) to present earthquake science and earthquake hazards in a modern and exciting way, and 2) to provide teachers and educators with seismic sensors, interactive software, and educational modules to assist in earthquake education. QCNLive (our interactive educational computer software) displays recent and historic earthquake locations and 3-axis real-time acceleration measurements. This tool is useful for demonstrations and active engagement for all ages, from K-college. QCN provides subsidized sensors at 49 for the general public and 5 for K-12 teachers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes to a broader audience. Academics are taking QCN to classrooms across the United States and around the world. The next time you visit a K-12 classroom or teach a college class on interpreting seismograms, bring a QCN sensor and QCNLive software with you! To learn how, visit http://qcn.stanford.edu.

Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Saltzman, J.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

2011-12-01

92

Disaster mobile health technology: lessons from Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Mobile health (mHealth) technology can play a critical role in improving disaster victim tracking, triage, patient care, facility management, and theater-wide decision-making. Problem: To date, no disaster mHealth application provides responders with adequate capabilities to function in an austere environment. METHODS: The Operational Medicine Institute (OMI) conducted a qualitative trial of a modified version of the off-the-shelf application iChart at the Fond Parisien Disaster Rescue Camp during the large-scale response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. RESULTS: The iChart mHealth system created a patient log of 617 unique entries used by on-the-ground medical providers and field hospital administrators to facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: The trial demonstrated that even a non-disaster specific application with significant programmatic limitations was an improvement over existing patient tracking and facility management systems. A unified electronic medical record and patient tracking system would add significant value to first responder capabilities in the disaster response setting.

Callaway DW; Peabody CR; Hoffman A; Cote E; Moulton S; Baez AA; Nathanson L

2012-04-01

93

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sites, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

María del Marquetti Fernández; Yvan Saint Jean; Carlos A Fuster Callaba; Lorenzo Somarriba López

2012-01-01

94

The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Aedes albopictus was found in six of the 10 departments of Haiti and in 14 of the 35 communes surveyed. The survey found the larvae of Ae. albopictus in 13 different types of containers. Used tires and tins were by far the most common breeding sites used by this mosquito species. At the breeding sites, Ae. albopictus was associated with other mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes mediovittatus. The highest proportion of association was with Ae. aegypti. This study represents the first report of Ae. albopictus in Haiti.

Marquetti Fernández, María del; Jean, Yvan Saint; Fuster Callaba, Carlos A; Somarriba López, Lorenzo

2012-03-01

95

Disaster relief: helping the survivors of the Haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic in the Caribbean Sea. On January 12, the country was the site of an earthquake, measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale, with the epicentre about 16 miles west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake caused widespread loss of life and damage, and many organisations responded to appeals from the Haitian people for humanitarian aid. Among these was the UK-based charity Merlin. Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust emergency nurse Deb Lau works for Merlin and here she describes what happened when she travelled to Haiti to help provide medical relief.

Lau D

2010-03-01

96

Pineapple slices and their production  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A kind of pineapple slices as a between-meal eatable is proportionally prepared from pineapple, edible salt, sodium hydrogen sulfite and white sugar through removing the skin from fresh pineapple, slicing, proportionally mixing edible salt, sodium hydrogen sulfite and white sugar, dissolving the mixture in purified water, immersing said pineapple slices is the solution for 20 min, and baking.

ZHAO FA

97

Slices of the Kerr ergosurface  

CERN Document Server

The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr, and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit, and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

Jacobson, Ted

2008-01-01

98

Normal surfaces as combinatorial slicings  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate slicings of combinatorial manifolds as properly embedded co-dimension 1 submanifolds. A focus is given to dimension 3 where slicings are normal surfaces. In the case of 2-neighborly 3-manifolds and quadrangulated slicings, a lower bound on the number of quadrilaterals of normal surfaces depending on the genus g is presented. It is shown to be sharp for infinitely many values of g. Furthermore we classify slicings of combinatorial 3-manifolds with a maximum number of edges in the slicing.

Spreer, Jonathan

2010-01-01

99

Slices of the Kerr ergosurface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intrinsic geometry of the Kerr ergosurface on constant Boyer-Lindquist (BL), Kerr and Doran time slices is characterized. Unlike the BL slice, which had been previously studied, the other slices (i) do not have conical singularities at the poles (except the Doran slice in the extremal limit), (ii) have finite polar circumference in the extremal limit and (iii) for sufficiently large spin parameter fail to be isometrically embeddable as a surface of revolution above some latitude. The Doran slice develops an embeddable polar cap for spin parameters greater than about 0.96.

2009-03-07

100

Topography Along the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden Fault, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This Earth Observatory image of the day shows the location of the faultline that caused the January 13 Haiti earthquake. The article includes a description of the event and an explanation of what caused the earthquake. It also includes a link to a larger image of the area.

2010-01-29

 
 
 
 
101

Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2010-01-01

102

Migration, remittances and educational outcomes: The case of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the Cox proportional hazards model this paper empirically investigates how migration of household members and the receipt of remittances affect educational outcomes in Haiti. Based on a theoretical approach it tries to disentangle the effects of both phenomena that have mostly been jointly mod...

Bredl, Sebastian

103

Digital Globe sample imagery gallery: Port au Prince, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewer presents imagery produced by Digital Globe of Haiti both before and after the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Users can select "before" imagery, select a particular day's views to see, or pick the most recent imagery which is automatically updated.

104

Malaria Survey in Post-Earthquake Haiti—2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population collaborated with global partners to enhance malaria surveillance in two disaster-affected areas within 3 months of the January 2010 earthquake. Data were collected between March 4 and April 9, 2010 by mobile medical teams. Malaria rapid diagnostic te...

Townes, David; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Magloire, Roc; Vely, Jean-Francois; Amsalu, Ribka; Tavernier, Marleen De

105

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associ...

Ocheretina, Oksana; Morose, Willy; Gauthier, Marie; Joseph, Patrice; D'Meza, Richard; Escuyer, Vincent E; Rastogi, Nalin

106

HIV/AIDS Teaching Behaviors of Educators in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the predictive power of knowledge, attitudes, support for AIDS education, teaching comfort, perceived behavioral control, religious (Vodoun and Christian) beliefs, and subjective norms on Haitian educators' teaching of HIV/AIDS to their students. Two hundred and fourteen teachers from Jeremie and surrounding areas in Haiti

Martel, Lise D.; Mueller, Charles W.

2006-01-01

107

Migration, Remittances and Educational Outcomes: The Case of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper empirically investigates how migration and the receipt of remittances affect educational outcomes in Haiti. Based on a theoretical approach it tries to disentangle the effects of both phenomena that have mostly been jointly modeled in previous literature. The results suggest that remittances play an important role for poor households in…

Bredl, Sebastian

2011-01-01

108

Constitution without constitutionalism : Haiti and the vagaries of democratization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the role that constitution and constitutionalism play in the making of polyarchical rule. Author also examines their relationship to class power, political institutions, culture, and leadership. He argues that constitution does not make for an effective form of constitutionalism. Concludes that meaningful democratization in Haiti is difficult if class relations do not change drastically and are equalized.

Robert Fatton Jr.

2000-01-01

109

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti?This article discusses the relations between the educational system and social inequalities in Haiti. A case study of catholic schools helps to understand how the Haitian educational system was built and how socio-educational inequalities can be produced and maintained by this system. At the end, is discussed also how schools can contribute to social change in Haiti.

Louis Auguste Joint

2008-01-01

110

Sistema educacional e desigualdades sociais no Haiti: o caso das escolas católicas/ The educational system and social unequalities in Haiti: catholic schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute as relações entre o sistema educacional e as desigualdades sociais no Haiti a partir de um estudo de caso das escolas católicas. Na primeira parte discutirei como o sistema educacional do Haiti foi construído; em seguida, apresentarei algumas desigualdades sócio-educacionais que se manifestam no sistema; por fim, proporei uma reflexão sobre a questão: como a escola pode contribuir para uma mudança social no Haiti? Abstract in english This article discusses the relations between the educational system and social inequalities in Haiti. A case study of catholic schools helps to understand how the Haitian educational system was built and how socio-educational inequalities can be produced and maintained by this system. At the end, is discussed also how schools can contribute to social change in Haiti.

Joint, Louis Auguste

2008-08-01

111

78 FR 61375 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Quaking-Induced Conversion (QUIC) for Detection of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quaking-Induced Conversion (QUIC) for Detection of Prions AGENCY: National Institutes...E-109-2007/1-US-04]; Each entitled ``Detection of Infectious Prion Protein by Seeded...relates to methods and compositions for the detection of infectious proteins or prions...

2013-10-03

112

The Proximal End of Mouse Chromosome 17: New Molecular Markers Identify a Deletion Associated with Quaking(viable)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five randomly identified cosmids have been mapped proximal to the Leh66D locus on mouse chromosome 17. Two of these cosmids, Au10 and Au119, map near the neurological mutation quaking. Au119 is deleted in qk(viable)/qk(viable) DNA, whereas Au10 is not. Au76 maps to a gene-rich region near the Tme lo...

Ebersole, T.; Rho, O.; Artzt, K.

113

HAITI: MUCH ATTENTION, NO RESULTS. WHY DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DOESN’T WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is an excerpt, with little adaptation, from the master thesis: “Project management’s contribution to international cooperation. How to make things work: ODA in Haiti” wrote under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Horst Brezinski from Technical University Freiberg Bergakademie and Prof. Dr. Eng.. Sabina Irimie from University of Petrosani, while benefiting from an Erasmus study scholarship at the first mentioned institution. It presents the case of Haiti, a small country facing big challenges and enjoying plenty of international attention especially due to the recent earthquake that struck the country at the beginning of 2010. The SWOT analysis inside the paper offers a detailed view of Haiti’s actual situation, identifying in the same time its problems and the variables that should be taken into consideration when designing programmes and projects targeting Haiti’s development.

ANDREEA MARI?; SABINA IRIMIE

2011-01-01

114

The Riley slice revisited  

CERN Document Server

In [4]: `The Riley slice of Schottky space', (Proc. London Math. Soc. 69 (1994), 72-90), Keen and Series analysed the theory of pleating coordinates in the context of the Riley slice of Schottky space R, the deformation space of a genus two handlebody generated by two parabolics. This theory aims to give a complete description of the deformation space of a holomorphic family of Kleinian groups in terms of the bending lamination of the convex hull boundary of the associated three manifold. In this note, we review the present status of the theory and discuss more carefully than in [4] the enumeration of the possible bending laminations for R, complicated in this case by the fact that the associated three manifold has compressible boundary. We correct two complementary errors in [4], which arose from subtleties of the enumeration, in particular showing that, contrary to the assertion made in [4], the pleating rays, namely the loci in R in which the projective measure class of the bending lamination is fixed, hav...

Komori, Y; Komori, Yohei; Series, Caroline

1998-01-01

115

Cooking method of chicken slices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cooking method of chicken slices, comprising the following steps: butchering live chickens in sequence, removing chicken feathers, cleaning by opening the chests of the chicken and removing moisture on the surfaces of the chickens. After that, the cooking method for each chicken comprises the following steps: putting each chicken into a boiler with condiment adding water until that the chicken is immersed boiling the chickenwith intense fire and keeping at 10 minutes taking out the chicken from the boiler and drying then slicing the chicken putting the chicken slices into a container pouring the soup blend in the boiler onto the chicken slices pouring sesame oil and vinegar onto the chicken slices sprinkling chicken essence onto the chicken slices vacuum packing the container sterilizing under high temperature and obtaining finished products, wherein, the condiment is sugar, ginger, welsh onion, star anise, spice leaf, salt, fennel and liquorice. The chicken slices which are cooked by the method have a good consistency from the exterior chicken slices to the interior chicken slices, are tasted good, and are convenient for eating.

LIMIN HUANG

116

Slices of motivic Landweber spectra  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Conjecture of Voevodsky concerning slices of the algebraic cobordism spectrum MGL implies a general statement about the slices of motivic Landweber spectra. In particular it confirms the possible approach suggested by Voevodsky for the computation of the slices of the homotopy algebraic K-theory spectrum KGL via a Conner-Floyd isomorphism complementing Levine's unconditional proof of these slices over perfect fields. A similar result, and Voevodsky's conjecture over fields of char. 0, are also announced by Hopkins-Morel.

Spitzweck, Markus

2008-01-01

117

Magnitude scale for LP events: a quantification scheme for volcanic quakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The peculiar source characteristics of long-period seismic events (time persistency of the source, low-frequency peaks in the source spectrum, absence of high-frequency radiation) prevent the formation of a definite high-frequency coda in the seismograms. In contrast, this is well formed in volcano-tectonic quakes. For this reason, the widely used duration magnitude scale that is based on the proportionality between the energy and the coda duration cannot be used for long-period estimation. In observatory practice, the long-period magnitude is sometimes estimated using the same duration magnitude scale, leading to confusing results. In this report, we show a new method to estimate the magnitude of long-period events that generally occur for volcanoes, with some application examples from data for Mt Etna (Italy), Colima Volcano (Mexico) and Campi Flegrei (Italy).

Del Pezzo, E.; Bianco, F.; Borgna, I.

2013-08-01

118

X-Ray Flares of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Quakes of Solid Quark Stars?  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a star-quake model to understand X-ray flares of both long and short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, i.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 10^3 to 10^6 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transition is a few MeV, and then a new source of free energy (i.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

Xu, Renxin

2008-01-01

119

Magneto-dipole radiation of quaking neutron star powered by energy of Alfven seismic vibrations  

CERN Document Server

We compute characteristic parameters of magneto-dipole radiation of a neutron star undergoing torsional seismic vibrations under the action of Lorentz restoring force about axis of dipolar magnetic field experiencing decay. After brief outlook of general theoretical background of the model of vibration powered neutron star, we present numerical estimates of basic vibration and radiation characteristics, such as the oscillation frequency, lifetime, luminosity of radiation, and investigate their time dependence upon magnetic field decay. The presented analysis suggests that gradual decrease in frequencies of pulsating high-energy emission detected from a handful of currently monitoring AXP/SGR-like X-ray sources can be explained as being produced by vibration powered magneto-dipole radiation of quaking magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I V

2011-01-01

120

Torsional seismic vibrations of solid crust in quaking paramagnetic neutron star  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate an asteroseismic model of non-rotating paramagnetic neutron star with core-crust stratification of interior pervaded by homogeneous internal and dipolar external magnetic field. Focus is on post-quake vibrational relaxation by torsional shear oscillations of electron-nuclear solid-state plasma in the metal-like crust about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile core. In accord with basic physics underlying the very notion of a neutron star and indirect observational evidence of the dipole configuration of magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars, the model under consideration presumes that micro-composition of core material is dominated by degenerate neutron matter in the state of Pauli's paramagnetic permanent magnetization caused by polarizations of spin magnetic moments of neutrons along magnetic axis of the star. Particular attention is given to the regime of node-free differentially rotational vibrations of crust against immobile core driven by Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic f...

Bastrukov, S I; Chang, H -K; Takata, J

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

On the persistency of crater assignment criteria for Stromboli explosion-quakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of the results of previous works by our group, this paper aims to investigate the correlation between features of a kind of seismic events recorded at Stromboli (the so called explosion-quakes) and the source of such explosions, i.e. the different craters. The purpose is that of finding parameters in order to try an automatic assignment of new events to their crater of origin. These parameters must be searched for both in time and in frequency domain. Afterwards the stability in time of the discrimination is discussed. An important « side effect» of this analysis is the discovery that the percentage of summital explosions not producing seismic signals recordable by a 2 s seismometer is not negligible.

R. Carniel; F. Iacop

1996-01-01

122

RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS  

CERN Multimedia

The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

Rudolph, J

2011-01-01

123

Order 2 algebraically slice knots  

CERN Multimedia

The concordance group of algebraically slice knots in the 3-sphere is shown to contain an infinite subgroup generated by elements of order 2. These are the first examples of algebraically slice knots representing nontrivial elements of finite order in the concordance group. The result holds smoothly and in the topological, locally flat, category.

Livingston, C

1999-01-01

124

Global Hyperbolicity of Sliced Spaces  

CERN Multimedia

We show that for generic sliced spacetimes global hyperbolicity is equivalent to space completeness under the assumption that the lapse, shift and spatial metric are uniformly bounded. This leads us to the conclusion that simple sliced spaces are timelike and null geodesically complete if and only if space is a complete Riemannian manifold.

Cotsakis, S

2004-01-01

125

Slices of the unitary spread  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove that slices of the unitary spread of Q(+)(7, q), q equivalent to 2 (mod 3), can be partitioned into five disjoint classes. Slices belonging to different classes are non-equivalent under the action of the subgroup of P Gamma O+(8, q) fixing the unitary spread. When q is even, there is a conn...

Lunardon, Guglielmo; Parlato, Laura; Pepe, Valentina; Trombetti, Rocco

126

Dianthus plant named 'Apple Slice'  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new and distinct cultivar of perennial Carnation or Pinks, Dianthus plant named 'Apple Slice' with long-blooming, fragrant, highly double flowers and petals with a central rose pink zone surrounded on the outside and usually bisected down the middle with a magenta border. Dianthus 'Apple Slice' is tolerant of high temperatures and resists center dying out.

HURD KEVIN A

127

Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

Streicher, A.

1985-03-28

128

Cholera in Haiti and other Caribbean regions, 19th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833-1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850-1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865-1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands.

Jenson D; Szabo V

2011-11-01

129

75 FR 78215 - Limitation of Duty-free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity...Energy Act of 2008 (``HOPE II''); the Haiti Economic Lift Program Act of 2010...apparel articles imported directly from Haiti. Section 213A(b)(1)(B) of...

2010-12-15

130

77 FR 75148 - Limitation of Duty-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Haiti Under the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity...apparel articles imported directly from Haiti. Section 213A(b)(1)(B) of HOPE...wholly assembled, or knit-to-shape, in Haiti from any combination of fabrics,...

2012-12-19

131

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niños discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fotográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país.

Nancy Golden; Russell Kempker; Parul Khator; Robert Summerlee; Arthur Fournier

2002-01-01

132

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao eliminar de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica.Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated with incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating from consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Dale Tomich

2009-01-01

133

Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti/ Rubéola congénita en Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar si la rubéola congénita es un problema no reconocido en Haití, país que no dispone de un programa nacional de vacunación contra esta enfermedad. Métodos. Entre marzo y junio de 2001 se realizaron exámenes físicos a unos 80 huérfanos de tres orfanatos de Haití que aceptan a niños discapacitados. El diagnóstico de probable rubéola congénita se basó en criterios clínicos establecidos. Siempre que fuera posible se obtuvo documentación fo (more) tográfica. Resultados. Seis niños cumplieron los criterios de probable rubéola congénita. Usando datos de los países vecinos del Caribe y de los Estados Unidos de América anteriores a la vacunación contra la rubéola, se calculó que cada año hay 163 a 440 nuevos casos de rubéola congénita en Haití. Conclusiones. Sigue existiendo rubéola congénita en Haití, pero generalmente no se reconoce. Se debería considerar la implantación de una política nacional de vacunación contra la rubéola en ese país. Abstract in english Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever poss (more) ible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

Golden, Nancy; Kempker, Russell; Khator, Parul; Summerlee, Robert; Fournier, Arthur

2002-10-01

134

The geomorphic context of flood hazards in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Devastating floods struck Fonds Verrettes, Mapou, and Gonaives, Haiti in 2004, killing thousands and calling attention to the threat of catastrophic flooding in that country. That threat provides a focus for expanding collaborations in field and service learning in Haiti. Past field and service-learning collaboration with Universite Notre Dame d'Haiti (UNDH) resulted in an invitation to evaluate the flooding potential of Haiti's largest city - Port-au-Prince. High population densities, land cover change, the geomorphic setting of Port-au-Prince, combine to make that city particularly vulnerable to catastrophic flooding. Climate change and associated sea level rise are also a concern. Port-au-Prince lies at the foot of steeply sloping mountain areas of the Massif de La Selle. Much of the urban area is built on alluvial fans, coastal plains, and recent deltaic deposits. While data are rare to nonexistent, deforestation in the mountain areas upstream from the city and extensive urbanization, especially in the last few decades, is virtually certain to have increased storm runoff volumes and reduced lag times. Different flood hazards can be identified in four geomorphic zones: 1) valleys in steeply sloping areas, where channel erosion and associated slope failures threaten streamside communities; 2) alluvial fans, where rapid aggradation, mudflow deposition and channel avulsion contribute to channel instability; 3) coastal plains, where gentle slopes impede drainage of flood water; and 4) deltaic areas formed and settled in the last few decades subject to storm surge and possibly subsidence in addition to runoff-derived flooding. These zones can serve as a framework for flood hazard identification and management. With the cooperation of the Haitian government and non-profit organizations, students and faculty from Miami University and UNDH will combine talents to measure the flood potential of a single, critical watershed in Port-au-Prince and establish a community-based monitoring system.

Renwick, W.; Balthazar, S. L.; Boardman, M. R.; Hillaire, J. V.; Laviolette, L. L.; Primack, A. G.; Tardieu, J. F.; Eliacin, J.

2005-05-01

135

78 FR 46671 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Haiti and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-08-01

136

When the earth trembles in the Americas : the experience of Haiti and Chile 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The response of the nephrological community to the Haiti and Chile earthquakes which occurred in the first months of 2010 is described. In Haiti, renal support was organized by the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) in close collaboration with M...

Vanholder, Raymond; Borniche, D; CLAUS, STEFAAN; Correa-Rotter, R; Crestani, R; Ferir, MC; Gibney, N; Hurtado, A; Luyckx, VA

137

International migration, remittances and labour supply: The case of the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Republic of Haiti is a prime international remittance-recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region, relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this fact may be that Haiti, based on population size, is also the largest exporter of skilled workers in the wo...

Jadotte, Evans

138

"There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

Desgrottes, Maryse

2011-01-01

139

An international health elective in Haiti: a case for osteopathic medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

As global health education becomes increasingly important, more physicians are participating in international health electives (IHEs). Haiti is a favorable site for an IHE because of its substantial health care needs and rich culture. Although both osteopathic and allopathic physicians can provide effective health care to Haitians, osteopathic physicians may be particularly well suited to serve in Haiti because of their training in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). Because OMT's laying of the hands (high touch) is similar to the touch inherent to Haiti's traditional ethnomedical practices, osteopathic physicians' use of OMT can enhance trust among Haitians and increase Haitians' willingness to work with westernized medical practitioners. In addition, an IHE in a low-resource country such as Haiti can provide osteopathic physicians with a global outlook on medicine and a range of critical communication and clinical skills. The authors advocate for the development of an IHE in Haiti for osteopathic physicians. PMID:23739760

Coupet, Sidney; Howell, Joel D; Ross-Lee, Barbara

2013-06-01

140

An international health elective in Haiti: a case for osteopathic medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As global health education becomes increasingly important, more physicians are participating in international health electives (IHEs). Haiti is a favorable site for an IHE because of its substantial health care needs and rich culture. Although both osteopathic and allopathic physicians can provide effective health care to Haitians, osteopathic physicians may be particularly well suited to serve in Haiti because of their training in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). Because OMT's laying of the hands (high touch) is similar to the touch inherent to Haiti's traditional ethnomedical practices, osteopathic physicians' use of OMT can enhance trust among Haitians and increase Haitians' willingness to work with westernized medical practitioners. In addition, an IHE in a low-resource country such as Haiti can provide osteopathic physicians with a global outlook on medicine and a range of critical communication and clinical skills. The authors advocate for the development of an IHE in Haiti for osteopathic physicians.

Coupet S; Howell JD; Ross-Lee B

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

2010-12-01

142

What will it Take to Maintain the Maternal and Child Health Gains Made in Haiti Prior to the 2010 Earthquake? : An Analysis of Past Progress, Trends, and the Prospects for the Realization of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report assesses the commendable progress made in maternal and child mortality reductions in Haiti prior to the January 2010 earthquake. Suggested measures that the Haitian government and international donor community can take to maintain these gains are also made. With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) deadline of 2015 drawing nearer, the likelihood that Haiti will achieve MDG's 4 and 5 of reducing child and maternal mortality by two-thirds and three-quarters, respectively, by the end of this target year, remain questionable. In particular, the destruction inflicted on the country's health care system and health infrastructure by the 2010 earthquake have already resulted in a slowing of these gains and could potentially threaten an actual reversal of these trends. The country's Soins Obstétricaux Gratuits and Soins Infantiles Gratuits schemes established in 2008 and 2010, which provide free health care to women, newborns and children under 5, represent examples of measures that will need to be sustained and scaled up if the country is to meet its MDG 4 and 5 targets. The Haitian government's endorsement of an increased continuum of care approach to maternal and newborn health will also be vital for future initiatives. Post-quake public health and social service reconstruction efforts will need to incorporate maternal and child health-friendly services into their designs. It also remains critical that international donors continue to meet their pledges to Haiti. The Haitian government should also take more strides to clearly delineate the maternal and child health interventions it implements, both in order to facilitate greater national learning, as well as to improve the likelihood of future replication. PMID:23108736

Amibor, Paulson

2013-10-01

143

What will it Take to Maintain the Maternal and Child Health Gains Made in Haiti Prior to the 2010 Earthquake? : An Analysis of Past Progress, Trends, and the Prospects for the Realization of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report assesses the commendable progress made in maternal and child mortality reductions in Haiti prior to the January 2010 earthquake. Suggested measures that the Haitian government and international donor community can take to maintain these gains are also made. With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) deadline of 2015 drawing nearer, the likelihood that Haiti will achieve MDG's 4 and 5 of reducing child and maternal mortality by two-thirds and three-quarters, respectively, by the end of this target year, remain questionable. In particular, the destruction inflicted on the country's health care system and health infrastructure by the 2010 earthquake have already resulted in a slowing of these gains and could potentially threaten an actual reversal of these trends. The country's Soins Obstétricaux Gratuits and Soins Infantiles Gratuits schemes established in 2008 and 2010, which provide free health care to women, newborns and children under 5, represent examples of measures that will need to be sustained and scaled up if the country is to meet its MDG 4 and 5 targets. The Haitian government's endorsement of an increased continuum of care approach to maternal and newborn health will also be vital for future initiatives. Post-quake public health and social service reconstruction efforts will need to incorporate maternal and child health-friendly services into their designs. It also remains critical that international donors continue to meet their pledges to Haiti. The Haitian government should also take more strides to clearly delineate the maternal and child health interventions it implements, both in order to facilitate greater national learning, as well as to improve the likelihood of future replication.

Amibor P

2013-10-01

144

Convergence of Voevodsky's slice tower  

CERN Document Server

We consider Voevodsky's slice tower for a finite spectrum E in the motivic stable homotopy category over a perfect field k. In case k has finite cohomological dimension (in characteristic two, we also require that k is infinite), we show that the slice tower converges, in that the induced filtration on the bi-graded homotopy sheaves for each term in the tower for E is finite, exhaustive and separated at each stalk. This partially verifies a conjecture of Voevodsky.

Levine, Marc

2012-01-01

145

Peach slice powder screening machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a peach slice flour dresser comprising an electric motor, a sieve and a belt. The flour dresser is characterized in that an eccentric wheel is arranged on the machine head of a machine frame, and is connected with the sieve through a connecting rod the electric motor arranged at the lower part of the machine frame drives the eccentric wheel to rotate through a belt pulley and the belt the eccentric wheel drives the sieve to conduct reciprocating movement through the connecting rod a friction pressure plate is arranged at the upper part inside the sieve a funnel is arranged below the sieve a transmission belt is arranged below the funnel the electric motor drives the transmission belt to work through the belt pulley and the belt and the corrugated friction surface comprises 6 waves, with the wave crests pointing downwards, the wave crests being 20-40 millimeters high, and the wave pitches being 80-120 millimeters. The peach slice flour dresser provided by the utility model solves the problems with manual flour dressing in peach slice production, has the advantages of cleanness and sanitation, low labor intensity and high production efficiency, and achieves the effects of improving qualities of peach slices, facilitating sales of the peach slices abroad, and remarkably facilitating preservation of the peach slices.

SHIYONG JING; SHIGAN JING; WEIMING LI

146

Pensando o "impensável": Victor Schoelcher e o Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Por intermédio da análise do relato do abolicionista francês Victor Schoelcher sobre o Haiti, publicado em 1843, este artigo questiona a interpretação do antropólogo Rolph Trouillot sobre o caráter "impensável" da Revolução Haitiana. Ao mesmo tempo em que esta última tem sido ignorada, distorcida ou tratada com incompreensão pelo Ocidente, o uso da noção de "impensável" para interpretar sua recepção contribui para outra forma de incompreensão, ao elimina (more) r de qualquer consideração os contextos históricos e políticos que constituem a resistência. O texto de Schoelcher representa um esforço notável de "pensar" o Haiti e a Revolução Haitiana através dos pressupostos do Republicanismo francês. Suas interpretações revelam a ampla gama de possibilidades oferecidas pelo pensamento iluminista. Elas convergem com o pensamento e a prática das massas haitianas e das populações escravizadas das colônias francesas das Índias Ocidentais, mas não são inteiramente coincidentes. A não-identidade destes pensamentos dá forma ao espaço da política entre Schoelcher e os escravos e constitui um terreno necessário para a análise histórica. Abstract in english Through an examination of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher's account of Haiti published in 1843, this article interrogates anthropologist Rolph Trouillot's interpretation of the "unthinkability" of the Haitian Revolution. While the Haitian Revolution has been ignored, distorted, and treated with incomprehension and disdain in the West, the use of the notion of 'unthinkability' to interpret its reception contributes to another form of incomprehension by eliminating fr (more) om consideration the political and historical contexts that are constitutive of resistance. Schoelcher's text represents a remarkable effort to "think" Haiti and the Haitian Revolution from within the presuppositions of French Republicanism. His interpretations demonstrate the broad range of possibilities within Enlightenment thought. They converge with the thought and practices of the Haitian masses and the enslaved population of the French West Indian colonies, but they do not coincide with them. The non-identity of their thought forms the space of politics between Schoelcher and slaves and is a necessary ground of historical analysis.

Tomich, Dale

2009-04-01

147

The (Im)possibilit y of Time Travel: Haiti ’s Pre- and Post-Earthquake Futures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of:Travesty in Haiti: A True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Fraud, Food Aid and Drug Trafficking [second edition]. Timothy T. Schwartz. Charleston SC: Booksurge, 2010. xlvii + 262 pp. (Paper US$ 15.99)Haiti in the Balance: Why Foreign Aid Has Failed and What We Can Do About It. Terry Buss . Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 2008. xvi + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 28.95)Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti. Eduardo Aldunate. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2010. xx + 230 pp. (Paper US$ 34.95)

Landon Yarrington

2012-01-01

148

Sofrimento psicológico em sobreviventes do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010/ Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade em sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, que foram atendidos pela equipe de saúde do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, e avaliar o impacto que a perda de um familiar durante a catástrofe pode causar no desenvolvimento desses sintomas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta sobreviventes do terremoto do Haiti, atendidos pela equipe de saúde, entre fevereiro e março de 2010, foram incluídos neste estudo. Todos os indi (more) víduos foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada. O grupo foi dividido em dois: Grupo A (que perderam um familiar na catástrofe) e Grupo B (aqueles que não tiveram perdas). RESULTADOS: Um total de 55% dos indivíduos apresentavam sintomas de depressão e 40% de ansiedade. Os indivíduos que perderam familiares tinham cinco vezes mais probabilidade de desenvolver ansiedade e depressão do que aqueles não tiveram perdas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de catástrofes que perderam pelo menos um familiar no desastre têm maior probabilidade de desenvolver sintomas de depressão e ansiedade. A esses indivíduos, assim como outros que demonstravam estresse psicológico, devem ser oferecidos, precocemente, cuidados de saúde mental, para ajudá-los a suportar o grande estresse emocional inerente a essas situações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. (more) All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Lacerda, Shirley Silva

2013-03-01

149

Motivic slices and colored operads  

CERN Document Server

Colored operads were introduced in the 1970's for the purpose of studying homotopy invariant algebraic structures on topological spaces. In this paper we introduce colored operads in motivic stable homotopy theory. Our main motivation is to uncover hitherto unknown highly structured properties of the slice filtration. The latter decomposes every motivic spectrum into its slices, which are motives, and one may ask to what extend the slice filtration preserves highly structured objects such as algebras and modules. We use colored operads to give a precise solution to this problem. Our approach makes use of axiomatic setups which specialize to classical and motivic stable homotopy theory. Accessible t-structures are central to the development of the general theory.

Gutiérrez, Javier J; Spitzweck, Markus; Østvær, Paul Arne

2010-01-01

150

Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations. PMID:23579738

Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão Dos; Lacerda, Shirley Silva

2013-03-01

151

Neomodern insecurity in Haiti and the politics of asylum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The term 'asylum' has a dual connotation that generates opposing but related forms of intervention: providing sanctuary and protection vs. imposing confinement and quarantine. The proliferation of "neomodern insecurity"--intrastate violence and the specter of transnational terrorism, arising within many postcolonial, postauthoritarian and postsocialist states--generates intervention practices that reflect the dual connotations of asylum. In fragile states like Haiti, national insecurity (ensekirite) often results in the flight of traumatized populations across and within national borders. For these individuals, 'asylum' connotes the attainment of political recognition and inclusion outside Haiti's space of ensekirite. Ironically, these vulnerable persons may be viewed as threats to the nations they seek to enter. In so-called secure states like the United States, the threat of insecurity often engenders interventions to contain, manage and rehabilitate states of disorder, as well as their disordered subjects. By chronicling the case of a young Haitian refugee who sought asylum in the United States, was detained and then repatriated after manifesting the disordered signs of insecurity, I argue that the Haitian trope of ensekirite captures and prefigures the subjective experience of neomodernity, one for which there is no asylum.

James EC

2009-03-01

152

Diagnosis of Porcine teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Republic of Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

In February and March 2009, approximately 1,500 backyard pigs of variable age became sick, and approximately 700 of them died or were euthanized in the Lower Artibonite Valley and the Lower Plateau of the Republic of Haiti. The main clinical sign was posterior ataxia followed by paresis and/or paralysis on the second or third day of illness. No gross lesions were observed at postmortem examinations. The morbidity and mortality were approximately 60% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostic samples (whole blood, brain, tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen, and lung) were negative for Classical swine fever virus and African swine fever virus. Porcine teschovirus type 1 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions in brain samples. Results of virus isolation, electron microscopy of virus particles, histopathological analysis on brain tissues, nucleic acid sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the viral isolate supported the diagnosis of teschovirus encephalomyelitis. The outbreak of the disease in Haiti is the first appearance of the severe form of teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Americas. This disease poses a potential threat to the swine industries in other Caribbean countries, as well as to Central and North American countries. PMID:22604774

Deng, Ming Y; Millien, Max; Jacques-Simon, Rodney; Flanagan, J Keith; Bracht, Alexa J; Carrillo, Consuelo; Barrette, Roger W; Fabian, Andrew; Mohamed, Fawzi; Moran, Karen; Rowland, Jessica; Swenson, Sabrina L; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; Koster, Leo; Thomsen, Bruce V; Mayr, Gregory; Pyburn, Dave; Morales, Paula; Shaw, John; Burrage, Thomas; White, William; McIntosh, Michael T; Metwally, Samia

2012-05-17

153

Diagnosis of Porcine teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Republic of Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In February and March 2009, approximately 1,500 backyard pigs of variable age became sick, and approximately 700 of them died or were euthanized in the Lower Artibonite Valley and the Lower Plateau of the Republic of Haiti. The main clinical sign was posterior ataxia followed by paresis and/or paralysis on the second or third day of illness. No gross lesions were observed at postmortem examinations. The morbidity and mortality were approximately 60% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostic samples (whole blood, brain, tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen, and lung) were negative for Classical swine fever virus and African swine fever virus. Porcine teschovirus type 1 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions in brain samples. Results of virus isolation, electron microscopy of virus particles, histopathological analysis on brain tissues, nucleic acid sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the viral isolate supported the diagnosis of teschovirus encephalomyelitis. The outbreak of the disease in Haiti is the first appearance of the severe form of teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Americas. This disease poses a potential threat to the swine industries in other Caribbean countries, as well as to Central and North American countries.

Deng MY; Millien M; Jacques-Simon R; Flanagan JK; Bracht AJ; Carrillo C; Barrette RW; Fabian A; Mohamed F; Moran K; Rowland J; Swenson SL; Jenkins-Moore M; Koster L; Thomsen BV; Mayr G; Pyburn D; Morales P; Shaw J; Burrage T; White W; McIntosh MT; Metwally S

2012-07-01

154

Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. METHODS: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). RESULTS: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

Guimaro MS; Steinman M; Kernkraut AM; Santos OF; Lacerda SS

2013-03-01

155

Hopital Albert Schweitzer and the Republic of Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Hôpital Albert Schweitzer was established near the village of Deschapelles in Haiti in 1956 by Dr. and Mrs. William Larimer Mellon of Arizona. The hospital currently has 162 acute care beds and provides inpatient and outpatient services to a district of about 160,000 people. In 1983, visits to the hospital and its dispensaries totaled 39,163. Since its founding the hospital has evolved into a tertiary care facility but has also established primary care programs through seven satellite dispensaries. Health agents and midwives play an important role in the hospital's field programs. Outreach programs concentrate on health and nutrition education, immunizations, supplementary food programs, tuberculosis screening, oral rehydration for infants with diarrheal diseases and cord cutting clinics for the prevention of neonatal tetanus. This paper describes the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in this area of Haiti, the functioning of the hospital and both its medical and non-medical programs. The latter include agricultural irrigation and well digging projects, and wood working, weaving and ceramic facilities to encourage local artisans.

Long R; Scalcini M

1986-01-01

156

Keywords: Slicing, Parallel Algorithms, Program Simplification  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Program Slicing is the process of deleting statements in a program that do not affecta given set of variables at a chosen point in the program.In this paper the first parallel slicing algorithm for static program slicing is introduced.It is shown how the control flow graph of the program to be sliced is converted into anetwork of concurrent processes, thereby producing a parallel version of Weiser's originalstatic slicing algorithm.The parallel slicing algorithm is formally defined as the least solution (containing theslicing criterion) of a set of recursion equations, derived from the program's control flowgraph and is proved correct with respect to Weiser's algorithm.The parallel slicing algorithm has a number of other interesting and potentially usefulproperties. For example, in addition to constructing a slice, it produces a set of equivalentslicing criteria for the slice it constructs.1

Sebastian Danicic; Mark Harman; Yoga Sivagurunathan; Eden Grove; N Db

157

Approaches to control sexually transmitted diseases in Haiti, 1992-95.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite major obstacles, activities to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were initiated in Haiti in 1992 in collaboration with local nongovernmental organizations. The approaches included review of available local data, assessment of STD case management practices and constraints, and deve...

Behets, F. M.; Génécé, E.; Narcisse, M.; Liautaud, B.; Cohen, M.; Dallabetta, G. A.

158

76 FR 29000 - Extension and Redesignation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...granted Haiti TPS, the 90-day re-registration period will run from May 23...complete information on the re-registration procedures, including the automatic...beneficiaries may not apply for re-registration until May 23, 2011....

2011-05-19

159

The Cholera Outbreak in Haiti: Where and how did it begin?  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2010, cholera appeared in Haiti for the first time in nearly a century. The Secretary-General of the United Nations formed an Independent Panel to "investigate and seek to determine the source of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti". To fulfill this mandate, the Panel conducted concurrent epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analysis investigations. Our May 2011 findings indicated that the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak was caused by bacteria introduced into Haiti as a result of human activity; more specifically by the contamination of the Meye Tributary System of the Artibonite River with a pathogenic strain of the current South Asian type Vibrio cholerae. Recommendations were presented to assist in preventing the future introduction and spread of cholera in Haiti and worldwide. In this chapter, we discuss both the results of the Independent Panel's investigation and the context the report sat within; including background information, responses to the report's release, additional research subsequent to our report, and the public health implications of the Haiti cholera epidemic. PMID:23695726

Lantagne, Daniele; Balakrish Nair, G; Lanata, Claudio F; Cravioto, Alejandro

2013-05-22

160

The Cholera Outbreak in Haiti: Where and how did it begin?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In October 2010, cholera appeared in Haiti for the first time in nearly a century. The Secretary-General of the United Nations formed an Independent Panel to "investigate and seek to determine the source of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti". To fulfill this mandate, the Panel conducted concurrent epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analysis investigations. Our May 2011 findings indicated that the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak was caused by bacteria introduced into Haiti as a result of human activity; more specifically by the contamination of the Meye Tributary System of the Artibonite River with a pathogenic strain of the current South Asian type Vibrio cholerae. Recommendations were presented to assist in preventing the future introduction and spread of cholera in Haiti and worldwide. In this chapter, we discuss both the results of the Independent Panel's investigation and the context the report sat within; including background information, responses to the report's release, additional research subsequent to our report, and the public health implications of the Haiti cholera epidemic.

Lantagne D; Balakrish Nair G; Lanata CF; Cravioto A

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

The substitution of charcoal and firewood in Haiti - strategy and policy; La substitution du charbon de bois et du bois de feu en Haiti - strategie et politique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charcoal and firewood play an important role in Haitian society and economics. In 1993, charcoal and firewood comprised 83 per cent of the total energy consumption in Haiti, an amount estimated to be equivalent to 1,607,000 tonnes of crude oil. The government of Haiti is making great efforts to encourage the substitution of charcoal and firewood as an energy source for both environmental and economic reasons. Despite all efforts, their project so far has failed. One of the reasons for this failure is the lack of government policy in which public institutions would be required to substitute charcoal and firewood.

Saint-Jean, W. [Ministere de l`environnement de Haiti (Haiti)

1997-06-01

162

Some examples related to knot sliceness  

CERN Document Server

It is known that the linking form on the 2-cover of slice knots has a metabolizer. We show that several weaker conditions, or some other conditions related to sliceness, do not imply the existence of a metabolizer. We then show how the Rudolph-Bennequin inequality can be used indirectly to prove that some knots are not slice.

Stoimenow, A

2004-01-01

163

Solar distillation as an appropriate technology tool in Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Source Philippe (on the island of La Govave, near Haiti) is described in terms of climatic, sociological, agricultural and technical background. Because of drought conditions, it became necessary to develop a solar still to provide the town with sufficient fresh water. The still, which has been in operation since 1969, is described in some detail as is the construction process. Brackish and sea water are used to produce more than 1250 liters of fresh water each day. A windmill is used to pump the brackish water from a well to an elevated storage tank; it flows by gravity to solar still basins where it is vaporized, then condensed on a sloping glass surface and collected. Benefits of the solar still to the town's economy and health are discussed. Cost of the project was $17,000. 10 references. (MJJ)

1980-06-01

164

Twin Tsunamis Triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a complete lack of tsunami awareness. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) was deployed within weeks of the event and covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola's southern coastline. The collected survey data include more than 21 tsunami heights along with observations of coastal land level change. Maximum tsunami heights of 3 m have been measured for two independently triggered tsunamis.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Hillaire, Jean Vilmond; Molière, Emanuel; Wei, Yong; Mohammed, Fahad

2013-09-01

165

Anesthetic practice in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 M(L) earthquake devastated Haiti, the most impoverished nation in the Western hemisphere with extremely limited health care resources. We traveled to Milot, Haiti situated north of Port-au-Prince, to care for injured patients at Hôpital Sacré Coeur, an undamaged hospital with 74 beds and 2 operating rooms. The massive influx of patients brought by helicopter from the earthquake zone transformed the hospital to >400 beds and 6 operating rooms. As with the 2005 Kashmir and 2008 China earthquake, most victims suffered from extremity injuries, encompassing crush injuries, lacerations, fractures, and amputations with associated dehydration and anemia. Preoperative evaluation was limited by language issues requiring a translator and included basic questions of fasting status, allergies, and coexisting conditions. Goals included adequate depth of anesthesia, while avoiding apnea/airway manipulation. These goals led to frequent use of midazolam and ketamine or regional anesthesia. Although many medications were present under various names and concentrations, the absence of a central gas supply proved troublesome. Postoperative care was limited to an 8-bed postanesthesia care unit/intensive care unit caring for patients with tetanus, diabetic ketoacidosis, pulmonary aspiration, acute renal failure due to crush, extreme anemia, sepsis, and other illnesses. Other important aspects of this journey included the professionalism of the health care personnel who prioritized patient care, adaptation to limited laboratory and radiological services, and provision of living arrangements. Although challenging from many perspectives, the experience was emotionally enriching and recalls the fundamental reasons why we selected medicine and anesthesiology as a profession.

Rice MJ; Gwertzman A; Finley T; Morey TE

2010-12-01

166

Slice Stretching at the Event Horizon when Geodesically Slicing the Schwarzschild Spacetime with Excision  

CERN Document Server

Slice stretching effects are discussed as they arise at the event horizon when geodesically slicing the extended Schwarzschild black hole spacetime while using singularity excision. In particular, for Novikov and isotropic spatial coordinates the outward-movement of the event horizon (``slice sucking'') and the unbounded growth there of the radial metric component (``slice wrapping'') are analyzed. For the overall slice stretching very similar late time behavior is found when comparing with maximal slicing. Thus, the intuitive argument that attributes slice stretching to singularity avoidance is incorrect.

Reimann, B

2004-01-01

167

A cotangent bundle slice theorem  

CERN Multimedia

This article concerns cotangent-lifted Lie group actions; our goal is to find local and ``semi-global'' normal forms for these and associated structures. Our main result is a constructive cotangent bundle slice theorem that extends the Hamiltonian slice theorem of Marle, Guillemin and Sternberg. The result applies to all proper cotangent-lifted actions, around points with fully-isotropic momentum values. We also present a ``tangent-level'' commuting reduction result and use it to characterise the symplectic normal space of any cotangent-lifted action. In two special cases, we arrive at splittings of the symplectic normal space, which lead to refinements of the reconstruction equations (bundle equations) for a Hamiltonian vector field. We also note local normal forms for symplectic reduced spaces of cotangent bundles.

Schmah, T

2004-01-01

168

Viscous fingering of miscible slices  

CERN Multimedia

Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

2005-01-01

169

Local shape adaptation for curved slice selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields allow excitation and geometrically matched local encoding of curved slices. However, the nonlinearity of the fields results in a varying slice thickness. Within this study, the technique is combined with multidimensional RF excitation for local adaptation of the slice shape. THEORY: A framework originally developed for nonlinear receive encoding is applied to multidimensional excitation with nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields for determination of dedicated target patterns and combined with a model for assessment of minimum transmit-resolution requirements for the design of efficient transmit k-space trajectories. METHODS: Cross-sections of curved slices acquired in a phantom with both locally adapted slice thickness and curvature are evaluated. In addition, resulting voxel shapes are analyzed to investigate the range of applicability of the technique. Finally, slice-thickness adaptation is applied to in vivo curved slice imaging. RESULTS: Local adaptation of the slice thickness is feasible both in phantom and in vivo. The technique further allows local adaptation of the slice curvature. However, its range of applicability is limited by prolonged pulse duration and voxel shape distortion. CONCLUSION: Multidimensional excitation allows imaging of curved slices with constant thickness. It also has the potential for further modification of the slice shape for increased ability to adapt to the anatomy. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Weber H; Haas M; Kokorin D; Gallichan D; Hennig J; Zaitsev M

2013-09-01

170

"A prospective emergency room-based study of pattern and outcome of neurological and neurosurgical diseases in Haiti"  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this prospective survey presents the first study of neurosurgical or neurological disease patterns in Haiti. The results suggest specific disease priorities for this population that can guide efforts to improve Haitian health care and conduct more comprehensive epidemiological studies in Haiti.

Barthélemy EJ; Benjamin E; Jean-Pierre MY; Poitevien G; Ernst S; Osborn I; Germano I

2013-10-01

171

Exploring Unintended Social Side Effects of Tent Distribution Practices in Post-Earthquake Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s social, economic and health infrastructure, leaving 2 million persons—one-fifth of Haiti’s population—homeless. Internally displaced persons relocated to camps, where human rights remain compromised due to increased poverty, reduced security, and limited access to sanitation and clean water. This article draws on findings from 3 focus groups conducted with internally displaced young women and 3 focus groups with internally displaced young men (aged 18–24) in Leogane, Haiti to explore post-earthquake tent distribution practices. Focus group findings highlighted that community members were not engaged in developing tent distribution strategies. Practices that distributed tents to both children and parents, and linked food and tent distribution, inadvertently contributed to “chaos”, vulnerability to violence and family network breakdown. Moving forward we recommend tent distribution strategies in disaster contexts engage with community members, separate food and tent distribution, and support agency and strategies of self-protection among displaced persons.

Carmen Helen Logie

2013-01-01

172

Characterization of inequality and poverty in the Republic of Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Después de aproximadamente veinte años de estancamiento económico acompañado de disturbios políticos, la república de Haití, exhibiendo un PIB per capita en paridad de poder de compra de 1,470 dólares estadounidenses, es actualmente el país más pobre del hemisferio occidental y uno de los más pobres del mundo. El presente trabajo de investigación también revela que es el país más desigual en la región más desigual del mundo, a saber, América Latina y el (more) Caribe (ALC). Amén del carácter endémico de la pobreza en este país, el problema de la distribución de la renta puede representar un verdadero escollo a las perspectivas de crecimiento y, por ende, debería constituir una de las principales preocupaciones de los responsables políticos en sus programas de lucha contra este flagelo. Para trabajo se utiliza la Encuesta sobre las Condiciones de Vida en Haití para estimar el estado de la pobreza y la desigualdad para el periodo 2000/2001. Los primeros resultados destacan, sin sorpresa, que la pobreza es más generalizada en la zona rural mientras la zona metropolitana de Puerto Príncipe acusa las tasas más bajas. El acceso a ciertos factores de producción, tales como la tierra agrícola, no constituye una vía de escape a la pobreza. También se propone una descomposición de la desigualdad en varios ámbitos vía la estimación de mínimos cuadrados ponderados para encuestas complejas. Finalmente, se estima un logit policotómico ordenado para investigar la probabilidad de un hogar de ser pobre o indigente. Abstract in english After nearly twenty years of stagnation and economic decline coupled with political upheavals, the Republic of Haiti, with a GDP per capita of approximately 1,470 USD (expressed in Purchasing Power Parity) in the year 2000, is at this date the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere and one of the poorest of the world. The present research reveals that this country is also where income is worst distributed in the most unequal region of the world, viz., Latin America and (more) the Caribbean (LAC). Thus, besides the pervasive nature of poverty, income distribution also emerges as a potential stumbling block to growth prospects and should be of high concern for policy makers, let alone be part of a global policy to tackle the poverty scourge. The present research uses the 2001 Haiti Living Conditions Survey, the most recent multi-topic survey for the Republic of Haiti, for distributive analysis and absolute poverty assessment. Preliminary results show that poverty, as expected, is more widespread in the rural area while the Metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince is where the incidence of poverty is the lowest. Surprisingly, access to physical productive asset, such as land, does not help the peasant escape poverty. In addition to the derivation of inequality and poverty profiles, a weighted least square with proper design based for stratified, multistage, and probability cluster sampling is used to additively decompose inequality by multiple factor components. Also, a polychotomous ordered logit is estimated to investigate the risk of being indigent or poor.

Jadotte, Evans

2007-06-01

173

Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of maps using different assumptions about site conditions. One set of maps is for a firm-rock site condition (30-m averaged shear-wave velocity, Vs30, of 760 m/s). We also developed hazard maps that contain site amplification based on a grid of Vs30 values estimated from topographic slope. These maps take into account amplification from soils. We stress that these new maps are designed to quantify the hazard for Haiti; they do not consider all the sources of earthquake hazard that affect the Dominican Republic and therefore should not be considered as complete hazard maps for eastern Hispaniola. For example, we have not included hazard from earthquakes in the Mona Passage nor from large earthquakes on the subduction zone interface north of Puerto Rico. Furthermore, they do not capture all the earthquake hazards for eastern Cuba.

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

2010-01-01

174

Quaking neutron star deriving radiative power of oscillating magneto-dipole emission from energy of Alfv\\'en seismic vibrations  

CERN Multimedia

It is shown that depletion of the magnetic field pressure in a quaking neutron star undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional seismic vibrations about axis of its dipole magnetic moment is accompanied by the loss of vibration energy of the star that causes its vibration period to lengthen at a rate proportional to the rate of magnetic field decay. Highlighted is the magnetic-field-decay induced conversion of the energy of differentially rotational Alfv\\'en vibrations into the energy of oscillating magneto-dipole radiation. A set of representative examples illustrating the vibration energy powered emission with elongating periods due to magnetic field decay are considered and discussed in the context of theory of magnetars.

Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Yu, J W

2010-01-01

175

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do século XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor (more) destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais. Abstract in english THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo). James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a consequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussa (more) int L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Gorender, Jacob

2004-04-01

176

O épico e o trágico na história do Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O AUTOR apresenta uma resenha crítica do livro de C. L. R. James, editado, no Brasil, pela Boitempo, intitulado Os jacobinos negros. Toussaint L'Ouverture e a revolução e São Domingos. James narra e analisa a rebelião dos escravos da colônia francesa situada na ilha de São Domingos, no final do século XVIII, como conseqüência da ação da Convenção surgida da Revolução Francesa de 1789, a qual proclamou a emancipação dos escravos. Nessa rebelião, o autor destaca a ação do líder negro Toussaint L'Ouverture, que, após derrotar exércitos da França, Eha e Inglaterra, ganhou o domínio da colônia francesa. Em seguida, a obra de James se detém na determinação de Bonaparte de restaurar a escravidão e o envio da força expedicionária francesa comandada por Leclerc. Toussaint L'Ouverture viria a ser derrotado e aprisionado. Seus companheiros, Dessalines e outros, os jacobinos negros, prosseguiram o combate e conquistaram, em 1804, a Independência definitiva, batizando o País com o nome nativo de Haiti. Da Independência decorreram problemas que se prolongam até os dias atuais.THE AUTHOR presents a critical review of C.L.R. James' book The black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (published in Brazil by Boitempo). James narrates and analyzes the late 18th century slave rebellion in the French colony located in the island of San Domingo as a consequence of the measures taken by the Convention, established after the French Revolution, which emancipated slaves. The author highlights the activities of black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture in the uprising, who after defeating the armies of France, Spain and England, won the governance of the former French colony. James also examines Bonaparte's determination to restore slavery and his decision to send a French expeditionary force commanded by Leclerc that would defeat and imprison Toussaint L'Ouverture - whose companions, Dessalines and others, the Black Jacobins, would continue to fight. Eventually, in 1804, they achieved definite independence, baptizing the country with the native name of Haiti, but the problems that ensued endure to this day.

Jacob Gorender

2004-01-01

177

Vaccination coverage in Haiti: results from the 2009 national survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Since 1977, vaccinations to protect against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles (and rubella since 2009) have been offered to children in Haiti through the routine immunization program. From April to July 2009, a national vaccination coverage survey was conducted to assess the success of the routine immunization program at reaching children in Haiti. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted using a modified WHO method for household sampling. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect vaccination histories, demographic information, and reasons for under-vaccination of children aged 12-23 months. A child who received the eight recommended routine vaccinations was considered fully vaccinated. The routine vaccination schedule was used to define valid doses and estimate the percentage of children vaccinated on time. RESULTS: Among 1345 children surveyed, 40.4% (95% CI: 36.6-44.2) of the 840 children with vaccination cards had received all eight recommended vaccinations. Coverage was highest for the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (87.3%), the first doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (92.0%), and oral poliovirus vaccine (93.4%) and lowest for measles vaccine (46.9%). Timely vaccination rates were lower. Assuming similar coverage for the 505 children without cards, coverage with the complete vaccination series among all surveyed children 31.9%. Reasons for under-vaccination included not having enough time to reach the vaccination location (24.8%), having a child who was ill (13.8%), and not knowing when, or forgetting, to go for vaccination (12.8%). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Coverage for early-infant vaccines was high; however, most children did not complete the full vaccination series, and many children received vaccinations later than recommended. Efforts to improve the immunization program should include increasing the frequency of outreach services, training for vaccination staff to minimize missed opportunities, and better communicating the timing of vaccinations to encourage caregivers to bring their children for vaccinations at the recommended age. Efforts to promote the benefits of vaccination and card retention are also needed.

Rainey JJ; Lacapère F; Danovaro-Holliday MC; Mung K; Magloire R; Kananda G; Cadet JR; Lee CE; Chamouillet H; Luman ET

2012-02-01

178

Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Please cite this paper as: Fitter et al. (2012) Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12060. From June 2009 through December 2009, Haiti conducted sentinel surveillance for influenza. 499 samples were collected and tested using real-time RT-PCR. 197 (39.5%) were positive for influenza, including 95 (48%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 57 (29%) seasonal influenza A and 45 (23%) influenza B. The median age of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases was 21.7; two-thirds of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases were in patients aged 6?years - 35?years. Pandemic activity peaked in September and co-circulated with other influenza subtypes. The age distribution and seasonality of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Haiti were similar to other countries in the Caribbean region. PMID:23199103

Fitter, David L; Freeman, Nicole M; Buteau, Josiane; Magloire, Roc; Sessions, Wendy M; Guo, Lizheng; Katz, Mark A; Boncy, Jacques

2012-11-30

179

Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Haiti: A Rural Demonstration Project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. A cholera epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 8,000 Haitians and sickened 650,000 since the outbreak began in October 2010. Early intervention in the epidemic focused on case-finding, treatment, and water and sanitation interventions for prevention of transmission. Use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as part of a complementary set of control activities was considered but initially rejected by policymakers. In December 2011, the Minister of Health of Haiti called for a demonstration of the acceptability and feasibility of the use of OCV in urban and rural Haiti. This paper describes the collaborative activity that offered OCV to one region of the Artibonite Department of rural Haiti in addition to other ongoing treatment and control measures. Despite logistics and cold chain challenges, 45,417 persons were successfully vaccinated with OCV in the region, and 90.8% of these persons completed their second dose.

Ivers LC; Teng JE; Lascher J; Raymond M; Weigel J; Victor N; Jerome JG; Hilaire IJ; Almazor CP; Ternier R; Cadet J; Francois J; Guillaume FD; Farmer PE

2013-10-01

180

Use of oral cholera vaccine in haiti: a rural demonstration project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. A cholera epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 8,000 Haitians and sickened 650,000 since the outbreak began in October 2010. Early intervention in the epidemic focused on case-finding, treatment, and water and sanitation interventions for prevention of transmission. Use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as part of a complementary set of control activities was considered but initially rejected by policymakers. In December 2011, the Minister of Health of Haiti called for a demonstration of the acceptability and feasibility of the use of OCV in urban and rural Haiti. This paper describes the collaborative activity that offered OCV to one region of the Artibonite Department of rural Haiti in addition to other ongoing treatment and control measures. Despite logistics and cold chain challenges, 45,417 persons were successfully vaccinated with OCV in the region, and 90.8% of these persons completed their second dose. PMID:24106187

Ivers, Louise C; Teng, Jessica E; Lascher, Jonathan; Raymond, Max; Weigel, Jonathan; Victor, Nadia; Jerome, J Gregory; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Almazor, Charles P; Ternier, Ralph; Cadet, Jean; Francois, Jeannot; Guillaume, Florence D; Farmer, Paul E

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Synchronized slice viewing of similar image series  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing several series of images is not always easy as the corresponding slices often need to be selected manually. In times where series contain an ever-increasing number of slices this can mean manual work when moving several series to the corresponding slice. Particularly two situations were identified in this context: (1) patients with a large number of image series over time (such as patients with cancers that are monitored) frequently need to compare the series, for example to compare tumor growth over time. Manually adapting two series is possible but with four or more series this can mean loosing time. Having automatically the closest slice by comparing visual similarity also in older series with differing slice thickness and inter slice distance can save time and synchronize the viewing instantly. (2) analyzing visually similar image series of several patients can profit from being viewed in a synchronized way to compare the cases, so when sliding through the slices in one volume, the corresponding slices in the other volumes are shown. This application could be employed after content-based 3D image retrieval has found similar series, for example. Synchronized viewing can help finding or confirming the most relevant cases quickly. To allow for synchronized viewing of several image volumes, the test image series are first registered applying affine transformation for the global registration of images followed by diffeomorphic image registration. Then corresponding slices in the two volumes are estimated based on a visual similarity. Once the registration is finished, the user can subsequently move inside the slices of one volume (reference volume) and can view the corresponding slices in the other volumes. These corresponding slices are obtained after a correspondence match in the registration procedure. These volumes are synchronized in that the slice closest to the original reference volume is shown even when the slice thicknesses or inter slice distances differ, and this is automatically done by comparing the visual image content of the slices. The tool has the potential to help in a variety of situations and it is currently being made available as a plugin for the popular Osirix image viewer.

Ali, Sharib; Foncubierta, Antonio; Depeursinge, Adrien; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Ratib, Osman; Müller, Henning

2012-02-01

182

Coal briquetting in Haiti: A market and business assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The investigation evaluated potential market size, financial viability, consumer acceptance, and the government policy role in promoting the manufacture and sale of briquettes in Haiti. Our results show a large and growing charcoal market in Port-au-Prince of 100,000 to 120,000 tonnes per year in 1985, much larger than previous estimates. This would support a 50,000 tonne per year coal briquetting plant. Wood users buying in lots of 100 pieces or less would provide a smaller, secondary market of about 6000 tonnes of charcoal equivalent per year. The size and competitive nature of the current charcoal transportation, wholesale, and retail distribution chain make it easily capable of distributing the coal briquettes. We investigated three coal briquetting options, each based on a different coal source: (1) Maissade lignite, (2) L'Azile lignite, and (3) imported coal. Financial analyses compare capital and operating costs with potential returns. Results indicate that the Maissade lignite is not economically viable in competition with charcoal at current charcoal prices. Both the L'Azile and imported coal options hold more promise. The investment incentives provided by Haitian government are very favorable to a coal briquetting venture. An increased tax on charcoal, currently priced below its social cost, is recommended.

Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.; Jean-Poix, C.; Medina, N.

1987-06-01

183

Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

Jay N. Meegoda; Hsin-Neng Hsieh; Paul Rodriguez; Jason Jawidzik

2012-01-01

184

Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable. PMID:20442270

Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

2010-05-04

185

USGS remote sensing coordination for the 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the devastating 12 January 2010, earthquake in Haiti, the US Geological Survey (USGS) provided essential coordinating services for remote sensing activities. Communication was rapidly established between the widely distributed response teams and data providers to define imaging requirements and sensor tasking opportunities. Data acquired from a variety of sources were received and archived by the USGS, and these products were subsequently distributed using the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) and other mechanisms. Within six weeks after the earthquake, over 600,000 files representing 54 terabytes of data were provided to the response community. The USGS directly supported a wide variety of groups in their use of these data to characterize post-earthquake conditions and to make comparisons with pre-event imagery. The rapid and continuing response achieved was enabled by existing imaging and ground systems, and skilled personnel adept in all aspects of satellite data acquisition, processing, distribution and analysis. The information derived from image interpretation assisted senior planners and on-site teams to direct assistance where it was most needed. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Duda, K. A.; Jones, B. K.

2011-01-01

186

Tungiasis in rural Haiti: a community-based response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a disease endemic to poor communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. It is caused by the female flea, Tunga penetrans, which burrows into the skin of its host to feed while producing and extruding eggs. Consequent lesions may be painful and even crippling with damage ranging from mild erythema and swelling to necrosis. Superinfection of lesions can be serious and may result in auto-amputation or death from tetanus. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in rural Haiti and a community-based intervention used to address it. Of 177 patients assessed, 132 (47 female, 85 male, 23 children) had tungiasis lesions. Forty-four patients had clinical signs of superinfection; 15 had ectopic lesions. Community health workers cleaned and disinfected patients' feet and any parts of the body with ectopic lesions, and then extracted fleas from existing lesions. Patients with superinfections were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Over 1000 pairs of shoes were distributed in the villages. Over 400 adults were given tetanus vaccinations during follow-up visits. Patients who had been treated reported feeling better and those who had received shoes indicated they had not developed new lesions. All superinfections were resolved. We concluded that community-based care can treat tungiasis effectively. PMID:16516941

Joseph, J Keith; Bazile, Junior; Mutter, Justin; Shin, Sonya; Ruddle, Andrew; Ivers, Louise; Lyon, Evan; Farmer, Paul

2006-03-06

187

Tungiasis in rural Haiti: a community-based response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tungiasis is a disease endemic to poor communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. It is caused by the female flea, Tunga penetrans, which burrows into the skin of its host to feed while producing and extruding eggs. Consequent lesions may be painful and even crippling with damage ranging from mild erythema and swelling to necrosis. Superinfection of lesions can be serious and may result in auto-amputation or death from tetanus. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in rural Haiti and a community-based intervention used to address it. Of 177 patients assessed, 132 (47 female, 85 male, 23 children) had tungiasis lesions. Forty-four patients had clinical signs of superinfection; 15 had ectopic lesions. Community health workers cleaned and disinfected patients' feet and any parts of the body with ectopic lesions, and then extracted fleas from existing lesions. Patients with superinfections were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Over 1000 pairs of shoes were distributed in the villages. Over 400 adults were given tetanus vaccinations during follow-up visits. Patients who had been treated reported feeling better and those who had received shoes indicated they had not developed new lesions. All superinfections were resolved. We concluded that community-based care can treat tungiasis effectively.

Joseph JK; Bazile J; Mutter J; Shin S; Ruddle A; Ivers L; Lyon E; Farmer P

2006-10-01

188

Building international collaborations from the ground up: brown university partnerships in haiti and ukraine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The world is becoming more interconnected with a need for a global approach to healthcare. Brown University has remained a leader in global health through clinical service, education, cutting edge research and dedication to the development of sustainable global partnerships. We describe two programs from the ground up in Haiti and Ukraine, and the important lessons learned in their development. The path towards the development of global health programs in Ukraine and Haiti both illustrate that although circumstances may vary between global health programs, the recipe for successful collaboration is the same: identifying specific needs, developing strong and sustained partnerships, and addressing barriers by crafting effective solutions to ongoing challenges.

Rybak N; Koster M; Gilbert EB; Flanigan T

2013-01-01

189

Building international collaborations from the ground up: brown university partnerships in haiti and ukraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world is becoming more interconnected with a need for a global approach to healthcare. Brown University has remained a leader in global health through clinical service, education, cutting edge research and dedication to the development of sustainable global partnerships. We describe two programs from the ground up in Haiti and Ukraine, and the important lessons learned in their development. The path towards the development of global health programs in Ukraine and Haiti both illustrate that although circumstances may vary between global health programs, the recipe for successful collaboration is the same: identifying specific needs, developing strong and sustained partnerships, and addressing barriers by crafting effective solutions to ongoing challenges. PMID:23641450

Rybak, Natasha; Koster, Michael; Gilbert, Elizabeth B; Flanigan, Timothy

2013-04-01

190

Evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a single-source introduction to Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses supported the hypothesis that all isolates in the sample set diverged from a common ancestor within a time frame that is consistent with epidemiological observations. A pangenome analysis showed nearly homogeneous genomic content, with no evidence of gene acquisition among Haiti isolates. Nine nearly closed genomes assembled from continuous-long-read data showed evidence of genome rearrangements and supported the observation of no gene acquisition among isolates. Thus, intrinsic mutational processes can account for virtually all of the observed genetic polymorphism, with no demonstrable contribution from horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Consistent with this, the 12 Haiti isolates tested by laboratory HGT assays were severely impaired for transformation, although unlike previously characterized noncompetent V. cholerae isolates, each expressed hapR and possessed a functional quorum-sensing system. Continued monitoring of V. cholerae in Haiti will illuminate the processes influencing the origin and fate of genome variants, which will facilitate interpretation of genetic variation in future epidemics. IMPORTANCE: Vibrio cholerae is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with over three million cases of disease each year. An understanding of the mode and rate of evolutionary change is critical for proper interpretation of genome sequence data and attribution of outbreak sources. The Haiti epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity to study an isolated, single-source outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O1 over an established time frame. By using multiple approaches to assay genetic variation, we found no evidence that the Haiti strain has acquired any genes by horizontal gene transfer, an observation that led us to discover that it is also poorly transformable. We have found no evidence that environmental strains have played a role in the evolution of the outbreak strain.

Katz LS; Petkau A; Beaulaurier J; Tyler S; Antonova ES; Turnsek MA; Guo Y; Wang S; Paxinos EE; Orata F; Gladney LM; Stroika S; Folster JP; Rowe L; Freeman MM; Knox N; Frace M; Boncy J; Graham M; Hammer BK; Boucher Y; Bashir A; Hanage WP; Van Domselaar G; Tarr CL

2013-01-01

191

The expanded scope of emergency medical practice necessary for initial disaster response: lessons from Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

A team of emergency physicians and nurses from Stanford University responded to the devastating January 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Because of the extreme nature of the situation, combined with limited resources, the team provided not only acute medical and surgical care to critically injured and ill victims, but was required to uniquely expand its scope of practice. Using a narrative format and discussion, it is the purpose of this paper to highlight our experience in Haiti and use these to estimate some of the skills and capabilities that will be useful for physicians who respond to similar future disasters. PMID:22427047

Menon, Anil S; Norris, Robert L; Racciopi, Julie; Tilson, Heather; Gardner, Jonathan; McAdoo, Gaby; Brown, Ian P; Auerbach, Paul S

2012-01-01

192

Correction of misaligned slices in multi-slice cardiovascular magnetic resonance using slice-to-volume registration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A popular technique to reduce respiratory motion for cardiovascular magnetic resonance is to perform a multi-slice acquisition in which a patient holds their breath multiple times during the scan. The feasibility of rigid slice-to-volume registration to correct for misalignments of slice stacks in such images due to differing breath-hold positions is explored. Experimental results indicate that slice-to-volume registration can compensate for the typical misalignments expected. Correction of slice misalignment results in anatomically more correct images, as well as improved left ventricular volume measurements. The interstudy reproducibility has also been improved reducing the number of samples needed for cardiac MR studies.

Chandler Adam G; Pinder Richard J; Netsch Thomas; Schnabel Julia A; Hawkes David J; Hill Derek LG; Razavi Reza

2008-01-01

193

Gaussian Regularized Sliced Inverse Regression  

CERN Document Server

Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) is an effective method for dimension reduction in high-dimensional regression problems. The original method, however, requires the inversion of the predictors covariance matrix. In case of collinearity between these predictors or small sample sizes compared to the dimension, the inversion is not possible and a regularization technique has to be used. Our approach is based on a Fisher Lecture given by R.D. Cook where it is shown that SIR axes can be interpreted as solutions of an inverse regression problem. In this paper, a Gaussian prior distribution is introduced on the unknown parameters of the inverse regression problem in order to regularize their estimation. We show that some existing SIR regularizations can enter our framework, which permits a global understanding of these methods. Three new priors are proposed leading to new regularizations of the SIR method. A comparison on simulated data is provided.

Bernard-Michel, C; Girard, S

2011-01-01

194

Biological control of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsitus Green, in Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsitus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), very likely originated from Asia and was first observed in the Western Hemisphere in 1994 on the island of Grenada. Since then, the insect has spread to over 31 Caribbean Islands, plus countries in South America, Central America and North America. The PHM is very polyphagous and associated with some 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and trees, and very prolific with up to 500-600 eggs/female. This mealybug was introduced into the American continent without its natural enemies and has the potential of rapidly becoming a very serious threat to the agricultural industry and the environment of the region. In Haiti, the PHM was observed for the first time in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the capital, in May 2002. In July 2002, in a cooperative effort between the Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, and International Services (USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS), the International Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a biological control programme was developed for Haiti. The first action for the management of the PHM in Haiti was to initiate a public awareness campaign and train local technicians. The PHM biological control programme started with the technical assistance of the USDA, APHIS, PPQ and IS, and the support of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture (PRDA), which managed the insectary operation and provided two exotic parasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoidea indica (both Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). From July 2002 to January 2004 Haiti received 180,000 parasitoids from PRDA. In April 2003 the National Association of Mango Exporters of Haiti (ANEM) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) representative in Haiti collectively developed support through the Haiti Ministry of Agriculture in order to establish an insectary to mass-produce locally the exotic parasitoids A. kamali and G. indica. From October 2003 to November 2004, 265,000 parasitoids were mass-produced at the Haiti insectary. These parasitoids were released in Haiti in PHM infested areas at the rate of 200 to 400 individuals per species per site and a distance of about one mile between releases. Six study sites were selected using infested hibiscus plants as field hosts and sampled for about one year in order to monitor the impact of the parasitoids on the population density of PHM. The results of the study indicated a 98% reduction in the PHM population density by the parasitoids, which maintained an average of 14% parasitisation following the mealybug population decline. The PHM has the capability of spreading across the country, but at a reduced rate of distribution since the implementation of this successful biological control programme. The Haiti Ministry of Agriculture continues to survey for new PHM infested areas and is prepared to release parasitoids as necessary to ensure the continued success of the PHM biological control programme. (author)

2002-07-00

195

Processing technology for tilapia bread slice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a processing technology for java tilapia sliced bread. The processing technology for the java tilapia sliced bread comprises the following preparation steps: selecting high-quality java tilapia, bleeding and cleaning the java tilapia, cutting openings on the java tilapia, peeling the java tilapia, removing the chine of the java tilapia, slicing and cleaning the java tilapia, and then entering the following operating procedures: 1 putting the sliced java tilapia in a dish to ensure the java tilapia is evenly stained with cracker meal 2 wrapping the java tilapia with slurry 3 wrapping the java tilapia with bread crumb, and the weight of the sliced java tilapia wrapped with the bread crumb being 10 to 50 grams 4 putting the sliced java tilapia in rows in the dish, and freezing at the temperature between 18 and 50 DEG C below and 5 bagging according to the regulated weight and sealing the bags. The processing technology has the advantages that the java tilapia sliced bread can avoid the damage to the nutrients of the java tilapia when the bread is fried the java tilapia sliced bread has more abundant tastes and the fried product is obviously divided into three layers, wherein the external layer is a golden yellow bread crumb layer with a crisp and soft taste, the middle layer is a soft cracker meal layer with a soft and smooth taste, and the internal layer consists of fish with a sweet and fragrant taste.

CHANGCHAO WANG

196

Unusually severe food poisoning from vanilla slices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty six people suffered from severe vomiting and diarrhoea 15 min to 3 h after eating vanilla slices from the same bakery. Five patients were admitted to hospital, and one developed unusual skin lesions after admission. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in large numbers from vanilla slices of th...

Fenton, P. A.; Dobson, K. W.; Eyre, A.; McKendrick, M. W.

197

Subsistence Songs: Haitian téat Performances, Gendered Capital, and Livelihood Strategies in Jean Makout, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examines how sexual and gender values in rural Haiti are expressed through 'téat', theatrical, songs and performances among girls from 10 to 20 years. Author describes how these sexual values relate to a concept of gendered capital, or what he calls a "sexual-moral economy", whereby men who want sex...

Timothy T. Schwartz

198

The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake, we deployed a mainly offshore temporary network of seismologic stations around the damaged area. The distribution of the recorded aftershocks, together with morphotectonic observations and mainshock analysis, allow us to constrain a complex fault pattern...

Mercier De Lépinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Mazabraud, Yves; Delouis, Bertrand; Clouard, Valérie

199

Witchcraft, bureaucraft, and the social life of (US)AID in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article I discuss the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development assistance provided to “victims of human rights abuses” in Haiti in the years following the restoration of democracy in 1994. Such targeted aid was a component of international political and economic development ai...

James, Erica C.

200

Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound eco...

Susan A. Mainka; Jeffrey McNeely

 
 
 
 
201

Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors in Expectant Fathers in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti has an HIV/AIDS epidemic of the highest magnitude outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Factors such as relationship power imbalances, traditional gender role acceptance, and patriarchal belief systems that devalue women's sexuality have increased Haitian women's vulnerability to HIV infection. Becau...

Magee, Edward M.; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Kershaw, Trace

202

Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Other Intestinal Parasites in a Community in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted an exploratory investigation in a community in Haiti to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection and to identify potential risk factors for C. cayetanensis infection. In 2001, two cross-sectional stool surveys and a nested case-control study were conducted. In 2002,...

Lopez, Adriana S.; Bendik, Jean M.; Alliance, Jean Y.; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci N. S.

203

Three Years Experience with the Implementation of a Networked Electronic Medical Record in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 2005 we have been developing and implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) that supports both individual and population health care of HIV-infected patients in Haiti. Unreliable electrical power and network infrastructure, cultural differences, variable levels of experience and computer ...

Lober, William B.; Quiles, Christina; Wagner, Steve; Cassagnol, Rachelle; Lamothes, Roges; Alexis, Don Rock Pierre

204

Vulnerability to poverty : A microeconometric approach and application to the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates vulnerability to poverty in Haiti. Research in vulnerability in developing countries has been scarce due to the high data requirements of vulnerability studies (e.g. panel or long series of cross-sections). The methodology adopted here allows the assessment of vulnerability t...

Jadotte, Evans

205

Labor supply response to international migration and remittances in the Republic of Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Republic of Haiti is the prime international remittances recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this observation may be that this country is also the first exporter of skilled workers in the world by popula...

Jadotte, Evans

206

The “First” Case of Cholera in Haiti: Lessons for Global Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cholera is an acute watery diarrheal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. The disease has a high fatality rate when untreated and outbreaks of cholera have been increasing globally in the past decade, most recently in Haiti. We present the case of a 28-year-old Haitian male with a histo...

Ivers, Louise C.; Walton, David A.

207

Education, daily routine, and prospects of primary school teachers in Haiti delay, drudgery, and dreams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study offers a detailed description of selected Haitian primary school teachers’ living and working conditions based on narrative interviews, observations, and common experiences during a cross-cultural in-service teacher training program in rural Haiti. The research is focused on the following...

Thiel, Gertrud

208

Food Security in Haiti After the 2010 Earthquake: Analysis and Evaluation of NGO Relief Efforts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haiti suffered an earthquake in January of 2010, bringing instability and widespread hunger. Even after two years, many Haitians lack food security, and one must look at the failings of the Haitian government and those who attempted to provide aid. Major aid organizations such as the Red Cross, Worl...

McGaughey, Katie

209

Antibodies to Pf155, a major antigen of Plasmodium falciparum: seroepidemiological studies in Haiti*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of malaria parasites and the serological antibody responses against whole Plasmodium falciparum and the Pf155 antigen were studied in the population of a small rural locality in Haiti in December 1985. Only 7 (1.5%) of the individuals were found to be infected with P. falciparum, the on...

Deloron, P.; Duverseau, Y. T.; Zevallos-Ipenza, A.; Magloire, R.; Stanfill, P. S.; Nguyen-Dinh, Phuc

210

Infectious Diseases Seen in a Primary Care Clinic in Leogane, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All diseases diagnosed in a primary healthcare clinic situated in Leogane, Haiti, were recorded prospectively during a 7-month period. Among the patients in this cohort, 2,821 of 6,631 (42.6%) presented with an infectious disease. The three most common syndromes among the patients presenting with in...

Neuberger, Ami; Tenenboim, Shiri; Golos, Miri; Pex, Racheli; Krakowsky, Yonah; Urman, Marnina; Vernet, Spencer; Schwartz, Eli

211

Haiti Reconstruction: U.S. Efforts Have Begun, Expanded Oversight Still to Be Implemented.  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, an earthquake in Haiti killed an estimated 230,000 people, displaced about 2 million more, and exacerbated longstanding challenges. In July 2010, Congress appropriated more than $1.14 billion in supplemental funds for reconstruction a...

2011-01-01

212

USGS CoreCast: Magnitude 7.0 Earthquake Strikes Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This page allows free listening and download of a US Geological Survey CoreCast podcast on the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Michael Blanpied, associate coordinator for the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, answers questions about the earthquake, its severe shaking, and the possibility of additional hazards, such as landslides and a tsunami.

Survey, United S.

213

A Cluster of Dengue Cases in American Missionaries Returning from Haiti, 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4) that are endemic throughout the tropics. After returning from a 1-week missionary trip to Haiti in October of 2010, 5 of 28 (18%) travelers were hospitalized for dengue-like illness. All travelers were inv...

Sharp, Tyler M.; Pillai, Parvathy; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Anderson, Teresa; Vap, Trina; Collinson, Jeremy

214

Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87%) occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77%) subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14%) were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9%) delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

Stan Shaffer; Denise Fryzelka; Cindy Obenhaus; Elizabeth Wickstrom

2007-01-01

215

Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

216

Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medi...

Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

217

Risk Factors for Alcohol Use among Male Adolescents and Emerging Adults in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined risk factors associated with alcohol use in the past 3 months among young men aged 15-24 in Haiti using data from the 2000 Enquete Mortalite, Morbidite et Utilization des Services. Findings indicate that life-time smoking, multiple sexual partnerships, witnessing inter-parental conflict in childhood, disruption of parental…

Gage, Anastasia J.; Suzuki, Chiho

2006-01-01

218

Design of Public-Private Partnership for Waste Management in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste management is a growing concern in rapidly urbanizing developing countries and Haiti is noexception. Excessive amounts of improperly discharged waste endangers unique tropical environment, appears to bea reason of fast spread of epidemic diseases, increases risk of floods during the hurricane ...

Bessonova, Ekaterina

219

Production of Cooking Briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) Lignite. Feasibility Study and Preliminary Plant Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found ...

W. B. Hauserman M. D. Johnson

1986-01-01

220

Cholera Prevention Training Materials for Community Health Workers, Haiti, 2010-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Stopping the spread of the cholera epidemic in Haiti required engaging community health workers (CHWs) in prevention and treatment activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population to develop CHW educational materials, train >1,100 CHWs, and evaluate training efforts.

Bowen, Anna; O'Reilly, Ciara; Sholtes, Kari; Schilling, Katie; Hough, Catherine; Brunkard, Joan; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Lerebours, Gerald; Cadet, Jean; Quick, Robert; Person, Bobbie

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Lack of evidence for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Leogane, Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed.

Neuberger A; Zhong K; Kain KC; Schwartz E

2012-09-01

222

The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

2012-11-01

223

Slice filtering for fast craniofacial surface reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an algorithm to reduce the number of slices from 2D contour cross sections. The main aim of the algorithm is to filter less significant slices while preserving an acceptable level of output quality and keeping the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s) at a minimal level. This research is motivated mainly by two factors; first 2D cross sections data is often huge in size and high in precisions – the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s) from them is closely related to the size and complexity of this data. Second, we can trades visual fidelity with speed of computations if we can remove visually insignificant data from the original dataset which may contains redundant information. In our algorithm we use the number of contour points on a pair of slices to calculate the distance between them. Selection to retain/reject a slice is based on the value of distance compared against a threshold value. Optimal threshold value is derived to produce set of slices that collectively represent the feature of the dataset. We tested our algorithm over six different set of data, varying in complexities and sizes. The results show slice reduction rate depends on the complexity of the dataset, where highest reduction percentage is achieved for objects with lots of constant local variations. Our derived optimal thresholds seem to be able to produce the right set of slices with the potential of creating surface(s) that traded off the accuracy and speed requirements.

S.L. Tan; B. Belaton; Z.A. Rajion; A.R. Samsudin

2006-01-01

224

Proposed Method for Computing Interprocedure Slicing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Program slicing was originally introduced by Mark Weiser, is useful in program debugging, automatic parallelization, software aintenance, program integration etc. It is a method for automatically decomposing programs by analyzing their data flow and control flow reduces the program to a minimal form called “slice” which still produces that behavior. Interprocedure slicing is the slicing of multiprocedure program .In this paper a new method or algorithm (IP algorithm) is introduced for the interprocedure static slicing of structured programs. The most time consuming part of the interprocedure slicing methods is the computation of transitive dependences (i.e. summary edges)due to the procedure calls. Horowitz et al. [8] introduced an algorithm based on attribute grammar for computing summary edges. Reps et al. [7] and Istavan [9] defined an improved algorithm for computing summary edges representing interprocedural dependences at procedure calls. Here in this paper we discuss the improved interprocedure slicing algorithm (IP) algorithm, which is faster than previous algorithm and takes less memory space

Lipika Jha; Dr. K.S. Patnaik

2013-01-01

225

Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling), we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion.

Jacquet Vary; Morose Willy; Schwartzman Kevin; Oxlade Olivia; Barr Graham; Grimard Franque; Menzies Dick

2006-01-01

226

Community health workers in health systems strengthening: a qualitative evaluation from rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Haiti is among the countries facing serious shortages in human resources for healthcare. In rural Haiti, the need for daily, long-term adherence to medication for HIV and TB was initially the driving factor for recruitment of community health workers (CHW) during scale-up of HIV services. Their role became broader over time. This qualitative study evaluated the role of CHW in the health system as a whole in both HIV and non-HIV-related services in rural Haiti and investigated the challenges and facilitating factors for their work. METHODS: We used qualitative methods including focus group discussions and group interviews in four sites in rural Haiti. Data from 462 CHW were analysed for themes and content according to standard ethnographic methods. RESULTS: CHW contributed to a wide range of primary health services and non-HIV-related activities. Recognition from the community, status, satisfaction of contributing to the well-being of others and remuneration were facilitating factors to performing their work. Challenges included insufficient materials to cope with the obstacles on the ground, lack of diagnostic and treatment roles in their activities, high work load, and desire for ongoing training and a higher salary. CONCLUSION: CHW initially hired for HIV care represent an important part of the health system in rural Haiti in both HIV-related and primary healthcare services. CHW programmes have important potential for building capacity in the health workforce and thereby contributing to strengthening of the health system as a whole. Attention must be paid to adequate remuneration, training and provision of materials.

Jerome G; Ivers LC

2010-01-01

227

Eigenmodes of seismic elastic vibrations of quaking neutron star encoded in QPOs on light curves of SGR flares  

CERN Document Server

The Newtonian solid-mechanical theory of nodeless spheroidal and torsional seismic elastic vibrations trapped in the crust of quaking neutron star is outlined. The spectral equations for the frequency of these modes are obtained and applied to the modal classification of the quasi-periodic oscillations of X-ray luminosity in the aftermath of giant flares in SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The presented analysis is heavily relied on the currently accepted identification of the QPOs frequency from the range [30-200] Hz with those for torsional nodeless vibrations. Based on this identification, which is used to fix the input parameters entering the obtained spectral formulae, we compute frequency spectrum of nodeless spheroidal elastic vibrations. Focus is placed on the low-frequency QPOs in the data for SGR 1806-20 whose physical origin has been called into question. Our calculations suggest that QPOs with frequencies 18 Hz and 26 Hz are due to dipole spheroidal and dipole torsional shear vibrations of the crust a...

Bastrukov, Sergey; Molodtsova, Irina; Chen, Gwan-Ting

2007-01-01

228

Structure-function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

2013-04-15

229

The Proximal End of Mouse Chromosome 17: New Molecular Markers Identify a Deletion Associated with Quaking(viable)  

Science.gov (United States)

Five randomly identified cosmids have been mapped proximal to the Leh66D locus on mouse chromosome 17. Two of these cosmids, Au10 and Au119, map near the neurological mutation quaking. Au119 is deleted in qk(viable)/qk(viable) DNA, whereas Au10 is not. Au76 maps to a gene-rich region near the Tme locus. The Au76 locus encodes a member of a low copy gene family expressed in embryos, the adult central nervous system and testis. A second member of this family has been mapped to chromosome 15 near c-sis (PDGF-B). At the centromeric end of chromosome 17, Au116 maps near the Tu1 locus, and along with Au217rs identifies a region of unusually high recombinational activity between t-haplotypes and wild-type chromosomes. Au217I and II map to the large inverted repeats found at the proximal end of the wild-type chromosome. In addition, the Au217I and/or II loci encode testis transcripts not expressed from t-haplotypes.

Ebersole, T.; Rho, O.; Artzt, K.

1992-01-01

230

Outline and handling manual of experimental data time slice monitoring software 'SLICE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a software 'SLICE' which maps various kinds of plasma experimental data measured at the different geometrical position of JT-60U and JFT-2M onto the equilibrium magnetic configuration and treats them as a function of volume averaged minor radius ?. Experimental data can be handled uniformly by using 'SLICE'. Plenty of commands of 'SLICE' make it easy to process the mapped data. The experimental data measured as line integrated values are also transformed by Abel inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the database 'MAPDB'. 'SLICE' can read the data from 'MAPDB' and re-display and transform them. Still more 'SLICE' creates run data of orbit following Monte-Carlo code 'OFMC' and tokamak predictive and interpretation code system 'TOPICS'. This report summarizes an outline and the usage of 'SLICE'. (author).

1993-01-01

231

Sliced Configuration Spaces for Curved Planar Bodies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the first practical, implemented configuration space computation algorithmfor a curved planar object translating and rotating amidst stationary obstacles.The bodies are rigid, compact, regular, and bounded by a finite number of rationalparametric curve segments. The algorithm represents the three-dimensional configurationspace as two-dimensional slices in which the moving object has a fixed orientation.It discretizes the configuration space into intervals of equivalent slices separated bycritical slices. The output is topologically correct and accurate to within a specifiedtolerance. We have implemented the algorithm for objects bounded by line segmentsand circular arcs, which is an important class for applications. The program is simple,fast, and robust. The slice representation is a natural and efficient abstract data typefor geometric computations in robotics and engineering.To appear in International Journal of Robotics Research11

Elisha Sacks; Rajit Bajaj

232

Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

2011-01-01

233

Black hole initial data on hyperboloidal slices  

CERN Document Server

We generalize Bowen-York black hole initial data to hyperboloidal constant mean curvature (CMC) slices which extend to future null infinity. We solve this initial value problem numerically for several cases, including unequal mass binary black holes with spins and boosts. The singularity at null infinity in the Hamiltonian constraint associated with a CMC hypersurface does not pose any particular difficulties. The inner boundaries of our slices are minimal surfaces. Trumpet configurations are explored both analytically and numerically.

Buchman, Luisa T; Bardeen, James M

2009-01-01

234

Projection-slice theorem: a compact notation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The notation normally associated with the projection-slice theorem often presents difficulties for students of Fourier optics and digital image processing. Simple single-line forms of the theorem that are relatively easily interpreted can be obtained for n-dimensional functions by exploiting the convolution theorem and the rotation theorem of Fourier transform theory. The projection-slice theorem is presented in this form for two- and three-dimensional functions; generalization to higher dimensionality is briefly discussed. PMID:21532686

Garces, Daissy H; Rhodes, William T; Peña, Nestor M

2011-05-01

235

Projection-slice theorem: a compact notation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The notation normally associated with the projection-slice theorem often presents difficulties for students of Fourier optics and digital image processing. Simple single-line forms of the theorem that are relatively easily interpreted can be obtained for n-dimensional functions by exploiting the convolution theorem and the rotation theorem of Fourier transform theory. The projection-slice theorem is presented in this form for two- and three-dimensional functions; generalization to higher dimensionality is briefly discussed.

Garces DH; Rhodes WT; Peña NM

2011-05-01

236

A New Closure to Slice Model for Slope Stability Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new closure to slice models for evaluating slopes. The discussion is based on the minimal inter-slice action (MIA) hypothesis, which results in a new slice model without including artificially adjustable parameters. It has been realized that the new slice model predicts the min...

Tianyun Liu; Yunling Duan; Chongbin Zhao

237

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeiros dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia.The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that followed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Omar Ribeiro Thomaz

2010-01-01

238

Impacts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake in the diaspora: findings from Little Haiti, Miami, FL.  

Science.gov (United States)

In January 2010, a massive earthquake struck Haiti resulting in unprecedented damage. Little attention, however, has focused on the earthquake's mental health impact in the Haitian diaspora community. As part of an established community-based participatory research initiative in Little Haiti, the predominately Haitian neighborhood in Miami, FL, USA, community health workers conducted surveys with neighborhood residents about earthquake-related losses, coping strategies, and depressive/traumatic symptomology. Findings reveal the earthquake strongly impacted the diaspora community and highlights prominent coping strategies. Following the earthquake, only a small percentage of participants self-reported engaging in any negative health behaviors. Instead, a majority relied on their social networks for support. This study contributes to the discourse on designing culturally-responsive mental health initiatives for the Haitian diaspora and the ability of existing community-academic partnerships to rapidly adapt to community needs. PMID:22585312

Kobetz, Erin; Menard, Janelle; Kish, Jonathan; Bishop, Ian; Hazan, Gabrielle; Nicolas, Guerda

2013-04-01

239

Complementary nature of surface and atmospheric parameters associated with Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper describes surface (surface air temperature) and atmospheric parameters (relative humidity, surface latent heat flux) over the epicenter (18°27´25´´ N 72°31´59´´ W) of Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010. Our analysis shows pronounced changes in surface and atmospheric parameters few days prior to the main earthquake event. Changes in relative humidity are found from the surface up to an altitude of 500 hPa clearly show atmospheric perturbations associated with the earthquake event. The purpose of this paper is to show complementary nature of the changes observed in surface, atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The total ozone concentration is found to be lowest on the day of earthquake and afterwards found to be increased within a week of earthquake. The present results show existence of coupling between lithosphere-atmosphere associated with the deadly Haiti earthquake.

Ramesh P. Singh; Waseem Mehdi; Manish Sharma

2010-01-01

240

Impacts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake in the diaspora: findings from Little Haiti, Miami, FL.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In January 2010, a massive earthquake struck Haiti resulting in unprecedented damage. Little attention, however, has focused on the earthquake's mental health impact in the Haitian diaspora community. As part of an established community-based participatory research initiative in Little Haiti, the predominately Haitian neighborhood in Miami, FL, USA, community health workers conducted surveys with neighborhood residents about earthquake-related losses, coping strategies, and depressive/traumatic symptomology. Findings reveal the earthquake strongly impacted the diaspora community and highlights prominent coping strategies. Following the earthquake, only a small percentage of participants self-reported engaging in any negative health behaviors. Instead, a majority relied on their social networks for support. This study contributes to the discourse on designing culturally-responsive mental health initiatives for the Haitian diaspora and the ability of existing community-academic partnerships to rapidly adapt to community needs.

Kobetz E; Menard J; Kish J; Bishop I; Hazan G; Nicolas G

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

2013-07-08

242

Reducing health disparities through culturally sensitive treatment for HIV+ adults in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a critical need to deliver empirically validated interventions to underserved populations. Haiti, the country most heavily affected by the AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, accounts for approximately 50% of all cases in the region. Poverty, disparities in access to healthcare, and socio-political instability are among the reasons why the country has been ravaged by the disease. Ongoing projects in Haiti have shown that integrated prevention and care in resource poor settings are feasible and can be successful, as evidenced by a 50% drop in incidence among pregnant women since 1993. The AIDS prevention program has embarked on a comprehensive effort to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral stress management program for Haitian HIV+ individuals. The purpose of the program is to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication, reduce transmission to uninfected partners, and improve coping. This comprehensive approach is necessary to ensure the validity of the cross-cultural adaptation of this intervention. PMID:18399360

Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Jean-Gilles, Michele M; Samuels, Deanne M; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Ascencio, Maxi; Jean-Baptiste, Larissa; Pape, Jean William

243

Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container.

Lantagne D; Clasen T

2013-09-01

244

Cholera gravis associated with acute renal failure in a traveler from Haiti to the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholera is a gastroenteric disease caused by epidemic or pandemic Vibrio cholerae which still is responsible for over 100,000 annual deaths worldwide. Since October 2010, Haiti experienced a cholera outbreak affecting more than 300,000 persons. Few imported cases related to the Haitian epidemic have been reported so far in the United States and Canada. We presented a patient who developed cholera gravis soon after arrival at New York City from Haiti. The patient needed admission to an Intensive Care Unit, for vigorous intravenous hydration, antibiotic therapy, and hemodialysis due to refractory oliguric renal failure. The patient was discharged the day 6 after admission and V. cholerae O1 was isolated from the stool culture. Cholera can be a life-threatening disease; early recognition based on travel history and clinical features is the corner stone for successful management.

Reyes-Corcho A; Pinsker RW; Sarkar S; Bagheri F; Patel MC; Lam P; González A

2012-09-01

245

Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From June 2009 through December 2009, Haiti conducted sentinel surveillance for influenza. 499 samples were collected and tested using real-time RT-PCR. 197 (39.5%) were positive for influenza, including 95 (48%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 57 (29%) seasonal influenza A and 45 (23%) influenza B. The median age of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases was 21.7; two-thirds of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases were in patients aged 6 years - 35 years. Pandemic activity peaked in September and co-circulated with other influenza subtypes. The age distribution and seasonality of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Haiti were similar to other countries in the Caribbean region.

Fitter DL; Freeman NM; Buteau J; Magloire R; Sessions WM; Guo L; Katz MA; Boncy J

2013-09-01

246

O terremoto no Haiti, o mundo dos brancos e o Lougawou  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As conseqüências do terremoto que atingiu o Haiti no dia 12 de janeiro de 2010 revelam, mais do que a falência do Estado daquele país, o fracasso das organizações internacionais supostamente envolvidas em sua reconstrução. Em relato pessoal e ao mesmo tempo etnográfico, o autor reconstrói os primeiros dias após a catástrofe e comenta a distância que separa essas organizações da sociedade haitiana, distância responsável por sua ineficácia. Abstract in english The aftermath of the earthquake that striked Haiti earlier this year reveals, more than the bankruptcy of the country's State, the failure of the international organizations responsible for supposedly "rebuilding" it. In a personal and ethnographical essay, the author describes the first days that followed the natural catastrophe and comments on the distance that separates those organizations from Haitian society, which lies at the root of its own inefficiency.

Thomaz, Omar Ribeiro

2010-03-01

247

Slice profile characteristics of MPR images in multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have investigated the detailed imaging characteristics of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images, which have come to be used in imaging diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the slice profile characteristics of MPR images. The slice profile of a coronal image was measured by the bead method. Moreover, it assumed that the slice profile of an MPR image became a convolution of the square profile corresponding to the nominal slice thickness and line spread function (LSF) of an axial image, and the simulation was performed. The nominal slice thicknesses of the original axial image and coronal image were 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm. Three reconstruction kernels (B20, B30, and B40) of the original axial image were used. The results of measurement revealed that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values were 1.7 mm for reconstruction kernel B20 and 1.3 mm for reconstruction kernel B40 in the case of a nominal slice thickness of 1.0 mm. The simulated and measured modulation transfer factors (MTF) were in close agreement. Then the slice profile of the coronal (sagittal) MPR image forms by the convolution of a LSF of the y- (x-) direction and the square profile with a nominal MPR slice width, and is affected by the reconstruction kernel. (author)

2008-01-01

248

Slice XVIvo™: a novel electrophysiology system with the capability for 16 independent brain slice recordings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we validate the design and use of a novel, customized electrophysiology system (Slice XVIvo™) that is capable of recording from 16 independent brain slices. The system consists of 16 independent recording chambers in which individual electrodes can be manually manipulated and fixed in order to stimulate and record extracellular responses from 16 brain slices simultaneously. Responses from each brain slice are elicited with individual stimulus isolator units and recorded through separate channels, thus allowing for independent control and analysis of the evoked extracellular activity from each slice. The system was designed to fit on a standard anti-vibration table, thus the Slice XVIvo™ system occupies considerably less space than other currently available multi-slice recording systems. We have demonstrated the utility of the system to obtain stable, extracellular responses from the CA1 region of the hippocampus, as well as induce long-term potentiation. Additionally, we show the utility of the Slice XVIvo™ system to significantly improved throughput for testing compounds in an oxygen and glucose deprivation assay. Overall, we have designed, created and validated a considerably cost- and space-efficient electrophysiology system that greatly improves throughput while minimizing the number of animals used in experiments.

Graef JD; Wei H; Lippiello PM; Bencherif M; Fedorov N

2013-01-01

249

Slice XVIvo™: a novel electrophysiology system with the capability for 16 independent brain slice recordings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we validate the design and use of a novel, customized electrophysiology system (Slice XVIvo™) that is capable of recording from 16 independent brain slices. The system consists of 16 independent recording chambers in which individual electrodes can be manually manipulated and fixed in order to stimulate and record extracellular responses from 16 brain slices simultaneously. Responses from each brain slice are elicited with individual stimulus isolator units and recorded through separate channels, thus allowing for independent control and analysis of the evoked extracellular activity from each slice. The system was designed to fit on a standard anti-vibration table, thus the Slice XVIvo™ system occupies considerably less space than other currently available multi-slice recording systems. We have demonstrated the utility of the system to obtain stable, extracellular responses from the CA1 region of the hippocampus, as well as induce long-term potentiation. Additionally, we show the utility of the Slice XVIvo™ system to significantly improved throughput for testing compounds in an oxygen and glucose deprivation assay. Overall, we have designed, created and validated a considerably cost- and space-efficient electrophysiology system that greatly improves throughput while minimizing the number of animals used in experiments. PMID:23099344

Graef, John D; Wei, Haiyang; Lippiello, Patrick M; Bencherif, Merouane; Fedorov, Nikolai

2012-10-23

250

The Army of Sufferers : peasant democracy in the early Republic of Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focuses on Haitian debates concerning popular political participation in the context of the Liberal Revolution of 1843 and the Piquet Rebellion of 1844. The liberal challenge to the regime of President Boyer gave room to a peasant movement, the 'Army of Sufferers' or the Piquets, calling for black civil and political rights. Author traces 3 phases of the revolutionary situation of 1843-44 to show how political actors within Haiti debated various institutional and constitutional arrangements.

Mimi Sheller

2000-01-01

251

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30

252

Peer health education in Haiti's National Penitentiary: the "Health through Walls" experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This field report describes Health through Wall's experience working in the largest men's prison in Haiti. Though there have been many reports of prison peer health education programs, this field report further describes how peers can increase the (self-reported) interest and uptake of HIV testing. More than 400 anonymous surveys were collected. Preliminary results indicate that the peers had a significant impact on self-reported interest in taking the HIV test.

Zack B; Smith C; Andrews MC; May JP

2013-01-01

253

Perfect Slice Samplers for Mixtures of Distributions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper extends the result of Hobert et al. (1999) to the case of general finite mixtures of distributions, under conjugate priors, that is, when either the p i 's, the ` i 's or both are unknown, by proposing a dioeerent approach to the problem. The foundation of the technique used here relies on the facts that, under conjugate priors, the marginal posterior distribution of the latent variables z is known in closed form, up to a constant, as exhibited and exploited for importance sampling in Casella et al. (1999), and that, moreover, a slice sampler can be implemented for this distribution. We can thus use the results of Mira and Roberts (1999), who show how a general perfect sampler can be adapted to (univariate) slice samplers, by taking advantage of the fact that the slice sampler is naturally monotone for the order induced by the distribution of interest. Indeed, a naive implementation of the slice sampler in the parameter space is impossible, given the complexity of the posterior distribution. The "slice region"...

C. P. Robertx; D. M. Titterington

254

Chicken embryo spinal cord slice culture protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Slice cultures can facilitate the manipulation of embryo development both pharmacologically and through gene manipulations. In this reduced system, potential lethal side effects due to systemic drug applications can be overcome. However, culture conditions must ensure that normal development proceeds within the reduced environment of the slice. We have focused on the development of the spinal cord, particularly that of spinal motor neurons. We systematically varied culture conditions of chicken embryo slices from the point at which most spinal motor neurons had been born. We assayed the number and type of motor neurons that survived during the culture period and the position of those motor neurons compared to that in vivo. We found that serum type and neurotrophic factors were required during the culture period and were able to keep motor neurons alive for at least 24 hr and allow those motor neurons to migrate to appropriate positions in the spinal cord. We present these culture conditions and the methodology of preparing the embryo slice cultures using eviscerated chicken embryos embedded in agarose and sliced using a vibratome.

Tubby KC; Norval D; Price SR

2013-01-01

255

Post-1935 changes in forest vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA: Part 2--Mixed conifer, spruce-fir, and quaking aspen forests  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined changes in never-harvested mixed conifer (MCF), spruce-fir (SFF), and quaking aspen forests (QAF) in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), Arizona, USA based on repeat sampling of two sets of vegetation study plots, one originally sampled in 1935 and the other in 1984. The 1935 plots are the earliest-known, sample-intensive, quantitative documentation of forest vegetation over a Southwest USA landscape. Findings documented that previously described increases in densities and basal areas attributed to fire exclusion were followed by decreases in 1935-2004 and 1984-2005. Decreases in MCF were attributable primarily to quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white fir (Abies concolor), but there were differences between dry-mesic and moist-mesic MCF subtypes. Decreases in SFF were attributable to quaking aspen, spruce (Picea engelmannii + Picea pungens), and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Decreases in QAF resulted from the loss of quaking aspen during succession. Changes in ponderosa pine forest (PPF) are described in a parallel paper (Vankat, J.L., 2011. Post-1935 changes in forest vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA: part 1 - ponderosa pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 309-325). Graphical synthesis of historical and modern MCF data sets for GCNP indicated tree densities and basal areas increased from the late 19th to the mid 20th century and then decreased to the 21st century. Changes began earlier, occurred more rapidly, and/or were larger at higher elevation. Plot data showed that basal area decreased earlier and/or more rapidly than density and that decreases from 1935 to 2004 resulted in convergence among MCF, SFF, and PPF. If GCNP coniferous forests are trending toward conditions present before fire exclusion, this implies density and basal area were more similar among these forests in the late 19th century than in 1935. Changes in MCF and SFF can be placed in a general framework of forest accretion, inflection, and recession in which increases in tree density and basal area are followed by an inflection point and decreases. Accretion was triggered by the exogenous factor of fire exclusion, and inflection and recession apparently were driven by the endogenous factor of density-dependent mortality combined with exogenous factors such as climate. Although the decreases in density and basal area could be unique to GCNP, it is likely that the historical study plots provided a unique opportunity to quantitatively determine forest trends since 1935. This documentation of post-1935 decreases in MCF and SFF densities and basal areas indicates a shift in perspective on Southwestern forests is needed.

Vankat JohnL

2011-02-01

256

Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

1986-03-20

257

Smoke exposure among women in Haiti: The case for improved stoves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indoor smoke exposure is responsible for two million deaths per year and has been studied globally, but the impacts of exposure have not yet been evaluated in Haiti, the Western hemisphere's poorest nation. This study measures the disproportionate impact of indoor smoke exposure on the women and children of Haiti. We studied 2296 clinic patients in four Haitian villages to determine the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, using carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood as a proxy for overall smoke exposure. We predicted CO levels to be higher in women, who traditionally perform the majority of cooking duties, and in children who accompany their mothers. CO levels averaged 4.9% in women and 3.4% in men. Women of child-bearing age carried a minimum relative risk (RR) for CO exposure of 1.22, relative to all males and younger females. Older females carried no significant difference in risk. Children averaged the lowest CO exposure among all cohorts. These findings demonstrate the burden of indoor smoke exposure that falls disproportionately on women in these regions of Haiti. Global efforts to mitigate indoor exposure have demonstrated the health, economic, environmental and social improvements that are possible by tackling this problem.

Hubbell AM; Jareczek FJ; Vonnahme L; Hockenberry JM; Buresh C

2013-08-01

258

Smoke exposure among women in Haiti: The case for improved stoves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indoor smoke exposure is responsible for two million deaths per year and has been studied globally, but the impacts of exposure have not yet been evaluated in Haiti, the Western hemisphere's poorest nation. This study measures the disproportionate impact of indoor smoke exposure on the women and children of Haiti. We studied 2296 clinic patients in four Haitian villages to determine the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, using carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood as a proxy for overall smoke exposure. We predicted CO levels to be higher in women, who traditionally perform the majority of cooking duties, and in children who accompany their mothers. CO levels averaged 4.9% in women and 3.4% in men. Women of child-bearing age carried a minimum relative risk (RR) for CO exposure of 1.22, relative to all males and younger females. Older females carried no significant difference in risk. Children averaged the lowest CO exposure among all cohorts. These findings demonstrate the burden of indoor smoke exposure that falls disproportionately on women in these regions of Haiti. Global efforts to mitigate indoor exposure have demonstrated the health, economic, environmental and social improvements that are possible by tackling this problem. PMID:23906187

Hubbell, Alexander M; Jareczek, Francis J; Vonnahme, Laura; Hockenberry, Jason M; Buresh, Christopher

2013-08-01

259

Letter to the Editor : Rapidly-deployed small tent hospitals: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The damage to medical facilities resulting form the January 2010 earthquake in haiti necessitated the establishment of field tent hospitals. Much of the local medical infrastructure was destroyed or limited operationally when the Fast Israel Rescue and Search Team (FIRST) arrived in Haiti shortly after the January 2010 earthquake. The FIRST deployed small tent hospitals in Port-au-Prince and in 11 remote areas outside of the city. Each tent was set up in less than a half hour. The tents were staffed with an orthopedic surgeon, gynecologists, primary care and emergency care physicians, a physician with previous experience in tropical medicine, nurses, paramedics, medics, and psychologists. The rapidly deployable and temporary nature of the effort allowed the team to treat and educate, as well as provide supplies for, thousands of refugees throughout Haiti. In addition, a local Haitian physician and his team created a small tent hospital to serve the Petion Refugee Camp and its environs. FIRST personnel also took shifts at this hospital.

Rosen, Y.; Gurman , P.; Verna, E.; Elman , N.; Labor, E. (Materials Science Division); (Superior NanoBioSystems LLC); (Fast Israeli Rescue & Search Team); (Clinique Adonai); (Mass. Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Haifa)

2012-06-01

260

Household food insecurity is associated with childhood malaria in rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is heavily affected by food insecurity and malaria. To find out if these 2 conditions are associated with each other, we studied a convenience sample of 153 women with children 1-5 y old in Camp Perrin, South Haiti. Household food insecurity was assessed with the 16-item Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA) scale previously validated in the target communities. ELCSA's reference time period was the 3 mo preceding the survey and it was answered by the mother. Households were categorized as either food secure (2%; ELCSA score = 0), food insecure/very food insecure (42.7%; ELCSA score range: 1-10), or severely food insecure (57.3%; ELCSA score range: 11-16). A total of 34.0% of women reported that their children had malaria during the 2 mo preceding the survey. Multivariate analyses showed that severe food insecure was a risk factor for perceived clinical malaria (odds ratio: 5.97; 95% CI: 2.06-17.28). Additional risk factors for perceived clinical malaria were as follows: not receiving colostrum, poor child health (via maternal self-report), a child BMI <17 kg/m(2), and child vitamin A supplementation more than once since birth. Findings suggest that policies and programs that address food insecurity are also likely to reduce the risk of malaria in Haiti.

Pérez-Escamilla R; Dessalines M; Finnigan M; Pachón H; Hromi-Fiedler A; Gupta N

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Household food insecurity is associated with childhood malaria in rural Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is heavily affected by food insecurity and malaria. To find out if these 2 conditions are associated with each other, we studied a convenience sample of 153 women with children 1-5 y old in Camp Perrin, South Haiti. Household food insecurity was assessed with the 16-item Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA) scale previously validated in the target communities. ELCSA's reference time period was the 3 mo preceding the survey and it was answered by the mother. Households were categorized as either food secure (2%; ELCSA score = 0), food insecure/very food insecure (42.7%; ELCSA score range: 1-10), or severely food insecure (57.3%; ELCSA score range: 11-16). A total of 34.0% of women reported that their children had malaria during the 2 mo preceding the survey. Multivariate analyses showed that severe food insecure was a risk factor for perceived clinical malaria (odds ratio: 5.97; 95% CI: 2.06-17.28). Additional risk factors for perceived clinical malaria were as follows: not receiving colostrum, poor child health (via maternal self-report), a child BMI <17 kg/m(2), and child vitamin A supplementation more than once since birth. Findings suggest that policies and programs that address food insecurity are also likely to reduce the risk of malaria in Haiti. PMID:19741201

Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dessalines, Michael; Finnigan, Mousson; Pachón, Helena; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Gupta, Nishang

2009-09-09

262

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREPARING SLICED PLANTAINS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention overcomes many of the shortcomings inherent in previous methods and systems addressing the commercial production of fried plantain slices. The improved process comprises a fully automated system which includes a sprayer assembly adapted to continually spray the cutting knife mechanism on commercial-grade slicing machines with a cleansing lubricant thereby keeping the cutting surface clean and free of debris. The improved system also includes a liquid bath for coating the freshly sliced plantains prior to immersion in a hot oil frying vat. In one embodiment, the system utilizes an edible oil as both the cleansing spray lubricant and in the liquid bath. In this embodiment, the liquid bath serves as a reservoir for the cleansing lubricant sprayer assembly. In another embodiment, the system utilizes water as both the cleansing spray lubricant and in the liquid bath.

GIRALDO JAVIER LIBARDO ARANGO; JURANOVIC LILLIAN REGINA

263

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREPARING SLICED PLANTAINS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention overcomes many of the shortcomings inherent in previous methods and systems addressing the commercial production of fried plantain slices. The improved process comprises a fully automated system which includes a sprayer assembly (34)adapted to continually spray the cutting knife mechanism (200) on commercial-grade slicing machines (10) with a cleansing lubricant thereby keeping the cutting surface clean and free of debris. The improved system also includes a liquid bath (50) for coating the freshly sliced plantains prior to immersion in a hot oil frying vat(60). In one embodiment, the system utilizes an edible oil as both the cleansing spray lubricant and in the liquid bath. In this embodiment, the liquid bath serves as a reservoir for the cleansing lubricant sprayer assembly. In another embodiment, the system utilizes water as both the cleansing spray lubricant and in the liquid bath.

GIRALDO Javier Libardo Arango; JURANOVIC Lillian Regina

264

Slicing Event Traces of Large Software Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Debugging of large software systems consisting of many processes accessing shared resources is a very difficult task. Many commercial systems record essential events during system execution for post-mortem analysis. However, the event traces of large and long-running systems can be quite voluminous. Analysis of such event traces to identify sources of incorrect behavior can be very tedious, error-prone, and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel technique of slicing event traces as a means of reducing the number of events for analysis. This technique identifies events that may have influenced observed incorrect system behavior. In order to recognize influencing events several types of dependencies between events are identified. These dependencies are determined automatically from an event trace. In order to improve the precision of slicing we propose to use additional dependencies, referred to as cause-effect dependencies, which can further reduce the size of sliced event traces. Our initial experienc...

Smith, R; Smith, Raymond; Korel, Bogdan

2001-01-01

265

A New Closure to Slice Model for Slope Stability Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new closure to slice models for evaluating slopes. The discussion is based on the minimal inter-slice action (MIA) hypothesis, which results in a new slice model without including artificially adjustable parameters. It has been realized that the new slice model predicts the minimum value of the safety factor, while all other slice models available always overestimate the value of the safety factor. Moreover, the gravity moment of each slice is found to be opposite to the overturning moment, which is different from the existing knowledge. In particular, the new slice model overcomes the situation where different assumptions of the inter-slice force function will give different safety factors to the same slope. The related numerical examples indicate that the new slice model can serve as a reliable tool for investigating geotechnical slope stability.

Tianyun Liu; Yunling Duan; Chongbin Zhao

2012-01-01

266

Psychosocial Functioning Among HIV-Affected Youth and Their Caregivers in Haiti: Implications for Family-Focused Service Provision in High HIV Burden Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is an analysis of baseline data from a pilot psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in Haiti. Six sites in Haiti's Central Department affiliated with Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante (PIH/ZL) and the Haitian Ministry of Health were included. Participa...

Smith Fawzi, Mary C.; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Surkan, Pamela; Louis, Ermaze; Scanlan, Fiona; Wong, Richard

267

High-resolution multi-slice PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

1992-01-01

268

Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparing health workers to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic is an urgent challenge in Haiti, where the HIV prevalence rate is 2.2% and approximately 10 100 people are taking antiretroviral treatment. There is a critical shortage of doctors in Haiti, leaving nurses as the primary care providers for much of the population. Haiti's approximately 1000 nurses play a leading role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. However, nurses do not receive sufficient training at the pre-service level to carry out this important work. Methods To address this issue, the Ministry of Health and Population collaborated with the International Training and Education Center on HIV over a period of 12 months to create a competency-based HIV/AIDS curriculum to be integrated into the 4-year baccalaureate programme of the four national schools of nursing. Results Using a review of the international health and education literature on HIV/AIDS competencies and various models of curriculum development, a Haiti-based curriculum committee developed expected HIV/AIDS competencies for graduating nurses and then drafted related learning objectives. The committee then mapped these learning objectives to current courses in the nursing curriculum and created an 'HIV/AIDS Teaching Guide' for faculty on how to integrate and achieve these objectives within their current courses. The curriculum committee also created an 'HIV/AIDS Reference Manual' that detailed the relevant HIV/AIDS content that should be taught for each course. Conclusion All nursing students will now need to demonstrate competency in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, skills and attitudes during periodic assessment with direct observation of the student performing authentic tasks. Faculty will have the responsibility of developing exercises to address the required objectives and creating assessment tools to demonstrate that their graduates have met the objectives. This activity brought different administrators, nurse leaders and faculty from four geographically dispersed nursing schools to collaborate on a shared goal using a process that could be easily replicated to integrate any new topic in a resource-constrained pre-service institution. It is hoped that this experience provided stakeholders with the experience, skills and motivation to strengthen other domains of the pre-service nursing curriculum, improve the synchronization of didactic and practical training and develop standardized, competency-based examinations for nursing licensure in Haiti.

Knebel Elisa; Puttkammer Nancy; Demes Adrien; Devirois Ruth; Prismy Mona

2008-01-01

269

Steamed bread slice making flour modifier and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a flour modifier and use thereof, in particular to a steamed bread slice making flour modifier and use thereof. The flour modifier comprises an enzyme preparation, an oxidant,an emulsifier, a swelling agent, a phosphate and starch, can be used for making wheaten food product such as steamed bread and steamed bread slices, improve the structure of steamed bread slices, make the hole in the steamed bread slices more uniform, provide the steamed bread slices with good appearance and improve the crisp degree and yield of the steamed bread slices.

XUEFENG YU; ZHIHONG LI; MINGHUA YU; JUAN YAO; JIANXIN LENG; QINGHUA YANG

270

Haiti's food and drinking water: A review of toxicological health risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context. The Republic of Haiti is a developing country in the Caribbean region with a history that challenges toxicologists, yet the historical panoply of toxicological hazards in Haiti has received little scholarly attention. Objectives. The primary objectives of this paper are to review what is known about Haiti's current toxicological hazards, with a focus on chronic food-borne aflatoxin exposure and heavy metal contamination of water resources, and to compare these with previous large-scale, acute exposures to toxic substances: the 1995-1996 diethylene glycol (DEG) intoxications and the 2000-2001 ackee fruit poisonings. Methods. MEDLINE/PUBMED and the library website of Cornell University were searched using the terms "Haiti" and either "heavy metals," "aflatoxin", "diethylene glycol", or "ackee". The search was inclusive of articles from 1950 to 2012, and 15 out of the 37 returned were peer-reviewed articles offering original data or comprehensive discussion. One peer-reviewed article in press, two newspaper articles, two personal communications, and one book chapter from the personal databases of the authors were also referenced, making a total of 21 citations. Results. Elevated concentrations of aflatoxins (greater than 20 ?g/kg) were documented for staples of the Haitian food supply, most notably peanut butters and maize. Human exposure to aflatoxin was confirmed with analysis of aflatoxin blood biomarkers. The implications of aflatoxin exposure were reviewed in the light of Haiti's age-adjusted liver cancer risk - the highest in the Caribbean region. Measurement of heavy metals in Port-au-Prince ground water showed contamination of lead and chromium in excess of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 15 ?g/L Action Level for lead and 100 ?g/L Maximum Contamination Level Goal for total chromium. The DEG contamination of paracetamol (acetaminophen) containing products in 1995-1996 claimed the lives of 109 children and the 2000-2001 epidemic of ackee fruit poisoning resulted in 60 cases of intoxication. Lessons for the Haitian Government. The DEG and ackee epidemics overwhelmed local Haitian public health resources. Yet, periods of 8 and 4 months, respectively, passed before the Haitian government sought assistance following the initial poisonings. To our knowledge, the Haitian government did not enact policy to promote drug safety and prevent future poisonings. This will not likely change in the near future because of the state's finance and personnel crises. While protection of its people remains the prerogative of the Haitian government, it is extremely limited in managing chemical exposure to environmental toxins, including aflatoxin and heavy metals. Conclusions: The cases of DEG and ackee fruit poisoning demonstrate that environmental exposures to chemicals have occurred in Haiti. Current low-level exposures to aflatoxin and heavy metals highlight the risk that large-scale poisonings can occur. While awareness of toxicological hazards in Haiti must be acknowledged more widely within the government and non-governmental sectors, the lessons of these exposures are relevant to all developing countries where the capacity to discern and manage toxicological risks is absent or not yet effective. PMID:24134533

Schwartzbord, J R; Emmanuel, E; Brown, D L

2013-11-01

271

High-affinity consensus binding of target RNAs by the STAR/GSG proteins GLD-1, STAR-2 and Quaking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background STAR/GSG proteins regulate gene expression in metazoans by binding consensus sites in the 5' or 3' UTRs of target mRNA transcripts. Owing to the high degree of homology across the STAR domain, most STAR proteins recognize similar RNA consensus sequences. Previously, the consensus for a number of well-characterized STAR proteins was defined as a hexameric sequence, referred to as the SBE, for STAR protein binding element. C. elegans GLD-1 and mouse Quaking (Qk-1) are two representative STAR proteins that bind similar consensus hexamers, which differ only in the preferred nucleotide identities at certain positions. Earlier reports also identified partial consensus elements located upstream or downstream of a canonical consensus hexamer in target RNAs, although the relative contribution of these sequences to the overall binding energy remains less well understood. Additionally, a recently identified STAR protein called STAR-2 from C. elegans is thought to bind target RNA consensus sites similar to that of GLD-1 and Qk-1. Results Here, a combination of fluorescence-polarization and gel mobility shift assays was used to demonstrate that STAR-2 binds to a similar RNA consensus as GLD-1 and Qk-1. These assays were also used to further delineate the contributions of each hexamer consensus nucleotide to high-affinity binding by GLD-1, Qk-1 and STAR-2 in a variety of RNA contexts. In addition, the effects of inserting additional full or partial consensus elements upstream or downstream of a canonical hexamer in target RNAs were also measured to better define the sequence elements and RNA architecture recognized by different STAR proteins. Conclusions The results presented here indicate that a single hexameric consensus is sufficient for high-affinity RNA binding by STAR proteins, and that upstream or downstream partial consensus elements may alter binding affinities depending on the sequence and spacing. The general requirements determined for high-affinity RNA binding by STAR proteins will help facilitate the identification of novel regulatory targets in vivo.

Carmel Andrew B; Wu Joann; Lehmann-Blount Katrina A; Williamson James R

2010-01-01

272

5-Hydroxytryptamine Release by Brain Slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain slices from the rat were allowed to respire for 2 hr in a modified Tyrode's solution containing the monoamine oxidase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-hydrazinopropane (alpha-methyl phenyl hydrazine, JB-516). The filtered Tyrode's solution was shown to contain ...

M. B. Bowers S. T. Roodman M. G. Filbert

1965-01-01

273

Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

274

Cluster-tilted algebras and slices  

CERN Document Server

We give a criterion allowing to verify whether or not two tilted algebras have the same relation-extension (thus correspond to the same cluster-tilted algebra). This criterion is in terms of a combinatorial configuration in the Auslander-Reiten quiver of the cluster-tilted algebra, which we call local slice.

Assem, Ibrahim; Schiffler, Ralf

2007-01-01

275

Improved slice-selective adiabatic excitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to design an improved Slice-selective Tunable-flip AdiaBatic Low peak-power Excitation (STABLE) pulse with shorter duration and increased off-resonance immunity to make it suitable for use in a greater range of applications and at higher field strengths. An additional aim is to design a variant of this pulse to achieve B(1) -insensitive, fat-suppressed excitation. METHODS: The adiabatic SLR algorithm was used to generate a more uniform spectral pulse envelope for this improved radiofrequency pulse for adiabatic slice-selective excitation, called STABLE-2. Pulse parameters were adjusted to design a version of STABLE-2 with a spectral null centered on lipids. RESULTS: In vivo images obtained of the human brain at 3 and 7 T demonstrate that STABLE-2 provides robust, uniform, slice-selective excitation over a range of B(1) values. Phantom and in vivo knee images obtained at 3 T demonstrate the effectiveness of STABLE-2 for fat suppression. CONCLUSIONS: STABLE-2 achieves B(1) -insensitive slice-selective excitation while providing greater off-resonance immunity and a shorter pulse duration, when compared to the original STABLE pulse. In particular, the 9.8-ms STABLE-2 pulse provides slice selectivity over 120 Hz whereas the 21-ms STABLE pulse is limited to 80 Hz off-resonance. B(1) -Insensitive fat-suppressed excitation may also be achieved by using a variant of this pulse. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Balchandani P; Glover G; Pauly J; Spielman D

2013-02-01

276

Slice sensitivity profile, effective slice thickness, and anisotropic blurring in spiral CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The slice sensitivity profile of a spiral-CT-scanner using a 180 -interpolation algorithm was measured at various pitches by means of a phantom. From the resulting data the contrast attenuation of smaller structures was quantified. It was found that by means of reducing the image reconstruction intervall (increment), the mean value of image contrast was equivalent to that of axial-CT scans, as long as the pitch was less than 1.4. In addition, spiral-CT scans in the xy-plane show an anisotropic contribution to blurring independent of the partial volume effect. Taking into consideration clinically relevant image qualities it was shown that a so-called effective slice thickness of spiral-CT is difficult to define. From the formal slice thickness parameters the effective slice thickness is underestimated by the FWHM and overestimated by the FWTA. (orig.)

1998-01-01

277

Taxonomic remarks on the genus Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) and description of C. vodou sp. nov. from Haiti Notas taxonômicas sobre o gênero Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) e descrição de C. vodou sp. nov. do Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, is removed from the synonymy of Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) and transferred to the genus Cupiennius Simon, 1891, in which it is placed as a senior synonym of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. New records are presented for C. bimaculatus (TACZANOWSKI 1874) and a new species, C. vodou, is described from Haiti.Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, é removido da sinonímia de Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) e transferido para o gênero Cupiennius Simon, 1891, no qual é considerado sinônimo sênior de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. São apresentados novos registros para C. bimaculatus (Taczanowski, 1874) e uma nova espécie, C. vodou, é descrita para o Haiti.

Antonio D. Brescovit; Daniele Polotow

2005-01-01

278

High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x); four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961), 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

Sealfon Rachel; Gire Stephen; Ellis Crystal; Calderwood Stephen; Qadri Firdausi; Hensley Lisa; Kellis Manolis; Ryan Edward T; LaRocque Regina C; Harris Jason B; Sabeti Pardis C

2012-01-01

279

Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado/ Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia (more) de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH) que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional. Abstract in english This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the country. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due (more) to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

FELDMANN, ANDREAS; MONTES, JUAN ESTEBAN

2008-01-01

280

Impact of performance-based financing on primary health care services in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

To strengthen Haiti's primary health care (PHC) system, the country first piloted performance-based financing (PBF) in 1999 and subsequently expanded the approach to most internationally funded non-government organizations. PBF complements support (training and technical assistance). This study evaluates (a) the separate impact of PBF and international support on PHC's service delivery; (b) the combined impact of PBF and technical assistance on PHC's service delivery; and (c) the costs of PBF implementation in Haiti. To minimize the risk of facilities neglecting potential non-incentivized services, the incentivized indicators were randomly chosen at the end of each year. We obtained quantities of key services from four departments for 217 health centres (15 with PBF and 202 without) from 2008 through 2010, computed quarterly growth rates and analysed the results using a difference-in-differences approach by comparing the growth of incentivized and non-incentivized services between PBF and non-PBF facilities. To interpret the statistical analyses, we also interviewed staff in four facilities. Whereas international support added 39% to base costs of PHC, incentive payments added only 6%. Support alone increased the quantities of PHC services over 3 years by 35% (2.7%/quarter). However, support plus incentives increased these amounts by 87% over 3 years (5.7%/quarter) compared with facilities with neither input. Incentives alone was associated with a net 39% increase over this period, and more than doubled the growth of services (P Haiti's experience, after more than a decade of use, indicates that incentives are an effective tool to strengthen PHC. PMID:23107831

Zeng, Wu; Cros, Marion; Wright, Katherine D; Shepard, Donald S

2012-10-28

 
 
 
 
281

Haití: tribulaciones de un Estado colapsado Haiti: Tribulations of a Failed State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este ensayo revisa los principales acontecimientos políticos ocurridos en Haití durante los últimos 22 meses. Durante este período Haití ha logrado cierto grado de estabilización política gracias a la realización de comicios y la posterior elección de René Preval como Presidente. El país ha logrado algunos avances en materia de seguridad y ha estabilizado su economía, la que creció moderadamente. Los avances han sido posibles, en parte, gracias a la presencia de tropas de la Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en Haití (MINUSTAH) que han colaborado con las autoridades en diversas áreas claves, sobre todo en materia de seguridad. Más allá de los aspectos positivos, la situación general de Haití sigue siendo extremadamente crítica dado los graves problemas estructurales que enfrenta el país y a su apreciable dependencia de la comunidad internacional.This article reviews the main political developments in Haiti in the last 22 months. During this period, the country has attained some degree of political stability as a result of the successful completion of an electoral process and the concomitant election of René Preval as President of the country. Haiti, furthermore, has seen some improvements in security and economic stability triggered by a moderate economic growth. These achievements have been partly possible due to the presence of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which, jointly with the Haitian State, have worked to tackle acute problems, in particular lack of security. These improvements notwithstanding, the general outlook of the country and its political stability remain fragile given its significant structural problems and its extensive dependence from the international community.

ANDREAS FELDMANN; JUAN ESTEBAN MONTES

2008-01-01

282

Impact of performance-based financing on primary health care services in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To strengthen Haiti's primary health care (PHC) system, the country first piloted performance-based financing (PBF) in 1999 and subsequently expanded the approach to most internationally funded non-government organizations. PBF complements support (training and technical assistance). This study evaluates (a) the separate impact of PBF and international support on PHC's service delivery; (b) the combined impact of PBF and technical assistance on PHC's service delivery; and (c) the costs of PBF implementation in Haiti. To minimize the risk of facilities neglecting potential non-incentivized services, the incentivized indicators were randomly chosen at the end of each year. We obtained quantities of key services from four departments for 217 health centres (15 with PBF and 202 without) from 2008 through 2010, computed quarterly growth rates and analysed the results using a difference-in-differences approach by comparing the growth of incentivized and non-incentivized services between PBF and non-PBF facilities. To interpret the statistical analyses, we also interviewed staff in four facilities. Whereas international support added 39% to base costs of PHC, incentive payments added only 6%. Support alone increased the quantities of PHC services over 3 years by 35% (2.7%/quarter). However, support plus incentives increased these amounts by 87% over 3 years (5.7%/quarter) compared with facilities with neither input. Incentives alone was associated with a net 39% increase over this period, and more than doubled the growth of services (P < 0.05). Interview findings found no adverse impacts and, in fact, indicated beneficial impacts on quality. Incentives proved to be a relatively inexpensive, well accepted and very effective complement to support, suggesting that a small amount of money, strategically used, can substantially improve PHC. Haiti's experience, after more than a decade of use, indicates that incentives are an effective tool to strengthen PHC.

Zeng W; Cros M; Wright KD; Shepard DS

2013-09-01

283

Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors among an urban population in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The seroprevalence of hepatitis C varies substantially between countries and geographic regions. A better understanding of the seroprevalence of this disease, and the risk factors associated with seropositive status, supply data for the development of screening programs and provide insight into the transmission of the disease. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in an urban population in Haiti. Methods A prospective survey for hepatitis C antibodies was conducted among an urban outpatient population in Cap-Haïtien, Haiti, with a sample size of 500 subjects. An anonymous 12 question survey, with inquiries related to demographic characteristics and risk factors for HCV acquisition, was concomitantly administered with testing. These demographic and behavioral risk factors were correlated with HCV antibody status using univariate and multivariate tests. Results The prevalence of positive HCV antibody was 22/500 (4.4%). Subjects that were anti-HCV positive had an average of 7 ± 8.6 lifetime sexual partners, compared to average of 2.5 ± 3.5 lifetime sexual partners among HCV-negative subjects (p = 0.02). In a multiple logistic regression model, intravenous drug use (OR 3.7, 1.52–9.03 95% CI) and number of sexual partners (OR 1.1, 1.04–1.20 95% CI) were independently associated with a positive HCV antibody result. Conclusions A substantial number of subjects with HCV antibodies were detected in this population in Haiti. Further investigation into the correlation between the number of sexual partners and testing positive for hepatitis C antibodies is indicated.

Hepburn Matthew J; Lawitz Eric J

2004-01-01

284

Foreign field hospitals after the 2010 Haiti earthquake: how good were we?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the timing and activities of foreign field hospitals (FFH) deployed during the first month after the Haiti earthquake and to evaluate adherence to WHO/Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) guidelines. Results were compared with data from past sudden-onset disasters. METHODS: A systematic attempt was made to contact all relief actors within the health care sector involved in the 12 January through 12 February 2010 FFH deployment. This was done using an email-based questionnaire and a web survey. In addition, the authors undertook a literature review using PubMed and the Google search engine between March 2010 and May 2011. The authors contacted key informants and agencies identified by direct observations in the field by email or phone. RESULTS: A total of 44 FFH were identified. The first FFH was operational on day two post-earthquake. The number of FFH beds peaked at about 3300 on day 17 post-earthquake. During the first month, the authors estimate that FFH conducted no more than 12?000 major surgical operations. While 25% of the FFH adhered to either WHO/PAHO first essential deployment requirements, none followed both requirements of WHO/PAHO. Compared with the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, twice as many FFH provided medical care, resulting in three times more FFH beds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that more FFH were sent to Haiti than to any previous sudden-onset disasters, but due to lack of data and transparency it remains impossible to determine to what extent did the first wave of FFH do any good in Haiti.

Gerdin M; Wladis A; von Schreeb J

2013-01-01

285

Lives saved by expanding HIV treatment availability in resource-limited settings: the example of Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 <350 cells per microliter for HIV-infected individuals in resource-limited settings. However, funding for treatment expansion remains uncertain. We forecast the mortality impact of ART expansion alternatives in Haiti. METHODS: We used data from Haiti to develop a country-specific model of HIV disease. The model projects the mortality, total number of HIV-infected individuals, and number and coverage (percentage of those eligible) on ART by simulating cohorts of HIV-infected individuals over 10 years. Five ART expansion scenarios, ranging from fully expanded ART (best case) to No New ART (worst case), were assessed. RESULTS: By 2010, the model predicts 103,500 individuals living with HIV in Haiti, of whom 27,300 were estimated to receive ART. Continuing ART initiation at current rates requires increasing the number on ART to 43,300 by 2020 (56% coverage), with 89,700 deaths estimated between 2010 and 2020. The number on ART could increase by 7400 (+17.1%, best case) or decrease by 25,600 (-59.1%, worst case), resulting in 19,500 deaths averted and 9900 fewer in care awaiting ART (best versus worst case). Results are sensitive to untreated disease progression and pre-ART loss from care. Increased HIV testing, linkage to care, and retention in care can avert additional deaths and achieve nearly 80% ART coverage with optimal policy improvements. CONCLUSIONS: In resource-limited settings, continued improvements in HIV treatment access will save lives. Efforts to efficiently expand ART access should remain a global priority.

Kimmel AD; Charles M; Deschamps MM; Severe P; Edwards AM; Johnson WD; Fitzgerald DW; Pape JW; Schackman BR

2013-06-01

286

High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x); four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. RESULTS: Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961), 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

Sealfon R; Gire S; Ellis C; Calderwood S; Qadri F; Hensley L; Kellis M; Ryan ET; LaRocque RC; Harris JB; Sabeti PC

2012-01-01

287

Cholera surveillance during the Haiti epidemic--the first 2 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In October 2010, nearly 10 months after a devastating earthquake, Haiti was stricken by epidemic cholera. Within days after detection, the Ministry of Public Health and Population established a National Cholera Surveillance System (NCSS). METHODS: The NCSS used a modified World Health Organization case definition for cholera that included acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting, in persons of all ages residing in an area in which at least one case of Vibrio cholerae O1 infection had been confirmed by culture. RESULTS: Within 29 days after the first report, cases of V. cholerae O1 (serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor) were confirmed in all 10 administrative departments (similar to states or provinces) in Haiti. Through October 20, 2012, the public health ministry reported 604,634 cases of infection, 329,697 hospitalizations, and 7436 deaths from cholera and isolated V. cholerae O1 from 1675 of 2703 stool specimens tested (62.0%). The cumulative attack rate was 5.1% at the end of the first year and 6.1% at the end of the second year. The cumulative case fatality rate consistently trended downward, reaching 1.2% at the close of year 2, with departmental cumulative rates ranging from 0.6% to 4.6% (median, 1.4%). Within 3 months after the start of the epidemic, the rolling 14-day case fatality rate was 1.0% and remained at or below this level with few, brief exceptions. Overall, the cholera epidemic in Haiti accounted for 57% of all cholera cases and 53% of all cholera deaths reported to the World Health Organization in 2010 and 58% of all cholera cases and 37% of all cholera deaths in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: A review of NCSS data shows that during the first 2 years of the cholera epidemic in Haiti, the cumulative attack rate was 6.1%, with cases reported in all 10 departments. Within 3 months after the first case was reported, there was a downward trend in mortality, with a 14-day case fatality rate of 1.0% or less in most areas.

Barzilay EJ; Schaad N; Magloire R; Mung KS; Boncy J; Dahourou GA; Mintz ED; Steenland MW; Vertefeuille JF; Tappero JW

2013-02-01

288

Performance and utility of a rapid diagnostic test for cholera: notes from Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study details work done at the National Public Health Laboratory in Haiti (LNSP), comparing the results of a cholera rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with culture-based methods. As of October 21, 2011, 644 specimens were tested by both RDT and culture-based method at the LNSP. The sensitivity and specificity of RDT were 95% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 89% and negative predictive value of 91%. In resource-limited settings, the RDT has good utility and should be considered as part of the laboratory testing algorithm. PMID:23886437

Boncy, Jacques; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Dahourou, Georges; Hast, Marisa; Buteau, Josiane; Stanislas, Magalie; Moffett, Daphne; Bopp, Cheryl; Balajee, S Arunmozhi

2013-08-01

289

Performance and utility of a rapid diagnostic test for cholera: notes from Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study details work done at the National Public Health Laboratory in Haiti (LNSP), comparing the results of a cholera rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with culture-based methods. As of October 21, 2011, 644 specimens were tested by both RDT and culture-based method at the LNSP. The sensitivity and specificity of RDT were 95% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 89% and negative predictive value of 91%. In resource-limited settings, the RDT has good utility and should be considered as part of the laboratory testing algorithm.

Boncy J; Rossignol E; Dahourou G; Hast M; Buteau J; Stanislas M; Moffett D; Bopp C; Balajee SA

2013-08-01

290

Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Since the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there has been increased international attention to mental health needs throughout the country. The present study represents one of the first epidemiologic studies of depression symptomatology, suicidal ideation, and associated factors in Haiti's Central Plateau. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, zone-stratified household survey of 408 adults in Haiti's Central Plateau. Depression symptomatology was assessed with a culturally-adapted Kreyòl version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were built using backward elimination, with the outcomes being continuous BDI scores and endorsing suicidal ideation, respectively. RESULTS: The mean BDI score was 20.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.3-21.5), and 6.13% (N?=?25) of participants endorsed current suicidal ideation. Factors associated with BDI scores were: continuous age (adjusted beta [a?]: 0.14, CI: 0.06-0.22), female gender (a?: 2.1, CI: 0.18-4.0), suicidal ideation (a?: 11.1, CI: 7.3-14.9), death in family (a?: 2.7, CI: 0.57-4.9), and prior life-threatening illness (a?: 2.6, CI: 0.77-4.5). Education was a risk factor for depression among women but not among men, and employment was a risk factor for both genders. Factors associated with endorsing suicidal ideation were: BDI score (ten point change) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, CI: 1.7-3.6), lack of care if sick (aOR: 5.5, CI: 1.1-28.6), alcohol use (aOR: 3.3, CI: 1.3-8.2), and ever having been to a Vodou priest (aOR: 3.2, CI: 1.1-9.5). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of Haiti's Central Plateau may be experiencing high levels of depression symptomatology and/or current suicidal ideation. Screening could be conducted in biomedical, religious, and Vodou healing contexts. For prevention, poverty reduction and improved healthcare access are key elements. For treatment, general psychiatric services, psychosocial services for the medically ill and their families, and substance abuse interventions should be explored. Paradoxical associations related to education and employment require further exploration.

Wagenaar BH; Hagaman AK; Kaiser BN; McLean KE; Kohrt BA

2012-01-01

291

Techniques and Applications of Computation Slicing  

CERN Multimedia

Writing correct distributed programs is hard. In spite of extensive testing and debugging, software faults persist even in commercial grade software. Many distributed systems, especially those employed in safety-critical environments, should be able to operate properly even in the presence of software faults. Monitoring the execution of a distributed system, and, on detecting a fault, initiating the appropriate corrective action is an important way to tolerate such faults. This gives rise to the predicate detection problem which requires finding a consistent cut of a given computation that satisfies a given global predicate, if it exists. Detecting a predicate in a computation is, however, an NP-complete problem. To ameliorate the associated combinatorial explosion problem, we introduce the notion of computation slice. Formally, the slice of a computation with respect to a predicate is a (sub)computation with the least number of consistent cuts that contains all consistent cuts of the computation satisfying t...

Mittal, N; Mittal, Neeraj; Garg, Vijay K.

2003-01-01

292

Partial Dead Code Elimination using Slicing Transformations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an approach for optimizing programs that uncoversadditional opportunities for optimization of a statementby predicating the statement. In this paper predicationalgorithms for achieving partial dead code elimination(PDE) are presented. The process of predication embeds astatement in a control flow structure such that the statementis executed only if the execution follows a path alongwhich the value computed by the statement is live. Thecontrol flow restructuring performed to achieve predicationis expressed through slicing transformations. This approachachieves PDE that is not realizable by existing algorithms.We prove that our algorithm never increases the operationcount along any path, and that for acyclic code all partiallydead statements are eliminated. The slicing transformationthat achieves predication introduces into the program additionalconditional branches. These branches are eliminatedin a branch deletion step based upon code duplication. Wealso sho...

Rajiv Gupta

293

Topologically slice knots with nontrivial Alexander polynomial  

CERN Multimedia

Let C_T be the subgroup of the smooth knot concordance group generated by topologically slice knots and let C_D be the subgroup generated by knots with trivial Alexander polynomial. We prove the quotient C_T/C_D is infinitely generated, and uncover similar structure in the 3-dimensional rational spin bordism group. Our methods also lead to the construction of links that are topologically, but not smoothly, concordant to boundary links.

Hedden, Matthew; Ruberman, Daniel

2010-01-01

294

Slice of a LEP bending magnet  

CERN Document Server

This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

295

Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions.

Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur

1993-01-01

296

The Response of Academic Medical Centers to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai Sch...

Ripp, Jonathan A.; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

297

Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Introduction to Volume 1: Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, & U.S. Virgin Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this project, now in its first volume, is to identify and list all available information on the art-music tradition of the Caribbean region - starting with the countries of Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica and the US Virgin Islands. It will, ultimately, form a comprehensive document of value to musicians, ethnomusicologists, historians, researchers, educators and students.

Gangelhoff, Christine; LeGrand, Cathleen

2011-01-01

298

Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ) as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulphadoxine (SDX) treatment combination (SP), have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61) of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N) of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540) examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59). Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

Carter Tamar E; Warner Megan; Mulligan Connie J; Existe Alexander; Victor Yves S; Memnon Gladys; Boncy Jacques; Oscar Roland; Fukuda Mark M; Okech Bernard A

2012-01-01

299

Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ) as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulphadoxine (SDX) treatment combination (SP), have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. METHODS: DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent (20/61) of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N) of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540) examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch's T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59). CONCLUSION: This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on alternative malaria treatment options in Haiti.

Carter TE; Warner M; Mulligan CJ; Existe A; Victor YS; Memnon G; Boncy J; Oscar R; Fukuda MM; Okech BA

2012-01-01

300

Suicide in rural Haiti: clinical and community perceptions of prevalence, etiology, and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide is a complex global public health problem, yet few studies have examined local socio-cultural explanatory models and other contextual factors surrounding suicide in low-and-middle-income countries. Such research is critical, as suicide frequency and etiology, as well as care-seeking in the case of distress, differ contextually and by sub-groups within a population. This is the first study of its kind to explore the dual perspectives of both healthcare workers and community members regarding suicide in Haiti. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews between May and June 2011 with eight biomedical healthcare workers and 16 lay community members. Qualitative data analysis, drawing on interpretive phenomenological analysis, addressed themes including perceived suicide frequency, veracity of suicidal ideation claims, perceived causal factors, religious constructs related to suicide, and support resources for suicidality. Compared to community members, healthcare workers underestimated the frequency of suicide and were less likely to interpret suicide-related claims as representing true intent. Religious perspectives influenced attitudes toward suicide, albeit in different ways: Christian concern with the afterlife resulted in suicide being unacceptable and sinful, while Vodou explanatory frameworks displaced blame and stigma away from suicidal individuals. Healthcare workers' failure to recognize suicide as a serious problem suggests that the formal health system is currently ill-equipped to respond to suicide-related needs. Religious practice and community supports in rural Haiti may serve as essential resources for prevention programs. PMID:23465205

Hagaman, Ashley K; Wagenaar, Bradley H; McLean, Kristen E; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Winskell, Kate; Kohrt, Brandon A

2013-02-06

 
 
 
 
301

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and accuracy of microscopic diagnosis in Haiti, October 1995  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In October 1995 the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Haiti surveyed 42 health facilities for the prevalence and distribution of malaria infection. They examined 1 803 peripheral blood smears from patients with suspected malaria; the overall slide positivity rate was 4.0% (range, 0.0% to 14.3%). The rate was lowest among 1- to 4-year-old children (1.6%) and highest among persons aged 15 and older (5.5%). Clinical and microscopic diagnoses of malaria were unreliable; the overall sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis was 83.6%, specificity was 88.6%, and the predictive value of a positive slide was 22.2%. Microscopic diagnoses need to be improved, and adequate surveillance must be reestablished to identify areas where transmission is most intense. The generally low level of malaria is encouraging and suggests that intensified control efforts targeted to the areas of highest prevalence could further diminish the effect of malaria in Haiti.

Patrick Kachur S.; Nicolas Elda; Jean-François Vély; Benitez Antonio; Bloland Peter B.; Jean Yvan Saint; Mount Dwight L.; Ruebush II Trenton K.; Nguyen-Dinh Phuc

1998-01-01

302

Haití: huracanes en un año de calma Haiti: Hurricanes in a year of Calmnes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haití continúa siendo una democracia extremadamente frágil, con capacidades mínimas de ejercer funciones estatales básicas. Haití depende y seguirá dependiendo de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Estabilización de Haití (MINUSTAH) y de la cooperación internacional para mantener su proceso de estabilización política, construcción del Estado, fortalecimiento de la democracia y logro de un desarrollo económico y social sustentable. El gobierno de Rene Preval, con fuerte apoyo internacional, ha logrado avances importantes en materias de seguridad, planificación y construcción institucional. El año 2008 estuvo marcado por una fuerte crisis de gobierno, gatillada por las alzas en los precios internacionales de los alimentos, severos conflictos con la oposición y desastres naturales causados por las tormentas tropicales y agudizados por la devastación ambiental.Haití continues to be an extremely fragile democracy in a state with minimal capacities to perform basic state functions. Haiti depends and will continue depending on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the international cooperation to keep its process of political stabilization, state building, democratic strengthening and achievement of economic and social development to a sustainable level. The Rene Preval government, with strong international support, has achieved important improvement in security, planning and institutional building. The year 2008 was marked by a deep crisis in the government, triggered by the sudden hike in international food prices, severe conflicts with the opposition and natural disasters caused by tropical storms and aggravated by the environmental devastation.

JUAN ESTEBAN MONTES; ANDREAS FELDMANN; SANDRA PIRACÉS

2009-01-01

303

Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10 days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were more than 99.9%. Patient movements within the hospital were noted, and an online command dashboard screen was generated. Patient care was delivered using the electronic medical record. Digital radiographs were acquired and transmitted to stations throughout the hospital. The system helped to introduce order in an otherwise chaotic situation and enabled adequate utilization of scarce medical resources by continually gathering information, analyzing it, and presenting it to the decision-making command level. The establishment of electronic medical records promoted the adequacy of medical treatment and facilitated continuity of care. This experience in Haiti supports the feasibility of deploying information technologies within a field hospital operation. Disaster response teams and agencies are encouraged to consider the use of information technology as part of their contingency plans. PMID:20962123

Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

304

Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict. PMID:19836120

James, Erica Caple

2009-10-14

305

Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict.

James EC

2010-01-01

306

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

Athanasiou, M. A.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Pavlos, G. P.; David, C. N.

2011-04-01

307

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

M. A. Athanasiou; G. C. Anagnostopoulos; A. C. Iliopoulos; G. P. Pavlos; C. N. David

2011-01-01

308

Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered > 4490 landslides, mainly shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~ 2150 km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind ruptures of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.

Gorum, Tolga; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, Freek D.

2013-02-01

309

Reassessment of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak and rainfall-driven multiseason projections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and by anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. We study the ex post reliability of predictions of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak from four independent modeling studies that appeared almost simultaneously during the unfolding epidemic. We consider the impact of different approaches to the modeling of spatial spread of Vibrio cholerae and mechanisms of cholera transmission, accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities. To explain resurgences of the epidemic, we go on to include waning immunity and a mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission. The formal comparative analysis is carried out via the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to measure the added information provided by each process modeled, discounting for the added parameters. A generalized model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the year-long dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multiseason Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using suitable rainfall fields forecasts. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

Rinaldo A; Bertuzzo E; Mari L; Righetto L; Blokesch M; Gatto M; Casagrandi R; Murray M; Vesenbeckh SM; Rodriguez-Iturbe I

2012-04-01

310

Suicide in rural Haiti: clinical and community perceptions of prevalence, etiology, and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Suicide is a complex global public health problem, yet few studies have examined local socio-cultural explanatory models and other contextual factors surrounding suicide in low-and-middle-income countries. Such research is critical, as suicide frequency and etiology, as well as care-seeking in the case of distress, differ contextually and by sub-groups within a population. This is the first study of its kind to explore the dual perspectives of both healthcare workers and community members regarding suicide in Haiti. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews between May and June 2011 with eight biomedical healthcare workers and 16 lay community members. Qualitative data analysis, drawing on interpretive phenomenological analysis, addressed themes including perceived suicide frequency, veracity of suicidal ideation claims, perceived causal factors, religious constructs related to suicide, and support resources for suicidality. Compared to community members, healthcare workers underestimated the frequency of suicide and were less likely to interpret suicide-related claims as representing true intent. Religious perspectives influenced attitudes toward suicide, albeit in different ways: Christian concern with the afterlife resulted in suicide being unacceptable and sinful, while Vodou explanatory frameworks displaced blame and stigma away from suicidal individuals. Healthcare workers' failure to recognize suicide as a serious problem suggests that the formal health system is currently ill-equipped to respond to suicide-related needs. Religious practice and community supports in rural Haiti may serve as essential resources for prevention programs.

Hagaman AK; Wagenaar BH; McLean KE; Kaiser BN; Winskell K; Kohrt BA

2013-04-01

311

Protecting and improving breastfeeding practices during a major emergency: lessons learnt from the baby tents in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Problem The 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced about 1.5 million people, many of them into camps for internally displaced persons. It was expected that disruption of breastfeeding practices would lead to increased infant morbidity, malnutrition and mortality. Approach Haiti’s health ministry and the United Nations Children’s Fund, in collaboration with local and international nongovernmental organizations, established baby tents in the areas affected by the earthquake. The tents provided a safe place for mothers to breastfeed and for non-breastfed infants to receive ready-to-use infant formula. Such a large and coordinated baby tent response in an emergency context had never been mounted before anywhere in the world. Local setting Baby tents were set up in five cities but mainly in Port-au-Prince, where the majority of Haiti’s 1555 camps for displaced persons had been established. Relevant changes Between February 2010 and June 2012, 193 baby tents were set up; 180?499 mother–infant pairs and 52?503 pregnant women were registered in the baby tent programme. Of infants younger than 6 months, 70% were reported to be exclusively breastfed and 10% of the “mixed feeders” moved to exclusive breastfeeding while enrolled. In 2010, 13.5% of registered infants could not be breastfed. These infants received ready-to-use infant formula. Lessons learnt Thanks to rapid programme scale-up, breastfeeding practices remained undisrupted. However, better evaluation methods and comprehensive guidance on the implementation and monitoring of baby tents are needed for future emergencies, along with a clear strategy for transitioning baby tent activities into facility and community programmes.

Golden, Kate; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Moreaux, Marjolein D; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Koo, Leslie; Boyd, Erin; Beauliere, Jean Max; Lesavre, Celine; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

2013-01-01

312

A note on the choice of the number of slices in sliced inverse regression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sliced inverse regression (SIR) is a clever technique for reducing the dimension of the predictor in regression problems, thus avoiding the curse of dimensionality. There exist many contributions on various aspects of the performance of SIR. Up to now, few attention has been paid to the problem of c...

Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

313

Effects of Temperature and Slice Thickness on Drying Kinetics of Pumpkin Slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dried pumpkin slice is an alternative crisp food product. In this study, the effects of temperature and slice thickness on the drying characteristics of pumpkin were studied in a lab-scale tray dryer, using hot air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C and 2, 3 and 4 mm slice thickness at a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The initial moisture content of the pumpkin samples was 900.5 % (wb). The drying process was carried out until the final moisture content of product was 100.5 % (wb). The results showed that the drying time decreased with increasing drying temperature, but it increased with increasing slice thickness of the pumpkin. In all tests, the experimental drying curves obtained show results for only the falling rate period.Fick’s diffusion equation has been used to model the drying characteristics and fits all experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity during drying varied from 1.359×10-10 to 5.301×10-10 m2/s. The effective moisture diffusivity results were in agreement with previously reported diffusivity values.

Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

2011-01-01

314

Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

2013-09-01

315

Sorption isotherms of sweet potato slices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The equilibrium relative humidity of sweet potato slices with two drying temperatures and different histories were determined at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 degrees C. Estimated parameters, fitting ability, and predictive performance for five equilibrium relative humidity models were evaluated. The modified Halsey and modified Oswin equations were found to be adequate models to describe the equilibrium relative humidity data. In comparing the results of this study with previously published data, it was determined that the equilibrium relative humidity properties varied with species. Models from existing literature, detailing equilibrium relative humidity/equilibrium moisture content data for high-starch products (e.g. potato, cassava), were also examined. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was not an adequate model by checking residual plots. The parameters of the GAB model cannot be modified for prediction of the effect of temperature by the exponential function. For simplicity, an empirical linear model was developed to fit the equilibrium relative humidity/equilibrium moisture content data of sweet potato slices based of moisture content and temperature.

Chen C

2002-09-01

316

Slices for biparabolics of index one  

CERN Multimedia

Let $\\mathfrak a$ be an algebraic Lie subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra $\\mathfrak g$ with index $\\mathfrak a \\leq \\rank \\mathfrak g$. Let $Y(\\mathfrak a)$ denote the algebra of $\\mathfrak a$ invariant polynomial functions on $\\mathfrak a^*$. An algebraic slice for $\\mathfrak a$ is an affine subspace $\\eta+V$ with $\\eta \\in \\mathfrak a^*$ and $V \\subset \\mathfrak a^*$ a subspace of dimension index $\\mathfrak a$ such that restriction of function induces an isomorphism of $Y(\\mathfrak a)$ onto the algebra $R[\\eta+V]$ of regular functions on $\\eta+V$. Slices have been obtained in a number of cases through the construction of an adapted pair $(h,\\eta)$ in which $h \\in\\mathfrak a$ is ad-semisimple, $\\eta$ is a regular element of $\\mathfrak a^*$ which is an eigenvector for $h$ of eigenvalue minus one and $V$ is an $h$ stable complement to $(\\ad \\mathfrak a)\\eta$ in $\\mathfrak a^*$. The classical case is for $\\mathfrak g$ semisimple. Yet rather recently many other cases have been provided. For example if $\\mathfrak...

Fauquant-Millet, Florence

2010-01-01

317

Perfect Slice Samplers for Mixtures of Distributions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper extends the result of Hobert et al. (1999) to the case of general nitemixtures of exponential family distributions, under conjugate priors, by proposing a dierentand more generic approach to the problem. The foundation of the technique used hererelies on the facts that, under conjugate priors, the marginal posterior distribution of thelatent variables Z is known in closed form, up to a constant, as exhibited and exploited forimportance sampling in Casella et al. (1999), and that, moreover, minimum and maximumpoints can be found for this distribution. The results of Mira et al. (1999) on perfect slicesamplers can then be adapted to this setting. While its practical implementation is limitedto small sample sizes, we show that a coupling strategy of Breyer and Roberts (1999) canbe easily implemented on the same principle for much larger sample sizes.The paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, we recall the marginalisation argumentof Casella et al. (1999) to show that the posterior marginal distribution of Z is available inclosed form and allows for a minimum and a maximum point in usual cases. Section 3 thenprovide a detailed description of the perfect slice sampling techniques, rst via a brute-forceuniform proposal, then through an augmented distribution. Section 4 introduce a slow butgeneric perfect sampler based on a single backward chain and evaluates the validity of theapproximation of Section 3.Perfect slice sampling for mixtures 3

K. L. Mengersenz; D. M. Titterington

318

Accelerated slice encoding for metal artifact correction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To demonstrate accelerated imaging with both artifact reduction and different contrast mechanisms near metallic implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) is a modified spin echo sequence that uses view-angle tilting and slice-direction phase encoding to correct both in-plane and through-plane artifacts. Standard spin echo trains and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) allow efficient PD-weighted imaging with optional fat suppression. A completely linear reconstruction allows incorporation of parallel imaging and partial Fourier imaging. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) effects of all reconstructions were quantified in one subject. Ten subjects with different metallic implants were scanned using SEMAC protocols, all with scan times below 11 minutes, as well as with standard spin echo methods. RESULTS: The SNR using standard acceleration techniques is unaffected by the linear SEMAC reconstruction. In all cases with implants, accelerated SEMAC significantly reduced artifacts compared with standard imaging techniques, with no additional artifacts from acceleration techniques. The use of different contrast mechanisms allowed differentiation of fluid from other structures in several subjects. CONCLUSION: SEMAC imaging can be combined with standard echo-train imaging, parallel imaging, partial-Fourier imaging, and inversion recovery techniques to offer flexible image contrast with a dramatic reduction of metal-induced artifacts in scan times under 11 minutes.

Hargreaves BA; Chen W; Lu W; Alley MT; Gold GE; Brau AC; Pauly JM; Pauly KB

2010-04-01

319

Cryopreservation of precision-cut tissue slices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1.Cryopreservation of precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) would have many advantages for drug development and would encourage more extensive use of the PCTS preparation. 2.Three methods have been studied to date: slow freezing, fast freezing, and vitrification. 3.Slow freezing can be very effective for some PCTS but is devastating to rat liver PCTS. Fast freezing can be successful for rat liver PCTS but is devastating to renal PCTS and has given inconsistent results even for rat liver PCTS. Vitrification has been effective for some slice systems but less effective for rat liver PCTS. Rat liver PCTS appear to be particularly difficult to cryopreserve well. 4.The general cryobiological principles of slow freezing, rapid freezing, and vitrification are reviewed. The empirical literature on the cryopreservation of PCTS has not taken sufficient account of these principles, and may, for example, include the effects of easily preventable osmotic injury. 5.More attention is needed to the effects of cryopreservation on specific cell types within PCTS and to the general integrity and viability of cryopreserved PCTS. Drug metabolism as a sole endpoint of study can be highly misleading. 6.Better application of cryobiological principles may enable improved results in the future.

Fahy GM; Guan N; de Graaf IA; Tan Y; Griffin L; Groothuis GM

2013-01-01

320

The dry season in haiti: a window of opportunity to eliminate cholera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti, attack rates have varied drastically with alternating peak and lull phases, which were partly associated with the fluctuating dry, rainy and cyclonic seasons. According to a study conducted in 2012, the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strain responsible for the outbreak did not settle at a significant level in the Haitian aquatic environment. Therefore, we hypothesize that some areas of lingering cholera transmission during the dry season could play an important role in the re-emergence of outbreaks during the rainy season. Our objective was therefore to describe the dynamics of cholera and assess the fight against the disease during the dry season. METHODS: A field study was conducted from February 19 to March 29, 2013. After identifying the affected communes by analyzing the national cholera database, we visited corresponding health facilities to identify patient origins. We then conducted a field assessment of these foci to confirm the presence of cholera, assess factors associated with transmission and examine the activities implemented to control the epidemic since the beginning of the current dry season. RESULTS: We found that the great majority of Haitian communes (109/140) presented no sign of cholera transmission in February and March 2013. Suspected cases were concentrated in a small number of urban and rural areas, almost all of which were located in the northern half of the country and often in inland locales. In these areas, community health activities appeared insufficient and were often inappropriately targeted. Out of 49 analyzed foci, only 10 had benefited from at least one intervention involving the distribution of water treatment products together with an awareness campaign since December 2012. CONCLUSION: Cholera continues to affect Haiti as observed in early 2013; however, activities implemented to interrupt cholera transmission appear insufficient and poorly suited. This deficiency in the fight against cholera, especially at a period when transmission is weak, may explain the persistence of cholera even in the absence of significant aquatic reservoirs in Haiti.

Rebaudet S; Gazin P; Barrais R; Moore S; Rossignol E; Barthelemy N; Gaudart J; Boncy J; Magloire R; Piarroux R

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. PMID:22576450

Simms, Tanya M; Wright, Marisil R; Hernandez, Michelle; Perez, Omar A; Ramirez, Evelyn C; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Rene J

2012-05-11

322

Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica.

Simms TM; Wright MR; Hernandez M; Perez OA; Ramirez EC; Martinez E; Herrera RJ

2012-08-01

323

A simple method for measuring organotypic tissue slice culture thickness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a simple method to measure tissue slice thicknesses using an ohmmeter. The circuit described here is composed of a metal probe, an ohmmeter, a counter electrode, culture medium or physiological buffer, and tissue slice. The probe and the electrode are on opposite interfaces of an organotypic hippocampal slice culture. The circuit closes when the metal probe makes contact with the surface of the tissue slice. The probe position is recorded and compared to its position when it makes contact with the insert membrane on which the tissue grows, thus yielding a thickness measurement. The method does not reduce the viability of slice cultures. Thicknesses of the slice cultures were measured under a number of culturing protocols. An initial drop in thickness occurred between 0 and 4 days in culture. Thicknesses are rather constant thereafter. The type of culture medium and the initial thickness of the tissue explant influence the thickness. Slice thicknesses were compared to a known technique by using optical measurements of slice cross-sections to obtain thicknesses. In contrast to this known technique, the proposed method does not sacrifice the slice culture for measurement purposes. The proposed measurement technique described is straightforward and rapid, about 1 min per culture.

Guy Y; Rupert AE; Sandberg M; Weber SG

2011-07-01

324

Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

Heinzle, J Mark

2011-01-01

325

THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5?C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil?; 5?C for 12 d). In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 1 or 10 ?L L–1 respectively (5?C for 6 h). In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

Darwin H. Pangaribuan

2009-01-01

326

[Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

Jiang R

2013-05-01

327

Analysis of Slice Transverse Emittance Evolution ina Photocathode RF Gun  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The slice transverse emittance of an electron beam is of critical significance for an x-ray FEL. In a photocathode RF gun, the slice transverse emittance is not only determined by the emission process, but also influenced strongly by the non-linear space charge effect. In this paper, we study the slice transverse emittance evolution in a photocathode RF gun using a simple model that includes effects of RF acceleration, focusing, and space charge force. The results are compared with IMPACT-T space charge simulations and may be used to understand the development of the slice emittance in an RF gun.

Huang, Z.; Ding, Y.; /SLAC; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

2007-10-17

328

High frequency of the erythroid silent Duffy antigen genotype and lack of Plasmodium vivax infections in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a significant public health concern in Haiti where approximately 30,000 cases are reported annually with CDC estimates as high as 200,000. Malaria infections in Haiti are caused almost exclusively by Plasmodium falciparum, while a small number of Plasmodium malariae and an even smaller number of putative Plasmodium vivax infections have been reported. The lack of confirmed P. vivax infections in Haiti could be due to the genetic background of native Haitians. Having descended from West African populations, many Haitians could be Duffy negative due to a single nucleotide polymorphism from thymine to cytosine in the GATA box of the promoter region of the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene. This mutation, encoded by the FYES allele, eliminates the expression of the Duffy antigen on erythrocytes, which reduces invasion by P. vivax. This study investigated the frequency of the FYES allele and P. vivax infections in malaria patients with the goal of uncovering factors for the lack of P. vivax infections reported in Haiti. METHODS: DNA was extracted from dried blood spots collected from malaria patients at four clinic locations in Haiti. The samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the P. vivax small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. PCR, sequencing, and restriction enzyme digestion were used to detect the presence of the FYES allele. Matched samples were examined for both presence of P. vivax and the FYES allele. RESULTS: No cases of P. vivax were detected in any of the samples (0/136). Of all samples tested for the FYES allele, 99.4% had the FYES allele (163/164). Of the matched samples, 99% had the FYES allele (98/99). CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, no cases of P. vivax were confirmed by PCR and 99% of the malaria patients tested carried the FYES allele. The high frequency of the FYES allele that silences erythroid expression of the Duffy antigen offers a biologically plausible explanation for the lack of P. vivax infections observed. These results provide insights on the host susceptibility for P. vivax infections that has never before been investigated in Haiti.

Weppelmann TA; Carter TE; Chen Z; von Fricken ME; Victor YS; Existe A; Okech BA

2013-01-01

329

Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

2010-01-01

330

Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

2001-01-01

331

Real-time modelling used for outbreak management during a cholera epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergence of epidemic cholera in post-earthquake Haiti portended a public health disaster of uncertain magnitude. In order to coordinate relief efforts in an environment with limited healthcare infrastructure and stretched resources, timely and realistic projections of the extent of the cholera outbreak were crucial. Projections were shared with Government and partner organizations beginning 5 days after the first reported case and were updated using progressively more advanced methods as more surveillance data became available. The first projection estimated that 105 000 cholera cases would occur in the first year. Subsequent projections using different methods estimated up to 652 000 cases and 163 000-247 000 hospitalizations during the first year. Current surveillance data show these projections to have provided reasonable approximations of the observed epidemic. Providing the real-time projections allowed Haitian ministries and external aid organizations to better plan and implement response measures during the evolving epidemic.

Abrams JY; Copeland JR; Tauxe RV; Date KA; Belay ED; Mody RK; Mintz ED

2013-06-01

332

Application of smokeless briquettes in developing countries: the cases of Haiti and Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional energy sources are a significant fraction of energy demand in developing countries. These sources have become increasingly scarce because of clearing of land for agriculture, charcoal production, and excessive timber harvesting. One option for mitigating one aspect of this multidimensional problem is the use of smokeless coal briquettes. Resource and market conditions are excellent in some developing countries for the substitution of smokeless briquettes for fuelwood (which includes firewood and charcoal). US Agency for International Development (USAID) has developed a five-step procedure for determining the potential substitution of smokeless briquettes for fuelwood: resource evaluation, market assessment, technological assessment, government policy and institutional assessment (including environmental and health assessments), and business and market assessment. Through recent assessment activities in Haiti, we have gained knowledge and understanding of the market mechanisms for fuelwood substitution which we intend to apply in Pakistan. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Sabadell, A.; Shelton, R.B.; Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.G.

1986-01-01

333

Use of bagasse for the production of electrical energy: applications in Haiti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar cane provides for 62% of the world's consumption of sugar. By the use of its ligneous matter (bagasse), this plant furnishes the necessary energy for the extraction of the sugar it contains. If the sugar factory has high performances on the thermodynamic level, a ton of sugar cane can provide from 50 to 90 kWh for external uses in addition to its own needs. It should be noted that more than 600 million tons of cane are annually processed in the world. Sugar factories therefore have a considerable unused renewable energy potential. The use of this potential and earlier of sugar factories and decrease the export of foreign currencies for the concerned countries. HAITI has understood the fundamental/energy interest of the ligneous matter of the sugar cane it produces and is trying to organize its use in the best possible way.

Olivier, J.

1986-01-01

334

Long-term field performance of biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study assessing the sustainability and efficacy of 55 biosand filters installed during 1999-2010 was conducted in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti during 2011. Twenty-nine filters were still in use. Duration of filter use ranged from 85%) up to seven years after installation. Several filters were still in use after 12 years, which is longer than documented in any previous study. Filtered water from 25 filters (86%) contained Escherichia coli concentrations of < 10 most probable number of coliforms/100 mL. Recontamination of stored filtered water was negligible. Bacterial removal efficiency was 1.1 log(10). Comparable results from previous studies in the same region and elsewhere show that biosand filter technology continues to be an effective and sustainable water treatment method in developing countries worldwide. PMID:23438765

Sisson, Andrew J; Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; McNair, James N; Frobish, Daniel J

2013-02-25

335

Considerations for oral cholera vaccine use during outbreak after earthquake in Haiti, 2010-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed.

Date KA; Vicari A; Hyde TB; Mintz E; Danovaro-Holliday MC; Henry A; Tappero JW; Roels TH; Abrams J; Burkholder BT; Ruiz-Matus C; Andrus J; Dietz V

2011-11-01

336

Considerations for oral cholera vaccine use during outbreak after earthquake in Haiti, 2010-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed. PMID:22099114

Date, Kashmira A; Vicari, Andrea; Hyde, Terri B; Mintz, Eric; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Henry, Ariel; Tappero, Jordan W; Roels, Thierry H; Abrams, Joseph; Burkholder, Brenton T; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Andrus, Jon; Dietz, Vance

2011-11-01

337

Evaluation of antibacterial soap in the management of lymphoedema in Leogane, Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap (n = 100). Reported ADLA incidence (by recall) before the study was 1.1 episodes per person-year, compared to 0.40 assessed during the 12-month study. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with age, illiteracy and lymphoedema stage, but not with soap type. Washing with soap, regardless of its antibacterial content, can help decrease ADLA incidence. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00139100.).

Addiss DG; Michel MC; Michelus A; Radday J; Billhimer W; Louis-Charles J; Roberts JM; Kramp K; Dahl BA; Keswick B

2011-01-01

338

Three years experience with the implementation of a networked electronic medical record in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 2005 we have been developing and implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) that supports both individual and population health care of HIV-infected patients in Haiti. Unreliable electrical power and network infrastructure, cultural differences, variable levels of experience and computer literacy, and the geographic dispersion of the team remain challenges, but the system is now implemented in about 40 sites nationwide providing antiretroviral therapy, and includes records for about 18,600 patients. The need to support country-wide monitoring and evaluation drove early architectural decisions to support linking systems under conditions of network uncertainty. We have found surprising end user acceptance of the system, with the adoption of interactive EMR usage exceeding our expectations and timeline.

Lober WB; Quiles C; Wagner S; Cassagnol R; Lamothes R; Alexis DR; Joseph P; Sutton P; Puttkammer N; Kitahata MM

2008-01-01

339

Public–nonprofit partnership performance in a disaster context: the case of Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During disasters, partnerships between public and nonprofit organizations are vital to provide fast relief to affected communities. In this article, we develop a process model to support a performance evaluation of such intersectoral partnerships. The model includes input factors, organizational structures, outputs and the long-term outcomes of public–nonprofit partnerships. These factors derive from theory and a systematic literature review of emergency, public, nonprofit, and network research. To adapt the model to a disaster context, we conducted a case study that examines public and nonprofit organizations that partnered during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The case study results show that communication, trust, and experience are the most important partnership inputs; the most prevalent governance structure of public–nonprofit partnerships is a lead organization network. Time and quality measures should be considered to assess partnership outputs, and community, network, and organizational actor perspectives must be taken into account when evaluating partnership outcomes.

Nolte IM; Boenigk S

2011-01-01

340

Long-term field performance of biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field study assessing the sustainability and efficacy of 55 biosand filters installed during 1999-2010 was conducted in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti during 2011. Twenty-nine filters were still in use. Duration of filter use ranged from < 1 to 12 years. Water quality, microbial analysis, and flow rate were evaluated for each functioning filter. Kaplan-Meier analysis of filter lifespans showed that filter use remained high (> 85%) up to seven years after installation. Several filters were still in use after 12 years, which is longer than documented in any previous study. Filtered water from 25 filters (86%) contained Escherichia coli concentrations of < 10 most probable number of coliforms/100 mL. Recontamination of stored filtered water was negligible. Bacterial removal efficiency was 1.1 log(10). Comparable results from previous studies in the same region and elsewhere show that biosand filter technology continues to be an effective and sustainable water treatment method in developing countries worldwide.

Sisson AJ; Wampler PJ; Rediske RR; McNair JN; Frobish DJ

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Taxonomic remarks on the genus Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) and description of C. vodou sp. nov. from Haiti/ Notas taxonômicas sobre o gênero Cupiennius Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae) e descrição de C. vodou sp. nov. do Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, é removido da sinonímia de Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) e transferido para o gênero Cupiennius Simon, 1891, no qual é considerado sinônimo sênior de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. São apresentados novos registros para C. bimaculatus (Taczanowski, 1874) e uma nova espécie, C. vodou, é descrita para o Haiti. Abstract in english Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski, 1874, is removed from the synonymy of Ancylometes rufus (Walkenaer, 1837) and transferred to the genus Cupiennius Simon, 1891, in which it is placed as a senior synonym of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon, 1891. New records are presented for C. bimaculatus (TACZANOWSKI 1874) and a new species, C. vodou, is described from Haiti.

Brescovit, Antonio D.; Polotow, Daniele

2005-09-01

342

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping) das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira.The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its foreign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Djuan Bracey

2011-01-01

343

Determinants of care seeking for mental health problems in rural Haiti: culture, cost, or competency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined patterns, determinants, and costs of seeking care for mild to moderate psychiatric distress in order to determine optimal approaches for expanding mental health care in rural Haiti. METHODS: A cross-sectional, zone-stratified household survey of 408 adults was conducted in Haiti's Central Plateau. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess determinants of first-choice and lifetime health service use by provider type. RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of respondents endorsed God as their first choice for care if suffering from mental distress, and 29% of respondents endorsed clinics and hospitals as their first choice. Forty-seven percent of respondents chose potential providers on the basis of anticipated efficacy. Suicidal individuals were 7.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.4-42.0) as likely to prefer community-based providers (herbal healer, church priest or pastor, or Vodou priest) over hospitals or clinics. Depression severity was associated with increased odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.8, CI=1.5-2.3) of ever having been to an herbal healer. Having a household member with mental health problems was associated with increased odds of ever having been to church pastors or priests (AOR=5.8, CI=2.8-12.0) and decreased odds of ever having been to hospitals or clinics (AOR=.3, CI=.1-.8). Median actual service costs were US $1 for hospitals or clinics, $6 for herbal healers, and $120 for Vodou priests. CONCLUSIONS: Three out of four rural Haitians said they would seek community resources over clinical care if suffering from mental distress. Therefore, isolated clinical interventions may have limited impact because of less frequent use. Efforts to expand mental health care should consider differential provider costs when selecting community resources for task shifting.

Wagenaar BH; Kohrt BA; Hagaman AK; McLean KE; Kaiser BN

2013-04-01

344

Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

2013-04-01

345

Reassessment of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak and rainfall-driven multiseason projections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and by anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. We study the ex post reliability of predictions of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak from four independent modeling studies that appeared almost simultaneously during the unfolding epidemic. We consider the impact of different approaches to the modeling of spatial spread of Vibrio cholerae and mechanisms of cholera transmission, accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities. To explain resurgences of the epidemic, we go on to include waning immunity and a mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission. The formal comparative analysis is carried out via the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to measure the added information provided by each process modeled, discounting for the added parameters. A generalized model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the year-long dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multiseason Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using suitable rainfall fields forecasts. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control. PMID:22505737

Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Blokesch, Melanie; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Murray, Megan; Vesenbeckh, Silvan M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

2012-04-13

346

Virtual colonoscopy by multi-slice CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of VC with MSCT and to determine the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of this method in comparison with conventional colonoscopy (CC). Method and Materials: Thirty patients were studied with MSCT and CC. CTs were performed with a multislice CT scanner, with slices of 2,5 mm thickness, 1,3 mm reconstruction interval, 50 mAs, 120 Kv. The mean acquisition time was 25 seconds. Findings were divided in normal and pathologic. The latter was subdivided according to the diameter of the lesions: 2a) 9 mm. Results: The Se and Sp was in 2a) 82% and 78%; in 2b) 100% and 93%; and in 2c) 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: VC with MSCT showed high Se and Sp for the detection of elevated lesions. Its fast way of acquisition allows better patient tolerance and better resolution without respiratory artifacts. (author)

2002-01-01

347

CMC-Slicings of Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter Cosmologies  

CERN Multimedia

There is constructed, for each member of a one-parameter family of cosmological models, which is obtained from the Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by identification under discrete isometries, a slicing by spherically symmetric Cauchy hypersurfaces of constant mean curvature. These slicings are unique up to the action of the static Killing vector.

Beig, R; Beig, Robert

2005-01-01

348

Sliced bread package for home or in-store baking  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A package containing a part-baked loaf of bread for home or in-store baking is characterised in that the package comprises an enclosure of polyester film provided with an evenly distributed array of ventilation holes both above and below the loaf, the bread being fully sliced, the slices being stacked face-to-face without filling or coating.

CLAPPEN SALLY

349

Preservation of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica, L.) Slices in Darfur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sun drying of 'Kitchiner', 'Alphonse' and 'Dibsha' mango (Mangifera indica, L.) cultivars grown in Darfur, Sudan was conducted to enhance durability, utilization of mango fruits and to reduce the cost of transportation and storage. Slices were soaked in cane-sugar, lime-juice and sodium chloride. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were measured initially and every three months. After six months, sensory acceptance of dried slices was determined for the attributes of aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptance using a hedonic scale. Sugar and lime-juice were found good soaking solutions. Treated slices retained 53-78% of their original ascorbic acid after six months of storage. Panel test showed that dried slices of 'Kitchiner' were the most acceptable. Cane treated samples gave higher scores than lime or salt treated samples based on colour, flavour, taste and texture and is suggested as preservative material for mango slices.

Omer Khidir Ahmed; Soad El-Tayeb Ahmed

2012-01-01

350

Thermoluminescence results on slices from a Hiroshima tile UHFSFT03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As was reported at the May 1984 Utah thermoluminescence (TL) workshop, high fired tiles and porcelain fragments can be sliced into 200 ?m sections with constant surface area. When conventional pre-dose measurements were carried out on these slices the doses evaluated were in good agreement with results obtained by other workers using conventional quartz separation techniques. There are several advantages in using slices. First, less sample is needed as about 50 consecutive slices can be cut from a block measuring typically 1 cm2 cross section and 2 cm in length. There are no problems with securing grains to the plate or loss of grains during measurement. Hypothetically there is less damage to the grains when they are cut slowly under cold water than when they are crushed. The disadvantage is that other minerals besides quartz are present in the slice and the signal is weaker than that obtained using quartz inclusions

1987-01-01

351

Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children treated at the Fort de France university hospital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few data related to the care of children injured in an earthquake are available. The objective of our study was to analyze the results of clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children treated in a Fort de France hospital after the Haiti earthquake. Bacteria were mainly Gram-negative bacteria. Some of these infections seemed to be environmental; a significant portion was related to acquisition during hospitalization. PMID:23340552

Arquès, Isabelle; Vincent, Martine; Olive, Claude; Cabié, André; Canivet, Isabelle; Hochedez, Patrick

2013-05-01

352

Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children treated at the Fort de France university hospital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few data related to the care of children injured in an earthquake are available. The objective of our study was to analyze the results of clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children treated in a Fort de France hospital after the Haiti earthquake. Bacteria were mainly Gram-negative bacteria. Some of these infections seemed to be environmental; a significant portion was related to acquisition during hospitalization.

Arquès I; Vincent M; Olive C; Cabié A; Canivet I; Hochedez P

2013-05-01

353

'It is me who eats, to nourish him': a mixed-method study of breastfeeding in post-earthquake Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Haiti, initiation of breastfeeding is high, but early mixed feeding is the norm. In a situation of crisis, mothers' worries about insufficiency of breast milk, disruption of social networks and free unmonitored distribution of breast milk substitutes impact feeding practices. This study was conducted to explore the attitudes, practices and understandings of breastfeeding in the post-earthquake situation in Haiti. A mixed-method study was conducted in Léogâne, Haiti, a town close to the epicentre of the 2010 earthquake. In a household survey, 1131 mothers of children under 24 months were interviewed about feeding practices. In the quantitative component, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and seven focus group discussions with mothers, grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, fathers and health care professionals. Mothers described breastfeeding as a challenging responsibility to ensure the infants' health. They understood breast milk as a dynamic substance, the quality of which would deteriorate if the mother's diet was poor or if the mother was afflicted with a psychosocial condition called move san or colere, 'bad blood'. To protect the child in these situations, early supplementary feeding is introduced. Only 20% of informants exclusively breastfed infants under 6 months. Because of a lack of confidence in the quality of breast milk, Haitian mothers tend to wean children earlier. The abiding concerns of Haitian mothers over the quality of their breast milk suggest a number of ways - such as dietary advice - that post-earthquake aid agencies could enhance breastfeeding support.

Dörnemann J; Kelly AH

2013-01-01

354

CT slice localization via instance-based regression  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatically determining the relative position of a single CT slice within a full body scan provides several useful functionalities. For example, it is possible to validate DICOM meta-data information. Furthermore, knowing the relative position in a scan allows the efficient retrieval of similar slices from the same body region in other volume scans. Finally, the relative position is often an important information for a non-expert user having only access to a single CT slice of a scan. In this paper, we determine the relative position of single CT slices via instance-based regression without using any meta data. Each slice of a volume set is represented by several types of feature information that is computed from a sequence of image conversions and edge detection routines on rectangular subregions of the slices. Our new method is independent from the settings of the CT scanner and provides an average localization error of less than 4.5 cm using leave-one-out validation on a dataset of 34 annotated volume scans. Thus, we demonstrate that instance-based regression is a suitable tool for mapping single slices to a standardized coordinate system and that our algorithm is competitive to other volume-based approaches with respect to runtime and prediction quality, even though only a fraction of the input information is required in comparison to other approaches.

Emrich, Tobias; Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Thoma, Marisa; Cavallaro, Alexander

2010-03-01

355

Slice culture modeling of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complexity of the central nervous system (CNS) is not recapitulated in cell culture models. Thin slicing and subsequent culture of CNS tissue has become a valued means to study neuronal and glial biology within the context of the physiologically relevant tissue milieu. Modern membrane-interface slice culturing methodology allows straightforward access to both CNS tissue and feeding medium, enabling experimental manipulations and analyses that would otherwise be impossible in vivo. CNS slices can be successfully maintained in culture for up to several weeks for investigation of evolving pathology and long-term intervention in models of chronic neurologic disease.Herein, membrane-interface slice culture models for studying viral encephalitis and myelitis are detailed, with emphasis on the use of these models for investigation of pathogenesis and evaluation of novel treatment strategies. We describe techniques to (1) generate brain and spinal cord slices from rodent donors, (2) virally infect slices, (3) assess virally induced injury/apoptosis, (4) characterize "CNS-specific" cytokine production, and (5) treat slices with cytokines/pharmaceuticals. Although our focus is on CNS viral infection, we anticipate that the described methods can be adapted to address a wide range of investigations within the fields of neuropathology, neuroimmunology, and neuropharmacology.

Dionne KR; Tyler KL

2013-01-01

356

Airway-parenchymal interdependence in the lung slice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The explanted lung slice has become a popular in vitro system for studying how airways contract. Because the forces of airway-parenchymal interdependence are such important modulators of airway narrowing, it is of significant interest to understand how the parenchyma around a constricting airway in a lung slice behaves. We have previously shown that the predictions of the 2-dimensional distortion field around a constricting airway are substantially different depending on whether the parenchyma is modeled as an elastic continuum versus a network of hexagonally arranged springs, which raises the question as to which model best explains the lung slice. We treated lung slices with methacholine and then followed the movement of a set of parenchymal landmarks around the airway as it narrowed. The resulting parenchymal displacement field was compared to the displacement fields predicted by the continuum and hexagonal spring network models. The predictions of the continuum model were much closer to the measured data than were those of the hexagonal spring network model, suggesting that the parenchyma in the lung slice behaves like an elastic continuum rather than a network of discrete springs. This may be because the alveoli of the lung slice are filled with agarose in order to provide structural stability, causing the parenchyma in the slice to act like a true mechanical continuum. How the air-filled parenchyma in the intact lung behave in vivo remains an open question.

Ma B; Sanderson M; Bates JH

2013-01-01

357

Slicing Image and Cube Products in Herschel DP  

Science.gov (United States)

The Data Processing software for ESA's Herschel Space Observatory is written in Java as a joint effort of ESA and the three instrument teams. The observers as well as the instrument specialists will use a jython environment to reduce the science observations and to analyze the calibration measurements of the instrument. Several observing modes of the Herschel space observatory will result in substantially large image or image cube datasets, up to several gigabytes in size. Having one or several of these data products in memory in the interactive reduction environment is not feasible on the computer systems available to the average Herschel observer. Therefore we have developed sliced image and cube datasets. Goal is to give the user interactive access to large images or cubes stored on disk, by adequately slicing the dataset in sub-images or subcubes that are manageable in memory. We discuss our class modeling and java implementation of sliced images and cubes using the product pool infrastructure of the Herschel DP system. This infrastructure allows us to write products to local disk, remote servers or databases. We show how our model hides the saving and loading of slices. We also elaborate on the slice sizing scheme we have adopted. The choice of size and dimension of slices is crucial for an optimal performance. The slice sizing strategy we present can be of use for other data analysis applications that handle large datasets.

De Meester, W.; Vandenbussche, B.

2008-08-01

358

Influence of the slice thickness in CT to clinical effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CT is a kind of tomography. Therefore, what thickness of tissue is being observed in the picture - this is important in the clinical application of CT. The influence of slice thickness on the pictures, especially its clinical effect, was examined. The apparatus used is EMI CT 5005. For varying the slice thickness, it cannot be any larger than the thickness essential to the apparatus. Therefore, to make it thinner than the essential 14 mm, collimators were specially prepared, which were used on the sides of an X-ray tube and a detector. As basic observation, the revelation ability of form owing to the difference of slice thickness using acryl pipes, and the revelation ability of slice face owing to the difference of slice thickness, were examined. About clinical observation, the results for certain cases of cancer were compared with the CT images for the slice thickness of 14 mm essential to EMI CT 5005 and the slice thickness of 7 mm achieved by means of the collimators.

Kimura, K.; Katakura, T.; Ito, M.; Okuaki, O.; Suzuki, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

1980-11-01

359

Thin-slice perception develops slowly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow development, over childhood, of sensitivity to subtle visual cues. Children and adult participants watched short silent clips in which a target child played with Lego blocks either in the (off-screen) presence of an adult or alone. Participants judged whether the target was playing alone or not; that is, they detected the presence of a social interaction (from the behavior of one participant in that interaction). This task allowed us to compare performance across ages with the true answer. Children did not reach adult levels of performance on this task until 9 or 10 years of age, and we observed an interaction between age and video reversal. Adults and older children benefitted from the videos being played in temporal sequence, rather than reversed, suggesting that adults (but not young children) are sensitive to natural movement in social interactions.

Balas B; Kanwisher N; Saxe R

2012-06-01

360

Biosensor imaging in brain slice preparations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) is present in most branches of the animal kingdom, and is an example in the nervous system where a kinase effector integrates the cellular effects of various neuromodulators. The recent development of FRET-based biosensors, such as AKAR, now allows the direct measurement of PKA activation in living cells by simply measuring the ratio between the fluorescence emission at the CFP and YFP wavelengths upon CFP excitation. This novel approach provides data with a temporal resolution of a few seconds at the cellular and even subcellular level, opening a new avenue of understanding the integration processes in space and time.Our protocol has been optimized to study morphologically intact mature neurons and we describe how simple and cheap wide-field imaging, as well as more elaborate two-photon imaging, allows real-time monitoring of PKA activation in pyramidal cortical neurons in neonate rodent brain slices. In addition, many practical details presented here also pertain to image analysis in other cellular preparations, such as cultured cells. Finally, this protocol can also be applied to the various other CFP-YFP-based FRET biosensors that are available for other kinases or other intracellular signals. It is likely that this kind of approach will be generally applicable to a broad range of assays in the near future.

Polito M; Vincent P; Guiot E

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Biosensor imaging in brain slice preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) is present in most branches of the animal kingdom, and is an example in the nervous system where a kinase effector integrates the cellular effects of various neuromodulators. The recent development of FRET-based biosensors, such as AKAR, now allows the direct measurement of PKA activation in living cells by simply measuring the ratio between the fluorescence emission at the CFP and YFP wavelengths upon CFP excitation. This novel approach provides data with a temporal resolution of a few seconds at the cellular and even subcellular level, opening a new avenue of understanding the integration processes in space and time. Our protocol has been optimized to study morphologically intact mature neurons and we describe how simple and cheap wide-field imaging, as well as more elaborate two-photon imaging, allows real-time monitoring of PKA activation in pyramidal cortical neurons in neonate rodent brain slices. In addition, many practical details presented here also pertain to image analysis in other cellular preparations, such as cultured cells. Finally, this protocol can also be applied to the various other CFP-YFP-based FRET biosensors that are available for other kinases or other intracellular signals. It is likely that this kind of approach will be generally applicable to a broad range of assays in the near future. PMID:24052389

Polito, Marina; Vincent, Pierre; Guiot, Elvire

2014-01-01

362

Slice knots with distinct Ozsvath-Szabo and Rasmussen Invariants  

CERN Document Server

As proved by Hedden and Ording, there exist knots for which the Ozsvath-Szabo and Rasmussen smooth concordance invariants differ. The Hedden-Ording examples have nontrivial Alexander polynomials and are not topologically slice. It is shown in this note that a simple manipulation of the Hedden-Ording examples yields a topologically slice Alexander polynomial one knot for which the invariants also differ. It follows that the smooth concordance group of topologically slice knots contains a summand isomorphic to a free abelian group on two generators.

Livingston, C

2006-01-01

363

Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain slices from 8-day old (P8) mouse pups. Fluorescence microscopic monitoring of GFP was utilized as an indicator of tissue viability. The final format of the developed system, featuring ”plug-and-play” technolgy with a reusable fluidic connection board and easily changeable microfluidic chips, facilitated brain slice culturing for 16 days.

Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.

2011-01-01

364

Nonexistence of conformally flat slices of the Kerr spacetime  

CERN Multimedia

Initial data for black hole collisions are commonly generated using theBowen-York approach based on conformally flat 3-geometries. The standard(constant Boyer-Lindquist time) spatial slices of the Kerr spacetime are notconformally flat, so that use of the Bowen-York approach is limited in dealingwith rotating holes. We investigate here whether there exist foliations of theKerr spacetime that are conformally flat. We limit our considerations tofoliations that are axisymmetric and that smoothly reduce in the Schwarzschildlimit to slices of constant Schwarzschild time. With these restrictions, weshow that no conformally flat slices can exist.

Garat, A; Garat, Alcides; Price, Richard H.

2000-01-01

365

Intervención internacional. Haití: receta rápida, fracaso anticipado | International intervention. Haiti: repeated recipe, failure ahead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el momento de autorizar la intervención militar y la posterior creación de la misión de mantenimiento de la paz, de enero a junio del 2004, el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU carecía de un diagnóstico preciso sobre el carácter del Estado haitiano y su historia, el tipo de conflicto y la naturaleza de la violencia en el país, lo que explica, a casi cuatro años de esa intervención, la recurrente inestabilidad y la persistencia de la violencia en la nación caribeña. El tipo de intervención y las estrategias de pacificación utilizadas por la comunidad internacional fueron inapropiadas y se mostraron ineficaces para atender casos como el haitiano. La misión de imposición de la paz desplegada en el país utilizó la disuasión militar para contener las manifestaciones externas de la violencia “congelando” así el conflicto y garantizando la realización de elecciones masivas y transparentes el 6 de Febrero de 2006. Sin embargo, las causas presentes e históricas que generan y reproducen esta violencia siguen intactas. La democracia no puede prosperar en ausencia de un estado que garantice un orden político con un mínimo de institucionalidad, particularmente, cuando el desorden se ha convertido en el instrumento político por excelencia de algunos actores, para mantener el statu quo. Los beneficios del proceso de normalización democrática, en un contexto de ausencia estatal, no son sostenibles en el tiempo.When the UN Security Council authorized the military intervention in Haiti and passed a resolution creating a peacekeeping force in the country, it lacked a precise diagnosis on the character of the Haitian state, its history, the essential qualities of the ongoing conflict, as well as the nature of the violence the country was experiencing. This explains why, after almost five years of UN presence in Haiti, recurrent instability and persistent violence are still common features in the Caribbean nation. The kind of intervention and the strategies implemented by the international community to pacify the country were inappropriate and they proved to be ineffective in tackling cases such as the Haitian one. The peace enforcement mission deployed to the country used military deterrence to contain external manifestations of the violence, thereby “freezing” the conflict and pursuing the organization of massive and transparent elections that were held on 6 February 2006. However, the present and historical causes provoking and reproducing the violence in Haiti violence are still in place. Democracy cannot thrive in the absence of a state structure able to guarantee a political order with a minimum of institutional development, particularly, when “disorder” has become the preferred political tool for some local actors in order to maintain the status quo. The benefits of a normalized institutional life, in a context of state absence, are not sustainable for the long term.

Gastón AÍN

2009-01-01

366

Architectural Slicing : Towards Automatic Harvesting of Architectural Prototypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

2013-01-01

367

On surgery curves for genus one slice knots  

CERN Document Server

If a knot K bounds a genus one Seifert surface F in the 3-sphere and F contains an essential simple closed curve alpha that has induced framing 0 and is smoothly slice, then K is smoothly slice. Conjecturally, the converse holds. It is known that if K is slice, then there are strong constraints on the algebraic concordance class of such alpha, and it was thought that these constraints might imply that alpha is at least algebraically slice. We present a counterexample; in the process we answer negatively a question of Cooper and relate the result to a problem of Kauffman. Results of this paper depend on the interplay between the Casson-Gordon invariants of K and algebraic invariants of alpha.

Gilmer, Patrick M

2011-01-01

368

Smoked tuna, sliced and vacuum packed, a relatively new product.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility of storing vacuum packed, smoked and sliced tuna fish was studied. The microbiological and chemical analyses demonstrated that hygienic conditions and organoleptic properties remain unaltered after storage at 5 degrees C for 60 days.

Paleari MA; Soncini G; Beretta G

1990-02-01

369

64-slice MSCT diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To detect the value of 64-slice multiple slice CT (MSCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. Methods: Data of 64-slice MSCT for 7 patients with pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma confirmed by operation and pathology was retrospectively analyzed. the 2 male and 4 female patients ranged in age from 17 to 66 (average age was 43.4). Both plain and contrast volume scan were performed on all patients. Results: In the group, 5 cases of lesion were found in periphery of lung especially near pleura. Vessels-close-to-lesions'-periphery-sign was observed in 6 patients, air crescent sign in 1 patient and obvious homogeneous enhancement was noticed in all the patients. Conclusion: 64-slice MSCT could play an important role in the evaluation of location, margin, peripheral relation and the enhancement of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. It could be effective in prompting diagnosis of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma. (authors)

2010-01-01

370

Precision of Cavalieri sections and slices with local errors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cavalieri sections--and more recently Cavalieri slices, especially in combination with non-invasive scanning--are widely used to estimate volumes. Physical Cavalieri slices are also increasingly used to estimate neuron numbers via the optical fractionator. In either case, the prediction of the error variance is important to assess optimal sample sizes. The error variance consists of two components, one due to the variation among the true contents of sections or slices, and the other due to local or 'nugget' errors. The latter may arise for instance estimating section areas by point counting discrete particles in slices or disectors. In this paper, a fairly comprehensive set of prediction formulae is presented to separate both variance components.

Cruz-Orive LM

1999-03-01

371

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was treated with sodium metabisulphite solution 2000 p.p.m concentration and the third portion was left without any treatment (control). Mango slices of each treatment were speeded on aluminum trays with an equal distribution and dried at room temperature under moving fan for seven days and then the dried products were packed in (polythene) plastic socks then placed inside cartoons and stored at room temperature for nine months. The results showed that the treatment with sodiummetabisulphite solution was the best in keeping the nutritive value of mango slices (ascorbic acid). The results indicated that the best treatment which prevented browning was Gum Arabic addition. The study of the effect of storage periods at room temperature on some properties of mango slices (fingers) showed there was a marked loss of some nutrients (e.g. ascorbic acid, sugars).

Mamoun Omer Abdelgader; Inaam Awad Ismail

2011-01-01

372

Prediction of the spatial evolution and effects of control measures for the unfolding Haiti cholera outbreak  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we propose spatially explicit predictions of the residual progression of the current Haiti cholera outbreak accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities, and for the redistribution among them of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease. Spreading mechanisms include the diffusion of pathogens in the aquatic environment and their dissemination due to the movement of human carriers. The model reproduces the spatiotemporal features of the outbreak to date, thus suggesting the robustness of predicted future developments of the epidemic. We estimate that, under unchanged conditions, the number of new cases in the whole country should start to decrease in January. During this month the epidemic should mainly involve the Ouest department (Port-au-Prince) while fading out in northern regions. Our spatially explicit model allows also the analysis of the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. To that end our results show that mass vaccinations would have a negligible impact at this stage of the epidemic. We also show that targeted sanitation strategies, providing clean drinking water supply and/or staging educational campaigns aimed at reducing exposure, may weaken the strength of the residual evolution of the infection.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Blokesch, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-03-01

373

Strontium isotope geochemistry of late cretaceous granodiorites, Jamaica and Haiti, Greater Antilles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been determined for a representative suite of Upper Cretaceous granodiorites and associated rocks from the Above Rocks composite stock in central Jamaica and the Terre-Neuve pluton in northwestern Haiti. The average initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio for seven samples of the Terre-Neuve intrusion is 0.7036, with a range of 0.7026-0.7047. For two samples of the Above Rocks the initial ratios are 0.7033 and 0.7034. A third sample from this intrusive has an initial ratio of 0.7084, which is tentatively attributed to contamination. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that neither ancient sialic crust nor sediments carried down a Benioff zone can be the primary source of the granodioritic magma. K/Rb ratios for these rocks range from 178 to 247, which are much lower than the average values (>= 1000) for tholeiitic basalts. It is concluded that the magmas originated primarily by melting of downthrust oceanic crust or adjacent mantle material. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

374

Subsistence Songs: Haitian téat Performances, Gendered Capital, and Livelihood Strategies in Jean Makout, Haiti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines how sexual and gender values in rural Haiti are expressed through 'téat', theatrical, songs and performances among girls from 10 to 20 years. Author describes how these sexual values relate to a concept of gendered capital, or what he calls a "sexual-moral economy", whereby men who want sex with women need to provide material rewards for this sexual access. He explains how this combines with certain gender socializations and views of men, unlike women, really needing sex, and socialized toward this, also by women, and thus from an early age to aggressively pursue women, and women on the other hand toward restraint, and to require material rewards. Author illustrates, through examples, how téat songs reflect and refer to these values, often through sexual metaphors. In addition, he shows how they relate to the wider social and gender context of matrifocality and subsistence strategies, notably the household, wherein women tend to be dominant over men, who supplied the house as expected price for her sex, manages production and reproduction of her daughters in it, instilling them also with the said sexual values, and with children seen as necessary for household work, as the women also engage in market activities outside of the house.

Timothy T. Schwartz

2008-01-01

375

Knowledge and use of and opportunities for emergency contraception in Northern Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge and experience of, and desire for, emergency contraception (EC) in postpartum women in Haiti, and to determine the knowledge and practices of EC providers. METHODS: As part of a larger postpartum family planning study, 6 focus groups were conducted with postpartum women (n=33), 3 were conducted with providers (n=22), and a questionnaire was given to postpartum women (n=250). RESULTS: Of the 249 women who completed the survey, 145 (58.2%) were aware of the concept of EC as an emergency measure in the postcoital period. Of these, 130 (89.7%) had knowledge of traditional methods only. Twenty-eight (11.2%) women had used some form of EC in the past, but only 2 (0.8%) reported ever using a modern form of EC. Providers reported that EC was offered to women only in cases of sexual assault. Their impression was that there was no demand for EC. CONCLUSION: Awareness and use of EC is low in the context of high unmet need. The results demonstrate a need for improved education and provision of modern effective EC as part of the constellation of family planning choices.

Lathrop E; Telemaque Y; Haddad L; Stephenson R; Goedken P; Cwiak C; Jamieson DJ

2013-04-01

376

Strategies for assessing mental health in Haiti: Local instrument development and transcultural translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lack of culturally appropriate mental health assessment instruments is a major barrier to screening and evaluating efficacy of interventions. Simple translation of questionnaires produces misleading and inaccurate conclusions. Multiple alternate approaches have been proposed, and this study compared two approaches tested in rural Haiti. First, an established transcultural translation process was used to develop Haitian Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This entailed focus group discussions evaluating comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Second, qualitative data collection was employed to develop new instruments: the Kreyòl Distress Idioms (KDI) and Kreyòl Function Assessment (KFA) scales. For the BDI and BAI, some items were found to be nonequivalent due to lack of specificity, interpersonal interpretation, or conceptual nonequivalence. For all screening tools, items were adjusted if they were difficult to endorse or severely stigmatizing, represented somatic experiences of physical illness, or were difficult to understand. After the qualitative development phases, the BDI and BAI were piloted with 31 and 27 adults, respectively, and achieved good reliability. Without these efforts to develop appropriate tools, attempts at screening would have captured a combination of atypical suffering, everyday phenomena, and potential psychotic symptoms. Ultimately, a combination of transculturally adapted and locally developed instruments appropriately identified those in need of care through accounting for locally salient symptoms of distress and their negative sequelae.

Kaiser BN; Kohrt BA; Keys HM; Khoury NM; Brewster AR

2013-08-01

377

Management of proximal femoral focal deficiency with limited resources in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Individuals with proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) present with a shortened femur. This report highlights the process used to determine prosthetic candidacy, a novel use of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) prosthetic materials, and subsequent rehabilitation when treating in rural Haiti. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHODS: An eight-year-old boy with PFFD whose goal was to walk 'normally' presented with a shortened right leg and typical foot/ankle. Concerns regarding ability to safely load the leg were mitigated after finding he could fully load his right limb, control motion, and had no fractures. FINDINGS AND OUTCOMES: A unique prosthosis incorporating a donated hinged ankle-foot orthosis, ICRC materials and a SACH foot was fabricated. Physical therapy followed for two weeks, progressing from static weight-bearing and gait training to dynamic balance activities. At discharge, the patient walked independently using the prosthosis and one forearm crutch. CONCLUSION: Through collaboration and innovation rehabilitation goals can be realized even when presented with limited resources. Clinical relevance Through collaboration and innovation novel prosthetic designs incorporating materials from the International Committee of the Red Cross can be created and rehabilitation goals can be realized even when presented with limited resources.

Lamberg EM; Collins CK; Hanks JE; Alaniz MB

2013-02-01

378

Strategies for assessing mental health in Haiti: Local instrument development and transcultural translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of culturally appropriate mental health assessment instruments is a major barrier to screening and evaluating efficacy of interventions. Simple translation of questionnaires produces misleading and inaccurate conclusions. Multiple alternate approaches have been proposed, and this study compared two approaches tested in rural Haiti. First, an established transcultural translation process was used to develop Haitian Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This entailed focus group discussions evaluating comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Second, qualitative data collection was employed to develop new instruments: the Kreyòl Distress Idioms (KDI) and Kreyòl Function Assessment (KFA) scales. For the BDI and BAI, some items were found to be nonequivalent due to lack of specificity, interpersonal interpretation, or conceptual nonequivalence. For all screening tools, items were adjusted if they were difficult to endorse or severely stigmatizing, represented somatic experiences of physical illness, or were difficult to understand. After the qualitative development phases, the BDI and BAI were piloted with 31 and 27 adults, respectively, and achieved good reliability. Without these efforts to develop appropriate tools, attempts at screening would have captured a combination of atypical suffering, everyday phenomena, and potential psychotic symptoms. Ultimately, a combination of transculturally adapted and locally developed instruments appropriately identified those in need of care through accounting for locally salient symptoms of distress and their negative sequelae. PMID:24067540

Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Keys, Hunter M; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

2013-08-01

379

Situación actual de las Vacunas e Inmunización en Haití/ Vaccines and Immunisation - current situation in Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La inmunización ha sido uno de los grandes éxitos de la salud pública. Ha permitido salvar la vida de millones de niños en Haití y le ha dado a miles más la oportunidad de vivir una vida más larga y saludable, al igual que mayores oportunidades de instruirse, de leer y escribir, de jugar y de moverse libremente sin sufrimiento. No obstante, existen deficiencias en la cobertura, en la prestación de servicios de salud, en la seguridad de las vacunas y en el acceso a (more) nuevas vacunas del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI), entre otras. La cobertura vacunal no supera el 40% como promedio nacional, alcanzando sólo al 18% en algunos departamentos. Abstract in english Immunisation is one of the great public health successes. It has saved millions of children's lives in Haiti and has given thousands more the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, to become educated, to learn to read and write, to play and move about freely without suffering. However, there are deficiencies in coverage levels, in healthcare provision, in vaccine safety and in access to the new vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI), amongst others. Vaccine coverage did not exceed 40% as a national average, reaching only 18% in some areas.

Syldor, Marc-Henry

2009-06-01

380

The roles, barriers and experiences of rehabilitation therapists in disaster relief: post-earthquake Haiti 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: This article describes the roles and experiences of rehabilitation therapists involved in disaster relief work (DRW) in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. The results of a pilot study and phenomenological study are presented. Method: A phenomenological study of rehabilitation providers' experiences in post-disaster relief care is presented along with preliminary pilot study results. The phenomenological study explored the experiences of therapists from a lived experience perspective through the roles they played in DRW. Results: Participants provided disaster relief through direct patient care, adaptive equipment sourcing and allocation, education and training, community outreach and logistic or administrative duties. Barriers and challenges included: (1) emotions: ups and downs; (2) challenges: working at the edge of practice; (3) education: key to success and sustainability; (4) lessons learned: social responsibility is why we go; and (5) difficulty coming home: no one understands. Conclusions: Therapists play a key role in disaster relief situations. Data presented should encourage organizations to include therapists from early planning to implementation of relief services. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of rehabilitation interventions in disaster settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Understanding the roles and experiences of therapists in disaster relief setting is important Certain barriers to providing care in post-disaster settings exist Those participating in disaster response should be well prepared and aware of that they might be asked to do. PMID:23688294

Klappa, Susan; Audette, Jennifer; Do, Sandy

2013-05-20

 
 
 
 
381

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01

382

Water-resources reconnaissance of I??le de la Gona??ve, Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

I??le de la Gona??ve is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

Troester, J. W.; Turvey, M. D.

2004-01-01

383

HAITÍ: CUANDO EL PASADO ES DEMASIADO PESADO/ Haiti: When the Past Becomes too Heavy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Roces constantes entre el presidente y la oposición, escándalos políticos a repetición, sucesivos cambios ministeriales, un crecimiento económico mediocre y continuos lanzamientos de nuevos programas sociales por parte del gobierno de Michel Joseph Martelly han marcado el año 2012 en Haití. La principal muestra de las vicisitudes políticas experimentadas durante el año se materializa en la incapacidad del presidente para conformar el organismo electoral, que debe (more) organizar las elecciones intermedias para reemplazar a los senadores cuyo mandato llegó a término en 2012. Abstract in english Constant frictions between the President and the Opposition, repetitive political scandals, frequent changes in the Cabinet, a mediocre economic growth and continuous launch of new Social Programs have marked the year of 2012 in Haiti. A good example of the political problems that the country faced during 2012 is the incapacity of the president to form the Electoral Council that has to organize midterm elections for the replacement of senators whose mandate has ended in 2012.

RESERVE, ROODY

2013-01-01

384

Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that have been recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12/1/2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46o and Longitude 287.47o, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal keeping only the very low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the strong earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory e...

Athanasiou, M; Iliopoulos, A; Pavlos, G; David, K

2010-01-01

385

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6-59 Months Old in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6-59 months old (n = 557) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associated with anemia. The prevalence of childhood anemia was 38.8% (23.9% mild, 14.7% moderate, and 0.2% severe). Mean hemoglobin was 11.2 ± 1.2?g/dL. Variables associated with child anemia were age less than 24 months (OR = 2.6; P = 0.000), stunting (OR = 2.2; P = 0.005), and mother's low hemoglobin level (OR = 1.8; P = 0.011). Anemia among young children in Fond des Blancs and Villa is a public health problem. Predictors of child anemia in this region include child's age, stunting, and mother's anemia. Interventions and strategies aimed at addressing effectively anemia in this population must therefore target mothers and children under two years of age.

Ayoya MA; Ngnie-Teta I; Séraphin MN; Mamadoultaibou A; Boldon E; Saint-Fleur JE; Koo L; Bernard S

2013-01-01

386

High-resolution and LIDAR imaging support to the Haiti earthquake relief effort  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program (WASP) is an imaging system designed, built, and operated by the RIT Center for Imaging Science. The system consists of four cameras: a high resolution color camera and SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR cameras. When flown with our corporate partners, Kucera International, the imaging system is combined with a high-resolution LIDAR. This combination provides a full-spectrum, multimodal data collection platform unique to RIT. Under funding by the World Bank, the WASP system was used to image over 250 sq. mi. in Haiti (approximately 15,000 visible and 45,000 infrared frames) from January 21 - 27, 2010 in support of the earthquake relief efforts. Priorities of collection were the area surrounding Port au Prince, the city of Leogane, several other badly damaged towns, and, at the request of the USGS, a high resolution LIDAR collection over the fault line. The imagery was used in the field by disaster relief workers and by collaborators at the University of Buffalo and ImageCat, Inc. to perform building damage and road network trafficability assessments. Additionally, large area mosaics and semi-automatic processing algorithms were developed for value-added product development. In particular, a methodology was developed to extract the locations of blue tarps (indicative of displaced persons) from the images. All imagery was made available to the public through outlets such as Google Earth, the University of Buffalo, the US Geological Survey, the United Nations, and other sites.

Messinger, David W.; van Aardt, Jan; McKeown, Don; Casterline, May; Faulring, Jason; Raqueño, Nina; Basener, Bill; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

2010-08-01

387

Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

Adelheid Pichler; Erich Striessnig

2013-01-01

388

Public health surveillance after the 2010 haiti earthquake: the experience of medecins sans frontieres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background In January 2010, Haiti was struck by a powerful earthquake, killing and wounding hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. In order to better understand the severity of the crisis, and to provide early warning of epidemics or deteriorations in the health status of the population, Médecins Sans Frontières established surveillance for infections of epidemic potential and for death rates and malnutrition prevalence. Methods Trends in infections of epidemic potential were detected through passive surveillance at health facilities serving as sentinel sites. Active community surveillance of death rates and malnutrition prevalence was established through weekly home visits. Results There were 102,054 consultations at the 15 reporting sites during the 26 week period of operation. Acute respiratory infections, acute watery diarrhoea and malaria/fever of unknown origin accounted for the majority of proportional morbidity among the diseases under surveillance. Several alerts were triggered through the detection of immediately notifiable diseases and increasing trends in some conditions. Crude and under-5 death rates, and acute malnutrition prevalence, were below emergency thresholds. Conclusion Disease surveillance after disasters should include an alert and response component, requiring investment of resources in informal networks that improve sensitivity to alerts as well as on the more common systems of data collection, compilation and analysis. Information sharing between partners is necessary to strengthen early warning systems. Community-based surveillance of mortality and malnutrition is feasible but requires careful implementation and validation.

Polonsky J; Luquero F; Francois G; Rousseau C; Caleo G; Ciglenecki I; Delacre C; Siddiqui MR; Terzian M; Verhenne L; Porten K; Checchi F

2013-01-01

389

Characteristics of preeclampsia- and eclampsia-related maternal death in rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The maternal mortality ratio in Haiti remains one of the highest in the world at 600/100 000 live births. Preeclampsia- and eclampsia-related complications are one of the leading causes of maternal death. In this resource-limited setting, effective, efficient hospital-based interventions are necessary to reduce this risk. Our objective was to assess the utility of common laboratory and clinical admission data for the determination of preeclampsia- and eclampsia-related maternal death. STUDY DESIGN: We performed an analysis of women presenting to the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer with preeclampsia and eclampsia during a 3-year period. Factors analyzed were: maternal age, parity, gestational age, hematocrit, serum creatinine, urine protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), coma on arrival, and address (residence within or outside hospital catchment area). Stepwise logistic regression identified factors predictive of maternal mortality. RESULTS: Preeclampsia/eclampsia affected 423 of 2295 deliveries (18%) and resulted in 19 deaths. Multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of maternal mortality: IUFD (RR 7.57; 95% CI 2.76-12.69), eclampsia (RR 6.91; 95% CI 2.08-12.64), and oliguria (RR 5.39; 95% CI 1.80-10.69). CONCLUSION: In this setting, traditional admission laboratory and clinical tests were not useful in maternal mortality prediction. The analysis highlights clinical characteristics of women at highest risk for maternal death.

Small MJ; Kershaw T; Frederic R; Blanc C; Neale D; Copel J; Williams KP

2005-11-01

390

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6-59 Months Old in Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6–59 months old (n = 557) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associated with anemia. The prevalence of childhood anemia was 38.8% (23.9% mild, 14.7% moderate, and 0.2% severe). Mean hemoglobin was 11.2 ± 1.2?g/dL. Variables associated with child anemia were age less than 24 months (OR = 2.6; P = 0.000), stunting (OR = 2.2; P = 0.005), and mother's low hemoglobin level (OR = 1.8; P = 0.011). Anemia among young children in Fond des Blancs and Villa is a public health problem. Predictors of child anemia in this region include child's age, stunting, and mother's anemia. Interventions and strategies aimed at addressing effectively anemia in this population must therefore target mothers and children under two years of age.

Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Seraphin, Marie Nancy; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Boldon, Ellen; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Bernard, Samuel

2013-01-01

391

A Look at the Past History of Hepatitis E in Haiti: Should it be a Warning Sign during the Current Crisis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nobody can forget the devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck poverty-stricken Haiti, Port-au-Prince recently on 12 January 2010. At least 75,000 people were killed and hundreds of thousands became homeless; authorities are worried about sanitation and outbreaks of disease in the region. The camps are full of people and there are not even the most basic facilities for any others. Humanity obliges us to help them in any possible way. I reviewed the literature about the hepatitis E virus infection in Haiti and I would like to draw the scientists' attention to this important topic in this time of crisis.

Seyed Moayed Alavian

2010-01-01

392

OpenSlice: an OpenFlow-based control plane for spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A control plane is a key enabling technique for dynamic and intelligent end-to-end path provisioning in optical networks. In this paper, we present an OpenFlow-based control plane for spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks, called OpenSlice, for dynamic end-to-end path provisioning and IP traffic offloading. Experimental demonstration and numerical evaluation show its overall feasibility and efficiency.

Liu L; Muñoz R; Casellas R; Tsuritani T; Martínez R; Morita I

2013-02-01

393

64-slice Computed Tomography Assessment of Coronary Artery Stents: a Phantom Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To compare the use of a new 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner with 16-slice CT in the visualization of coronary artery stent lumen. Material and Methods: Eight different coronary artery stents, each with a diameter of 3 mm, were placed in a static chest phantom. The phantom was positioned in the CT gantry at an angle of 0 deg and 45 deg towards the z-axis and examined with both a 64-slice and a 16-slice CT scanner. Effective slice thickness was 0.6 mm with 64-slice CT and 1 mm with 16-slice CT. A reconstruction increment of 0.3 mm was applied in both scanners. Image quality was assessed visually using a 5-point grading scale. Stent diameters were measured and compared using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results: Artificial lumen reduction was significantly less with 64-slice than with 16-slice CT. Average visible stent lumen was 53.4% using 64-slice CT and 47.5% with 16-slice MSCT. Most severe artifacts were seen in stents with radiopaque markers. Using 64-slice CT, image noise increased by approximately 30% due to thinner slice thickness. Conclusion: Improved spatial resolution of 64-slice CT resulted in superior assessment of coronary artery stent lumen compared to 16-slice CT. However, a relevant part of the stent lumen is still not assessable with multi-slice CT.

Mahnken, A.H.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Seyfarth, T.; Flohr, T.; Stanzel, S.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W.; Kuettner, A. [Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

2006-02-15

394

64-slice Computed Tomography Assessment of Coronary Artery Stents: a Phantom Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare the use of a new 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner with 16-slice CT in the visualization of coronary artery stent lumen. Material and Methods: Eight different coronary artery stents, each with a diameter of 3 mm, were placed in a static chest phantom. The phantom was positioned in the CT gantry at an angle of 0 deg and 45 deg towards the z-axis and examined with both a 64-slice and a 16-slice CT scanner. Effective slice thickness was 0.6 mm with 64-slice CT and 1 mm with 16-slice CT. A reconstruction increment of 0.3 mm was applied in both scanners. Image quality was assessed visually using a 5-point grading scale. Stent diameters were measured and compared using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results: Artificial lumen reduction was significantly less with 64-slice than with 16-slice CT. Average visible stent lumen was 53.4% using 64-slice CT and 47.5% with 16-slice MSCT. Most severe artifacts were seen in stents with radiopaque markers. Using 64-slice CT, image noise increased by approximately 30% due to thinner slice thickness. Conclusion: Improved spatial resolution of 64-slice CT resulted in superior assessment of coronary artery stent lumen compared to 16-slice CT. However, a relevant part of the stent lumen is still not assessable with multi-slice CT

2006-01-01

395

Protecting and improving breastfeeding practices during a major emergency: lessons learnt from the baby tents in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: The 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced about 1.5 million people, many of them into camps for internally displaced persons. It was expected that disruption of breastfeeding practices would lead to increased infant morbidity, malnutrition and mortality. APPROACH: Haiti's health ministry and the United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with local and international nongovernmental organizations, established baby tents in the areas affected by the earthquake. The tents provided a safe place for mothers to breastfeed and for non-breastfed infants to receive ready-to-use infant formula. Such a large and coordinated baby tent response in an emergency context had never been mounted before anywhere in the world. LOCAL SETTING: Baby tents were set up in five cities but mainly in Port-au-Prince, where the majority of Haiti's 1555 camps for displaced persons had been established. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between February 2010 and June 2012, 193 baby tents were set up; 180?499 mother-infant pairs and 52?503 pregnant women were registered in the baby tent programme. Of infants younger than 6 months, 70% were reported to be exclusively breastfed and 10% of the "mixed feeders" moved to exclusive breastfeeding while enrolled. In 2010, 13.5% of registered infants could not be breastfed. These infants received ready-to-use infant formula. LESSONS LEARNT: Thanks to rapid programme scale-up, breastfeeding practices remained undisrupted. However, better evaluation methods and comprehensive guidance on the implementation and monitoring of baby tents are needed for future emergencies, along with a clear strategy for transitioning baby tent activities into facility and community programmes.

Ayoya MA; Golden K; Ngnie-Teta I; Moreaux MD; Mamadoultaibou A; Koo L; Boyd E; Beauliere JM; Lesavre C; Marhone JP

2013-08-01

396

Psychopathology in the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake: a population-based study of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the first population-based study of psychopathology conducted in Haiti, we documented earthquake-related experiences associated with risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) 2-4 months following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted of 1,323 survivors randomly selected from the general nondisplaced community, internally displaced persons camps, and a community clinic. Respondents were from the Nazon area of Port-au-Prince, ?20 miles from the epicenter. RESULTS: Respondents (90.5%) reported at least one relative/close friend injured/killed, 93% saw dead bodies, and 20.9% lost their job post-earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD (24.6%) and MDD (28.3%) was high. History of violent trauma was associated with risk of PTSD and MDD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9; AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.3, 2.2, respectively). Low social support (AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.3; AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, respectively) increased risk of PTSD and MDD among women. Suffering damage to the home increased risk of MDD in males (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5, 5.5). Associations between being trapped in rubble, major damage to house, job loss, and PTSD; and participation in rescue/recovery, friends/family injured/killed, and MDD varied based on prior history of violent trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing mental health in a post-earthquake setting such as Haiti will require focusing resources on screening and treatment of identified vulnerable groups while targeting improvement of post-earthquake living conditions. Investment in sources of social support for women may make help mitigate the vulnerability of women to PTSD and MDD.

Cerdá M; Paczkowski M; Galea S; Nemethy K; Péan C; Desvarieux M

2013-05-01

397

Effectiveness of the SLICE program for youth concussion education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of the Sports Legacy Institute Community Educators (SLICE) curriculum for student-athletes on recognition and appropriate responses to concussions. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, level II. SETTING: The SLICE concussion workshop. PARTICIPANTS: All students ranging from 9 to 18 years (n = 636) taking the SLICE concussion education program. INTERVENTION: The SLICE concussion education program featuring interactive demonstrations, discussion, and case studies of athletes delivered by medical students and others in health-related fields. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evaluations assessing knowledge of concussion recognition and appropriate response were administered before and after participating in the SLICE concussion education program. RESULTS: Students displayed significant improvements in absolute mean score on the concussion knowledge quiz between prepresentation and postpresentation (P < 0.0001). Significant improvements in mean score were observed among both male and female students within each age group. The proportion of students who passed the quiz increased from 34% prepresentation to 80% postpresentation (P < 0.0001). However, the percentage who passed the quiz postpresentation was significantly higher among female students compared with male students (P < 0.0001) and among students 13 years of age or older compared with students less than 13 years (P < 0.0001). Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified age group and gender as the most significant factors associated with passing the quiz postpresentation. CONCLUSION: The SLICE program promotes effective learning and knowledge about concussion recognition and response among students ranging from 9 to 18 years. Lessons from the SLICE program may be broadly applicable to youth concussion education.

Bagley AF; Daneshvar DH; Schanker BD; Zurakowski D; d?Hemecourt CA; Nowinski CJ; Cantu RC; Goulet K

2012-09-01

398

Organ doses in CT of thorax: Sequential slices versus helical slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Helical scanning introduces additional choices in technical parameters and has an impact on how much radiation dose a patient receives. Helical scanning allows the entire thorax to be scanned within a single breathold, reducing slice registration due to breathing artifacts. Organ doses from thoracic computed tomography have been estimated in an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters. With very similar radiological techniques in helical and axial scanning, the absorbed organ dose measured were more relevant in lung 12,0 ± 2,0 mGy and 11,0 ± 2,0 mGy respectively; and in heart 9,0 ± 4,0 mGy and 9,0 ± 5,0 mGy. Our results show that contiguous helical CT scans acquired with the same technical factors as contiguous axial scans, imply approximately the same radiation dose. (author)

2001-01-01

399

Organ doses in CT of thorax: Sequential slices versus helical slices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helical scanning introduces additional choices in technical parameters and has an impact on how much radiation dose a patient receives. Helical scanning allows the entire thorax to be scanned within a single breathold, reducing slice registration due to breathing artifacts. Organ doses from thoracic computed tomography have been estimated in an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters. With very similar radiological techniques in helical and axial scanning, the absorbed organ dose measured were more relevant in lung 12,0 ± 2,0 mGy and 11,0 ± 2,0 mGy respectively; and in heart 9,0 ± 4,0 mGy and 9,0 ± 5,0 mGy. Our results show that contiguous helical CT scans acquired with the same technical factors as contiguous axial scans, imply approximately the same radiation dose. (author)

2001-01-01

400

Nursing children after a disaster: a qualitative study of nurse volunteers and children after the Haiti earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse volunteers caring for children after the Haiti earthquake in January 2010. DESIGN AND METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews focuses on the experiences of 10 nurse volunteers. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: hope amid devastation, professional compromises, universality of children, and emotional impact on nurses. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses who volunteer after natural disasters have rich personal and professional experiences, including extremes of sadness and joy. Nurse volunteers will likely need to care for children. Nurses and humanitarian agencies should prepare for the unique challenges of pediatric care.

Sloand E; Ho G; Klimmek R; Pho A; Kub J

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

A multifunctional pipette for localized drug administration to brain slices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a superfusion method utilizing an open-volume microfluidic device for administration of pharmacologically active substances to selected areas in brain slices with high spatio-temporal resolution. The method consists of a hydrodynamically confined flow of the active chemical compound, which locally stimulates neurons in brain slices, applied in conjunction with electrophysiological recording techniques to analyze the response. The microfluidic device, which is a novel free-standing multifunctional pipette, allows diverse superfusion experiments, such as testing the effects of different concentrations of drugs or drug candidates on neurons in different cell layers with high positional accuracy, affecting only a small number of cells. We demonstrate herein the use of the method with electrophysiological recordings of pyramidal cells in hippocampal and prefrontal cortex brain slices from rats, determine the dependence of electric responses on the distance of the superfusion device from the recording site, document a multifold gain in solution exchange time as compared to whole slice perfusion, and show that the device is able to store and deliver up to four solutions in a series. Localized solution delivery by means of open-volume microfluidic technology also reduces reagent consumption and tissue culture expenses significantly, while allowing more data to be collected from a single tissue slice, thus reducing the number of laboratory animals to be sacrificed for a study.

Ahemaiti A; Ainla A; Jeffries GD; Wigström H; Orwar O; Jesorka A; Jardemark K

2013-08-01

402

A multifunctional pipette for localized drug administration to brain slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a superfusion method utilizing an open-volume microfluidic device for administration of pharmacologically active substances to selected areas in brain slices with high spatio-temporal resolution. The method consists of a hydrodynamically confined flow of the active chemical compound, which locally stimulates neurons in brain slices, applied in conjunction with electrophysiological recording techniques to analyze the response. The microfluidic device, which is a novel free-standing multifunctional pipette, allows diverse superfusion experiments, such as testing the effects of different concentrations of drugs or drug candidates on neurons in different cell layers with high positional accuracy, affecting only a small number of cells. We demonstrate herein the use of the method with electrophysiological recordings of pyramidal cells in hippocampal and prefrontal cortex brain slices from rats, determine the dependence of electric responses on the distance of the superfusion device from the recording site, document a multifold gain in solution exchange time as compared to whole slice perfusion, and show that the device is able to store and deliver up to four solutions in a series. Localized solution delivery by means of open-volume microfluidic technology also reduces reagent consumption and tissue culture expenses significantly, while allowing more data to be collected from a single tissue slice, thus reducing the number of laboratory animals to be sacrificed for a study. PMID:23969260

Ahemaiti, Aikeremu; Ainla, Alar; Jeffries, Gavin D M; Wigström, Holger; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo; Jardemark, Kent

2013-08-19

403

Slice emittance measurements at the SLAC gun test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A goal of the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC is to investigate the production of high-brightness electron beams for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray FEL. High brightness in the RF photocathode gun occurs when the time-sliced emittance is nearly the same as the cathode thermal emittance and when the slices are all lined up, i.e., their Twiss parameters are nearly identical. In collaboration with the BNL Source Development Lab (SDL), we have begun a systematic study of the slice emittance at GTF. The technique involves giving the bunch a near linear energy chirp using the booster linac and dispersing it with a magnetic spectrometer. Combined with knowledge of the longitudinal phase space, this establishes the energy-time correlation on the spectrometer screen. The slice emittances are determined by varying the strengths of the quadrupoles in front of the spectrometer. Spectrometer images for a range of quadrupole settings are then binned into small energy/time windows and analysed for the slice emittance and Twiss parameters. Results for various gun parameters are presented.

Dowell, D.H. E-mail: dowell@slac.stanford.edu; Bolton, P.R.; Clendenin, J.E.; Emma, P.; Gierman, S.M.; Graves, W.S.; Limborg, C.G.; Murphy, B.F.; Schmerge, J.F

2003-07-11

404

Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

2011-03-28

405

Constant mean curvature slices in the Kerr space-time  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, there have been efforts to solve Einstein's equation in the context of a conformal compactification of space-time. Of particular importance in this regard are the so called CMC-foliations, characterized by spatial hyperboloidal hypersurfaces with a constant extrinsic mean curvature K. However, although of interest for general space-times, CMC-slices are known explicitly only for the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild metric. This work is devoted to numerically determining CMC-slices within the Kerr solution. We construct such slices outside the black hole horizon through an appropriate coordinate transformation in which an unknown auxiliary function A is involved. The condition K=const throughout the slice leads to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the function A, which is solved with a pseudo-spectral method. The results exhibit exponential convergence, as is to be expected in a pseudo-spectral scheme for analytic solutions. As a by-product, we identify CMC-slices of the Schwarzschild ...

Schinkel, David; Ansorg, Marcus

2013-01-01

406

Investigation of organic aerosols generated during sugar beet slicing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A description is given of a hygiene investigation made to determine workers' exposure to airborne microorganisms and antigen in the slicing area of a sugar beet refinery following complaints by the workers of work-related respiratory symptoms. Dust concentrations in the slicing area were not high (up to 3.5 mg/m3), but there were many airborne microorganisms (200,000 colony forming units/m3), mostly gram-positive bacteria. Of 15 workers, 7 had precipitins to a sugar beet extract. Of these 7, there were 5 who also had precipitins to an extract of dust collected on a 'Staplex' filter. There was a line of identity between the beet and dust extracts, indicating the dust contained appreciable quantities of beet antigen. As a result of these findings, local exhaust ventilation was installed before the next slicing season. Further investigations were made near the beginning and end of this second season. The results showed lower dust concentrations and markedly fewer numbers of airborne bacteria. Although total numbers of bacteria fell, numbers of gram-negative bacteria increased and, at the end of the season, comprised 20% of the total bacterial numbers. Specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration in the workers' serums fell between the two slicing seasons and then remained constant through the next slicing season. This reflected the environmental measurements that showed lower dust concentrations after the installation of exhaust ventilation equipment.

Forster HW; Crook B; Platts BW; Lacey J; Topping MD

1989-01-01

407

O Brasil e as operações de manutenção da paz da ONU: os casos do Timor Leste e Haiti/ Brazil and UN peacekeeping: the cases of East-Timor and Haiti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo examina as motivações que o Brasil tem para contribuir para as missões de manutenção da paz (peacekeeping) das Nações Unidas no Timor Leste e no Haiti. O Brasil procura prestígio e aspira ganhar influência pelos métodos pragmáticos da sua política exterior. Na opinião do autor, as contribuições são vantajosas para o país porque o custo é baixo e porque permitem treinamento militar, visibilidade global e uma extensão política e econômica da influência brasileira. Abstract in english The following article examines Brazil's motivations for contributing to peacekeeping missions. The work focuses on its participation in East-Timor and its leadership of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Brazil seeks prestige and hopes to gain influence through the pragmatic mechanisms of its foreign policy. The author believes the contributions are advantageous for the country, given the low cost of the missions, along with the receipt of military training, global visibility and an extension of Brazil's political and economic influence.

Bracey, Djuan

2011-12-01

408

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti/ Tuberculosis multirresistente en Puerto Príncipe, Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de tuberculosis (TB) multirresistente en pacientes con TB pulmonar nueva con baciloscopia positiva en Puerto Príncipe, Haití. MÉTODOS: Se cultivaron muestras de esputo de 1 006 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de tuberculosis efectuado durante el 2008. Se secuenció la región nuclear del gen rpoB, que se asocia con la resistencia a la rifampicina. Todos los aislados con mutaciones de rpoB se enviaron al laboratorio de referencia (more) del estado de Nueva York para llevar a cabo un antibiograma convencional. Todos los aislados se estudiaron también con el ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTADOS: Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis de 906 pacientes. Veintiséis (2,9%) de los aislados presentaban mutaciones de sentido erróneo o deleciones en rpoB y fueron resistentes a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. Los 26 aislados fueron resistentes también a la isoniacida y se clasificaron como TB multirresistente. Cuarenta y seis aislados de control sin mutaciones de rpoB resultaron sensibles a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. El ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus identificó correctamente a las 26 cepas de TB multirresistente y clasificó de manera errónea un aislado sensible a múltiples fármacos como resistente a la rifampicina. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio revela una prevalencia de TB multirresistente de 2,9% en los pacientes con TB recién diagnosticada en Haití e indica que los ensayos de secuenciación e hibridación de rpoB son estudios de detección sistemática adecuados para la detección temprana de la TB multirresistente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associated with resistance to rifampin was sequenced. All isolates with rpoB mutations were sent to the New York State reference laboratory for conventional drug susceptibility testi (more) ng (DST). All isolates were also tested with the GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay. RESULTS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 906 patients. Twenty-six (2.9%) of the isolates had missense mutations or deletions in rpoB and were resistant to rifampin by DST. All 26 were also resistant to isoniazid and classified as MDR-TB. Forty-six control isolates without rpoB mutations were found to be rifampin sensitive by DST. The GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay correctly identified 26 MDR-TB strains. It misclassified one pansusceptible isolate as rifampin resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an MDR-TB prevalence of 2.9% in newly diagnosed TB patients in Haiti and suggests that rpoB sequencing and hybridization assays are good screening tools for early detection of MDR-TB.

Ocheretina, Oksana; Morose, Willy; Gauthier, Marie; Joseph, Patrice; D'Meza, Richard; Escuyer, Vincent E.; Rastogi, Nalin; Vernet, Guy; Pape, Jean W.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

2012-03-01

409

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Tuberculosis multirresistente en Puerto Príncipe, Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients with new smear-positive pulmonary TB in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Sputum samples were cultured from 1 006 patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2008. The core region of the rpoB gene that is associated with resistance to rifampin was sequenced. All isolates with rpoB mutations were sent to the New York State reference laboratory for conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). All isolates were also tested with the GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay. RESULTS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 906 patients. Twenty-six (2.9%) of the isolates had missense mutations or deletions in rpoB and were resistant to rifampin by DST. All 26 were also resistant to isoniazid and classified as MDR-TB. Forty-six control isolates without rpoB mutations were found to be rifampin sensitive by DST. The GenoType MTBDRplus line-probe assay correctly identified 26 MDR-TB strains. It misclassified one pansusceptible isolate as rifampin resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an MDR-TB prevalence of 2.9% in newly diagnosed TB patients in Haiti and suggests that rpoB sequencing and hybridization assays are good screening tools for early detection of MDR-TB.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de tuberculosis (TB) multirresistente en pacientes con TB pulmonar nueva con baciloscopia positiva en Puerto Príncipe, Haití. MÉTODOS: Se cultivaron muestras de esputo de 1 006 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de tuberculosis efectuado durante el 2008. Se secuenció la región nuclear del gen rpoB, que se asocia con la resistencia a la rifampicina. Todos los aislados con mutaciones de rpoB se enviaron al laboratorio de referencia del estado de Nueva York para llevar a cabo un antibiograma convencional. Todos los aislados se estudiaron también con el ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTADOS: Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis de 906 pacientes. Veintiséis (2,9%) de los aislados presentaban mutaciones de sentido erróneo o deleciones en rpoB y fueron resistentes a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. Los 26 aislados fueron resistentes también a la isoniacida y se clasificaron como TB multirresistente. Cuarenta y seis aislados de control sin mutaciones de rpoB resultaron sensibles a la rifampicina en el antibiograma. El ensayo de sonda lineal GenoType MTBDRplus identificó correctamente a las 26 cepas de TB multirresistente y clasificó de manera errónea un aislado sensible a múltiples fármacos como resistente a la rifampicina. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio revela una prevalencia de TB multirresistente de 2,9% en los pacientes con TB recién diagnosticada en Haití e indica que los ensayos de secuenciación e hibridación de rpoB son estudios de detección sistemática adecuados para la detección temprana de la TB multirresistente.

Oksana Ocheretina; Willy Morose; Marie Gauthier; Patrice Joseph; Richard D'Meza; Vincent E. Escuyer; Nalin Rastogi; Guy Vernet; Jean W. Pape; Daniel W. Fitzgerald

2012-01-01

410

A spatially explicit model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to July 2011, climb to 385,000 cases and 5,800 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of textit{Vibrio cholera}, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan texttrademark project). The model directly account for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

411

An epidemic model for the future progression of the current Haiti cholera epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major cholera epidemic progresses in Haiti, and the figures of the infection, up to December 2011, climb to 522,000 cases and 7,000 deaths, the development of general models to track and predict the evolution of the outbreak, so as to guide the allocation of medical supplies and staff, is gaining notable urgency. We propose here a spatially explicit epidemic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals as well as the redistribution of Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of the disease, among different human communities. In particular, we model two spreading pathways: the advection of pathogens through hydrologic connections and the dissemination due to human mobility described by means of a gravity-like model. To this end the country has been divided into hydrologic units based on drainage directions derived from a digital terrain model. Moreover the population of each unit has been estimated from census data downscaled to 1 km x 1 km resolution via remotely sensed geomorphological information (LandScan project). The model directly accounts for the role of rainfall patterns in driving the seasonality of cholera outbreaks. The two main outbreaks in fact occurred during the rainy seasons (October and May) when extensive floodings severely worsened the sanitation conditions and, in turn, raised the risk of infection. The model capability to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the epidemic up to date grants robustness to the foreseen future development. To this end, we generate realistic scenario of future precipitation in order to forecast possible epidemic paths up to the end of the 2013. In this context, the duration of acquired immunity, a hotly debated topic in the scientific community, emerges as a controlling factor for progression of the epidemic in the near future. The framework presented here can straightforwardly be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies like mass vaccinations, clean water supply and educational campaigns, thus emerging as an essential component of the control of future cholera epidemics.

Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2012-04-01

412

Spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera during the first year of the epidemic in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In October 2010, cholera importation in Haiti triggered an epidemic that rapidly proved to be the world's largest epidemic of the seventh cholera pandemic. To establish effective control and elimination policies, strategies rely on the analysis of cholera dynamics. In this report, we describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera and the associated environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholera-associated morbidity and mortality data were prospectively collected at the commune level according to the World Health Organization standard definition. Attack and mortality rates were estimated and mapped to assess epidemic clusters and trends. The relationships between environmental factors were assessed at the commune level using multivariate analysis. The global attack and mortality rates were 488.9 cases/10,000 inhabitants and 6.24 deaths/10,000 inhabitants, respectively. Attack rates displayed a significantly high level of spatial heterogeneity (varying from 64.7 to 3070.9 per 10,000 inhabitants), thereby suggesting disparate outbreak processes. The epidemic course exhibited two principal outbreaks. The first outbreak (October 16, 2010-January 30, 2011) displayed a centrifugal spread of a damping wave that suddenly emerged from Mirebalais. The second outbreak began at the end of May 2011, concomitant with the onset of the rainy season, and displayed a highly fragmented epidemic pattern. Environmental factors (river and rice fields: p<0.003) played a role in disease dynamics exclusively during the early phases of the epidemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the epidemic is still evolving, with a changing transmission pattern as time passes. Such an evolution could have hardly been anticipated, especially in a country struck by cholera for the first time. These results argue for the need for control measures involving intense efforts in rapid and exhaustive case tracking.

Gaudart J; Rebaudet S; Barrais R; Boncy J; Faucher B; Piarroux M; Magloire R; Thimothe G; Piarroux R

2013-01-01

413

Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and alcohol use among HIV-seropositive adults in Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data were collected from male and female PLWH, 19-56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months postearthquake, data were collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than a secondary education (66%) and very low income (92%?H$10,000 or?US$1250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty-two (50.5%) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (p<0.05) were those who reported feeling a need to cut down on drinking (OR=3.14, [CI=1.16, 8.49]) and participants who used behavioral disengagement as a coping mechanism (OR=1.49, [CI=1.15, 1.92]). Following a natural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH - particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol.

Dévieux JG; Malow RM; Attonito JM; Jean-Gilles M; Rosenberg R; Gaston S; Saint-Jean G; Deschamps MM

2013-10-01

414

Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and alcohol use among HIV-seropositive adults in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data were collected from male and female PLWH, 19-56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months postearthquake, data were collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than a secondary education (66%) and very low income (92%?H$10,000 or?US$1250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty-two (50.5%) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (p<0.05) were those who reported feeling a need to cut down on drinking (OR=3.14, [CI=1.16, 8.49]) and participants who used behavioral disengagement as a coping mechanism (OR=1.49, [CI=1.15, 1.92]). Following a natural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH - particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol. PMID:23373569

Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Attonito, Jennifer M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Gaston, Stéphanie; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle

2013-02-04

415

Cholera in pregnancy: outcomes from a specialized cholera treatment unit for pregnant women in leogane, haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19(th) century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. METHODS: Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5-35.3, p?=?0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1-23.8, p?=?0.041). CONCLUSION: This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration status due to cholera could be beneficial for patients, especially in large epidemics.

Ciglenecki I; Bichet M; Tena J; Mondesir E; Bastard M; Tran NT; Antierens A; Staderini N

2013-08-01

416

Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti/ Sífilis materna y congénita en zonas rurales de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la prevalencia de sífilis materna y estimar la tasa de sífilis congénita en cinco poblaciones rurales cercanas a Jeremie, Haití. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo a partir de datos extraídos de la base de datos de salud pública de la Fundación Haitiana de Salud y verificada con los registros clínicos originales en papel, los certificados de defunción, los informes de las parteras y discusiones con los trabajadores comunitarios de sa (more) lud. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, correlaciones bifactoriales y la prueba de la t de dos colas para muestras independientes. RESULTADOS: De las 410 mujeres sometidas a la prueba de sífilis, 31 (7,6%) resultaron seropositivas. La edad gestacional promedio al momento de la prueba fue de 25 semanas, lo que se correlacionó con la edad gestacional de entrada a la atención prenatal (23 semanas). Las mujeres que resultaron seropositivas durante el embarazo presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener un desenlace negativo de su embarazo que las mujeres que resultaron seronegativas (?2 = 16,4; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed (more) by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6%) were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P

Lomotey, Chaylah J.; Lewis, Judy; Gebrian, Bette; Bourdeau, Royneld; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Salazar, Juan C.

2009-09-01