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Sample records for h-alpha equivalent width

  1. H{alpha} EQUIVALENT WIDTHS FROM THE 3D-HST SURVEY: EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of the H{alpha} equivalent width, EW(H{alpha}), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our H{alpha} measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 1.5 with those of ground-based surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(H{alpha}) distribution from z = 0 to z = 2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(H{alpha}) is decreasing toward the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(H{alpha}) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(H{alpha}) {approx}(1 + z){sup 1.8} with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(H{alpha}) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(H{alpha}) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z {approx} 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(H{alpha}) rises to 400 A at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(H{alpha}), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z){sup 3.2}, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.

  2. Spectroscopy of the roAp star Alpha-Cir 2, The bisector and equivalent-width of the H-$\\alpha$ line

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I K; Bedding, T R; Kjeldsen, H; Frandsen, S

    1998-01-01

    We present bisector measurements of the H-alpha line of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star, Alpha-Cir, obtained from dual-site observations with medium-dispersion spectrographs. The velocity amplitude and phase of the principal pulsation mode vary significantly, depending on the height in the H-alpha line, including a phase reversal between the core and the wings of the line. This supports the theory, suggested in Paper I, of a radial pulsational node in the atmosphere of the star. Blending with metal lines partially affects the H-alpha bisector results but probably not enough to explain the phase reversal. We have also detected changes in the equivalent-width of the line during the pulsation, and measured the oscillatory signal as a function of wavelength across the H-alpha region.

  3. H_alpha emission line morphologies of Markarian starburst galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chitre, A.; Joshi, U.C.

    2001-01-01

    We present broad band R and narrow band H_alpha emission line images of a sample of optically selected starburst galaxies from the Markarian lists. The emission line morphology is studied and global properties like luminosities, equivalent widths and star formation rates are derived. The radial distribution of H_alpha flux and the EW are determined using concentric aperture photometry on the emission line and the continuum images. H_alpha flux is generally found to peak in t...

  4. Evidence of $H\\alpha$ periodicities in LS I+61303

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R K; Paredes, J M; Fabregat, J; Ribó, M; Tarasov, A E

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of analyzing H$\\alpha$ spectra of the radio emitting X-ray binary LS I+61303. For the first time, the same 26.5 d radio period is clearly detected in the H$\\alpha$ emission line. Moreover, the equivalent width and the peak separation of the H$\\alpha$ emission line seem also to vary over a time scale of 1600 days. This points towards the $\\sim4$ yr modulation, detected in the radio outburst amplitude, being probably a result of variations in the mass loss rate of the Be star and/or density variability in the circumstellar disk. In addition, the dependence of the peak separation from the equivalent width informs us that the LS I+61303 circumstellar disk is among the densest of Be-stars.

  5. HI Lyman-alpha equivalent widths of stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Guerrero, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled a library of stellar Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in O and B stars using the model atmosphere codes CMFGEN and TLUSTY, respectively. The equivalent widths range from about 0 to 30 \\AA in absorption for early-O to mid-B stars. The purpose of this library is the prediction of the underlying stellar Lyman-alpha absorption in stellar populations of star-forming galaxies with nebular Lyman-alpha emission. We implemented the grid of individual equivalent widths into the Starburst99 population synthesis code to generate synthetic Lyman-alpha equivalent widths for representative star-formation histories. A starburst observed after 10 Myr will produce a stellar Lyman-alpha line with an equivalent width of $\\sim$ -10$\\pm$4 \\AA in absorption for a Salpeter initial mass function. The lower value (deeper absorption) results for an instantaneous burst, and the higher value (shallower line) for continuous star formation. Depending on the escape fraction of nebular Lyman-alpha photons, the effect of stellar...

  6. pacce: Perl algorithm to compute continuum and equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-08-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths ( pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for synthetic simple stellar population (SSP) models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences ?0.2 Å) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5 Å. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics. The code is made available for the community through the web at http://www.if.ufrgs.br/~riffel/software.html .

  7. Non-LTE Equivalent Widths for NII with Error Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, A

    2015-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations are performed for NII in stellar atmospheric models appropriate to main sequence B-stars to produce new grids of equivalent widths for the strongest NII lines commonly used for abundance analysis. There is reasonable agreement between our calculations and previous results, although we find weaker non-LTE effects in the strongest optical NII transition. We also present a detailed estimation of the uncertainties in the equivalent widths due to inaccuracies in the atomic data via Monte Carlo simulation and investigate the completeness of our model atom in terms of included energy levels. Uncertainties in the basic NII atomic data limit the accuracy of abundance determinations to ~+/-0.10 dex at the peak of the NII optical spectrum near Teff~ 24,000 K.

  8. FUNDPAR: A program for Deriving Fundamental Parameters from Equivalent Widths

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Saffe.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementamos un programa en Fortran que determina parámetros fundamentales de estrellas de tipo solar, a partir de anchos equivalentes del Fe. La solución debe verificar tres condiciones en el método estándar: equilibrio de ionización, equilibrio de excitación e independencia entre abundancias y an [...] chos equivalentes. Calculamos modelos de atmósfera de Kurucz con opacidades NEWODF. Detalles como el parámetro de longitud de mezcla, el sobre impulso convectivo, etc. se calculan con un programa independiente. FUNDPAR calcula las incertezas por dos métodos: el criterio de Gonzalez & Vanture (1998) y utilizando la función ?² . Los resultados derivados con FUNDPAR están de acuerdo con determinaciones previas en la literatura. En particular obtuvimos parámetros fundamentales de 58 estrellas con exoplanetas. El programa está disponible en la red1. Abstract in english We implemented a Fortran code that determines fundamental parameters of solar type stars from a list of Fe line equivalent widths. The solution should verify three conditions in the standard method: ionization equilibrium, excitation equilibrium and independence between metallicity and equivalent wi [...] dths. Solarscaled Kurucz model atmospheres with NEWODF opacities are calculated with an independent program. Parameter files control different details, such as the mixinglength parameter and the overshooting. FUNDPAR derives the uncertainties following two methods: the criterion of Gonzalez & Vanture (1998) and the dispersion using the ?2 function. The code uses the 2009 version of the MOOG program. The results derived with FUNDPAR are in agreement with previous determinations in the literature. The program is freely available from the web1.

  9. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Thoene, C C; Christensen, L; Gorosabel, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Schulze, S; Jakobsson, P; Wiersema, K; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Leloudas, G; Zafar, T; Malesani, D; Hjorth, J

    2012-01-01

    The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy. Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 A. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of...

  10. On the dependence between UV luminosity and Lyman-alpha equivalent width in high redshift galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Kim K.; Moeller-Nilsson, Ole; Moeller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Shapley, Alice E.

    2009-01-01

    We show that with the simple assumption of no correlation between the Ly-alpha equivalent width and the UV luminosity of a galaxy, the observed distribution of high redshift galaxies in an equivalent width - absolute UV magnitude plane can be reproduced. We further show that there is no dependence between Ly-alpha equivalent width and Ly-alpha luminosity in a sample of Ly-alpha emitters. The test was expanded to Lyman-break galaxies and again no dependence was found. Simulta...

  11. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VII: H\\alpha{} imaging and massive star formation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Wilson, C D; Barmby, P; Azimlu, M; Courteau, S

    2012-01-01

    We present H\\alpha{} fluxes, star formation rates (SFRs) and equivalent widths (EWs) for a sample of 156 nearby galaxies observed in the 12CO J=3-2 line as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These are derived from images and values in the literature and from new H\\alpha{} images for 72 galaxies which we publish here. We describe the sample, observations and procedures to extract the H\\alpha{} fluxes and related quantities. We discuss the SFR properties of our sample and confirm the well-known correlation with galaxy luminosity, albeit with high dispersion. Our SFRs range from 0.1 to 11 Msun yr-1 with a median SFR value for the complete sample of 0.2 Msun yr-1. This median values is somewhat lower than similar published measurements, which we attribute, in part, to our sample being HI-selected and, thus, not biased towards high SFRs as has frequently been the case in previous studies. Additionally, we calculate internal absorptions for the H\\alpha{} line, A(H\\alpha{}), whi...

  12. Comparison of the equivalent width, the autocorrelation width, and the variance as figures of merit for XPS narrow scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We apply the equivalent and autocorrelation widths and variance to XPS narrow scans. • This approach is complementary to traditional peak fitting methods. • It is bias free and responsive to subtle chemical changes in spectra. • It has the potential for machine interpretation of spectra and quality control. • It has the potential for analysis of complex spectra and tracking charging/artifacts. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is widely used in surface and materials laboratories around the world. It is a near surface technique, providing detailed chemical information about samples in the form of survey and narrow scans. To extract the maximum amount of information about materials it is often necessary to peak fit XPS narrow scans. And while indispensable to XPS data analysis, even experienced practitioners can struggle with their peak fitting. In our previous publication, we introduced the equivalent width (EWXPS) as both a possible machine automated method, one that requires less expert judgment for characterizing XPS narrow scans, and as an approach that may be well suited for the analysis of complex spectra. The EWXPS figure of merit was applied to four different data sets. However, as previously noted, other width functions are also regularly employed for analyzing functions. Here we evaluate two other width functions for XPS narrow scan analysis: the autocorrelation width (AWXPS) and the variance (?XPS2). These widths were applied to the same four sets of spectra studied before: (a) four C 1s narrow scans of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (EWXPS: ?2.11–2.16 eV, AWXPS: ?3.9–4.1 eV, ?XPS2: ?5.0–5.2 eV, and a modified form of ?XPS2, denoted ?XPS2*: ?6.3–6.8 eV), (b) silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EWXPS: ?1.5–2.9 eV, AWXPS: ?2.28–4.9, and ?XPS2: ?0.7–4.9 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces, before and after modification with pentyl groups, and after annealing of the pentyl-terminated surface (EWXPS: ?0.7–1.0 eV, AWXPS: ?1.2–1.6 eV, and ?XPS2: ?0.12–0.19 eV), and (iv) C 1s narrow scans from five different nanodiamond samples, three of which showed charging (EWXPS: ?2.6–4.8 eV, AWXPS: ?3.8–6.9 eV, and ?XPS2: ?1.6–4.2 eV). All three of the width functions showed similar trends, except in the case of the C 1s spectra of the CNT samples, which were the most complex spectra evaluated, where ?XPS2 showed poor correlation with the corresponding O/C ratios. Accordingly, we favor EWXPS and AWXPS. EWXPS is advantageous because it is conceptually simple, giving the most intuitive results. AWXPS has the advantage of not requiring the user to specify the height of the function at its maximum, which will be affected by noise. Because these functions are based on different mathematical operations/algorithms, best practices may involve the calculation of both widths for a set of narrow scans. The standard deviation, ?XPS, i.e., the square root of the variance, was also examined. As expected, it gave results similar to ?XPS2

  13. Comparison of the equivalent width, the autocorrelation width, and the variance as figures of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel; Terry, Jeff [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We apply the equivalent and autocorrelation widths and variance to XPS narrow scans. • This approach is complementary to traditional peak fitting methods. • It is bias free and responsive to subtle chemical changes in spectra. • It has the potential for machine interpretation of spectra and quality control. • It has the potential for analysis of complex spectra and tracking charging/artifacts. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is widely used in surface and materials laboratories around the world. It is a near surface technique, providing detailed chemical information about samples in the form of survey and narrow scans. To extract the maximum amount of information about materials it is often necessary to peak fit XPS narrow scans. And while indispensable to XPS data analysis, even experienced practitioners can struggle with their peak fitting. In our previous publication, we introduced the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}) as both a possible machine automated method, one that requires less expert judgment for characterizing XPS narrow scans, and as an approach that may be well suited for the analysis of complex spectra. The EW{sub XPS} figure of merit was applied to four different data sets. However, as previously noted, other width functions are also regularly employed for analyzing functions. Here we evaluate two other width functions for XPS narrow scan analysis: the autocorrelation width (AW{sub XPS}) and the variance (?{sub XPS}{sup 2}). These widths were applied to the same four sets of spectra studied before: (a) four C 1s narrow scans of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (EW{sub XPS}: ?2.11–2.16 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ?3.9–4.1 eV, ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ?5.0–5.2 eV, and a modified form of ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}, denoted ?{sub XPS}{sup 2*}: ?6.3–6.8 eV), (b) silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS}: ?1.5–2.9 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ?2.28–4.9, and ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ?0.7–4.9 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces, before and after modification with pentyl groups, and after annealing of the pentyl-terminated surface (EW{sub XPS}: ?0.7–1.0 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ?1.2–1.6 eV, and ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ?0.12–0.19 eV), and (iv) C 1s narrow scans from five different nanodiamond samples, three of which showed charging (EW{sub XPS}: ?2.6–4.8 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ?3.8–6.9 eV, and ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ?1.6–4.2 eV). All three of the width functions showed similar trends, except in the case of the C 1s spectra of the CNT samples, which were the most complex spectra evaluated, where ?{sub XPS}{sup 2} showed poor correlation with the corresponding O/C ratios. Accordingly, we favor EW{sub XPS} and AW{sub XPS}. EW{sub XPS} is advantageous because it is conceptually simple, giving the most intuitive results. AW{sub XPS} has the advantage of not requiring the user to specify the height of the function at its maximum, which will be affected by noise. Because these functions are based on different mathematical operations/algorithms, best practices may involve the calculation of both widths for a set of narrow scans. The standard deviation, ?{sub XPS}, i.e., the square root of the variance, was also examined. As expected, it gave results similar to ?{sub XPS}{sup 2}.

  14. H$\\alpha$ and EUV observations of a partial CME

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, Damian J; Antolin, Patrick; Mathioudakis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained H$\\alpha$ high spatial and time resolution observations of the upper solar chromosphere and supplemented these with multi-wavelength observations from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and the {\\it Hinode} ExtremeUltraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The H$\\alpha$ observations were conducted on 11 February 2012 with the Hydrogen-Alpha Rapid Dynamics Camera (HARDcam) instrument at the National Solar Observatory's Dunn Solar Telescope. Our H$\\alpha$ observations found large downflows of chromospheric material returning from coronal heights following a failed prominence eruption. We have detected several large condensations ("blobs") returning to the solar surface at velocities of $\\approx$200 km s$^{-1}$ in both H$\\alpha$ and several SDO AIA band passes. The average derived size of these "blobs" in H$\\alpha$ is 500 by 3000 km$^2$ in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the direction of travel, respectively. A comparison of our "blob" widths to those found from coronal rain, indicate...

  15. Non-LTE equivalent widths for N II with error estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) calculations are performed for N II in stellar atmospheric models appropriate to main-sequence B stars to produce new grids of equivalent widths for the strongest N II lines commonly used for abundance analysis. There is reasonable agreement between our calculations and previous results, although we find weaker non-LTE effects in the strongest optical N II transition, ?3995. We also present a detailed estimation of the uncertainties in the equivalent widths due to inaccuracies in the atomic data via Monte Carlo simulation and investigate the completeness of our model atom in terms of included energy levels. Uncertainties in the basic N II atomic data limit the accuracy of abundance determinations to ? ±0.10 dex at the peak of the N II optical spectrum near Teff ? 24 000 K.

  16. The reddening law of Type Ia Supernovae: separating intrinsic variability from dust using equivalent widths

    CERN Document Server

    Chotard, N; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2011-01-01

    We employ 76 type Ia supernovae with optical spectrophotometry within 2.5 days of B-band maximum light obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory to derive the impact of Si and Ca features on supernovae intrinsic luminosity and determine a dust reddening law. We use the equivalent width of Si II {\\lambda}4131 in place of light curve stretch to account for first-order intrinsic luminosity variability. The resultant empirical spectral reddening law exhibits strong features associated with Ca II and Si II {\\lambda}6355. After applying a correction based on the Ca II H&K equivalent width we find a reddening law consistent with a Cardelli extinction law. Using the same input data, we compare this result to synthetic rest-frame UBVRI-like photometry in order to mimic literature observations. After corrections for signatures correlated with Si II {\\lambda}4131 and Ca II H&K equivalent widths, and introducing an empirical correlation between colors, we determine the dust component in each band. We find a value ...

  17. Joint H-alpha and X-Ray Observations of Massive X-Ray Binaries. II. The Be X-ray Binary and Microquasar LS I +61 303

    OpenAIRE

    Grundstrom, E. D.; Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Gies, D. R.; Huang, W.; McSwain, M.V.; Rafter, S. E.; Riddle, R. L.; Williams, S. J.; Wingert, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of an H-alpha monitoring campaign on the BeXRB and microquasar system LS I +61 303. We use radial velocity measurements of HeI lines in our spectra to re-evaluate the orbital elements and to better establish the time of periastron. We list equivalent widths and other parameters for the H-alpha emission line and discuss the orbital phase related variations observed. We call attention to a dramatic episode of emission weakening that occurred in less than...

  18. The reddening law of type Ia supernovae: separating intrinsic variability from dust using equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotard, N.; Gangler, E.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Childress, M.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2011-05-01

    We employ 76 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with optical spectrophotometry within 2.5 days of B-band maximum light obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory to derive the impact of Si and Ca features on the supernovae intrinsic luminosity and determine a dust reddening law. We use the equivalent width of Si ii ?4131 in place of the light curve stretch to account for first-order intrinsic luminosity variability. The resulting empirical spectral reddening law exhibits strong features that are associated with Ca ii and Si ii ?6355. After applying a correction based on the Ca ii H&K equivalent width we find a reddening law consistent with a Cardelli extinction law. Using the same input data, we compare this result to synthetic rest-frame UBVRI-like photometry to mimic literature observations. After corrections for signatures correlated with Si ii ?4131 and Ca ii H&K equivalent widths and introducing an empirical correlation between colors, we determine the dust component in each band. We find a value of the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV = 2.8 ± 0.3. This agrees with the Milky Way value, in contrast to the low RV values found in most previous analyses. This result suggests that the long-standing controversy in interpreting SN Ia colors and their compatibility with a classical extinction law, which is critical to their use as cosmological probes, can be explained by the treatment of the dispersion in colors, and by the variability of features apparent in SN Ia spectra. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Andrew S; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Zeimann, Gregory R; Bridge, Joanna S; Feldmeier, John J; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift ${\\rm Ly{\\alpha}}$-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width $(W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha})$ greater than $20 {\\rm \\,\\AA}$. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and equivalent width distributions for the galaxy populations in question, and it returns the probability that an object is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify $\\sim$$10^6$ emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [O II] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers $86\\%$ of LAEs missed by the traditional $W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha} > 20 {\\rm...

  20. WINGS-SPE III: Equivalent width measurements, spectral properties and evolution of local cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, J; Cava, A; Moretti, A; Varela, J; Bettoni, D; Couch, W J; D'Onofrio, M; Dressler, A; Fasano, G; Kjaergaard, P; Marziani, P; Moles, M; Omizzolo, A

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We investigate the frequency of the various spectral types as a function both of the clusters' properties and of the galaxies' characteristics. In this way, using the same classification criteria adopted for higher redshift studies, we can consistently compare the properties of the local cluster population to those of their more distant counterparts. We describe a method we have developed to automatically measure the equivalent width of spectral lines in a robust way even in spectra with a non optimal signal to noise. Like this, we can derive a spectral classification reflecting the stellar content, based on the presence and strength of the [OII] and Hdelta lines. We are able to measure 4381 of the ~6000 originally observed spectra, in the fields of 48 clusters, 2744 of which are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. The spectral classification is then analyzed as a function of galaxies' luminosity, stellar mass, morphology, local density and host cluster's global properties, and compared to...

  1. DAOSPEC: an automatic code for measuring equivalent widths in high-resolution stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Stetson, P B

    2008-01-01

    DAOSPEC is a Fortran code for measuring equivalent widths of absorption lines in stellar spectra with minimal human involvement. It works with standard FITS format files and it is designed for use with high resolution (R>15000) and high signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N>30) spectra that have been binned on a linear wavelength scale. First, we review the analysis procedures that are usually employed in the literature. Next, we discuss the principles underlying DAOSPEC and point out similarities and differences with respect to conventional measurement techniques. Then experiments with artificial and real spectra are discussed to illustrate the capabilities and limitations of DAOSPEC, with special attention given to the issues of continuum placement; radial velocities; and the effects of strong lines and line crowding. Finally, quantitative comparisons with other codes and with results from the literature are also presented.

  2. From HI to Stars: HI Depletion in Starbursts and Star-Forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA H-alpha Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, A E; Salzer, J J; Van Sistine, A; Bell, E F; Haynes, M P

    2015-01-01

    HI in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, HI-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the ALFALFA H-alpha survey, we explore HI properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA H-alpha provides R-band and H-alpha imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21-cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on H-alpha equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar HI to stellar mass ratios (MHI/M*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts' HI. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter HI depletion times (t_dep), implying more efficient HI-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in t_dep at low M*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers...

  3. The H-alpha/H-beta ratio in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, H.; Liggett, M.; Patterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation involves the study of an extensive body of data accumulated of simultaneous H-alpha and H-beta cinematography of flares. The data were obtained with two telescopes simultaneously photographing flares in H-alpha and H-beta. The results of measurements in a number of flares are presented in a table. The flares were selected purely by optical quality of the data. That the measured ratios are not too different from those in stellar flares is suggested by the last two columns of the table. These columns show that a variety of possible line width ratios could give an integrated intensity ratio of less than unity.

  4. UV/H-alpha Turmoil

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice C; Tremonti, Christy; Kennicutt, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of our understanding of star formation in the local universe has been built upon an extensive foundation of H-alpha observational studies. However, recent work in the ultraviolet (UV) with GALEX has shown that star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from H-alpha in galactic environments characterized by low stellar and gas densities tend to be less than those based on the UV luminosity. The origin of the discrepancy is actively debated because one possible explanation is that the stellar initial mass function is systematically deficient in high mass stars in such environments. In this contribution, we summarize our work on this topic using a dwarf galaxy dominated sample of ~300 late-type galaxies in the 11 Mpc Local Volume. The sample allows us to examine the discrepancy between H-alpha and UV SFRs using a statistical number of galaxies with activities less than 0.1 Msun/yr. A range of potential causes for such an effect are reviewed. We find that while the IMF hypothesis is not inconsistent with o...

  5. Star Formation Indicators and Line Equivalent Width in Lyman Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The equivalent width (EW) of the Lyman Alpha (Lya) line is directly related to the ratio of star formation rates determined from Lya flux and UV flux density [SFR(Lya)/SFR(UV)]. We use published data --in the literature EW and SFR(Lya)/SFR(UV) are treated as independent quantities-- to show that the predicted relation holds for the vast majority of observed Lya emitting galaxies (LAEs). We show that the relation between EW and SFR(Lya)/SFR(UV) applies irrespective of a galaxy's `true' underlying star formation rate, and that its only source of scatter is the variation in the spectral slope of the UV continuum between individual galaxies. The derived relation, when combined with the observed EW distribution, implies that the ratio SFR(UV)/SFR(Lya) is described well by a log-normal distribution with a standard deviation of ~0.3-0.35. This result is useful when modelling the statistical properties of LAEs. We further discuss why the relation between EW and SFR(Lya)/SFR(UV) may help identifying galaxies with unus...

  6. Halpha Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST survey: evolution with redshift and dependence on stellar mass

    OpenAIRE

    FUMAGALLI, MATTIA; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Halpha equivalent width, EW(Halpha), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, taking advantage of the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3. Combining our Halpha measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8

  7. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Terry, Jeff, E-mail: terryj@iit.edu [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}). • EW{sub XPS} is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EW{sub XPS} is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EW{sub XPS} could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EW{sub XPS} has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EW{sub XPS} is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EW{sub XPS} for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PE{sub max}). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EW{sub XPS} and PE{sub max} parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EW{sub XPS} ? 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PE{sub max} ? 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS} ? 1.5–2.8 eV, PE{sub max} ? 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before and after derivatization with pentyl groups, and after annealing of the pentyl-modified material (EW{sub XPS} ? 0.7–1.0 eV, PE{sub max} ? 25.9–26.1 eV), and (iv) five nanodiamond samples, where three of the spectra showed charging (EW{sub XPS} ? 2.6–4.9 eV, PE{sub max} ? 272.7–293.9 eV). In this final example, EW{sub XPS} was plotted against PE{sub max} to identify the region corresponding to the materials that showed the least charging. EW{sub XPS} and PE{sub max} appear to correlate with the expected chemistries of all the systems studied. We calculate EW{sub XPS} using a Shirley baseline and with no baseline at all. In setting the baseline limits for EW{sub XPS}, we consider the derivative of C 1s narrow scans. We also show the application of EW{sub XPS} to single, fitted components within a narrow scan.

  8. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EWXPS). • EWXPS is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EWXPS is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EWXPS could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EWXPS has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EWXPS is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EWXPS for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PEmax). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EWXPS and PEmax parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EWXPS ? 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PEmax ? 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EWXPS ? 1.5–2.8 eV, PEmax ? 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before and after derivatization with pentyl groups, and after annealing of the pentyl-modified material (EWXPS ? 0.7–1.0 eV, PEmax ? 25.9–26.1 eV), and (iv) five nanodiamond samples, where three of the spectra showed charging (EWXPS ? 2.6–4.9 eV, PEmax ? 272.7–293.9 eV). In this final example, EWXPS was plotted against PEmax to identify the region corresponding to the materials that showed the least charging. EWXPS and PEmax appear to correlate with the expected chemistries of all the systems studied. We calculate EWXPS using a Shirley baseline and with no baseline at all. In setting the baseline limits for EWXPS, we consider the derivative of C 1s narrow scans. We also show the application of EWXPS to single, fitted components within a narrow scan

  9. Cloud Modeling of a Network Region in H-alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanci, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the physical properties of dark mottles in the chromospheric network using two dimensional spectroscopic observations in H-alpha obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer in the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Tenerife. Cloud modeling was applied to measure the mottles' optical thickness, source function, Doppler width, and line of sight velocity. Using these measurements, the number density of hydrogen atoms in level...

  10. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanci, Z. Funda; Erdogan, Nurol Al

    2007-01-01

    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and th...

  11. SPATIALLY RESOLVED H{alpha} MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 STRONGLY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z {approx} 1 using maps of H{alpha} and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent widths >100 A in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the H{alpha} emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median H{alpha} effective radius r{sub e} (H{alpha}) is 4.2 {+-} 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 15 kpc. Comparing H{alpha} sizes to continuum sizes, we find H{alpha})/r{sub e} (R) > =1.3 {+-} 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by H{alpha}, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured H{alpha} sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, {Sigma}{sub SFR}. We find that {Sigma}{sub SFR} ranges from {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the largest galaxies to {approx}5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z {approx} 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z {approx} 1.

  12. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  13. H-alpha mapping of DDO 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep CCD narrow-band H-alpha imaging of the dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 53 has revealed a total of 18 H II regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The luminosity function agrees, within its limited statistical significance, with the normal relation found for irregular galaxies. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 59 + or - 6 pc. 14 refs

  14. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Erdogan, Nurol Al

    2007-01-01

    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and the velocity to be constant within the cloud along the line of sight. Here, we present the results of our study.

  15. Grid of theoretical NLTE equivalent widths of four Ba II lines and barium abundance in cool stars

    CERN Document Server

    Korotin, S A; Hansen, C J; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Spite, M; Spite, F; Francois, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a grid of computed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) equivalent widths (EW) and NLTE abundance corrections for four Ba II lines: 4554, 5853, 6141, and 6496 A. The grid can be useful in deriving the NLTE barium abundance in stars having parameters in the following ranges: effective temperature from 4000 K to 6500 K, surface gravity log g from 0 to 5, microturbulent velocity 0 km s^-1 to 3 km s^-1, metallicity [Fe/H] from -2 to +0.5, and [Ba/Fe] from -0.4 to +0.6. The NLTE abundance can be either derived by EW interpolation (using the observed Ba II line EW) or by using the NLTE correction applied to a previously determined LTE abundance. Ba II line equivalent widths and the NLTE corrections were calculated using the updated MULTI code and the Ba II atomic model that was previously applied to determine the NLTE barium abundance in different types of stars. The grid is available on-line through the web, and we find that the grid Ba NLTE corrections are almost as accurate as direct NLTE profil...

  16. Discovery of Massive, Mostly Star-formation Quenched Galaxies with Extremely Large Lyman-alpha Equivalent Widths at z ~ 3

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Scoville, Nick Z; Sanders, David B; Capak, Peter L; Koekemoer, Anton M; Toft, Sune; McCracken, Henry J; Fevre, Olivier Le; Tasca, Lidia; Sheth, Kartik; Renzini, Alvio; Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovac, Katarina; Ilbert, Olivier; Schinnerer, Eva; Fu, Hai; Tresse, Laurence; Griffiths, Richard E; Civano, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We report a discovery of 6 massive galaxies with both extremely large Lya equivalent width and evolved stellar population at z ~ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lya emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lya emitters (LAEs) with twelve optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the SED fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame equivalent width of EW_0(Lya) ~ 100--300 A, (2) M_star ~ 10^10.5--10^11.1 M_sun, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M_star ~ 0.03--1 Gyr^-1. Three of the 6 MAESTLOs have extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission with a radius of several kpc although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for AGNs, the observed extended Lya emission is likely to be caused by star formation process including the superwind activit...

  17. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; Ferguson, Harry C.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lundgren, Britt F.; Marchesini, Danilo; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Straughn, Amber N.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  18. High-redshift Ly alpha emitters with a large equivalent width: Properties of i-dropout galaxies with an NB921-band depression in the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, T; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Kashikawa, N; Ajiki, M; Hattori, T; Ly, C; Malkan, M A; Motohara, K; Ohta, K; Sasaki, S S; Shioya, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Nagao, Tohru; Murayama, Takashi; Maiolino, Roberto; Marconi, Alessandro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ajiki, Masaru; Hattori, Takashi; Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohta, Kouji; Sasaki, Shunji S.; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    We report new follow-up spectroscopy of i-dropout galaxies with an NB921-band depression found in the Subaru Deep Field. The NB921-depressed i-dropout selection method is expected to select galaxies with large equivalent width Ly alpha emission over a wide redshift range, 6.0equivalent widths are 153A and 114A, which are lower limits on the intrinsic equivalent widths. Through our spectroscopic observations (including previous ones) of NB921-depressed i-dropout galaxies, we identified 5 galaxies in total with a rest-frame equivalent width larger than 100A at 6.0equivalent width, in a wider redshift range than usual narrow-band excess techniques. B...

  19. First results of an H-alpha based search of classical Be stars in the Perseus Arm and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Fabregat, J; Steeghs, D; Wright, N J; Sale, S E; Farnhill, H J; Barlow, M J; Greimel, R; Sabin, L; Corradi, R M L; Drake, J J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a region of the Galactic plane, between 120 <= l <= 140 and -1 <= b <= +4, and uncover a population of moderately reddened (E(B-V) \\sim 1) classical Be stars within and beyond the Perseus and Outer Arms. 370 candidate emission line stars (13 <= r <= 16) selected from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic plane (IPHAS) have been followed up spectroscopically. A subset of these, 67 stars with properties consistent with those of classical Be stars, have been observed at sufficient spectral resolution (Delta_lambda \\sim 2 - 4 Angstrom) at blue wavelengths to narrow down their spectral types. We determine these to a precision estimated to be +/- 1 sub-type and then we measure reddenings via SED fitting with reference to appropriate model atmospheres. Corrections for contribution to colour excess from circumstellar discs are made using an established scaling to H-alpha emission equivalent width. Spectroscopic parallaxes are obtained after luminosity class has b...

  20. Grid of theoretical NLTE equivalent widths of four Ba ii lines and barium abundance in cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotin, S. A.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Hansen, C. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; François, P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present a grid of computed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) equivalent widths (EW) and NLTE abundance corrections for four Ba ii lines: 4554, 5853, 6141, and 6496 Å. Aims: The grid can be useful in deriving the NLTE barium abundance in stars having parameters in the following ranges: effective temperature from 4000 K to 6500 K, surface gravity log g from 0 to 5, microturbulent velocity 0 km s-1 to 3 km s-1, metallicity [Fe/H] from -2 to +0.5, and [Ba/Fe] from -0.4 to +0.6. The NLTE abundance can be either derived by EW interpolation (using the observed Ba ii line EW) or by using the NLTE correction applied to a previously determined LTE abundance. Methods: Ba ii line equivalent widths and the NLTE corrections were calculated using the updated MULTI code and the Ba ii atomic model that was previously applied to determine the NLTE barium abundance in different types of stars. Results: The grid is available on-line through the web, and we find that the grid Ba NLTE corrections are almost as accurate as direct NLTE profile fitting (to within 0.05-0.08 dex). For the weakest Ba ii line (5853 Å) the LTE abundances almost agree with the NLTE abundances, whereas the other three Ba ii lines, 4554, 6141, and 6496 Å, need NLTE corrections even at the highest metallicities tested here. The 4554 Å line is extremely strong and should not be used for abundance analysis above [Fe/H] = -1. Furthermore, we tested the impact of different model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis codes and found average differences of 0.06 dex and 0.09 dex, respectively, for all four lines. At these metallicities we find an average ?NLTE of ± 0.1 dex for the three useful Ba lines for subsolar cool dwarfs. Tables 4 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A70Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. H? EQUIVALENT WIDTHS FROM THE 3D-HST SURVEY: EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the evolution of the H? equivalent width, EW(H?), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our H? measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(H?) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(H?) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ? 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(H?) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(H?), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.

  2. Halpha Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST survey: evolution with redshift and dependence on stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Halpha equivalent width, EW(Halpha), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, taking advantage of the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3. Combining our Halpha measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8

  3. On the equivalent width of the Fe K$\\alpha$ line produced by a dusty absorber in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gohil, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Obscured AGNs provide an opportunity to study the material surrounding the central engine. Geometric and physical constraints on the absorber can be deduced from the reprocessed AGN emission. In particular, the obscuring gas may reprocess the nuclear X-ray emission producing a narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line and a Compton reflection hump. In recent years, models of the X-ray reflection from an obscuring torus have been computed; however, although the reflecting gas may be dusty, the models do not yet take into account the effects of dust on the predicted spectrum. We study this problem by analyzing two sets of models, with and without the presence of dust, using the one dimensional photo-ionization code Cloudy. The calculations are performed for a range of column densities ($22 <{\\rm log}[N_H(\\rm cm^{-2})]< 24.5$ ) and hydrogen densities ( $6 <{\\rm log}[n_H(\\rm cm^{-3})]< 8$). The calculations show the presence of dust can enhance the Fe K$\\alpha$ equivalent width (EW) in the reflected spectrum by factor...

  4. Discovery of a very cool object with extraordinarily strong H(alpha) emission

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado y Navascués, D; Martín, E L; Béjar, V J S; Rebolo, R; Mundt, R; Navascues, David Barrado y; Osorio, Maria Rosa Zapatero; Martin, Eduardo L.; Bejar, Victor J.S.; Rebolo, Rafael; Mundt, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    We report on the finding of the strongest H(alpha) emission -pseudoequivalent width of 705 Angstrom- known so far in a young, late type dwarf. This object, named as SOri71, is a substellar candidate member of the 1-8 Myr star cluster sigma Orionis. Due to its overluminous location in color-magnitude diagrams, SOri71 might be younger than other cluster members, or a binary of similar components. Its mass is in the range 0.021-0.012 M(sun), depending on evolutionary models and possible binarity. The broad H(alpha) line of SOri71 appears asymmetric, indicative of high velocity mass motions in the H(alpha) forming region. The origin of this emission is unclear at the present time. We discuss three possible scenarios: accretion from a disk, mass exchange between the components of a binary system, and emission from a chromosphere.

  5. Discovery of Massive, Mostly Star Formation Quenched Galaxies with Extremely Large Ly? Equivalent Widths at z ˜ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Scoville, Nick Z.; Sanders, David B.; Capak, Peter L.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Toft, Sune; McCracken, Henry J.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Sheth, Kartik; Renzini, Alvio; Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kova?, Katarina; Ilbert, Olivier; Schinnerer, Eva; Fu, Hai; Tresse, Laurence; Griffiths, Richard E.; Civano, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Ly? equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ˜ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Ly? emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Ly? emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW0 (Ly?) ˜ 100-300 Å, (2) M? ˜ 1010.5-1011.1 M?, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M? ˜ 0.03-1 Gyr-1. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Ly? emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Ly? emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history. Based on observations with NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; and also based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium.

  6. The H-alpha Galaxy Survey II. Extinction and NII corrections to H-alpha fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    James, P A; Knapen, J H; Etherton, J; Percival, S M

    2004-01-01

    We study the two main corrections generally applied to narrow-band H-alpha fluxes from galaxies in order to convert them to star formation rates, namely for NII contamination and for extinction internal to the galaxy. From an imaging study using narrow-band filters, we find the NII and H-alpha emission to be differently distributed. In most disk star formation regions the NII fraction is small, whereas some galaxies display a diffuse central component which can be dominated by NII emission. We consider explanations for variations in the NII/H-alpha ratio, including metallicity variations and different excitation mechanisms. We then estimate the extinction towards star formation regions in spiral galaxies, firstly using Br-gamma/H-alpha line ratios. We find that extinction values are larger in galaxy nuclei than in disks, and that there is no evidence for heavily dust-embedded regions emerging in the near-IR. We use optical emission line data from the literature to show only a moderate dependence of extinction...

  7. Comparison of the Halpha equivalent width of HII regions in a flocculent and a grand design galaxy: possible evidences for IMF variations

    CERN Document Server

    Cedres, B; Tomita, A; Cedres, Bernabe; Cepa, Jordi; Tomita, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    We present here a study of the Halpha equivalent widths of the flocculent galaxy NGC 4395 and the grand design galaxy NGC 5457. A difference between the mean values of the Halpha equivalent widths for the two galaxies has been found. Several hypotheses are presented in order to explain this difference: differences in age, metallicity, star formation rate, photon leakage and initial mass function. Various tests and Monte Carlo models are used to find out the most probable cause of this difference. The resultsshow that the possible cause for the difference could be a variation in the initial mass function. This difference is such that it seems to favor a fraction of more massive stars in the grand design galaxy when compared with the flocculent galaxy. This could be due to a change of the environmental conditions due to a density wave.

  8. Equivalent width, shape and proper motion of the iron fluorescent line emission from the molecular clouds as an indicator of the illuminating source X-ray flux history

    CERN Document Server

    Sunyaev, R A

    1998-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse emission in the 8--22 keV energy range, elongated parallel to the Galactic plane (Sunyaev et al. 1993) and detection of the strong 6.4 keV fluorescent line with $\\sim$ 1 keV equivalent width from some giant molecular clouds (e.g. Sgr B2) in the Galactic Centre region (Koyama 1994) suggest that the neutral matter of these clouds is (or was) illuminated by powerful X-ray radiation, which gave rise to the reprocessed radiation. The source of this radiation remains unknown. Transient source close to the Sgr B2 cloud or short outburst of the X-ray emission from supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre are the two prime candidates under consideration. We argue that new generation of X-ray telescopes combining very high sensitivity and excellent energy and angular resolutions would be able to discriminate between these two possibilities studying time dependent changes of the morphology of the surface brightness distribution, the equivalent width and the shape of the fluorescent line...

  9. Flux calibration of the AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Frew, David J; Parker, Quentin A; Pierce, Mark J; Gunawardhana, M L P; Reid, W A

    2013-01-01

    The AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey (SHS) of the southern Galactic plane was, when completed in 2003, a powerful new addition to wide-field surveys. It has a combination of areal coverage, spatial resolution and flux sensitivity in a narrow imaging band which still marks it out today as an excellent resource for the astronomical community. The 233 separate fields are available online in digital form, with each field covering 25 square degrees. The SHS has been the motivation for equivalent surveys in the north, and new digital H-alpha surveys now beginning in the south such as VPHAS+. The SHS has been the foundation of many important follow-up discovery projects in the southern sky with the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-alpha (MASH) planetary nebula project being a particularly successful example. However, the full astrophysical potential of the SHS has been hampered by lack of a clear route to acceptable flux calibration from the base photographic data. We have determined the calibration factors for 170 sep...

  10. A Ly? EMITTER WITH AN EXTREMELY LARGE REST-FRAME EQUIVALENT WIDTH OF ?900 Å AT z = 6.5: A CANDIDATE POPULATION III-DOMINATED GALAXY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have identified a very interesting Ly? emitter (LAE), whose Ly? emission line has an extremely large observed equivalent width of EW0 = 436+422–149 Å, which corresponds to an extraordinarily large intrinsic rest-frame equivalent width of EWint0 = 872+844–298 Å after the average intergalactic absorption correction. The object was spectroscopically confirmed to be a real LAE by its apparent asymmetric Ly? line profile detected at z = 6.538. The continuum emission of the object was definitely detected in our deep z'-band image; thus, its EW0 was reliably determined. Follow-up deep near-infrared spectroscopy revealed emission lines of neither He II ?1640 as an apparent signature of Population III (Pop III) nor C IV ?1549 as proof of an active nucleus. No detection of the short-lived He II ?1640 line is not necessarily inconsistent with the interpretation that the underlying stellar population of the object is dominated by Pop III. We found that the observed extremely large EW0 of the Ly? emission and the upper limit on the EW0 of the He II ?1640 emission can be explained by population synthesis models favoring a very young age less than 2-4 Myr and massive metal-poor (Z –5) or even metal-free stars. The observed large EW0 of Ly? is insufficiently explained by Population I/II synthesis models with Z ? 10–3. However, we cannot conclusively rule out the possibility that this object is composed of a normal stellar population with a clumpy dust distribution, which could enhance the Ly? EW0, though its significance is still unclear.

  11. The All-sky Kinematics of Diffuse Galactic H-alpha Emission from WHAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagon, Andrew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    WHAM-SS (Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper Sky Survey) is the first all-sky velocity-resolved survey of the faint optical emisison line radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of the Milky Way Galaxy. With an angular resolution of one degree, velocity resolution of 12 km/s, and velocity range of 200 km/s, it allows for the study of the kinematics of the ionized gas across the Galaxy. We present first results on the all-sky velocity distribution of this gas. We show the results of Gaussian decomposition of line profiles as well as first and second moment maps both in the disk and at high latitude, and compare our results with some simple models for the density and velocity field of this gas. As in Haffner et al. (2003), we find that the high-latitude sky is characterized by a low velocity "infall" (toward the plane) in H-alpha, although there are also regions of outflow. We also present the variation in line widths as a function of direction and show how these widths correlate with different structures in the warm ionized medium. This program was supported by NSF Award AST-1108911 (for WHAM) and NSF Award AST-1004881 for the Wisconsin REU program in Astrophysics.

  12. Broad H$\\alpha$ Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H W; Lee, Hee-Won; Hyung, Siek

    1999-01-01

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding $5000 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ around H$\\alpha$. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering involving atomic hydrogen, by which Ly$\\beta$ photons with a velocity width of a few $10^2 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ are converted to optical photons and fill the H$\\alpha$ broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1 and rapidly decreases in the far wings.Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, $n_H\\sim 10^{9-10} {\\rm cm^{-3}}$, we use the photoionization code `CLOUDY' to show that sufficient Ly$\\beta$ photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat incident profile for the Ly$\\beta$ flux and a scattering region with a H~I column density $N_{HI}=2\\times 10^{20} {\\rm cm^{-2}}$ and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile fitting an...

  13. A Detection Of H-alpha In An Exoplanetary Exosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a search for H-alpha absorption in four exoplanets. Strong features at H-alpha are observed in the transmission spectra of both HD 189733b and HD 209458b. We attempt to characterize and remove the effects of stellar variability in HD 189733b, and along with an empirical Monte Carlo test the results imply a statistically significant transit-dependent feature of (-8.72+/-1.48)x10^-4 integrated over a 16 Angstrom band relative to the adjacent continuum. We interpre...

  14. H-alpha survey of nearby dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I D; Ravindranath, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the H-alpha imaging data and flux measurements for 30 dwarf galaxies in the Local volume. The H-alpha fluxes are used to derive the galaxy star formation rate, SFR. The sample of observed galaxies is characterized by the following parameters: the median distance of 7.5 Mpc, the median blue absolute magnitude of -14.8 mag, and median SFR of -2.0 dex. Two dSph members of the Local Group: Cetus and Leo IV do not show signs of star formation on the rate of -5.4 dex an...

  15. H-alpha imaging of galaxies in the Bootes void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.; Hintzen, P.; Liu, C.; Lowenthal, J.; Cheng, K. -P.; Oliversen, R.; Brown, L.; Woodgate, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report H-alpha and continuum imaging of 12 galaxies in the Bootes void. The H-alpha emission in ten galaxies is due to star formation; one galaxy is probably a narrow emission line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and one a Seyfert 1. Star formation rates range from 3-55 solar mass/yr, with the most active galaxies producing stars at almost three times the rate found in normal field disk systems. Eleven galaxies have strong H-alpha emission in the nucleus. The morphology of several of the galaxies is disturbed. There are at least five spirals, three of which are probably one-armed spirals, and three edge-on disk systems. Three galaxies not identifiable as spirals have H-alpha emission from regions outside the nuclear point source. 1510+4727, which has the highest rate of star formation in our sample, does not have the strong far-infrared emission expected from a galaxy experiencing significant star formation. The galaxies are quite luminous M(sub B) = -21 to -23 mag), and are not the type predicted to be found in voids.

  16. The evolution of the equivalent width of the Ha emission line and specific star-formation rate in star-forming galaxies at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Marmol-Queralto, E; Cullen, F; Dunlop, J S; Fontana, A; McLeod, D J

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study which uses spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to investigate the evolution of the equivalent width (EW) of the Halpha emission line in star-forming galaxies over the redshift interval 1=1 in the CANDELS UDS and GOODS-S fields. Confining our analysis to a constant stellar mass range (9.5

  17. COMPARISON OF THE DIFFUSE H{alpha} AND FUV CONTINUUM BACKGROUNDS: ON THE ORIGINS OF THE DIFFUSE H{alpha} BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Il-Joong; Shinn, Jong-Ho; Han, Wonyong [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Witt, Adolf [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Edelstein, Jerry [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94702 (United States); Min, Kyoung-Wook, E-mail: kiseon@kasi.re.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-20

    We compare the diffuse H{alpha} map of our Galaxy with the FUV (1370-1710 A) continuum map. The H{alpha} intensity correlates well with the FUV intensity. The H{alpha}/FUV intensity ratio increases in general with the H{alpha} intensity and the FUV hardness ratio (1370-1520 A to 1560-1710 A), implying that late OB stars may be the main source of the H{alpha} recombination line at high latitudes. The variation of the H{alpha} intensity as a function of the Galactic latitude is also very similar to that of the FUV intensity. The results likely suggest that not only the original radiation sources of the H{alpha} and FUV backgrounds but also the radiative transfer mechanisms responsible for the diffuse backgrounds are largely common. Therefore, we propose a scenario wherein the H{alpha} background at high latitudes is mostly composed of two components, H{alpha} photons produced by in situ recombination at the ionized regions around late OB stars and dust-scattered light of the H{alpha} photons originating from late OB stars.

  18. The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haffner, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) has completed a survey in Balmer Alpha of the entire Northern sky above declination -30 deg. This survey provides the first calibrated, velocity-resolved map of the H-Alpha emission from the Galaxy. With one-degree spatial resolution, 12 km s^{-1} velocity resolution, and sensitivity to features as faint as 0.1 R (EM ~ 0.2 cm^{-6} pc), this survey provides the deepest maps of the ionized content of the Galaxy to date. In addition to probing the detailed kinematic structure of the Warm Ionized Medium and the vertical structure of the ionized content in spiral arms, initial results include the discovery of several faint, extended (d > 1\\deg) H II regions and the first map of the ionized component of an intermediate velocity cloud.

  19. Filament and Flare Detection in H{\\alpha} image sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Gernot; Pötzi, Werner; Veronig, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Solar storms can have a major impact on the infrastructure of the earth. Some of the causing events are observable from ground in the H{\\alpha} spectral line. In this paper we propose a new method for the simultaneous detection of flares and filaments in H{\\alpha} image sequences. Therefore we perform several preprocessing steps to enhance and normalize the images. Based on the intensity values we segment the image by a variational approach. In a final postprecessing step we derive essential properties to classify the events and further demonstrate the performance by comparing our obtained results to the data annotated by an expert. The information produced by our method can be used for near real-time alerts and the statistical analysis of existing data by solar physicists.

  20. H-alpha survey of nearby dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S; Ravindranath, S

    2012-01-01

    We present the H-alpha imaging data and flux measurements for 30 dwarf galaxies in the Local volume. The H-alpha fluxes are used to derive the galaxy star formation rate, SFR. The sample of observed galaxies is characterized by the following parameters: the median distance of 7.5 Mpc, the median blue absolute magnitude of -14.8 mag, and median SFR of -2.0 dex. Two dSph members of the Local Group: Cetus and Leo IV do not show signs of star formation on the rate of -5.4 dex and -7.0 dex, respectively. The BCD galaxy ESO 553-46 has one of the highest specific SFR among the Local volume galaxies.

  1. The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haffner, L M; Tufte, S L; Madsen, G J; Jaehnig, K P; Percival, J W

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) has surveyed the distribution and kinematics of ionized gas in the Galaxy above declination -30 degrees. The WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS) has an angular resolution of one degree and provides the first absolutely-calibrated, kinematically-resolved map of the H-Alpha emission from the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) within ~ +/-100 km/s of the Local Standard of Rest. Leveraging WHAM's 12 km/s spectral resolution, we have modeled and removed atmospheric emission and zodiacal absorption features from each of the 37,565 spectra. The resulting H-Alpha profiles reveal ionized gas detected in nearly every direction on the sky with a sensitivity of 0.15 R (3 sigma). Complex distributions of ionized gas are revealed in the nearby spiral arms up to 1-2 kpc away from the Galactic plane. Toward the inner Galaxy, the WHAM-NSS provides information about the WIM out to the tangent point down to a few degrees from the plane. Ionized gas is also detected toward many intermediate velocity cl...

  2. A Survey for H$\\alpha$ Pulsar Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Brownsberger, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    We report on a survey for H$\\alpha$ bow shock emission around nearby $\\gamma$-detected energetic pulsars. This survey adds three Balmer-dominated neutron star bow shocks to the six previously confirmed examples. In addition to the shock around {\\it Fermi} pulsar PSR J1741$-$2054, we now report H$\\alpha$ structures around two additional $\\gamma$-ray pulsars, PSR J2030+4415 and PSR J1509$-$5850. These are the first known examples of H$\\alpha$ nebulae with pre-ionization halos. With new measurements, we show that a simple analytic model can account for the angular size and flux of the bow shocks' apices. The latter, in particular, provides a new pulsar probe and indicates large moments of inertia and smaller distances than previously assumed, in several cases. In particular we show that the re-measured PSR J0437$-$4715 shock flux implies $I = (1.7\\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{45}/(f_{HI} {\\rm sin}i) {\\rm g\\,cm^2}$. We also derive a distance $d\\approx 0.72$kpc for the $\\gamma$-ray only pulsar PSR J2030+4415 and revised dis...

  3. H-alpha emission lines in high-redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared spectra have been obtained of the H-alpha lines in 18 medium- to high-redshift QSOs and optical spectra taken nearly simultaneously to measure the strong UV line. It is found that the H-alpha line is redshifted by an average of 1000 km/s with respect to the lines from high ionization species such as C IV. Low ionization lines from ions like O I and Mg II are shifted by similar, or slightly smaller, amounts with respect to the high ionization lines. These results are difficult to reconcile with any simple models currently available, including those where dust obscuration is solely responsible for the observed velocity shifts. The similarity between the velocities of H-alpha and Mg II, O I provides some support for models in which the Balmer lines are produced predominantly in a warm H I region, while the Lyman lines arise mainly in a population of optically thin clouds. A velocity separation between the two cloud populations, along with some obscuration, could explain the main features. 25 refs

  4. Galactic H $\\alpha$ emission and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Marcelin, M; Bartlett, J G; Valls-Gabaud, D; Blanchard, A

    1998-01-01

    We present observations of Galactic H alpha emission along two declination bands where the South Pole cosmic microwave background experiment reports temperature fluctuations. The high spectral resolution of our Fabry-Perot system allows us to separate the Galactic signal from the much larger local sources of H alpha emission, such as the Earth's geocorona. For the two bands (at declination -62 and -63 degrees), we find a total mean emission of about 1 Rayleigh with variations of about 0.3 R. The variations are within the estimated uncertainty of our total intensity determinations. For an ionized gas at T around 10**4 K, this corresponds to a maximum free-free brightness temperature of less than 10 microK at 30 GHz (K-band). Thus, unless there is a hot gas component with T around 10**6 K, our results imply that there is essentially no free-free contamination of the SP91 (Schuster et al. 1993) and SP94 (Gunderson et al.1995) data sets.

  5. Solar H-alpha Oscillations from Intensity and Doppler Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromospheric wave activity around flares and filaments has been a research focus for years, and could provide indirect measurements of local conditions that are not otherwise accessible. One interesting observed phenomenon is oscillations in filaments, activated by distant flares and the large-scale waves they produce. Characteristics of these oscillations, such as periods, amplitudes, and lifetimes, can provide unique information about the filament. We measure oscillation properties in flares and filaments from H-alpha chromospheric data using a new method that provides important spatial and frequency content of the dynamics. We apply the method to two flare events where filaments are observed to oscillate and determine their properties. We find strong oscillatory signal in flaring active regions in the chromosphere over a range of frequencies. Two filaments are found to oscillate without any detectable chromospheric wave acting as an activation mechanism. We find that filaments oscillate with periods of te...

  6. H-alpha Confirmation of Six Novae in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Tudor, V.; Vaduvescu, O.; Ramsay, G.

    2013-10-01

    We obtained four 200-s narrow-band H-alpha and four 100-s Sloan r'-band CCD frames of the central region of M31 on 2013 Oct. 20.851 and 20.865 UT, respectively, with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope + WFC at La Palma under ~1.5" seeing. The single frames were co-added and the co-added images were used for photometry of 8 M31 nova candidates (see the table below). Of these, 6 have not yet been spectroscopically confirmed, namely PNV J00424239+4117190 (ATel #5475), PNV J00430954+4115399 (ATel #5468), PNV J00424654+4117006 (ATel #5450), TCP J00430048+4112366 (CBAT TOCP) , TCP J00431492+4119128 (ATel #5384, #5385), and PNV J00424974+4117303 (ATel #5265).

  7. Analysis of $H\\alpha(D\\alpha)$ Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei; Li Yan

    2014-09-01

    The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the $H\\alpha(D\\alpha)$ line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is $\\gt 10$ eV. The $D\\alpha$ line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is $6\\times 10^{4}$ kW at SOL.

  8. Full-disk Solar H-alpha Images From GONG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Bolding, J.; Clark, R.; Hauth, D.; Hill, F.; Kroll, R.; Luis, G.; Mills, N.; Purdy, T.; Henney, C.; Holland, D.; Winter, J.

    2011-05-01

    Since mid-2010 the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) has collected H-alpha images at six sites around the world. These images provide a near real-time solar activity patrol for use in space weather applications and also an archive for research purposes. Images are collected once per minute, dark, smear, and flat corrected, compressed and then sent via the Internet to a 'cloud' server where reduction is completed. Various reduced images are usually available within a minute after exposure. The H-alpha system is an add-on to the normal GONG helioseismology instrument and does not interfere with regular observations. A polarizing beamsplitter sends otherwise unused 656 nm light through two lenses to a Daystar 0.04 nm mica etalon filter. The filter is matched to an image of the GONG light feed entrance pupil and sees an image of the Sun at infinity. Two lenses behind the filter form the solar image on a DVC-4000 2k x 2k interline transfer CCD camera. Exposure times are automatically adjusted to maintain the quiet disk center at 20% of full dynamic range to avoid saturation by bright flares. Image resolution is limited by diffraction, seeing and some high-order wavefront errors in the filters. A unique dual-heater system was developed by Daystar to homogenize the passband characteristics of the mica etalons. The data are in regular use for space weather forecasting by the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency, which funded construction and installation of the instruments. Operational and reduction improvements are underway and archived data are already being used for research projects. The Web site URL is http://halpha.nso.edu.

  9. 3D Monte Carlo simulation for H-alpha spectra observed in compact helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral particle behavior and H alpha emission spectrum in Compact Helical System (CHS) are simulated with Monte Carlo code DEGAS. In this work, we include the detector information into mesh model data and effect of chamber wall shape is examined. Which pathway generating H(n=3) has main contribution in H alpha spectra is also studied. (author)

  10. Properties of the H-alpha-emitting Circumstellar Regions of Be Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tycner, C; Hajian, A R; Armstrong, J T; Benson, J A; Gilbreath, G C; Hutter, D J; Pauls, T A; White, N M; Tycner, Christopher; Lester, John B.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-baseline interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer of the H-alpha-emitting envelopes of the Be stars eta Tauri and beta Canis Minoris are presented. For compatibility with the previously published interferometric results in the literature of other Be stars, circularly symmetric and elliptical Gaussian models were fitted to the calibrated H-alpha observations. The models are sufficient in characterizing the angular distribution of the H-alpha-emitting circumstellar material associated with these Be stars. To study the correlations between the various model parameters and the stellar properties, the model parameters for eta Tau and beta CMi were combined with data for other Be stars from the literature. After accounting for the different distances to the sources and stellar continuum flux levels, it was possible to study the relationship between the net H-alpha emission and the physical extent of the H-alpha-emitting circumstellar region. A clear dependence of the...

  11. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  12. Observatons of NGC 3077 Galaxy in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Andjelic, M; Arbutina, B; Ilic, D; Urosevic, D

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of the HI tidal arm near dwarf galaxy NGC 3077 (member of the M81 galaxy group) in narrow band [SII] and H_alpha filters. Observations were carried out in March 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for possible supernova remnant candidates (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H_alpha emission) in this region yielded no sources of this kind. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H_alpha emission that probably represent uncatalogued, low brightness HII regions.

  13. Luminosities of H alpha emitting regions in a pair of interacting galaxies in the Bootes void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.; Hintzen, P.; Kennicutt, R.; Liu, C.; Lowenthal, J.; Cheng, K.-P.; Oliversen, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1993-01-01

    Luminosities of H alpha emission from a pair of interacting galaxies in the low density environment of the Bootes void are presented. CG 692 (IRAS 1519+5050) has an H alpha luminosity of 2 x 10(exp 42) ergs s(exp -1), indicating a star formation rate of 18.4 solar mass yr(exp -1). Individual extranuclear H alpha regions have luminosities of approximately 10(exp 40) ergs s(exp -1). These luminosities are similar to those found for H II regions in bright, late-type galaxies in more densely populated parts of the Universe.

  14. More galaxies in the Local Volume imaged in H-alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out an H-alpha flux measurement for 52 nearby galaxies as part of a general H-alpha imaging survey for the Local Volume sample of galaxies within 10 Mpc. Most of the objects are probable members of the groups around Maffei 2/IC 342, NGC 672/IC 1727, NGC 784, and the Orion galaxy. The measured H-alpha fluxes corrected for extinction are used to derive the galaxy star formation rate (SFR). We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR, hydrogen ma...

  15. Constraining Disk Parameters of Be Stars using Narrowband H-alpha Interferometry with the NPOI

    CERN Document Server

    Tycner, C; Benson, J A; Gilbreath, G C; Hajian, A R; Hutter, D J; Jones, C E; Pauls, T A; White, N M; Zavala, R T

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric observations of two well-known Be stars, gamma Cas and phi Per, were collected and analyzed to determine the spatial characteristics of their circumstellar regions. The observations were obtained using the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer equipped with custom-made narrowband filters. The filters isolate the H-alpha emission line from the nearby continuum radiation, which results in an increased contrast between the interferometric signature due to the H-alpha-emitting circumstellar region and the central star. Because the narrowband filters do not significantly attenuate the continuum radiation at wavelengths 50 nm or more away from the line, the interferometric signal in the H-alpha channel is calibrated with respect to the continuum channels. The observations used in this study represent the highest spatial resolution measurements of the H-alpha-emitting regions of Be stars obtained to date. These observations allow us to demonstrate for the first time that the intensity distribution in...

  16. H alpha Star Formation Rates in Massive Galaxies at z ~ 1

    OpenAIRE

    Twite, Jonathan W.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Buitrago, Fernando; Noeske, Kai; Benjamin J. Weiner; Acosta-Pulido, Jose A.; Bauer, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a near-infrared spectroscopic study of a stellar mass selected sample of galaxies at z~1 utilising the LIRIS multi-object spectrograph on the WHT. We detect continuum, and the H alpha line for our sample, which is one of the better direct tracers of star formation in external galaxies. We spectroscopically measure the H alpha emission from 41 massive (M_{*}>10^{10.5} Msol) galaxies taken from the POWIR Survey with spectroscopic redshifts 0.4

  17. Soft Cores in Late-Type Dwarf and LSB Galaxies from H\\alpha Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesini, D.; D'Onghia, E; Chincarini, G.; Firmani, C.; Conconi, P; Molinari, E.; Zacchei, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution H\\alpha rotation curves of late-type dwarf and LSB galaxies. From our analysis we find good agreement between our H\\alpha data and the HI observations taken from the literature, concluding that the HI rotation curves for these galaxies suffer very little from beam smearing. A preliminary analysis of our data rules out the CDM model in the inner regions of these galaxies.

  18. An H$_\\alpha$ Catalogue of Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups. I. The Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Severgnini, P .; Garilli, B; Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.

    1999-01-01

    We present H$_\\alpha$ photometry for a sample of 95 galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups obtained from observations of 31 groups. The Catalogue lists isophotal and adaptive aperture (Kron aperture) flux measurements for about 75% of the accordant galaxies inside the observed HCGs, 22 out of which are upper limits. Non standard data reduction procedures have been used to obtain the continuum subtracted H$_\\alpha$ images for each HCG of the target sample. Flux calibration has al...

  19. Survey of H-alpha emission from thirty nearby dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S; Kaisina, E I

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the H-alpha flux from 30 neighboring dwarf galaxies are presented. After correction for absorption, these fluxes are used to estimate the star formation rate (SFR). The SFR for 18 of the galaxies according to the H-alpha emission are compared with estimates of the SFR from FUV magnitudes obtained with the GALEX telescope. These are in good agreement over the range log[SFR] = [-3,0]M sun/yr.

  20. Extracting H$\\alpha$ flux from photometric data in the J-PLUS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella-Rojo, G; López-Sanjuan, C; Cenarro, A J; Varela, J; Díaz-García, L A; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Ederoclite, A; Marín-Franch, A; Moles, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the main steps that will be taken to extract H$\\alpha$ emission flux from Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) photometric data. For galaxies with $z\\lesssim0.015$, the H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission is covered by the J-PLUS narrow-band filter $F660$. We explore three different methods to extract the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux from J-PLUS photometric data: a combination of a broad-band and a narrow-band filter ($r'$ and $F660$), two broad-band and a narrow-band one ($r'$, $i'$ and $F660$), and a SED-fitting based method using 8 photometric points. To test these methodologies, we simulated J-PLUS data from a sample of 7511 SDSS spectra with measured H$\\alpha$ flux. Based on the same sample, we derive two empirical relations to correct the derived H$\\alpha$+[NII] flux from dust extinction and [NII] contamination. We find that the only unbiased method is the SED fitting based one. The combination of two filters underestimates the measurements of the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux by a 28%, while the th...

  1. The Spatially Resolved H\\alpha-Emitting Wind Structure of P Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Balan, Aurelian; Zavala, R T; Benson, J A; Hutter, D J; Templeton, M

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations of the H\\alpha-emitting wind structure associated with the Luminous Blue Variable star P Cygni were obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI). These observations represent the most comprehensive interferometric data set on P Cyg to date. We demonstrate how the apparent size of the H\\alpha-emitting region of the wind structure of P Cyg compares between the 2005, 2007 and 2008 observing seasons and how this relates to the H\\alpha line spectroscopy. Using the data sets from 2005, 2007 and 2008 observing seasons, we fit a circularly symmetric Gaussian model to the interferometric signature from the H\\alpha-emitting wind structure of P Cyg. Based on our results we conclude that the radial extent of the H\\alpha-emitting wind structure around P Cyg is stable at the 10% level. We also show how the radial distribution of the H\\alpha flux from the wind structure deviates from a Gaussian shape, whereas a two-component Gaussian model is sufficient to fully describ...

  2. NEBULAR ATTENUATION IN H{alpha}-SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z = 0.8 FROM THE NewH{alpha} SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Lee, Janice C.; Ouchi, Masami [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ly, Chun [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salim, Samir [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Finn, Rose [Physics Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki, E-mail: ivelina.momcheva@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    We present measurements of the dust attenuation of H{alpha}-selected emission-line galaxies at z = 0.8 from the NewH{alpha} narrowband survey. The analysis is based on deep follow-up spectroscopy with Magellan/IMACS, which captures the strong rest-frame optical emission lines from [O II] {lambda}3727 to [O III] {lambda}5007. The spectroscopic sample used in this analysis consists of 341 confirmed H{alpha} emitters. We place constraints on the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction using diagnostics that can be applied at intermediate redshift. We find that at least 5% of the objects in our spectroscopic sample can be classified as AGNs and 2% are composite, i.e., powered by a combination of star formation and AGN activity. We measure the dust attenuation for individual objects from the ratios of the higher order Balmer lines. The H{beta} and H{gamma} pair of lines is detected with S/N > 5 in 55 individual objects and the H{beta} and H{delta} pair is detected in 50 individual objects. We also create stacked spectra to probe the attenuation in objects without individual detections. The median attenuation at H{alpha} based on the objects with individually detected lines is A(H{alpha}) = 0.9 {+-} 1.0 mag, in good agreement with the attenuation found in local samples of star-forming galaxies. We find that the z = 0.8 galaxies occupy a similar locus of attenuation as a function of magnitude, mass, and star formation rate (SFR) as a comparison sample drawn from the SDSS DR4. Both the results from the individual z = 0.8 galaxies and from the stacked spectra show consistency with the mass-attenuation and SFR-attenuation relations found in the local universe, indicating that these relations are also applicable at intermediate redshift.

  3. A large narrow band H$\\alpha$ survey at $z\\sim0.2$: the bright end of the luminosity function, cosmic variance and clustering across cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, Andra

    2015-01-01

    We carried out the largest ($>3.5\\times10^5$ Mpc$^3$, 26 deg$^2$) H$\\alpha$ narrow band survey to date at $z\\sim0.2$ in the SA22, W2 and XMMLSS extragalactic fields. Our survey covers a large enough volume to overcome cosmic variance and to sample bright and rare H$\\alpha$ emitters up to an observed luminosity of $\\sim10^{42.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$, equivalent to $\\sim11 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. Using our sample of $220$ sources brighter than $>10^{41.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$ ($>1 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$), we derive H$\\alpha$ luminosity functions, which are well described by a Schechter function with $\\phi^* = 10^{-2.85\\pm0.03}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ and $L^*_{H\\alpha} = 10^{41.71\\pm0.02}$ erg s$^{-1}$ (with a fixed faint end slope $\\alpha=-1.35$). We find that surveys probing smaller volumes ($\\sim3\\times10^4$ Mpc$^3$) are heavily affected by cosmic variance, which can lead to errors of over $100$ per cent in the characteristic density and luminosity of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function. We derive a star formation rate density of $\\rho_\\mathrm...

  4. A Deeper Look at Faint H$\\alpha$ Emission in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice C; McDonald, Michael; Hilbert, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    We present deep H$\\alpha$ imaging of three nearby dwarf galaxies, carefully selected to optimize observations with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan 6.5m telescope. An effective bandpass of $\\sim$13\\AA\\ is used, and the images reach 3$\\sigma$ flux limits of $\\sim$8$\\times10^{-18}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, which is about an order of magnitude lower than standard narrowband observations obtained by the most recent generation of local H$\\alpha$ galaxy surveys. The observations were originally motivated by the finding that the H$\\alpha$/FUV flux ratio of galaxies systematically declines as global galactic properties such as the star formation rate and stellar mass decrease. The three dwarf galaxies selected for study have star formation rates, that when calculated from their H$\\alpha$ luminosities using standard conversion recipes, are $\\sim$50\\% of those based on the FUV. Follow-up studies of many of the potential causes for the trends in the H$\\alpha$/FUV flux ratio have been performed...

  5. The sensitivity of H alpha profiles to rapid electron beam fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Gayley, Kenneth G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the temporal relationship between H alpha and hard X-ray emission predicted by the nonthermal electron thick target model of impulsive-phase energy transport the time-dependent theoretical H alpha profiles were computed for the dynamic model atmospheres of Fisher, Canfield, and McClymont, which simulate the effects of an impulsively initiated power-law beam of electrons. On the basis of the physical analysis it was expected that a very rapid H alpha response to an instantaneous increase in the flux of a nonthermal deka-keV electron beam, as compared to the timescale associated with the propagation of these electrons over characteristic flare coronal loop spatial scales. It was concluded that observational efforts to test the thick target nonthermal electron model through detection of impulsive H alpha brightenings associated with impulsive hard X-ray or microwave bursts should initially focus attention on the H alpha line center. Additional simultaneous blue-wing measurements will have substantial diagnostic potential.

  6. More galaxies in the Local Volume imaged in H-alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, Igor D

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out an H-alpha flux measurement for 52 nearby galaxies as part of a general H-alpha imaging survey for the Local Volume sample of galaxies within 10 Mpc. Most of the objects are probable members of the groups around Maffei 2/IC 342, NGC 672/IC 1727, NGC 784, and the Orion galaxy. The measured H-alpha fluxes corrected for extinction are used to derive the galaxy star formation rate (SFR). We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR, hydrogen mass and absolute magnitude of the Local Volume galaxies. The total SFR density in the local (z = 0) universe is estimated to be (0.019+/-0.003) M_sun yr/Mpc^3.

  7. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  8. H{\\alpha} Kinematics of S4G spiral galaxies-I. NGC 864

    OpenAIRE

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Sánchez-Gallego, José Ramón; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert,; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Buta, Ronald J.; Comerón, Sébastien; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 864, using H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot data obtained with the GH{\\alpha}FaS instrument at the William Herschel Telescope in La Palma, complemented with images at 3.6 {\\mu}m, in the R band and in H{\\alpha} filter, and integral field spectroscopic data. The resulting data cubes and velocity maps allow the study of the kinematics of the galaxy, including in-depth investigations of the rotation curve, velocity mome...

  9. Spectrophotometric variability in the Be star Gamma Cassiopeiae - Simultaneous ultraviolet and H-alpha observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettebak, A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Simultaneous scans of the ultraviolet Si IV and Mg II resonance doublets in the spectrum of Gamma Cas with the Copernicus satellite during 64 continuous hours of observation, and H-alpha scans from a ground station, are described. No evidence is found for a rotation period of Gamma Cas, but narrow emission components in both ultraviolet doublets are reported along with a sudden emission increase on January 29.1, 1977 UT which appeared to be present in both H-alpha and the ultraviolet lines.

  10. Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies seen in the H-alpha line

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I D

    2007-01-01

    We present results of H-alpha imaging for 42 galaxies in the nearby low-density cloud Canes Venatici I populated mainly by late-type objects. Estimates of the H-alpha flux and integrated star formation rate (SFR) are now available for all 78 known members of this scattered system, spanning a large range in luminosity, surface brightness, HI content and SFR. Distributions of the CVnI galaxies versus their SFR, blue absolute magnitude and total hydrogen mass are given in compa...

  11. H-alpha Survey of the Local Volume: Isolated Southern Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisin, S. S.; Kasparova, A. V.; Knyazev, A. Yu.; Karachentsev, I D

    2007-01-01

    We present our H-alpha observations of 11 isolated southern galaxies: SDIG, PGC 51659, E 222-010, E 272-025, E 137-018, IC 4662, Sag DIG, IC 5052, IC 5152, UGCA 438, and E149-003, with distances from 1 to 7 Mpc. We have determined the total H-alpha fluxes from these galaxies. The star formation rates in these galaxies range from 10^{-1} (IC 4662) to 10^{-4}_{\\odot}/yr (SDIG) and the gas depletion time at the observed star formation rates lies within the range from 1/6 to 24 ...

  12. H-alpha Survey of the Local Volume: Isolated Southern Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S; Knyazev, A Yu; Karachentsev, I D

    2007-01-01

    We present our H-alpha observations of 11 isolated southern galaxies: SDIG, PGC 51659, E 222-010, E 272-025, E 137-018, IC 4662, Sag DIG, IC 5052, IC 5152, UGCA 438, and E149-003, with distances from 1 to 7 Mpc. We have determined the total H-alpha fluxes from these galaxies. The star formation rates in these galaxies range from 10^{-1} (IC 4662) to 10^{-4}_{\\odot}/yr (SDIG) and the gas depletion time at the observed star formation rates lies within the range from 1/6 to 24 Hubble times H_0^{-1} .

  13. Models of Diffuse H{\\alpha} in the Interstellar Medium: The Relative Contributions from In Situ Ionisation and Dust Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Joanna E.; Wood,Kenneth; Hill, Alex S.; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Using three dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer models of photoionisation and dust scattering, we explore different components of the widespread diffuse H$\\alpha$ emission observed in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies. We investigate the relative contributions of H$\\alpha$ from recombination emission in ionised gas and H$\\alpha$ that originates in H{\\sc ii} regions near the Galactic midplane and scatters off high altitude dust in the diffuse ...

  14. H alpha Star Formation Rates in Massive Galaxies at z ~ 1

    CERN Document Server

    Twite, Jonathan W; Buitrago, Fernando; Noeske, Kai; Weiner, Benjamin J; Acosta-Pulido, Jose A; Bauer, Amanda E

    2011-01-01

    We present a near-infrared spectroscopic study of a stellar mass selected sample of galaxies at z~1 utilising the LIRIS multi-object spectrograph on the WHT. We detect continuum, and the H alpha line for our sample, which is one of the better direct tracers of star formation in external galaxies. We spectroscopically measure the H alpha emission from 41 massive (M_{*}>10^{10.5} Msol) galaxies taken from the POWIR Survey with spectroscopic redshifts 0.410^{11} Msol which are detected in H alpha emission at z<0.9. We furthermore find that the fraction of galaxies with H alpha emission drops steadily and significantly with redder (U-B) colours at z~1, and that the SSFR drops with increasing (U-B) colour for galaxies at all masses. By investigating the SFR-mass relation we find that the SFR is roughly constant with mass, in possible contrast to previous work, and that the specific star formation rate (SSFR) is lower in the most massive galaxies. The scatter in the SFR vs. mass relationship is very small for th...

  15. H$\\alpha$ and Free-Free Emission from the WIM

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations have found the ratio of H$\\alpha$ to free-free radio continuum to be surprisingly high in the diffuse ionized ISM (the so-called WIM), corresponding to an electron temperature of only $\\sim$3000~K. Such low temperatures were unexpected in gas that was presumed to be photoionized. We consider a 3-component model for the observed diffuse emission, consisting of a mix of (1) photoionized gas, (2) gas that is recombining and cooling, and (3) cool H~I gas. This model can successfully reproduce the observed intensities of free-free continuum, H$\\alpha$, and collisionally-excited lines such as [\\ion{N}{2}]6583. To reproduce the low observed value of free-free to H$\\alpha$, the PAH abundance in the photoionized regions must be lowered by a factor $\\sim$3, and $\\sim$15\\% of the diffuse H$\\alpha$ must be reflected from dust grains, as suggested by \\citet{Wood+Reynolds_1999}.

  16. Evidence for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width nebular emission in z ? 7 galaxies: toward a clean measurement of the specific star-formation rate using a sample of bright, magnified galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, R.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, A.; Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Straß e 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Benítez, N.; Jimenez-Teja, Y. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P. O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, L. [Departamento de Astronoia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2014-03-20

    Growing observational evidence indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z ? 5-7 galaxies. This line emission makes z ? 5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star-formation rates (sSFRs). However, corrections for this line emission have been difficult to perform reliably because of huge uncertainties on the strength of such emission at z ? 5.5. In this paper, we present the most direct observational evidence thus far for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width (EW) [O III] + H? line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z ? 7, and we present a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z ? 7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ? 6.6-7.0 where the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 ?m flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light, in contrast with the 3.6 ?m flux, which is contaminated by the prominent [O III] + H? lines. To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for our IRAC flux measurements, we consider only the brightest (H {sub 160} < 26 mag) magnified galaxies we have identified behind galaxy clusters. It is remarkable that the mean rest-frame optical color for our bright seven-source sample is very blue, [3.6]-[4.5] = –0.9 ± 0.3. Such blue colors cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light and require that the rest-frame EW of [O III] + H? is greater than 637 Å for the average source. The four bluest sources from our seven-source sample require an even more extreme EW of 1582 Å. We can also set a robust lower limit of ? 4 Gyr{sup –1} on the sSFR of our sample based on the mean spectral energy distribution.

  17. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-01-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines which can be identified with broad wings. We produce H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and Pa$\\alpha$ wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$ being roughly ...

  18. Extending the $h\\alpha$ survey for the local volume galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Kaisina, E I

    2015-01-01

    Images in the $H\\alpha$ emission line are presented for 35 nearby objects observed with the 6-m BTA telescope. Three of them, NGC 3377, NGC 3384, and NGC 3390, are bright E and S0 galaxies, one is an edge-on Sd galaxy UGC 7321, two are remote globular clusters associated with M 31, and the rest are dwarf galaxies of morphological types dIr, dTr, dSph, BCD, and Sm. The measured $H\\alpha$ fluxes are used to estimate the integral $(SFR)$ and specific $(sSFR)$ star formation rates for these galaxies. The values of $\\log[sSFR]$ for all these objects lie below a limit of $-0.4$(Gyr$^{-1})$. We note that the emission disk for the nearest superthin edge-on galaxy UGC 7321 has an extremely large axis ratio of $a/b = 38.$

  19. Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies seen in the H-alpha line

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S

    2007-01-01

    We present results of H-alpha imaging for 42 galaxies in the nearby low-density cloud Canes Venatici I populated mainly by late-type objects. Estimates of the H-alpha flux and integrated star formation rate (SFR) are now available for all 78 known members of this scattered system, spanning a large range in luminosity, surface brightness, HI content and SFR. Distributions of the CVnI galaxies versus their SFR, blue absolute magnitude and total hydrogen mass are given in comparison with those for a population of the nearby virialized group around M81. We found no essential correlation between star formation activity in a galaxy and its density environment. A bulk of CVnI galaxies had enough time to generate their baryon mass with the observed SFR. Most of them possess also a supply of gas sufficient to maintain their observed SFR's during the next Hubble time.

  20. The H alpha Galaxy Survey VI. Star-forming companions of nearby field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    James, P. A.; O'Neill, J; Shane, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a search for star-forming satellite galaxies that are close enough to their parent galaxies to be considered analogues of the Magellanic Clouds. Our search technique relied on the detection of the satellites in continuum-subtracted narrow-band H alpha imaging of the central galaxies, which removes most of the background and foreground line-of-sight companions, thus giving a high probability that we are detecting true satellites. The search was performed for 119 ce...

  1. Spatially Resolved Ultraviolet, H-alpha, Infrared, and Radio Star Formation in M81

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, K. D.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Misselt, K. A.; Murphy, E. J.; Bendo, G. J.; WALTER, F; Thornley, M. D.; Kennicutt, Jr., R. C.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Appleton, P N; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    We present Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of M81 at 24, 70, and 160 micron. The grand design nature of M81 is clearly seen, showing two well resolved spiral arms containing numerous bright star forming regions. The MIPS images reveal a significant amount of cold dust associated with the spiral arms. We investigate the variation of the ultraviolet (UV), H-alpha, and infrared (IR) luminosities and star formation rate (SFR) indicators across the fa...

  2. Impulsive H-alpha diagnostics of electron-beam-heated solar flare model chromospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Gayley, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Time-dependent H-alpha profiles were computed for the dynamic model atmospheres of Fisher, Canfield, and McClymont (1985) simulating the effects of an intense impulsively initiated power-law beam of electrons incident on the chromosphere. The temporal response of H-alpha arises from three separate physical mechanisms, whose relative importance varies over the line profile. The fastest variations (typically less than 0.1 s for the explosive heating discussed here) arise from energy imbalance; these are apparent on chromospheric heating and cooling time scales and have their greatest amplitude at line center. Slower variations arise from ionization imbalance and are most apparent in the blue wing. The slowest variations arise from hydrodynamic effects and are related to the formation of a chromospheric condensation; these are most apparent in the red wing. These results provide a basis for the design and analysis of observations of H-alpha, in coordination with hard X-rays or microwaves, to test mechanisms of energy transport in solar flares.

  3. The Lyman alpha reference sample. VII. Spatially resolved H$\\alpha$ kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Orlitova, Ivana; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Cannon, John M; Roth, Martin M; Bik, Arjan; Pardy, Stephen; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens; Puschnig, Johannes; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic observations with the Potsdam Multi Aperture Spectrophotometer of all 14 galaxies in the $z\\sim 0.1$ Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). We produce 2D line of sight velocity maps and velocity dispersion maps from the Balmer $\\alpha$ (H$\\alpha$) emission in our data cubes. These maps trace the spectral and spatial properties of the LARS galaxies' intrinsic Ly$\\alpha$ radiation field. We show our kinematic maps spatially registered onto the Hubble Space Telescope H$\\alpha$ and Lyman $\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) images. Only for individual galaxies a causal connection between spatially resolved H$\\alpha$ kinematics and Ly$\\alpha$ photometry can be conjectured. However, no general trend can be established for the whole sample. Furthermore, we compute non-parametric global kinematical statistics -- intrinsic velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$, shearing velocity $v_\\mathrm{shear}$, and the $v_\\mathrm{shear}/\\sigma_0$ ratio -- from our kinematic maps. In general LARS galaxies are charac...

  4. A Search for "Dwarf" Seyfert Nuclei; 4, Nuclei with Broad H-$\\alpha$ Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Peng, C Y; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Peng, Chien Y.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey designed to search for low-luminosity, "dwarf" Seyfert nuclei in a magnitude-limited sample of 486 bright, northern galaxies. Moderate-resolution spectra of exceptionally high quality were obtained in part to detect broad H-alpha emission, similar in character to, but much weaker than, the broad permitted lines that define type 1 Seyfert nuclei. One of the primary goals of the survey is to better quantify the faint end of the luminosity function of active galactic nuclei. This paper describes the subset of nuclei showing definite or probable evidence of broad H-alpha emission. We outline the procedures for determining the presence of this elusive spectral feature, steps for its quantitative measurement, and the associated systematic errors. Of the 211 emission-line galaxies classified as having Seyfert or LINER nuclei in our survey, the broad H-alpha line was detected with confidence in 34 objects, and with less certainty in another 12. Most of the det...

  5. On the H$\\alpha$ emission from the $\\beta$ Cephei system

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; Oudmaijer, R D; Telting, J H

    2006-01-01

    Be stars, which are characterised by intermittent emission in their hydrogen lines, are known to be fast rotators. This fast rotation is a requirement for the formation of a Keplerian disk, which in turn gives rise to the emission. However, the pulsating, magnetic B1IV star $\\beta$ Cephei is a very slow rotator that still shows H$\\alpha$ emission episodes like in other Be stars, contradicting current theories. We investigate the hypothesis that the H$\\alpha$ emission stems from the spectroscopically unresolved companion of $\\beta$ Cep. Spectra of the two unresolved components have been separated in the 6350-6850\\AA range with spectro-astrometric techniques, using 11 longslit spectra obtained with ALFOSC at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma. We find that the H$\\alpha$ emission is not related to the primary in $\\beta$ Cep, but is due to its 3.4 magnitudes fainter companion. This companion has been resolved by speckle techniques, but it remains unresolved by traditional spectroscopy. The emission extends fr...

  6. Mapping High-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A; Burrows, David N; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Chevalier, Roger A; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\\alpha$ and Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals ($-$7,500~$<$~$V_{obs}$~$<$~$-$2,800 km s$^{-1}$) and (1,000~$<$~$V_{obs}$~$<$~7,500 km s$^{-1}$), $\\dot{M_{H}}$ = 1.2~$\\times$~10$^{-3}$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. We also present the first Lyman-$\\alpha$ imaging of the whole remnant and new $Chandra$ X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission originates interior to the equatorial...

  7. The H-alpha stellar and interstellar emission in the open cluster NGC 6910

    CERN Document Server

    Kubat, J; Kawka, A; Pigulski, A; Slechta, M; Skoda, P

    2007-01-01

    We verify the nature of emission-line stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6910. % Spectroscopy in the H-alpha region was obtained. Raw CCD frames of spectra of all stars fainter than V = 9 mag observed by us are significantly affected by nebular emission originating in the surrounding HII region IC 1318. After careful data reduction and subtraction of the nebular radiation we succeeded in obtaining reliable stellar spectra. We confirm that the star NGC 6910 37 is a Be star, and we have corrected the classification of V1973 Cyg from an Ae star to a normal A type star. Since the diffuse interstellar bands do not appear in the spectrum of this star while being present in the other stars we observed, we confirm that V1973 Cyg is a foreground object with respect to IC 1318 and NGC 6910. We also find that the H-alpha line in HD 194279 has a P Cygni profile and the H-alpha line profile is variable in HD 229196.

  8. H$\\alpha$ Emission From Active Equal-mass, Wide M Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gunning, Heather C; Davenport, James R A; Dhital, Saurav; Hawley, Suzanne L; West, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    We identify a sample of near-equal mass wide binary M dwarf systems from the SLoWPoKES catalog of common proper-motion binaries and obtain follow-up observations of their chromospheric activity as measured by the H$\\alpha$ emission line. We present optical spectra for both components of 48 candidate M dwarf binaries, confirming their mid-M spectral types. Of those 48 coeval pairs, we find eight with H$\\alpha$ emission from both components, three with weak emission in one component and no emission in the other, and 37 with two inactive components. We find that of the eleven pairs with at least one active component, only three follow the net trend of decreasing activity strength $L_{\\rm H\\alpha}/L_{\\rm bol}$ with later spectral type. The difference in quiescent activity strength between the A and B components is larger than what would be expected based on the small differences in color (mass). For five binaries with two active components, we present 47 hours of time-resolved spectroscopy, observed on the ARC 3....

  9. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Catalogue of H$\\alpha$ emission stars

    CERN Document Server

    Traven, Gregor; Van Eck, Sophie; Klutsch, Alexis; Bonito, Rosaria; Lanzafame, Alessandro C; Alfaro, Emilio J; Bayo, Amelia; Bragaglia, Angela; Costado, María Teresa; Damiani, Francesco; Flaccomio, Ettore; Frasca, Antonio; Hourihane, Anna; Jimenez-Esteban, Fran; Lardo, Carmela; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Pancino, Elena; Prisinzano, Loredana; Sacco, Germano G; Worley, Clare C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the properties of H$\\alpha$ emission stars across the sample of 22035 spectra from the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release, observed with the GIRAFFE instrument and largely belonging to stars in young open clusters. Automated fits using two independent Gaussian profiles and a third component that accounts for the nebular emission allow us to discern distinct morphological types of H$\\alpha$ line profiles with the introduction of a simplified classification scheme. All in all we find 3765 stars with intrinsic emission and sort their spectra into eight distinct morphological categories: single--component emission, emission blend, sharp emission peaks, double emission, P-Cygni, inverted P-Cygni, self--absorption, and emission in absorption. We have more than one observation for 1430 stars in our sample, thus allowing a quantitative discussion of the degree of variability of H$\\alpha$ emission profiles, which is expected for young, active objects. We present a catalogue of stars with properties of th...

  10. The SINS Survey: Broad H-alpha Emission in High-Redshift Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Kristen L; Quataert, Eliot; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Davies, Richard; Tacconi, Linda; Armus, Lee; Bouché, Nicolas; Buschkamp, Peter; Cimatti, Andrea; Cresci, Giovanni; Daddi, Emanuele; Eisenhauer, Frank; Erb, Dawn K; Genel, Shy; Hicks, Erin K S; Lilly, Simon J; Lutz, Dieter; Renzini, Alvio; Shapley, Alice; Steidel, Charles C; Sternberg, Amiel

    2009-01-01

    High signal-to-noise, representative spectra of star-forming galaxies at z~2, obtained via stacking of the galaxies observed in the context of the SINS survey, reveal broad (FWHM > 1500 km/s) H-alpha emission. This feature is preferentially found in the more massive and more rapidly star-forming systems, which also tend to be older and larger galaxies. We interpret this feature as evidence of either powerful starburst-driven galactic winds or active supermassive black holes. If galactic winds are responsible for the broad H-alpha emission, the high velocities of this ionized gas indicate that much of it will be expelled from the host galaxy and its dark matter halo. On the other hand, if the broad line regions of active black holes account for the broad H-alpha feature, the corresponding black holes masses are estimated to be an order of magnitude lower than those predicted by local scaling relations, suggesting a delayed assembly of supermassive black holes with respect to their host bulges.

  11. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    CERN Document Server

    Arbutina, B; Stavrev, K; Urosevic, D; Vukotic, B; Onic, D; 10.2298/SAJ0979087A

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$\\alpha$ emission) in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$\\alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  12. Discovery of Two Apparent Novae in M81 and H-alpha Confirmation of PNV J09554276+6904230

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Tudor, V.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of two apparent novae in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.3" seeing on 2014 Feb. 21.018 UT. The new objects are well visible on the co-added image (see the finding charts linked below), but are not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 22.3.

  13. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  14. The rank-width of Directed Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kante, Mamadou

    2007-01-01

    Clique-width is a complexity measure of directed as well as undirected graphs. Rank-width is an equivalent complexity measure for undirected graphs which has good algorithmic and structural properties. We compare several possible definitions of the rank-width of directed graphs. They turn out to be equivalent. We give for one of them an algebraic characterization in terms of graph operations, similar to the one that we have given for the rank-width of undirected graphs. We also adapt some recognition algorithms of Oum et al. in order to give a polynomial time approximation algorithm for the rank-width of directed graphs, and then, a polynomial time approximation algorithm for the clique-width of directed graphs.

  15. Models of Diffuse H{\\alpha} in the Interstellar Medium: The Relative Contributions from In Situ Ionisation and Dust Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Joanna E; Hill, Alex S; Haffner, L Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Using three dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer models of photoionisation and dust scattering, we explore different components of the widespread diffuse H$\\alpha$ emission observed in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies. We investigate the relative contributions of H$\\alpha$ from recombination emission in ionised gas and H$\\alpha$ that originates in H{\\sc ii} regions near the Galactic midplane and scatters off high altitude dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. For the radiation transfer simulations we consider two geometries for the interstellar medium: a three dimensional fractal geometry that reproduces the average density structure inferred for hydrogen in the Milky Way, and a density structure from a magneto hydrodynamic simulation of a supernovae driven turbulent interstellar medium. Although some sight lines that are close to H{\\sc ii} regions can be dominated by scattered light, overall we find that less than $\\sim 20\\%$ of the total H$\\alpha$ intensity in our simulat...

  16. The critical velocity effect as a cause for the H\\alpha emission from the Magellanic stream

    OpenAIRE

    Konz, C.; Lesch, H.; Birk, G. T.; Wiechen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Observations show significant H\\alpha-emissions in the Galactic halo near the edges of cold gas clouds of the Magellanic Stream. The source for the ionization of the cold gas is still a widely open question. In our paper we discuss the critical velocity effect as a possible explanation for the observed H\\alpha-emission. The critical velocity effect can yield a fast ionization of cold gas if this neutral gas passes through a magnetized plasma under suitable conditions. We sho...

  17. Near- And Mid-Infrared Imaging Study of Young Stellar Objects around LkH$\\alpha$ 234

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Eri; Perrin, Marshall D; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    We present high-resolution ($0\\farcs2$) near-infrared images of the area surrounding the Herbig Be star LkH$\\alpha$ 234 taken with the Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics (CIAO) and the adaptive optics on the Subaru Telescope. The near-infrared ($J$, $H$, $K$, $L'$ and $M'$ bands) images reveal circumstellar structures around LkH$\\alpha$ 234 in detail. Eight young stellar object (YSO) candidates (Object B, C, D, E, F, G, NW1, and NW2) were detected at 2$\\arcsec$--11$\\arcsec$ from LkH$\\alpha$ 234. Objects B and C are likely variable stars, which is consistent with a young evolutionary status. Three objects (LkH$\\alpha$ 234, NW1, and NW2) were identified in the 11.8 $\\micron$ (SiC) and 17.65 $\\micron$ images obtained with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on the Keck Telescope. NW1 and NW2 are thought to be embedded young stars. We suggest that NW1 and not LkH$\\alpha$ 234 is the source illuminating the reflection nebula west of LkH$\\alpha$ 234, although Object G may be another candidate. In our image...

  18. Real-time flare detection in ground-based H$\\alpha$ imaging at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pötzi, Werner; Riegler, Gernot; Amerstorfer, Ulrike; Pock, Thomas; Temmer, Manuela; Polanec, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Dietmar J

    2014-01-01

    Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO) regularly performs high-cadence full-disk imaging of the solar chromosphere in the H$\\alpha$ and CaIIK spectrallines as well as the solar photosphere in white-light. In the frame of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme, a new system for real-time H$\\alpha$ data provision and automatic flare detection was developed at KSO. The data and events detected are published in near real-time at ESA's SSA Space Weather portal (http://swe.ssa.esa.int/web/guest/kso-federated). In this paper, we describe the H$\\alpha$ instrument, the image recognition algorithms developed, the implementation into the KSO H$\\alpha$ observing system and present the evaluation results of the real-time data provision and flare detection for a period of five months. The H$\\alpha$ data provision worked in $99.96$% of the images, with a mean time lag between image recording and online provision of 4s. Within the given criteria for the automatic image recognition system (at least three H$\\alpha$ images a...

  19. HH 666: Different kinematics from H{\\alpha} and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M; Bally, John

    2015-01-01

    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina Nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the FIRE spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H{\\alpha} and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ~40" of the outflow. H{\\alpha} traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of +/- 200 km/s from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H{\\alpha} spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch HST/ACS H{\\alpha} images reveal the lateral spreading of the H{\\alpha} outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H{\\alpha} proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ~1000 yr ago, while steady ...

  20. Standard Stars for the BYU H-alpha Photometric System (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We present primary standard stars for the BYU H-alpha photometric system. This system is similar to the H-beta photometric system that is often used with the intermediate band uvby system. Both systems use the difference between magnitudes measured in a wide (15–20-nm) and narrow (3-nm) bandpass centered on one of the strong Balmer lines of hydrogen to establish a color index. Line indices formed in this manner are independent of atmospheric extinction and interstellar reddening. These indices provide intrinsic measures of effective temperature for stars with spectral types between B and G. The present primary standard stars for the BYU system as established using spectroscopic observations that cover the region between the H-alpha and H-beta lines. The indices were formed using synthetic photometry reductions to convolve ideal filter profiles with the observed spectra. The number of observations per star is generally in excess of 25. Some stars have been observed more than 100 times over a period of 7 years. The typical error per observation for these stars is on the order of 1–3 mmag. In addition to the standard field stars, we present H-alpha and H-beta observations of individual stars that are members of selected open clusters. These include the Hyades, Pleiades, Coma, and NGC 752 clusters. Additional stars that exhibit varying degrees of hydrogen emission are easily distinguished in a plot of the alpha-beta plane. We have found that candidates for emission line objects, high mass x-ray binaries, and young stellar objects are readily identified in our alpha-beta plots. We acknowledge continued support from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as support from NSF Grant AST #0618209. We also thank the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory for continued allocation of robotic observing time for spectroscopy on the 1.2-m telescope.

  1. Five WC9 stars discovered in the AAO/UKST H-alpha Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, EC; Barlow, MJ; Drew, JE; Unruh, YC; Parker, QA; Pierce, MJ; Crowther, PA; Knigge, C; Phillipps, S.; Zijlstra, AA

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of 5 massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars resulting from a programme of follow-up spectroscopy of candidate emission line stars in the AAO/UKST Southern Galactic Plane H-alpha survey. The 6195-6775 angstrom spectra of the stars are presented and discussed. A WC9 class is assigned to all 5 stars through comparison of their spectra with those of known late-type WC stars, bringing the known total number of Galactic WC9 stars to 44. Whilst three of the five WC9 ...

  2. Orientation of the linear polarization plane of H-alpha emission in prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Suyunova, E Z; Osokin, A R

    2015-01-01

    2D distributions of deviations of the polarization plane from the direction tangential to the solar limb (angle \\chi) and the sign of \\chi are presented for H{\\alpha} prominences of March 29, 2006. The obtained values of \\chi are in agreement with non-eclipse coronagraphic measurements and indicate the existence of longitudinal magnetic fields. The 2D distributions of the sign of \\chi show the existence of both {\\guillemotleft}+{\\guillemotright} and {\\guillemotleft}-{\\guillemotright} polarities for each prominence. An interpretation in the frame of the existence of oppositely directed magnetic fields is noted.

  3. An unusual H-alpha nebula around RX J1856.5-3754

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkwijk, M.H. van; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    We present spectroscopy and H alpha imaging of a faint nebula surrounding the X-ray bright, nearby neutron star RX J1856.5-3754. The nebula shows no strong lines other than the Hydrogen Balmer lines and has a cometary-like morphology, with the apex being approximately 1 arcsec ahead of the neutron star, and the tail extending up to at least 25 arcsec behind it. We find that the current observations can be satisfactorily accounted for by two different models. In the first, th...

  4. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-09-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  5. H-alpha imaging of the Local Volume galaxies I. The NGC 6946 galaxy group

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, I D; Kajsin, S. S.; Tsvetanov, Z; Ford, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present new H-alpha imaging of all known dwarf irregular companions to NGC 6946: UGC 11583, KK 251, KK 252, KKR 55, KKR 56, Cepheus 1, KKR 59, and KKR 60. The galaxies span a range of blue absolute magnitudes of [-13.6, -17.6], relative gas content of [0.1, 2.5] M_sun/L_sun, current star formation activity of [0.2, 5.2]10^-2 M_sun yr^-1, and timescale to exhaust the current gas supply of [6, 86] Gyr.

  6. Infrared observations of a mid-L dwarf with strong H$\\alpha$ emission

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B; Riaz, Basmah; Gizis, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We present {\\it Spitzer}/IRAC observations of the L5 dwarf, 2MASSI J1315309-264951 (2M1315). This ultracool dwarf is known to display strong emission in the H$\\alpha$ line. The SED for this object does not show any IR excess, that would indicate the presence of an accretion disk. Although the IRAC colors for 2M1315 are consistent with other L dwarfs, they seem to be redder by $\\sim$0.1 mag compared to the other L5 dwarfs, and more like the late-type L dwarfs. The existing six epochs of spectroscopy suggest that the emission in H$\\alpha$ is not persistent, but shows long-term variability between a flare value of $\\sim$100 $\\AA$ and a quiescent value of $\\sim$25 $\\AA$. Chromospheric activity seems to be the most likely cause, which is also indicated by the detection of Na I D lines in emission (Fuhrmeister et al.). We have measured a proper motion of 0.79$\\arcsec\\pm$ 0.06$\\arcsec$/yr, that corresponds to a tangential velocity of $\\sim$81 km/s, at a distance of $\\sim$22 pc. The high $V_{tan}$ for this object sug...

  7. Limits on Lyman Continuum escape from z=2.2 H-alpha emitting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandberg, A; Melinder, J; Bik, A; Guaita, L

    2015-01-01

    The leakage of Lyman continuum photons from star forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. H-alpha-selected galaxies at z~2 trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring Lyman continuum escape. Here we present this method, and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 H-alpha emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at z=2.2, also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual Lyman continuum detections, and our stack puts a 5 sigma upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes would rapidly increase and the method presented here would provide ver...

  8. Galaxies with Background QSOs, I: A Search for Strong Galactic H-alpha Lines

    CERN Document Server

    York, Donald G; Bishof, Michael; Kuttruff, Seth; Bowen, David; Kulkarni, Varsha P; Subbarao, Mark; Richards, Gordon; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Hall, Patrick B; Heckman, Timothy; Khare, Pushpa; Quashnock, Jean; Ghering, Lara; Johnson, Sean

    2012-01-01

    A search for emission lines in foreground galaxies in quasar spectra (z(gal) < z(QSO)) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 (DR5) reveals 23 examples of quasars shining through low redshift, foreground galaxies at small impact parameters (< 10 kpc). About 74,000 quasar spectra were examined by searching for narrow H{\\alpha} emission lines at z < 0.38, at a flux level greater than 5 \\times 10^-17 ergs cm^-2 s^-1, then confirming that other expected emission lines of the H II regions in the galaxy are detected. The galaxies were deblended from the quasar images to get colors and morphologies. For cases that allow the galaxy and the quasar to be deblended, the galaxies are blue (0.95 <(u-r)< 1.95). Extinction and reddening through the galaxies is determined from the (g-i) color excesses of the quasars. These reddening values are compared with the flux ratio of H{\\alpha} to H{\\beta}, which reflect the extinction for an undetermined fraction of the sightline through each galaxy. No ...

  9. Shocks and Star Formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini Spectroscopy of H{\\alpha}-bright knots

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Guillard, P; Trancho, G; Cluver, M E; Bastian, N; Charlton, J C; Fedotov, K; Gallagher, S C; Smith, L J; Struck, C J

    2013-01-01

    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of HST-selected H{\\alpha}-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The $\\approx$40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the $\\sim$kpc-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission line ratios of the two populations of H{\\alpha}-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock-front propagating at $\\lesssim$300 km/s. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp bounda...

  10. The H alpha Galaxy Survey. IV. Star formation in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    James, P A; Shane, N S; Baldry, I K; De Jong, R S

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation properties of field galaxies within the local volume out to a recession velocity limit of 3000 km/s. A parent sample of 863 star-forming galaxies is used to calculate a B-band luminosity function. This is then populated with star formation information from a subsample of 327 galaxies, for which we have H alpha imaging, firstly by calibrating a relationship between galaxy B-band luminosity and star formation rate, and secondly by a Monte Carlo simulation of a representative sample of galaxies, in which star formation information is randomly sampled from the observed subset. The total star formation rate density of the local Universe is found to be between 0.016 and 0.023 MSun/yr/cubic Mpc, with the uncertainties being dominated by the internal extinction correction used in converting measured H alpha fluxes to star formation rates. If our internally derived B-band luminosity function is replaced by one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey blue sequence, the star format...

  11. H$_{\\alpha}$ line as an indicator of envelope presence around the Cepheid Polaris Aa ($\\alpha~ UMi$)

    CERN Document Server

    Usenko, I A; Klochkova, V G; Tavolzhanskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the radial velocity ($RV$) measurements of metallic lines as well as H$_{\\alpha}$ (H$_{\\beta}$) obtained in 55 high-resolution spectra of the Cepheid $\\alpha$ UMi (Polaris Aa) in 1994-2010. While the $RV$ amplitudes of these lines are roughly equal, their mean $RV$ begin to differ essentially with growth of the Polaris Aa pulsational activity. This difference is accompanied by the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core asymmetries on the red side mainly (so-called knife-like profiles) and reaches 8-12 km/s in 2003 with a subsequent decrease to 1.5-2 km/s. We interpret a so unusual behaviour of the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core as dynamical changes in the envelope around Polaris Aa.

  12. Five WC9 stars discovered in the AAO/UKST H-alpha Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hopewell, E C; Drew, J E; Unruh, Y C; Parker, Q A; Pierce, M J; Crowther, P A; Knigge, C; Phillipps, S; Zijlstra, A A

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of 5 massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars resulting from a programme of follow-up spectroscopy of candidate emission line stars in the AAO/UKST Southern Galactic Plane H-alpha survey. The 6195-6775 angstrom spectra of the stars are presented and discussed. A WC9 class is assigned to all 5 stars through comparison of their spectra with those of known late-type WC stars, bringing the known total number of Galactic WC9 stars to 44. Whilst three of the five WC9 stars exhibit near infrared (NIR) excesses characteristic of hot dust emission -- as seen in the great majority of known WC9 stars -- we find that two of the stars show no discernible evidence of such excesses. This increases the number of known WC9 stars without NIR excesses to 7. Reddenings and distances for all 5 stars are estimated.

  13. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions. 23 refs

  14. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I. (Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand); Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions. 23 refs.

  15. Prominence and Cool Loop Energetics Measured in the UV, EUV, and H-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of moving features in a prominence jet, a approx. 10(exp 5)K loop near a prominence channel, and an erupting prominence. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands and with ground based H-alpha data to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us perform DEM analysis and to calculate limits on densities, pressures, and the thermal and kinetic energies of the moving sources.

  16. Newly Discovered Cataclysmic Variables from the INT/WFC Photometric H alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Witham, A. R.; C. Knigge; A. Aungwerojwit; Drew, J. E.; Gaensicke, B.T.; Greimel, R.; Groot, P. J.; Roelofs, G. H. A.; Steeghs, D.; Woudt, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of 11 new cataclysmic variable (CV) candidates by the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) Photometric H alpha Survey of the northern Galactic plane (IPHAS). Three of the systems have been the subject of further follow-up observations. For the CV candidates IPHAS J013031.90+622132.4 and IPHAS J051814.34+294113.2, time-resolved optical spectroscopy has been obtained and radial-velocity measurements of the H alpha emission-line have been used to estimate their ...

  17. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. I

    CERN Document Server

    Vucetic, M M; Urosevic, D; Dobardzic, A; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 2.5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  18. The Second Data Release of the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS DR2)

    OpenAIRE

    Barentsen, Geert; H. J. Farnhill; Drew, J E.; González-Solares, E. A.; Greimel, R.; Irwin, M. J.; B. Miszalski; Ruhland, C.; Groot, P.; Mampaso, ; A.; S. E. Sale; Henden, A.A.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Barlow, M. J; Carter, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The INT/WFC Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 square degrees imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5 deg and longitudes l = 30 to 215 deg in the r, i and H-alpha filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally-calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique ...

  19. H-alpha survey of low-mass satellites of the neighbouring galaxies M31 and M81

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I D

    2013-01-01

    Images have been obtained at the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the H-alpha line and in the continuum for 20 dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: And XI-And XXX, plus the distant Globular cluster Bol 520. Their star formation rates (FR) are estimated using the H-alpha flux and the ultraviolet FUV flux measured with the GALEX space telescope. Most of the dSph satellites of M31 have extremely low star formation...

  20. Development of a high-speed H-alpha camera system for the observation of rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-state digital camera was developed for obtaining H alpha images of solar flares with 0.1 s time resolution. Beginning in the summer of 1988, this system will be operated in conjunction with SMM's hard X-ray burst spectrometer (HXRBS). Important electron time-of-flight effects that are crucial for determining the flare energy release processes should be detectable with these combined H alpha and hard X-ray observations. Charge-injection device (CID) cameras provide 128 x 128 pixel images simultaneously in the H alpha blue wing, line center, and red wing, or other wavelength of interest. The data recording system employs a microprocessor-controlled, electronic interface between each camera and a digital processor board that encodes the data into a serial bitstream for continuous recording by a standard video cassette recorder. Only a small fraction of the data will be permanently archived through utilization of a direct memory access interface onto a VAX-750 computer. In addition to correlations with hard X-ray data, observations from the high speed H alpha camera will also be correlated and optical and microwave data and data from future MAX 1991 campaigns. Whether the recorded optical flashes are simultaneous with X-ray peaks to within 0.1 s, are delayed by tenths of seconds or are even undetectable, the results will have implications on the validity of both thermal and nonthermal models of hard X-ray production

  1. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81 and H-alpha Confirmation of Three M81 Nova Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Tudor, V.

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 2000-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.6" seeing on 2014 Jun. ...

  2. Strong H-alpha Emission Detected in the M33 Nova Candidate PNV J01340288+3035111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Tudor, V.

    2014-07-01

    We obtained four 240-s narrow-band H-alpha and four 120-s R-band CCD frames of M33 on 2014 July 29.206 and 29.222 UT, respectively, with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.1" seeing.

  3. H-alpha survey of low-mass satellites of the neighbouring galaxies M31 and M81

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S

    2013-01-01

    Images have been obtained at the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the H-alpha line and in the continuum for 20 dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: And XI-And XXX, plus the distant Globular cluster Bol 520. Their star formation rates (FR) are estimated using the H-alpha flux and the ultraviolet FUV flux measured with the GALEX space telescope. Most of the dSph satellites of M31 have extremely low star formation rates with a characteristic upper limit of SFR~5x10^{-7}. We have made similar estimates of SFR from the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for 13 galaxies with low surface brightness recently discovered in the neighborhood of M81. Eleven of them are physical satellites of M81 with typical SFR< 5x10^{-5}. The median stellar masses of these satellites of M31 and M81 are 0.9 and 1.9 million solar masses, respectively. Our H-alpha observations place a 2-3 times stricter limit on the value of SFR than the data from the GALEX satellite, with a substant...

  4. A census of H$\\alpha$ emitters in the intergalactic medium of the NGC 2865 system

    CERN Document Server

    Urrutia-Viscarra, F; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Gerhard, O; Torres-Flores, S; Carrasco, E R; de Mello, D

    2014-01-01

    Tidal debris which are rich in HI gas, formed in interacting and merging systems, are suitable laboratories to study star formation outside galaxies. Recently, several such systems were observed, which contained many young star forming regions outside the galaxies. In previous works, we have studied young star forming regions outside galaxies in different systems with optical and/or gaseous tidal debris, all of them with available archive GALEX/UV images, in order to understand how often they occur and in which type of environments. In this paper we searched for star forming regions around the galaxy NGC2865, a shell galaxy which is circled by a ring of HI, with a total mass of 1.2 x 10$^9$ M$_\\odot$. Using the Multi-Slit Imaging Spectroscopy Technique with the Gemini telescope, we detected all H$\\alpha$ emitting sources in the surroundings of the galaxy NGC2865, down to a flux limit of 10$^{-18}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ \\AA$^{-1}$. Together with Near and Far-Ultraviolet flux information we characterize the st...

  5. The H$\\alpha$ kinematics of interacting galaxies in 12 compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Plana, H; Balkowski, C; Marcelin, M; Olave-Rojas, D

    2014-01-01

    We present new Fabry-Perot observations for a sample of 42 galaxies located in twelve compact groups of galaxies: HCG 1, HCG 14, HCG 25, HCG 44, HCG 53, HCG 57, HCG 61, HCG 69, HCG 93, VV 304, LGG 455 and Arp 314. From the 42 observed galaxies, a total of 26 objects are spiral galaxies, which range from Sa to Im morphological types. The remaining 16 objects are E, S0 and S0a galaxies. Using these observations, we have derived velocity maps, monochromatic and velocity dispersion maps for 24 galaxies, where 18 are spiral, three are S0a, two are S0 and one is an Im galaxy. From the 24 velocity fields obtained, we could derive rotation curves for 15 galaxies; only two of them exhibit rotation curves without any clear signature of interactions. Based on kinematic information, we have evaluated the evolutionary stage of the different groups of the current sample. We identify groups that range from having no H$\\alpha$ emission to displaying an extremely complex kinematics, where their members display strongly pertur...

  6. Star formation properties in the Local Volume galaxies via $H\\alpha$ and FUV fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, Igor D

    2013-01-01

    A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR) estimates for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc from us, derived from the H-alpha imaging surveys and GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, HI-mass, surface brightness, as well as environment of the galaxies. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies, for which we offer a more refined classification. We note that the specific star formation rate of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: $\\log(SFR/L_K) = -9.4$ [yr$^{-1}$]. The bulk of spiral and blue dwarf galaxies have enough time to generate their stellar mass during the cosmological time, $T_0$, with the observed SFRs. They dispose of a sufficient amount of gas to support their present SFRs over the next $T_0$ term. We note ...

  7. H-alpha Imaging of X-ray Sources in Selected Globular Clusters with the SOAR Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrukowicz, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a search for objects with H-alpha excess, such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) and chromospherically active binaries (ABs), as counterparts to X-ray sources detected with Chandra satellite observatory in six Galactic globular clusters (GCs): M4, M28, M30, M71, M80, NGC 6752. Binary systems play a critical role in the evolution of GCs, serving as an internal energy source countering the tendency of GC cores to collapse. Theoretical studies predict dozens ...

  8. Dust attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\\alpha$ measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, A; Franceschini, A; Talia, M; Cimatti, A; Baronchelli, I; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Schawinski, K; Mancini, C; Silverman, J; Gruppioni, C; Lutz, D; Berta, S; Oliver, S J

    2015-01-01

    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\\leq z\\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \\lambda=100 and/or 160 \\mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \\mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6x10^9$\\leq$M*$\\leq$3.5x10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2x10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\\leq$Estar(B-V)$\\leq$1.1) and str...

  9. Evidence of Environmental Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory indicated by Local H{\\alpha}

    CERN Document Server

    Rigault, M; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fleury, M; Gangler, E; Greskovic, P; Guy, J; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Lombardo, S; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the host galaxy regions in close proximity to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to analyze relations between the properties of SN Ia events and environments most similar to where their progenitors formed. We focus on local H\\alpha\\ emission as an indicator of young environments. The Nearby Supernova Factory has obtained flux-calibrated spectral timeseries for SNe Ia using integral field spectroscopy, allowing the simultaneous measurement of the SN and its immediate vicinity. For 89 SNe Ia we measure H\\alpha\\ emission tracing ongoing star formation within a 1 kpc radius around each SN. This constitutes the first direct study of the local environment for a large sample of SNe Ia also having accurate luminosity, color and stretch measurements. We find that SNe Ia with local H\\alpha\\ emission are redder by 0.036+/-0.017 mag, and that the previously-noted correlation between stretch and host mass is entirely driven by the SNe Ia coming from passive regions. Most importantly, the mean standardized bri...

  10. The Second Data Release of the INT Photometric H\\alpha\\ Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS DR2)

    CERN Document Server

    Barentsen, Geert; Drew, J E; González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Miszalski, B; Ruhland, C; Groot, P; Mampaso, A; Sale, S E; Henden, A A; Aungwerojwit, A; Barlow, M J; Carter, P J; Corradi, R L M; Drake, J J; Eislöffel, J; Fabregat, J; Gänsicke, B T; Fusillo, N P Gentile; Greiss, S; Hales, A S; Hodgkin, S; Huckvale, L; Irwin, J; King, R; Knigge, C; Kupfer, T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D J; Lewis, J R; Mohr-Smith, M; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Phillipps, S; Pyrzas, S; Raddi, R; Roelofs, G H A; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Sabin, L; Scaringi, S; Steeghs, D; Suso, J; Tata, R; Unruh, Y C; van Roestel, J; Viironen, K; Vink, J S; Walton, N A; Wright, N J; Zijlstra, A A

    2014-01-01

    The INT/WFC Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 square degrees imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5 deg and longitudes l = 30 to 215 deg in the r, i and H\\alpha\\ filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally-calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique sources across 92% of the footprint. The observations were carried out between 2003 and 2012 at a median seeing of 1.1 arcsec (sampled at 0.33 arcsec/pixel) and to a mean 5\\sigma-depth of 21.2 (r), 20.0 (i) and 20.3 (H\\alpha) in the Vega magnitude system. We explain the data reduction and quality control procedures, describe and test the global re-calibration, and detail the construction of the new catalogue. We show that the new calibration is accurate to 0.03 mag (rms) and recommend a series of quality criteria to select the most rel...

  11. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies: I. Optical and H-alpha Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents optical and H-alpha imaging for a large sample of LSB galaxies selected from the PSS-II catalogs (Schombert et. al 1992). As noted in previous work, LSB galaxies span a range of luminosities (-10 > M_V > -20) and sizes (0.3 kpc < R_V25 < 10 kpc), although they are consistent in their irregular morphology. Their H-alpha luminosities (L(H-alpha) range from 10^36 to 10^41 ergs s^-1 (corresponding to a range in star formation, using canonical prescriptions, from 10^-5 to 1 M_solar yr^-1). Although their optical colors are at the extreme blue edge for galaxies, they are similar to the colors of dwarf galaxies (van Zee 2001) and gas-rich irregulars (Hunter & Elmegreen 2006). However, their star formation rates per unit stellar mass are a factor of ten less than other galaxies of the same baryonic mass, indicating that they are not simply quiescent versions of more active star forming galaxies. This paper presents the data, reduction techniques and new philosophy of data storage and pre...

  12. Evidence that [3H]-alpha,beta-methylene ATP may label an endothelial-derived cell line 5'-nucleotidase with high affinity.

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, A. D.; Chau, N. M.; Fan, T P; E.E. Frost; Humphrey, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    1. In membranes prepared from a permanent cell line of endothelial origin (WEC cells), [3H]-alpha, beta-methylene ATP ([3H]-alpha, beta-meATP) labelled high (pKd = 9.5; Bmax = 3.75 pmol mg-1 protein) and low (pKd = 7.2; Bmax = 23.3 pmol mg-1 protein) affinity binding sites. The high affinity [3H]-alpha, beta-meATP binding sites in the WEC cell membranes could be selectively labelled with a low concentration of the radioligand (1 nM). In competition studies performed at a radioligand concentra...

  13. FUNDPAR: A program for Deriving Fundamental Parameters from Equivalent Widths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementamos un programa en Fortran que determina parámetros fundamentales de estrellas de tipo solar, a partir de anchos equivalentes del Fe. La solución debe verificar tres condiciones en el método estándar: equilibrio de ionización, equilibrio de excitación e independencia entre abundancias y anchos equivalentes. Calculamos modelos de atmósfera de Kurucz con opacidades NEWODF. Detalles como el parámetro de longitud de mezcla, el sobre impulso convectivo, etc. se calculan con un programa independiente. FUNDPAR calcula las incertezas por dos métodos: el criterio de Gonzalez & Vanture (1998 y utilizando la función X² . Los resultados derivados con FUNDPAR están de acuerdo con determinaciones previas en la literatura. En particular obtuvimos parámetros fundamentales de 58 estrellas con exoplanetas. El programa está disponible en la red1.

  14. SUB-THz AND H{alpha} ACTIVITY DURING THE PREFLARE AND MAIN PHASES OF A GOES CLASS M2 EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Gimenez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Emilia; Fernandes, Luis Olavo; De Souza, Rodney V. [CRAAM, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marcon, Rogerio [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); White, Stephen M. [AFRL, Space Vehicles Directorate, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Godoy, Rodolfo; Marun, Adolfo; Pereyra, Pablo [Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2011-12-01

    Radio and optical observations of the evolution of flare-associated phenomena have shown an initial and rapid burst at 0.4 THz only followed subsequently by a localized chromospheric heating producing an H{alpha} brightening with later heating of the whole active region. A major instability occurred several minutes later producing one impulsive burst at microwaves only, associated with an M2.0 GOES X-ray flare that exhibited the main H{alpha} brightening at the same site as the first flash.The possible association between long-enduring time profiles at soft X-rays, microwaves, H{alpha}, and sub-THz wavelengths is discussed. In the decay phase, the H{alpha} movie shows a disrupting magnetic arch structure ejecting dark, presumably chromospheric, material upward. The time sequence of events suggests genuine interdependent and possibly non-thermal instabilities triggering phenomena, with concurrent active region plasma heating and material ejection.

  15. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. II - Detection of 16 Optically-Identified Supernova Remnant Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Vucetic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N; Goker, U D; Ercan, E N

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying [SII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate that the contamination of total H$\\alpha$ flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 is 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy's H$\\alpha$ emission.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-cylinder equivalence ratio measurements in laser-ignited natural gas engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin; Olsen, Daniel B; Dumitrescu, Cosmin; Puzinauskas, Paulius V; Yalin, Azer P

    2009-05-01

    In this contribution we present the first demonstration of simultaneous use of laser sparks for engine ignition and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements of in-cylinder equivalence ratios. A 1064 nm neodynium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam is used with an optical spark plug to ignite a single cylinder natural gas engine. The optical emission from the combustion initiating laser spark is collected through the optical spark plug and cycle-by-cycle spectra are analyzed for H(alpha)(656 nm), O(777 nm), and N(742 nm, 744 nm, and 746 nm) neutral atomic lines. The line area ratios of H(alpha)/O(777), H(alpha)/N(746), and H(alpha)/N(tot) (where N(tot) is the sum of areas of the aforementioned N lines) are correlated with equivalence ratios measured by a wide band universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Experiments are performed for input laser energy levels of 21 mJ and 26 mJ, compression ratios of 9 and 11, and equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 0.95. The results show a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.99) of line intensity ratio with equivalence ratio, thereby suggesting an engine diagnostic method for cylinder resolved equivalence ratio measurements. PMID:19470212

  17. Using MHD simulations to model H-alpha and UV spectral lines for interpretation of IRIS and NST data

    CERN Document Server

    Sadykov, Viacheslav M

    2014-01-01

    We present results of non-LTE modeling of H-alpha 6563 A and Mg II k&h 2796 A and 2803 A lines. This modeling is important for interpretation of coordinated observations from the recently launched NASA's IRIS mission and from the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Among available codes for the non-LTE modeling, the RH code is chosen as the most appropriate for modeling of the line profiles. The most suitable Hydrogen and Magnesium atomic models are selected by performing several tests of the code. The influence of the ionization degree on the line profiles is also studied. Radiative-MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere, obtained with the Bifrost code, are used as input data for calculation of synthetic spectra of the H-alpha and Mg II h&k lines for particular locations evolving with time. The spectral line variations reveal the presence of MHD waves in the simulation results. We construct oscillation power spectra of the line intensity for different wavelength, and compare these wit...

  18. COMPARING H{alpha} AND H I SURVEYS AS MEANS TO A COMPLETE LOCAL GALAXY CATALOG IN THE ADVANCED LIGO/VIRGO ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Brian D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Berger, Edo, E-mail: bmetzger@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: eberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging, due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the {approx}10-100 deg{sup 2} sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of {approx}200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here, we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrowband H{alpha} imaging survey and (2) an H I emission line radio survey. Using H{alpha} fluxes, stellar masses (M {sub *}), and star formation rates (SFRs) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with H I data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that an H{alpha} survey with a luminosity sensitivity of L {sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} at 200 Mpc could achieve a completeness of f {sup H{alpha}} {sub SFR} Almost-Equal-To 75% with respect to total SFR, but only f{sub M* Star-Operator }{sup H{alpha}} approx. 33% with respect to M {sub *} (due to lack of sensitivity to early-type galaxies). These numbers are significantly lower than those achieved by an idealized spectroscopic survey due to the loss of H{alpha} flux resulting from resolving out nearby galaxies and the inability to correct for the underlying stellar continuum. An H I survey with sensitivity similar to the proposed WALLABY survey on ASKAP could achieve f{sub SFR}{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 80% and f{sub M Star-Operator }{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 50%, somewhat higher than that of the H{alpha} survey. Finally, both H{alpha} and H I surveys should achieve {approx}> 50% completeness with respect to the host galaxies of short-duration gamma-ray bursts, which may trace the population of binary neutron star mergers.

  19. Star Formation Rates and Stellar Masses of H-alpha Selected Star-Forming Galaxies at z=0.84: A Quantification of the Downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, V; Pérez-González, P-G; Barro, G; Zamorano, J; Noeske, K G; Koo, D C

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyze the physical properties of a sample of 153 star forming galaxies at z~0.84, selected by their H-alpha flux with a NB filter. B-band luminosities of the objects are higher than those of local star forming galaxies. Most of the galaxies are located in the blue cloud, though some objects are detected in the green valley and in the red sequence. After the extinction correction is applied virtually all these red galaxies move to the blue sequence, unveiling their dusty nature. A check on the extinction law reveals that the typical extinction law for local starbursts is well suited for our sample but with E(B-V)_stars=0.55 E(B-V)_gas. We compare star formation rates (SFR) measured with different tracers (H-alpha, UV and IR) finding that they agree within a factor of three after extinction correction. We find a correlation between the ratios SFR_FUV/SFR_H-alpha, SFR_IR/SFR_H-alpha and the EW(H-alpha) (i.e. weighted age) which accounts for part of the scatter. We obtain stellar mass estimation...

  20. A star-bursting proto-cluster in making associated to a radio galaxy at z=2.53 discovered by H_alpha imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masao; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi

    2012-01-01

    We report a discovery of a proto-cluster in vigorous assembly and hosting strong star forming activities, associated to a radio galaxy USS 1558-003 at z=2.53, as traced by a wide-field narrow-band H_alpha imaging with MOIRCS on Subaru Telescope. We find 68 H_alpha emitters with dust-uncorrected SFRs down to 8.6 Msun/yr. Their spatial distribution indicates that there are three prominent clumps of H_alpha emitters, one surrounding the radio galaxy and another located at ~1.5 Mpc away to the south-west, and the other located in between the two. These contiguous three systems are very likely to merge together in the near future and may grow to a single more massive cluster at later times. Whilst most H_alpha emitters reside in the "blue cloud" on the color--magnitude diagram, some emitters have very red colors with J-Ks>1.38(AB). Interestingly, such red H_alpha emitters are located towards the faint end of the red sequence, and they tend to be located in the high density clumps. We do not see any statistically s...

  1. Detection of an H-alpha Emission Line on a Quasar, RX J1759.4+6638, at z=4.3 with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Oyabu, Shinki; Ohyama, Youichi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kim, Woojung; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Sakon, Itsuki; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Watarai, Hidenori; Haze, Kanae

    2007-01-01

    We report the detection of an H-alpha emission line in the low resolution spectrum of a quasar, RX J1759.4+6638, at a redshift of 4.3 with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI. This is the first spectroscopic detection of an H-alpha emission line in a quasar beyond z=4. The overall spectral energy distribution (SED) of RX J1759.4+6638 in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths agrees with a median SED of the nearby quasars and the flux ratio of F(Ly-alpha)/F(H-alpha) is consistent with those of previous reports for lower-redshift quasars.

  2. Classical T Tauri stars with VPHAS$+$: I: H$\\alpha$ and $u$-band accretion rates in the Lagoon Nebula M8

    CERN Document Server

    Kalari, V M; Drew, J E; Barentsen, G; Drake, J J; Eislöffel, J; Martín, E L; Parker, Q A; Unruh, Y C; Walton, N A; Wright, N J

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the accretion rates of 235 Classical T Tauri star (CTTS) candidates in the Lagoon Nebula using $ugri$H$\\alpha$ photometry from the VPHAS+ survey. Our sample consists of stars displaying H$\\alpha$-excess, the intensity of which is used to derive accretion rates. For a subset of 87 stars, the intensity of the $u$-band excess is also used to estimate accretion rates. We find the mean variation in accretion rates measured using H$\\alpha$ and $u$-band intensities to be $\\sim$ 0.17 dex, agreeing with previous estimates (0.04-0.4 dex) but for a much larger sample. The spatial distribution of CTTS align with the location of protostars and molecular gas suggesting that they retain an imprint of the natal gas fragmentation process. Strong accretors are concentrated spatially, while weak accretors are more distributed. Our results do not support the sequential star forming processes suggested in the literature.

  3. SDSS J083253.18+064316.7: one strange object with double-peaked narrow H\\alpha but single-peaked narrow H\\beta

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we firstly report one unique object SDSS J0832+0643 with particular features of narrow balmer emission lines: double-peaked narrow H\\alpha but single-peaked narrow H\\beta. The particular features can not be expected by currently proposed kinematic models for double-peaked narrow emission lines, because the proposed kinematic models lead to similar line profiles of narrow balmer emission lines. However, due to radiative transfer effects, the non-kinematic model can be naturally applied to well explain the particular features of narrow balmer emission lines: larger optical depth in H\\alpha than 10 leads to observed double-peaked narrow H\\alpha, but smaller optical depth in H\\beta around 2 leads to observed single-peaked narrow H\\beta. Therefore, SDSS J0832+0643 can be used as strong evidence to support the non-kinematic model for double-peaked narrow emission lines.

  4. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  5. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: fparra@mit.edu, E-mail: catto@psfc.mit.edu

    2009-06-15

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  6. Comparison of 30 THz impulsive burst time development to microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and GOES soft X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Miteva, R; Cabezas, D P; Cassiano, M M; Fernandes, L O T; Freeland, S L; Karlicky, M; Kerdraon, A; Kudaka, A S; Luoni, M L; Marcon, R; Raulin, J -P; Trottet, G; White, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of impulsive solar burst emission in the 30 THz band is raising new interpretation challenges. One event associated with a GOES M2 class flare has been observed simultaneously in microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and soft X-ray bands. Although these new observations confirm some features found in the two prior known events, they exhibit time profile structure discrepancies between 30 THz, microwaves, and hard X-rays (as inferred from the Neupert effect). These results suggest a more complex relationship between 30 THz emission and radiation produced at other wavelength ranges. The multiple frequency emissions in the impulsive phase are likely to be produced at a common flaring site lower in the chromosphere. The 30 THz burst emission may be either part of a nonthermal radiation mechanism or due to the rapid thermal response to a beam of high-energy particles bombarding the dense solar atmosphere.

  7. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81 and H-alpha Confirmation of PNV J09560160+6903126 and PNV J09553945+6905557

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Stoev, H.; Tudor, V.; Vaduvescu, O.; Frigo, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 galaxy on a co-added 2000-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.2" seeing on 2014 May 26.923 UT. ...

  8. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81 and an Increase of H-alpha Emission from PNV J09553488+6910194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Stoev, H.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 2000-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.5" seeing on 2014 Mar. ...

  9. The role of cluster mergers and travelling shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $\\bf z\\sim0.2$: `sausage' and `toothbrush' clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub J A; van Weeren, Reinout J

    2013-01-01

    The most extreme cluster mergers can lead to massive cluster-wide travelling shock waves. The CIZA J2242.8+5301 ('sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`toothbrush') clusters ($z\\sim0.2$) host enormous radio-emitting shocks with simple geometry. We investigate the role of mergers and shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function, using custom-made narrow-band filters matching the cluster redshifts mounted on the INT. We surveyed $\\sim0.28$ deg$^2$ for each cluster and found $181$ line emitters in the `sausage' (volume of $3.371\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.1945$) and $141$ in the `toothbrush' ($4.546\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.225$), out of which $49$ (`sausage') and $30$ (`toothbrush') are expected to be H$\\alpha$. We build luminosity functions for the field-of-view down to an average limiting star formation rate of $0.14$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, find good agreement with field luminosity functions at $z=0.2$, but significant differences between the shapes of the luminosity functions...

  10. ZFIRE: Galaxy Cluster Kinematics, H$\\alpha$ Star Formation Rates, and Gas-Phase Metallicities of XMM-LSS J02182-05102 at z=1.6233

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Papovich, Casey J; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Greg; Saintonge, Amélie; Spitler, Lee R; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We spectroscopically survey the galaxy cluster XMM-LSS J02182-05102 (hereafter IRC 0218) using LRIS (optical) and MOSFIRE (near-infrared) on Keck I as part of the ZFIRE survey. IRC 0218 has a narrow redshift range of $1.612H$\\alpha$ star formation rates (SFR), gas phase metallicities from [NII]/H$\\alpha$, and stellar masses. We measure an integrated H$\\alpha$ SFR of $\\sim325{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ (26 members; R$_{\\rm proj}<2$ Mpc) and show that the elevated star formation in the cluster core (R$_{\\rm proj}<0.25$ Mpc) is driven by the concentration of star-forming members, but the average SFR per H$\\alpha$-detected galaxy is half th...

  11. The MOSDEF Survey: Dissecting the star-formation rate vs. stellar mass relation using H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Shivaei, Irene; Shapley, Alice E; Kriek, Mariska; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura; Azadi, Mojegan

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the SFR-$M_*$ relation (i.e., the "main sequence") among star-forming galaxies at $1.37\\leq z \\leq2.61$ using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 star-forming galaxies with observations of H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous star-formation rates (SFRs) over a large dynamic range in stellar mass ($\\sim 10^{9.0}-10^{11.5}M_\\odot$). We find a tight correlation between SFR(H$\\alpha$) and $M_*$ with an intrinsic scatter of 0.36 dex, 0.05 dex larger than that of UV-based SFRs. This increased scatter is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations of 0.03 - 0.1 dex, and is attributed to H$\\alpha$ more accurately tracing SFR variations. The slope of the $\\log(\\text{SFR})-\\log(M_*)$ relation, using SFR(H$\\alpha$), at $1.4< z<2.6$ and over the stellar mass range of $10^{9.5}$ to $10^{11.5}M_\\odot$ is $0.65\\pm 0.09$. We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as usin...

  12. About the reactions sup 3 H(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Li and sup 3 He(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Be

    CERN Document Server

    Loeffler, W

    1993-01-01

    In this article the current experimental and theoretical status of the radiative alpha capture reactions sup 3 H(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Li and sup 3 He(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Be and their relations to primordial nucleosynthesis and the solar neutrino problem are reviewed. (author)

  13. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution

  14. Synthesis of H-alpha absorption in old stellar systems: Formation of the cluster red sequence by "Downsizing"

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R J

    2005-01-01

    We compute population synthesis models for the variation of H-alpha absorption indices (HaA and HaF), as a function of age and metallicity in old stellar systems. The models are based on the STELIB spectral library, and defined at resolution of 3 Angstrom FWHM. The indices are found to be highly sensitive to age variation, with only moderate response to metallicity. For galaxies uncontaminated by nebular emission, our HaA index is more powerful in breaking the age/metallicity degeneracy than H-beta or H-gamma_F. Using a sample of red cluster galaxies carefully selected to exclude objects with emission, we find a steep decline of HaA with velocity dispersion (slope -0.75 +/- 0.07 Angstrom/dex). The slope can be translated to constraints on age and metallicity scaling relations, incorporating measurement and model errors. If the HaA-sigma slope is due only to age, we obtain Age proportional to sigma^{0.95 +/- 0.12}. Because HaA depends quite weakly on [Fe/H], a metallicity interpretation would require Fe/H prop...

  15. An H $\\alpha$ Survey of 8 Abell Clusters the Dependence of Tidally-Induced Star Formation on Cluster Density

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, C

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken a survey of H alpha emission in a substantially complete sample of CGCG galaxies of types Sa and later within 1.5 Abell radii of the centres of 8 low-redshift Abell clusters. Some 320 galaxies were surveyed, of which 116 were detected in emission (390f spirals, 75563641f peculiars). Detected emission was classified as `compact' or `diffuse'. From an analysis of the full survey sample, we reconfirm our previous identification of compact and diffuse emission with circumnuclear starburst and disk emission respectively. The circumnuclear emission is associated either with the presence of a bar, or with a disturbed galaxy morphology indicative of on-going tidal interactions. The frequency of such tidally-induced (circumnuclear) starburst emission in spirals increases from regions of lower to higher local galaxy surface density, and from clusters with lower to higher central galaxy space density. We conclude that tidal interactions are likely to be the main mechanism for the transformation of spi...

  16. The Stellar Parameters and Evolutionary State of the Primary in the d'-Symbiotic System StH\\alpha190

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Smith, Verne V.; Pereira, Claudio B.; Cunha, Katia

    2001-01-01

    We report on a high-resolution, spectroscopic stellar parameter and abundance analysis of a d' symbiotic star: the yellow component of StH\\alpha190. This star has recently been discovered, and confirmed here, to be a rapidly rotating (vsini=100 km/s) subgiant, or giant, that exhibits radial-velocity variations of probably at least 40 km/s, indicating the presence of a companion (a white dwarf star). It is found that the cool stellar component has Teff=5300K and log g=3.0. The iron and calcium abundances are close to solar, however, barium is overabundant, relative to Fe and Ca, by about +0.5 dex. The barium enhancement reflects mass-transfer of s-process enriched material when the current white dwarf was an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. The past and future evolution of this binary system depends critically on its current orbital period, which is not yet known. Concerted and frequent radial-velocity measurements are needed to provide crucial physical constraints to this d' symbiotic system.

  17. STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE LOCAL VOLUME GALAXIES VIA H{alpha} AND FAR-ULTRAVIOLET FLUXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I., E-mail: ikar@sao.ru, E-mail: kei@sao.ru [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR) estimates for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc, derived from the H{alpha} imaging surveys and the GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, H I mass, surface brightness, and the environment of the galaxies. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies, for which we offer a more refined classification. We note that the specific SFR of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: log (SFR/L{sub K} ) = -9.4 [yr{sup -1}]. Most spiral and blue dwarf galaxies have enough time to generate their stellar mass during the cosmological time, T{sub 0}, with the observed SFRs. They dispose of a sufficient amount of gas to support their present SFRs over the next T{sub 0} term. We note that only a small fraction of BCD, Im, and Ir galaxies (about 1/20) proceed in a mode of vigorous starburst activity. In general, the star formation history of spiral and blue dwarf galaxies is mainly driven by their internal processes. The present SFRs of E, S0, and dSph galaxies typically have 1/30-1/300 of their former activity.

  18. Bounding connected tree-width

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann, Matthias; Weißauer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Diestel and M\\"uller showed that the connected tree-width of a graph $G$, i.e., the minimum width of any tree-decomposition with connected parts, can be bounded in terms of the tree-width of $G$ and the largest length of a geodesic cycle in $G$. We improve their bound to one that is of correct order of magnitude. Finally, we construct a graph whose connected tree-width exceeds the connected order of any of its brambles. This disproves a conjecture by Diestel and M\\"uller ass...

  19. Phase width reduction project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.; Xie, Z.Q.; McMahan, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the phase width reduction project, 1993--96, was to reduce the phase width of the 88-Inch Cyclotron beam on target from 5--10 ns to 1--2 ns for certain experiments, such as Gammasphere, which use time-of-flight identification. Since reducing the phase width also reduces beam intensity, tuning should be done to also optimize the transmission. The Multi-turn Collimator slits in the cyclotron center region were used to collimate the early turns radially, thus reducing the phase width from about 5 ns to 1--2 ns FWHM for a Gammasphere beam. The effect of the slits on phase width was verified with a Fast Faraday Cup and with particle and gamma-ray detectors in the external beamline.

  20. THE PHOTOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF FACE-ON DISK GALAXIES. III. KINEMATIC INCLINATIONS FROM H{alpha} VELOCITY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, David R. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 W Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bershady, Matthew A., E-mail: david.andersen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: mab@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Using the integral field unit DensePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope we have obtained H{alpha} velocity fields of 39 nearly face-on disks at echelle resolutions. High-quality, uniform kinematic data and a new modeling technique enabled us to derive accurate and precise kinematic inclinations with mean i{sub kin} = 23 Degree-Sign for 90% of these galaxies. Modeling the kinematic data as single, inclined disks in circular rotation improves upon the traditional tilted-ring method. We measure kinematic inclinations with a precision in sin i of 25% at 20 Degree-Sign and 6% at 30 Degree-Sign . Kinematic inclinations are consistent with photometric and inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations when the sample is culled of galaxies with kinematic asymmetries, for which we give two specific prescriptions. Kinematic inclinations can therefore be used in statistical ''face-on'' Tully-Fisher studies. A weighted combination of multiple, independent inclination measurements yield the most precise and accurate inclination. Combining inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations with kinematic inclinations yields joint probability inclinations with a precision in sin i of 10% at 15 Degree-Sign and 5% at 30 Degree-Sign . This level of precision makes accurate mass decompositions of galaxies possible even at low inclination. We find scaling relations between rotation speed and disk-scale length identical to results from more inclined samples. We also observe the trend of more steeply rising rotation curves with increased rotation speed and light concentration. This trend appears to be uncorrelated with disk surface brightness.

  1. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  2. The H-alpha Variations of the Luminous Blue Variable P Cygni: Discrete Absorption Components and the Short S Doradus Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Noel D.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Gies, Douglas R.; Markova, N.; Hesselbach, Erica N.; Percy, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    P Cygni is a prototype of the Luminous Blue Variables (or S Doradus variables), and the star displays photometric and emission line variability on a timescale of years (known as the "short S Doradus phase" variations). Here we present new high resolution H-alpha spectroscopy of P Cyg that we combine with earlier spectra and concurrent V-band photometry to document the emission and continuum flux variations over a 24 y time span. We show that the emission and continuum fluxes...

  3. H-alpha Imaging with HST+NICMOS of An Elusive Damped Ly-alpha Cloud at z=0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Bouche, N; Charlton, J C; Bershady, M A; Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Bouche, Nicolas; Lowenthal, James D.; Charlton, Jane C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Despite previous intensive ground--based imaging and spectroscopic campaigns and wide-band HST imaging of the z=0.927 QSO 3C336 field, the galaxy that hosts the damped Ly-alpha system along this line--of--sight has eluded detection. We present a deep narrow-band H-alpha image of the field of this z=0.656 damped Ly-alpha absorber, obtained through the F108N filter of NICMOS 1 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of this project was to detect any H-alpha emission 10 times closer than previous studies to unveil the damped absorber. We do not detect H-alpha emission between 0.05'' and 6'' (0.24 and 30 $h^{-1}$ kpc) from the QSO, with a 3-sigma flux limit of $3.70 \\times 10^{-17} h^{-2}$ erg/s/cm^2 for an unresolved source, corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR) of $0.3 h^{-2}$ M_sun/yr. This leads to a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.15 M_sun/yr/kpc^2 on the SFR density, or a maximum SFR of 1.87 M_sun/yr assuming a disk of 4 kpc in diameter. This result adds to the number of low redshift damped Ly-alpha ab...

  4. A deterministic width function model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Puente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  6. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1990-01-01

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and very compact). In tabular form, the relation is shown between this classification and a morphologically disturbed appearance for the galaxy.

  7. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional chan...

  8. Inferred H{\\alpha} Flux as a Star-Formation Rate Indicator at z ~ 4-5: Implications for Dust Properties, Burstiness, and the z = 4-8 Star-Formation-Rate Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Smit, Renske; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Wilkins, Stephen M; Oesch, Pascal A

    2015-01-01

    We derive H{\\alpha} fluxes for a large spectroscopic and photometric-redshift-selected sample of sources over GOODS-North and South in the redshift range z = 3.8-5.0 with deep HST, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based observations. The H{\\alpha} flux is inferred based on the offset between the IRAC 3.6 {\\mu}m flux and that predicted from the best-fit SED. We demonstrate that the H{\\alpha} flux correlates well with dust- corrected UV star-formation rate (SFR) and therefore can serve as an independent SFR indicator. However, we also find a systematic offset in the SFR_H{\\alpha}/SFR_UV ratios for z ~ 4-5 galaxies relative to local relations (assuming the same dust corrections for nebular regions and stellar light). We show that we can resolve the modest tension in the inferred SFRs by assuming bluer intrinsic UV slopes (increasing the dust correction), a rising star-formation history or assuming a low metallicity stellar population with a hard ionizing spectrum (increasing the L_H{\\alpha}/SFR ratio). Using H{\\alpha} a...

  9. Facilitation of the equivalence--equivalence responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fernández, Vicente Jesús; García García, Andrés; Gómez Bujedo, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    Equivalence-Equivalence responding, based on equivalence class formation, is a key concept of the functional-analytic model of analogical reasoning held by RFT theorists. Relational stimulus control is supposed to play an important role in this arbitrary relational response. Previous research showed that mere training of the prerequisites for equivalence class formation is not always enough for the derivation of equivalence-equivalence responding, even in adults. In the first experiment, with 12 adult participants, we designed a matching-to-sample training and testing procedure that, although it provided all necessary conditions, did not lead to Equivalence-Equivalence responding in most participants, so that the efficacy of a facilitation procedure could be assessed. In Experiment 2, with 32 valid participants, a matching-to-sample procedure based on non-arbitrary relations was introduced to assess its efficacy in enhancing stimulus control by the relational properties of sample and comparisons. Results showed a moderate effect: 40.6% of the participants passed the test after being exposed to a non-arbitrary relational matching task (but none without it). This research underlines the importance of non-arbitrary relational responses in the derivation of more complex repertoires. PMID:21774893

  10. The role of cluster mergers and travelling shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $\\bf z\\sim0.2$: `sausage' and `toothbrush' clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David, Smail, Ian, Bower, Richard, Best, Philip N; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; van Weeren, Reinout J.

    2013-01-01

    The most extreme cluster mergers can lead to massive cluster-wide travelling shock waves. The CIZA J2242.8+5301 ('sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`toothbrush') clusters ($z\\sim0.2$) host enormous radio-emitting shocks with simple geometry. We investigate the role of mergers and shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function, using custom-made narrow-band filters matching the cluster redshifts mounted on the INT. We surveyed $\\sim0.28$ deg$^2$ for each cluster and found...

  11. A Natural Generalization of Bounded Tree-Width and Bounded Clique-Width

    OpenAIRE

    Fürer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a new width parameter, the fusion-width of a graph. It is a natural generalization of the tree-width, yet strong enough that not only graphs of bounded tree-width, but also graphs of bounded clique-width, trivially have bounded fusion-width. In particular, there is no exponential growth between tree-width and fusion-width, as is the case between tree-width and clique-width. The new parameter gives a good intuition about the relationship between tree-width and ...

  12. V, R, I and H$\\alpha$ photometry of circumnuclear star forming regions in four galaxies with different levels of nuclear activity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, A I; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R J; Sánchez-Portál, M; Aretxaga, I; Diaz, Angeles I.; Alvarez, Mar Alvarez; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto; Portal, Miguel Sanchez; Aretxaga, Itziar

    1999-01-01

    V,R,I continuum bands and Halpha + [NII] photometry for circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) is presented, for galaxies with different kinds of nuclear activity: NGC 7469 (Sy 1), NGC 1068 (Sy 2), NGC 7177 (LINER) and NGC 3310 (Starburst). Their Halpha luminosities (0.02 - 7x10**40 erg/s; uncorrected for internal extinction), are comparable to those observed in other galaxies. No systematic differences in the broad band colours are found for the CNSFR in the different galaxies, except for those in NGC 3310 which are considerably bluer, partially due to a younger stellar population. Using theoretical evolutionary synthesis models some colours can be reproduced by single populations (between 7 and 300 Myr) and extinction 0.5-1.5 mag). However, in many cases, the observed equivalent width of Halpha, require a younger population. NGC 1068, 7177 and 7469, are fitted by a two-burst population model at solar metallicity; the age difference between both populations is around 5-7 Myr and the younger burst involve...

  13. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities.

  14. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between H{\\alpha} and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Šurlan, B; Aret, A; Kubát, J; Oskinova, L M; Torres, A F

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of O-type stars demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed - fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g. P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the H{\\alpha} emission. Wind clumping may be the main cause for this discrepancy. In a previous paper, we have presented 3-D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. In the first step, the analyses start with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit best to the observed H{\\alpha} emission lines. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e. P v) we then apply our 3-D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths, a non-void inter-clump medium, and a velocity dispersion in...

  15. GHASP: an H$\\alpha$ kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc-band

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, C E; Amram, P; Ferrari, F; Russeil, D; Epinat, B; Perret, V; Adami, C; Marcelin, M

    2015-01-01

    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, Gassendi H-Alpha survey of SPirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot H{\\alpha} maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed by new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and $ugriz$ profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters -- magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination. We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method in order to separate disks from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminos...

  16. A search for H$\\alpha$ emission in high-metallicity damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems at $z \\sim 2.4$

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We report on a sensitive search for redshifted H$\\alpha$ line-emission from three high-metallicity damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) at $z \\approx 2.4$ with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) on the Gemini-North telescope, assisted by the ALTtitude conjugate Adaptive optics for the InfraRed (ALTAIR) system with a laser guide star. Within the NIFS field-of-view, $\\approx 3.22" \\times 2.92"$ corresponding to $\\approx 25$ kpc $ \\times 23$ kpc at $z=2.4$, we detect no statistically significant line-emission at the expected redshifted H$\\alpha$ wavelengths. The measured root-mean-square noise fluctuations in $0.4"$ apertures are $1-3\\times10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Our analysis of simulated, compact, line-emitting sources yields stringent limits on the star-formation rates (SFRs) of the three DLAs, $< 2.2$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for two absorbers, and $< 11$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for the third, at all impact parameters within $\\approx 12.5$~kpc to the quasar s...

  17. On the nature of H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z \\sim 2$ from the HiZELS survey: physical properties, Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction, and main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Best, P N; Cepa, J; Pérez-García, A M

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed multi-wavelength study (from rest-frame UV to far-IR) of narrow-band (NB) selected, star-forming (SF) H$\\alpha$ emitters (HAEs) at $z \\sim 2.23$ taken from the High Redshift(Z) Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). We find that HAEs have similar SED-derived properties and colors to $sBzK$ galaxies and probe a well-defined portion of the SF population at $z \\sim 2$. This is not true for Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs), which are strongly biased towards blue, less massive galaxies (missing a significant percentage of the SF population). Combining our H$\\alpha$ observations with matched, existing Ly$\\alpha$ data we determine that the Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction ($f_{\\rm esc}$) is low (only $\\sim$ 4.5\\% of HAEs show Ly$\\alpha$ emission) and decreases with increasing dust attenuation, UV continuum slope, stellar mass, and star formation rate (SFR). This suggests that Ly$\\alpha$ preferentially escapes from blue galaxies with low dust attenuation. However, a small population of red and massive LAEs is also ...

  18. The H-alpha Variations of the Luminous Blue Variable P Cygni: Discrete Absorption Components and the Short S Doradus Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Ricahrdson, Noel D; Gies, Douglas R; Markova, N; Hesselbach, Erica N; Percy, J R

    2011-01-01

    P Cygni is a prototype of the Luminous Blue Variables (or S Doradus variables), and the star displays photometric and emission line variability on a timescale of years (known as the "short S Doradus phase" variations). Here we present new high resolution H-alpha spectroscopy of P Cyg that we combine with earlier spectra and concurrent V-band photometry to document the emission and continuum flux variations over a 24 y time span. We show that the emission and continuum fluxes vary in concert on timescales of 1.6 y and longer, but differ on shorter timescales. The H-alpha profile shape also varies on the photometric timescales, and we describe the observed co-variations of the emission peak and absorption trough properties. We argue that the episodes of photometric and emission brightening are caused by increases in the size of the emission region that are related to variations in wind mass loss rate and outflow speed. We find evidence of blueward accelerating, Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) in the absor...

  19. Equivalent curves in surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leininger, C J

    2003-01-01

    We consider various equivalence relations on the set of homotopy classes of curves on a hyperbolic surface based on topological, algebraic, and geometric structures. The purpose of this work is to determine the relationship between these equivalences.

  20. Derived equivalence and birationality

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Han

    2011-01-01

    A different proof to a known criterion of derived equivalence implying birationality is given. Derived equivalent smooth projective curves over an algebraically closed field are proved to be isomorphic. A different proof of derived equivalence implying birationality for varieties of general type (originally due to Kawamata) is given.

  1. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  2. The narrow X-ray tail and double H-alpha tails of ESO 137-002 in Abell 3627

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B; Ji, L; Sarazin, C; Lin, X B; Nulsen, P E J; Roediger, E; Donahue, M; Forman, W; Jones, C; Voit, G M; Kong, X

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ~2L_* late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (~3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ~1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's ISM by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ~1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (~0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping ...

  3. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly in¯nite) outcome space and many of the known results about revenue equivalence are immediate consequences.

  4. A high-precision pulse-width modulator source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel high-resolution pulse-width modulator (PWM) is being developed for a new digital regulator for the Advanced Photon Source power converters. The circuit features 82-ps setability over an 80-(micro)s range. Our application requires a 50-(micro)s fill-scale range; therefore the 82-ps setability is equivalent to better than 19 bits. The circuit is presently implemented as a VME module and is an integral part of the digital regulator prototype. The design concept and performance results will be presented

  5. Enumeration Order Equivalency

    CERN Document Server

    Safilian, Ali Akbar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated enumeration orders of elements of r.e. sets enumerated by means of Turing machines. We have defined a reducibility based on enumeration orders named "Enumeration Order Reducibility" on computable functions and also r.e. sets and studied their properties. Based on this reducibility we introduce an equivalence relation "Enumeration Order Equivalency". We have reached some properties of it. In subsequent, we have introduced another concept named "type-2 Enumeration Order Equivalency" and studied its properties too.

  6. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedal, Jan; Soevik, Aaste; Malinen, Eirik (Dept. of Medical Physics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: jan.rodal@radiumhospitalet.no

    2010-10-15

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  7. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  8. Enumeration Order Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Safilian, Ali Akbar; Didehvar, Farzad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated enumeration orders of elements of r.e. sets enumerated by means of Turing machines. We have defined a reducibility based on enumeration orders named "Enumeration Order Reducibility" on computable functions and also r.e. sets and studied their properties. Based on this reducibility we introduce an equivalence relation "Enumeration Order Equivalency". We have reached some properties of it. In subsequent, we have introduced another concept nam...

  9. Width Distributions for Convex Regular Polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    The mean width is a measure on three-dimensional convex bodies that enjoys equal status with volume and surface area [Rota]. As the phrase suggests, it is the mean of a probability density f. We verify formulas for mean widths of the regular tetrahedron and the cube. Higher-order moments of f_tetra and f_cube have not been examined until now. Assume that each polyhedron has edges of unit length. We deduce that the mean square width of the regular tetrahedron is 1/3+(3+sqrt(3))/(3*pi) and the mean square width of the cube is 1+4/pi.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Filament Features Based on the H{\\alpha} Solar Images from 1988 to 2013 by Computer Automated Detection Method

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Q; Cao, W; Chen, P F

    2015-01-01

    We improve our filament automated detection method which was proposed in our previous works. It is then applied to process the full disk H$\\alpha$ data mainly obtained by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) from 1988 to 2013, spanning nearly 3 solar cycles. The butterfly diagrams of the filaments, showing the information of the filament area, spine length, tilt angle, and the barb number, are obtained. The variations of these features with the calendar year and the latitude band are analyzed. The drift velocities of the filaments in different latitude bands are calculated and studied. We also investigate the north-south (N-S) asymmetries of the filament numbers in total and in each subclass classified according to the filament area, spine length, and tilt angle. The latitudinal distribution of the filament number is found to be bimodal. About 80% of all the filaments have tilt angles within [0{\\deg}, 60{\\deg}]. For the filaments within latitudes lower (higher) than 50{\\deg} the northeast (northwest) direction i...

  11. Multiscale shape equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Peter; Greenhill, Darrel

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we define a property applied to contours and 2D shapes we call `shape equivalence', or more strictly, `virtual shape equivalence'. The intuitive idea is that two contours or 2D shapes are `virtually equivalent' (at a given scale of resolution) if they can possibly give rise to identical area sampled images (at the given scale) with respect to a given sampling regime. The word `virtual' is used because the relationship is not a true equivalence relation--in particular it is not strictly transitive. The idea is similar to the psychological notion of `just noticeable difference' (JND). Two stimuli are within a JND threshold if a subject cannot perceptually distinguish them, even though they may in fact be different. Similarly our notion of virtual equivalence of contours corresponds to there being no noticeable difference between them with respect to a certain class of sampling regimes at a particular scale of resolution. The usefulness of the concept is that it can be used to built a formal theory of shape and contour simplification (at various scales) to assist object recognition.

  12. Variation of Fe Kalpha line equivalent width for orbiting spot around black hole.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dov?iak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Matt, G.; Goosmann, René

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 79, ?. 1 (2008), s. 248-249. ISSN 0037-8720 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP205/05/P525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black holes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  14. Equivalence of Mechanical Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moog, C.H.; Zikmund, Ji?í; ?elikovský, S.

    Foz do Iguassu : IFAC, 2007, 1/4-4/4. [SSSC 2007. Foz do Iguassu (BR), 17.10.2007-19.10.2007] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LA298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Mechanical Systems * State Equivalent * Embeded Dynamics Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  15. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  16. Equivalency and Proficiency Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica V.; Zimmerman, Sydney L.

    Provisions being made or planned to assist both veterans with medical experience and civilian health personnel to obtain advanced standing in health education programs in Ohio were surveyed in 1970-71. Thirty-five career areas are summarized, telling if they have a plan to have equivalency and/or proficiency examinations, based on responses…

  17. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity

  18. ${^3{\\rm He}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Be}}$ and ${^3{\\rm H}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Li}}$ astrophysical $S$ factors from the no-core shell model with continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Dohet-Eraly, Jérémy; Quaglioni, Sofia; Horiuchi, Wataru; Hupin, Guillaume; Raimondi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The ${^3{\\rm He}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Be}}$ and ${^3{\\rm H}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Li}}$ astrophysical $S$ factors are calculated within the no-core shell model with continuum using a renormalized chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction. The ${^3{\\rm He}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Be}}$ astrophysical $S$ factors agree reasonably well with the experimental data while the ${^3{\\rm H}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^7{\\rm Li}}$ ones are overestimated. The seven-nucleon bound and resonance states and the $\\alpha+{^3{\\rm He}}/{^3{\\rm H}}$ elastic scattering are also studied and compared with experiment. The low-lying resonance properties are rather well reproduced by our approach. At low energies, the $s$-wave phase shift, which is non-resonant, is overestimated.

  19. On the holographic width of flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Giataganas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the width of the flux tube between heavy static quark charges. Using the gauge/gravity duality, we find the properties of the minimal connected surface related to the width of the bound state. We show that in the confining phase, the logarithmic broadening predicted by the effective string description and observed in lattice simulations is a generic property of all confining backgrounds. We also study the transverse fluctuations of the string connecting two static quarks in curved backgrounds. Our formalism is applied to AdS space where we compute the expectation value of the square of transverse deviations of the string, a quantity related to the width.

  20. Quantum Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinert, H

    1996-01-01

    A simple mapping procedure is presented by which classical orbits and path integrals for the motion of a point particle in flat space can be transformed directly into those in curved space with torsion. Our procedure evolved from well-established methods in the theory of plastic deformations, where crystals with defects are described mathematically as images of ideal crystals under active nonholonomic coordinate transformations. Our mapping procedure may be viewed as a natural extension of Einstein's famous equivalence principle. When applied to time-sliced path integrals, it gives rise to a new quantum equivalence principle which determines short-time action and measure of fluctuating orbits in spaces with curvature and torsion. The nonholonomic transformations possesses a nontrivial Jacobian in the path measure which produces in a curved space an additional term proportional to the curvature scalar R, thus canceling a similar term found earlier by DeWitt. This cancelation is important for correctly describi...

  1. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CFisotope), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF30yr) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference (1). The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference (2). The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  2. Infinite-dimensional generalization of Kolmogorov widths

    OpenAIRE

    Kounchev, Ognyan

    2011-01-01

    Recently the theory of widths of Kolmogorov-Gelfand has received a great deal of interest due to its close relationship with the newly born area of Compressive Sensing in Signal Processing. However fundamental problems of the theory of widths in multidimensional Theory of Functions remain untouched, as well as analogous problems in the theory of multidimensional Signal Analysis. In the present paper we provide a multidimensional generalization of the original result of Kolmo...

  3. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.; Pankratov, A.L.; Khodos, V.V.; Vaks, V.L.; Baryshev, A.M.; Wesselius, P.R.; Mygind, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    A combination of wide-band electronic tunability and moderate free-running line width makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated submillimeter-wave SIS receivers. The possibility of FFO phase locking at all frequencies of interest has to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape ...

  4. Improved V-shaped microcantilever width profile for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have proposed an improvement in the shape of the V-shaped microcantilever by varying the width profile. In this paper we have studied the variation of resonant frequency as a function of changes in profile determined by the length of the microcantilever, keeping constant the active area for binding. It is observed that for the optimized nonlinear profile the angle at the tip is 91.410, more than twice the angle at the tip of the linear profile cantilever. The variation of the equivalent spring constant with changes in the profile is also studied. It is proposed that the optimum nonlinear profile cantilever has a spring constant of ?0.39 ?N ?m-1. The resonant frequency is obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, the deflection model and the SUGAR simulator. The results are compared and an improvement in the performance of the cantilever is observed.

  5. Equivalences of coisotropic submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaetz, Florian; Zambon, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the role that Hamiltonian and symplectic diffeomorphisms play in the deformation problem of coisotropic submanifolds. We prove that the action by Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms corresponds to the gauge-action of the $L_\\infty$-algebra of Oh and Park. Moreover we introduce the notion of extended gauge-equivalence and show that in the case of Oh and Park's $L_\\infty$-algebra one recovers the action of symplectic isotopies on coisotropic submanifolds. Finally, we consider the transversally integrable case in detail.

  6. Embedding a pair of graphs in a surface, and the width of 4-dimensional prismatoids

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    A prismatoid is a polytope with all its vertices contained in two parallel facets, called its bases. Its width is the number of steps needed to go from one base to the other in the dual graph. The author recently showed in arXiv:1006.2814 that the existence of counter-examples to the Hirsch conjecture is equivalent to that of $d$-prismatoids of width larger than $d$, and constructed such prismatoids in dimension five. Here we show that the same is impossible in dimension fou...

  7. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of wide-band electronic tunability and moderate free-running line width makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated submillimeter-wave SIS receivers. The possibility of FFO phase locking at all frequencies of interest has to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width increases considerably at voltages above the boundary voltage because of the abrupt increase of the internal damping due to Josephson self-coupling. The influence of FFO parameters, in particular the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and with the applied magnetic field on the radiation line width, has been studied. Possible means of decreasing the free-running FFO line width will be discussed.

  8. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  9. Constraints on widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2004-01-01

    We determine constraints on the partial widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB$\\chi$PT). The partial widths satisfy a GMO-type relation at leading order in HB$\\chi$PT, for arbitrary mixing. The widths of N(1440), N(1710), and $\\Theta(1540)$ are not consistent with ideal mixing, $\\theta_{N} = 35.3^{\\circ}$, but are consistent with $\\theta_{N} \\lesssim 25^{\\circ}$. Furthermore, there are parameter values in HB$\\chi$PT that produce such a mixing angle while allowing the identification of the mass spectrum above. As an alternative to non-ideal mixing, we also suggest reasons for giving up on N(1440) as a pure pentaquark state.

  10. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances in polynomial time. We base this on a proof of an upper bound of n on the bisection width for 4-connected planar graphs with an odd number of vertices. This improves a recently published n?+?1 upper bound on the bisection width of planar graphs without separating triangles and supports the folklore conjecture that a general upper bound of n exists for the bisection width of planar graphs.

  11. Coarse Equivalences of Euclidean Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Linus; Weiss, Richard M; Schillewaert, Jeroen; Struyve, Koen

    2009-01-01

    We prove the following rigidity results. Coarse equivalences between Euclidean buildings preserve spherical buildings at infinity. If all irreducible factors have dimension at least two, then coarsely equivalent Euclidean buildings are isometric (up to scaling factors). If in addition none of the irreducible factors is a Euclidean cone, then the isometry is unique and has finite distance from the coarse equivalence.

  12. High Fin Width Mosfet Using Gaa Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.Tripathi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and optimization of gate-all-around (GAA MOSFETs structures. The optimum value of Fin width and Fin height are investigated for superior subthreshold behavior. Also the performance of Fin shaped GAA with gate oxide HfO2 are simulated and compared with conventional gate oxide SiO2 for the same structure. As a result, it was observed that the GAA with high K dielectric gate oxide has more possibility to optimize the Fin width with improved performance. All the simulations are performed on 3-D TCAD device simulator.

  13. Semileptonic width ratios among beauty hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Bigi, I. I.; Mannel, Th.(Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, D-57068, Siegen, Germany); Uraltsev, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present predictions based on the heavy quark expansion in QCD. We find SU(3) breaking in B mesons suppressed in the framework of the HQE. B_s is expected to have the semileptonic width about 1% lower and Lambda_b about 3% higher when compared to Gamma_{sl}(B_d). The largest partial-rate preasymptotic effect is Pauli interference in the b-->u ell nu channel in Lambda_b, about +10%. We point out that the Omega_b semileptonic width is expected not to exceed that of B_d and m...

  14. Measurement of the invisible W width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the W pair production cross section measurements at the LEP II experiments are used to obtain a measurement of the invisible decay width of the W boson. Such an invisible decay width, resulting from W decay channels that have event signatures that are not consistent with any Standard Model decay, would lower the observed cross section compared to that of the Standard Model. From the LEP combined result from the 183 GeV data gathered in 1997, we obtain an upper limit of 45 MeV at 95% CL. (author)

  15. The Higgs Boson Width is Adjustable

    OpenAIRE

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Dugan, Michael J.; Golden, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    We show that it is possible to construct models in which the width of the Higgs boson is arbitrary - either smaller or larger than a standard model Higgs boson of the same mass. There are no new fields into which the Higgs boson decays. Instead, the coupling of the Higgs boson to the gauge bosons is adjusted. We construct and analyze weakly--coupled models with arbitrary--width Higgs bosons to investigate the phenomenology one might find in a strongly interacting model. In a...

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  17. Concurrent Supermassive Black Hole and Galazy Growth: Linking Environment and Nuclear Activity in Zeta Equals 2.23 H Alpha Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Lucy, A. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Sobral, D.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from an approximately equal 100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2.23 within a 15 × 15 arcmin square region. Narrow-band imaging in the near-IR (within the K band) revealed that the structure contains an additional overdensity of 22 z = 2.23 H alpha-emitting galaxies (HAEs), resulting in 23 unique z = 2.23 HAEs/QSOs (22 within the Chandra field of view). Our Chandra observations reveal that three HAEs in addition to the four QSOs harbor powerfully accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with 2-10 keV luminosities of approximately equal (8-60) × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp-1) and X-ray spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a large comparison sample of 210 z = 2.23 HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), we find suggestive evidence that the AGN fraction increases with local HAE galaxy density. The 2QZ Clus HAEs reside in a moderately overdense environment (a factor of approximately equal 2 times over the field), and after excluding optically-selected QSOs, we find that the AGN fraction is a factor of approximately equal 3.5(+3.8/ -2.2) times higher than C-COSMOS HAEs in similar environments. Using stacking analyses of the Chandra data and Herschel SPIRE observations at 250micrometers, we respectively estimate mean SMBH accretion rates ( M(BH)) and star formation rates (SFRs) for the 2QZ Clus and C-COSMOS samples. We find that the mean 2QZ Clus HAE stacked X-ray luminosity is QSO-like (L(2-10 keV) approximately equal [6-10] × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1)), and the implied M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (1.6-3.2) × 10(exp -3) is broadly consistent with the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation and z approximately equal 2 X-ray selected AGN. In contrast, the C-COSMOS HAEs are on average an order of magnitude less X-ray luminous and have M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (0.2-0.4) × 10(exp -3), somewhat lower than the local MBH/M relation, but comparable to that found for z approximately equal 1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar mean X-ray luminosities. We estimate that a periodic QSO phase with duty cycle approximately 2%-8% would be sufficient to bring star-forming galaxies onto the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation. This duty cycle is broadly consistent with the observed C-COSMOS HAE AGN fraction (Approximately equal 0.4%-2.3%) for powerful AGN with LX approximately greater than 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1). Future observations of 2QZ Clus will be needed to identify key factors responsible for driving the mutual growth of the SMBHs and galaxies.

  18. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg???. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum. PMID:24074073

  19. Nonlocal potentials and resonances of narrow width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses resonances of narrow width in the context of bound states embedded in the continuum spectrum of nonlocal potentials. Feshbach's theory of nuclear reactions leads directly to resonance theory, and we base our discussion here on the techniques he developed for shifting nuclear many-body aspects into effective single-particle nonlocal potentials. In our formulation, the many-body state of the compound nucleus is represented by a single-particle state. The basis for our discussion is a two channel model of a resonance of zero width, with a continuum bound state originating from the coupling of a bound state to the single-particle scattering state. We give a specific example of a model which leads to an arbitrarily narrow (nonzero width) resonance, and demonstrate that the width of the resonance produced by breaking the continuum bound state is proportional to (?-1)2, where the parameter ? is such that ? = 1 corresponds to the condition necessary for the existence of a continuum bound state

  20. Finite width effects in Higgs boson decays as a means of measuring massive particle widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate decays of a standard model Higgs boson via a virtual massive particle and discuss how this depends on the massive particle total width. If the partial width for a Higgs boson to decay via a virtual massive particle can be measured, this gives a measurement of that massive particle close-quote s width. We discuss how one would go about measuring these partial widths of a Higgs boson experimentally, and how this could lead to a measurement of the W boson and t quark widths. For the latter, extreme dependence on the Higgs boson mass and the small H?tt* branching ratios mean that little can be learned about the t quark width. For the former there is also a larger dependence on the Higgs boson mass; however, this can be removed by taking the ratio of H?WW* decays to H?ZZ* decays. This ratio also has the advantage of being fairly insensitive to physics beyond the standard model. Unfortunately, for Higgs boson masses of interest the H?ZZ* branching ratio is small enough that we require many thousands of tagged Higgs boson decays before an accurate measurement of the W width can be made. This is likely to be hard experimentally. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to ? during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than ?. A resulting turn is equal to 3?. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  2. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Keiren, Jeroen J. A.; Willemse, Tim A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equival...

  3. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  4. CMS presents new boundary of Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    At last year's Moriond conference, CERN physicists announced the retirement of the "Higgs-like" particle and the arrival of "boson, Higgs boson". Now, one year later, at the same session in the same conference, physicists are back with more exciting news about the famed particle. This time: the best constraint yet of the Higgs Boson “width”, a parameter that determines the particle’s lifetime.   Rencontres de Moriond 2014. As a key indicator for new physics, the Higgs “width” has long been on the LHC "to-do" list. Now less than two years post-discovery, the CMS experiment has gotten the closest yet to pinning it down, constraining the parameter to < 17 MeV with 95% confidence. This result is some two orders of magnitude better than previous limits: stronger evidence that this boson looks like the Standard Model Higgs boson. "It's been exciting to see how wel...

  5. Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 ?rad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 ?rad, while it was 3.89 ?rad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)

  6. Ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to definitions of the new operational radiation quantities for environmental (area) monitoring recommended by the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) report 39, a spherical ambient dose equivalent meter and a parallel-plane directional dose equivalent meter were designed and developed. Experimental measurements for main performances and calibrations for response factors were made

  7. Incremental and Decremental Maintenance of Planar Width

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    1998-01-01

    We present an algorithm for maintaining the width of a planar point set dynamically, as points are inserted or deleted. Our algorithm takes time O(kn^epsilon) per update, where k is the amount of change the update causes in the convex hull, n is the number of points in the set, and epsilon is any arbitrarily small constant. For incremental or decremental update sequences, the amortized time per update is O(n^epsilon).

  8. H-atom laser without inversion (LWI) in space a possible explanation for the intense, narrow-band, H(alpha) emission frequently observed in reddened early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sorokin, P P

    2001-01-01

    A model is suggested to explain the frequently observed presence of intense, narrow-band, H(alpha) emission lines in the optical spectra of reddened, early-type stars (e.g. HD 44179, IRAS 18179-1346, IRAS 20298+4011). It is proposed that hydrogen atoms surrounding compact H II regions enveloping such stars become coherently phased via a nonlinear photonic mechanism that leads to `electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)'. EIT is a powerful technique that can be used to make a material system transparent to resonant laser radiation, while still allowing large nonlinear resonant processes to occur with high probability. In EIT terminology, a `Lambda' configuration, involving H-atom levels (1s, 3p, and 2s), is here assumed to be operative. The EIT `coupling beam' is the narrow-band H(alpha) radiation predicted to be coherently generated via a standard `laser without inversion (LWI)' scenario when coherently phased atoms are excited to the 3p level by means of a separate nonlinear excitation process known a...

  9. Multi-Wavelength Constraints on the Cosmic Star Formation History from Spectroscopy: the Rest-Frame UV, H-alpha, and Infrared Luminosity Functions at Redshifts 1.9

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Naveen A; Pettini, Max; Adelberger, Kurt L; Shapley, Alice E; Erb, Dawn K; Dickinson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We use a sample of rest-frame UV selected and spectroscopically observed galaxies at redshifts 1.9H-alpha and Spitzer MIPS 24 micron data, to derive the most robust measurements of the rest-frame UV, H-alpha, and infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) at these redshifts. Our sample is by far the largest of its kind, with over 2000 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.9

  10. Interface width of immiscible layered elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender, Patrick; Schmitz, Guido; Ene, Constantin; Galinski, Henning [Institute of Material Physics, WWU Muenster (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Based on the thermodynamics of inhomogeneous systems, it is expected that the chemical transition at an interface between two immiscible components cannot be atomically sharp. Recently, we could demonstrate by atom probe tomography that interfaces of metallic multilayers are indeed of finite chemical width and that this width depends systematically on temperature in thermal equilibrium. Thus, the observed effect becomes especially important for multilayer periodicities in the nanometer range. In the case of GMR devices, it can be made responsible for thermal degradation. In our work, the temperature dependence of the chemical width of layer interfaces of the binary systems Ag/Cu and Fe/Cr and the ternary system Cu/Ni81Fe19 is studied by atom probe tomography. Metallic triple and multilayers were deposited using ion beam sputter deposition technique. For all samples, an isochronal annealing was performed. Owing to the outstanding resolution of the atom probe tomography, a significant broadening of the interface is demonstrated on the depth scale between 1 and 2 nm. Because all three systems are immiscible from a thermodynamic point of view and the derived activation energies are way too small to allow an interpretation by conventional interdiffusion, Cahn-Hilliard theory is used to explain the observed temperature dependence.

  11. Equivalence of multi-norms

    OpenAIRE

    Dales, H. Garth; Daws, Matthew; Pham, Hung Le; Ramsden, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The theory of multi-norms was developed by H.\\ G.\\ Dales and M.\\ E.\\ Polyakov in a memoir that was published in \\emph{Dissertationes Mathematicae}. In that memoir, the notion of `equivalence' of multi-norms was defined. In the present memoir, we make a systematic study of when various pairs of multi-norms are mutually equivalent.

  12. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  13. Optical spectra line width in quantum dots.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 6, Suppl. (2009), 513/1-513/2. ISSN 1708-5284. [International Conference on Composites or Nano Engineering/17./. Honolulu, 26.07.2009-01.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866; GA ?R GA202/07/0643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : quantum dot s * line width * optical spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://wjoe.hebeu.edu.cn/ICCE-17%20proceedings%20Hawaii%20USA/Kral,%20K.%20%28Prague,%20Czech%20Rep.%29%20%20513.pdf

  14. On knot Floer width and Turaev genus

    OpenAIRE

    Lowrance, Adam

    2007-01-01

    To each knot $K\\subset S^3$ one can associated its knot Floer homology $\\hat{HFK}(K)$, a finitely generated bigraded abelian group. In general, the nonzero ranks of these homology groups lie on a finite number of slope one lines with respect to the bigrading. The width of the homology is, in essence, the largest horizontal distance between two such lines. Also, for each diagram $D$ of $K$ there is an associated Turaev surface, and the Turaev genus is the minimum genus of all...

  15. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Wo?niak, P R; Yaron, O

    2015-01-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  16. Stimulus equivalence and supplemental measures on equivalence relations

    OpenAIRE

    Moksness, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The present article introduces stimulus equivalence research as an experimental analysis on how previously unrelated stimuli can generate a specific pattern of responding without being directly taught. Murray Sidman and colleagues set forth that stimulus equivalence should be considered as a basic process in line with other behavioral processes such as reinforcement, discrimination, or generalization. In specific, a direct outcome of the reinforcement contingencies that have previously been i...

  17. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  18. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  19. ICD-10 Master Equivalence Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DISCLAIMER: The Master Equivalence Map includes all existing ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. It is not intended to be used as an ICD-10 conversion or crosswalk tool. The...

  20. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, P A; Vasquez, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, due to these theories, prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Grav...

  1. Egalitarian equivalence under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Clippel, Geoffroy de; Pérez-Castrillo, David; Wettstein, David

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency remain compatible, as they were under complete information. When incentive constraints are more restrictive, on the other hand,...

  2. Stimulus equivalence and rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Linda J.; Thompson, Scott; Hayes, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    The present study examined the occurrence of a novel behavior pattern with respect to a novel configuration of stimuli enabled by the participation of those stimuli in equivalence classes. In Experiment 1, functional substitutabilities were established via equivalence between two independent sets of musical stimuli. Aspects of stimuli from the two sets were then compounded to produce novel stimulus configurations. Behavioral components enabled by each separate class combined to produce novel ...

  3. On the equivalence of types

    OpenAIRE

    Nart, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Types over a discrete valued field $(K,v)$ are computational objects that parameterize certain families of monic irreducible polynomials in $K_v[x]$, where $K_v$ is the completion of $K$ at $v$. Two types are considered to be equivalent if they encode the same family of prime polynomials. In this paper, we characterize the equivalence of types in terms of certain data supported by them.

  4. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake...

  5. A comparative study on the relationship between inter alar width, and inter commissural width on circumferential arc width of maxillary anterior teeth in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Anjana; Cherian, K P; Mhatre, Shirley; Tharakan, Renji George

    2014-12-01

    This study was done to determine the relationship between interalar width and inter commissural width on circumferential arc width of maxillary anterior teeth in dentulous subjects between the age groups of 20-50 years. The study involved 300 subjects, in whom measurements were made from the distal aspect of each maxillary canine, across the facial surfaces of the six anterior teeth, using brass wire and a Vernier calliper. Interalar and inter commissural width were recorded after placing two points and measured with a Vernier calliper. Results were statistically analyzed using unpaired t test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson's correlation coefficient test. This study confirmed the reliability of interalar width to determine the circumferential arc width which can be used as a reference in edentulous patients. PMID:25489157

  6. Direct measurement of the W boson width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S

    2009-12-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W --> enu candidate events. Data from approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded at square root of s = 1.96 TeV by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider are analyzed. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 +/- 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model. PMID:20366142

  7. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  8. Characterizing Width Uniformity by Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L F; Schubert, D; Costa, Luciano da F.; Mutinari, Giancarlo; Schubert, David

    2003-01-01

    This work describes a novel image analysis approach to characterize the uniformity of objects in agglomerates by using the propagation of normal wavefronts. The problem of width uniformity is discussed and its importance for the characterization of composite structures normally found in physics and biology highlighted. The methodology involves identifying each cluster (i.e. connected component) of interest, which can correspond to objects or voids, and estimating the respective medial axes by using a recently proposed wavefront propagation approach, which is briefly reviewed. The distance values along such axes are identified and their mean and standard deviation values obtained. As illustrated with respect to synthetic and real objects (in vitro cultures of neuronal cells), the combined use of these two features provide a powerful description of the uniformity of the separation between the objects, presenting potential for several applications in material sciences and biology.

  9. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  10. Equivalent linearization of impacting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex industrial structures are generally divided in several substructures. Even if the global behavior of the structure may by considered as linear, some substructures present local nonlinearities like impacts, sliding, or plasticity. To study the response of the whole structure the usual method consists of replacing the nonlinear substructures by linear models. The effect of the substructure is made equivalent to the nonlinear effect of the real substructure. Such equivalent models are called Linear Equivalent Models (LEM). This paper is mainly focused on the seismic behaviour of structures impacting on supports with gaps (for example pipes, steam generator etc...). Classical approaches to determine LEM consist generally in replacing the nonlinear support by a spring which stiffness is a function of the gap value and the excitation level. The limitations of such method will be identified in the case of a 1 degree of freedom (DOF) nonlinear oscillator. A new principle of LEM will be proposed and applied to this lDOF structure

  11. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, JØrgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components is obtained. We compare the two procedures in this tutorial article.

  12. Equivalence principle for scalar forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses is a defining feature of general relativity. Here, we clarify the status of the equivalence principle for interactions mediated by a universally coupled scalar, motivated partly by recent attempts to modify gravity at cosmological distances. Although a universal scalar-matter coupling is not mandatory, once postulated, it is stable against classical and quantum renormalizations in the matter sector. The coupling strength itself is subject to renormalization, of course. The scalar equivalence principle is violated only for objects for which either the graviton self-interaction or the scalar self-interaction is important--the first applies to black holes, while the second type of violation is avoided if the scalar is Galilean symmetric. PMID:21231444

  13. The statistical distributions of level widths and conductance peaks in irregularly shaped quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Alhassid, Y

    1995-01-01

    Analytical expressions for width and conductance peak distributions for quantum dots with multi-channel leads in the Coulomb blockade regime are presented for both limits of conserved and broken time-reversal symmetry. The results are valid for any number of non-equivalent and correlated channels, and the distributions are expressed in terms of the channel correlation matrix M in each lead. The matrix M is also given in closed form. A chaotic billiard is used as a model to test numerically the theoretical predictions.

  14. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  15. Equivalences to the triangulation conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Duane

    2002-01-01

    We utilize the obstruction theory of Galewski-Matumoto-Stern to derive equivalent formulations of the Triangulation Conjecture. For example, every closed topological manifold M^n with n > 4 can be simplicially triangulated if and only if the two distinct combinatorial triangulations of RP^5 are simplicially concordant.

  16. Equivalence principle in classical electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, Bozhidar Z

    2003-01-01

    The principle of equivalence in gravitational physics and its mathematical base are reviewed. It is demonstrated how this principle can be realized in classical electrodynamis. In general, it is valid at any given single point or along a path without selfintersections unless the field considered satisfies some conditions.

  17. Optimal testing of equivalence hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, J P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the construction of optimal tests of equivalence hypotheses. Specifically, assume X_1,..., X_n are i.i.d. with distribution P_{\\theta}, with \\theta \\in R^k. Let g(\\theta) be some real-valued parameter of interest. The null hypothesis asserts g(\\theta)\

  18. Teaching Spelling via Stimulus Equivalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ronald M.; Mackay, Harry A.

    The study, involving two severely retarded adolescents, investigated whether matching to sample is capable of extending equivalence classes with spelling responses. In preliminary training, Ss were taught the matching to sample procedure by having them match color patch samples to identical color patch comparisons. The experimenters then trained…

  19. ?onsolidation and creepof subfoundations having finite widths ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors formulate and solve the problem of consolidation and creep of saturated clay subfoundations exposed to localized loads (the two-dimensional problem formulation. The findings have proven that, if the two-dimensional problem is considered, any excessive pore pressure is concentrated immediately under the area exposed to the localized loading, and it penetrates into the depth equal to 1/2 of the strength of the compressed width. Subfoundation subsidence is caused by both shear and 3D deformations of soil. Besides, the ratio of shear-to-3D deformations reaches 10. Therefore, the authors propose to represent the subfoundation subsidence as the sum of shear and 3D deformations.The differential equation of the filter consolidation, if considered as the 2D problem, is solved using the Mathcad software. The software is used to analyze the isolines of excessive pore pressure at any moment following the loading application. New depen- dence representing the ratio of the changing area of the diagram of the average effective tension to the area of the diagram of the average tension in the stabilized condition is proposed by the authors.In the final section of the article, the authors solve the problem of prognostication of the subsidence pattern for the water saturated subfoundation with account for the shear creep of the soil skeleton. The authors employ the visco-elastic Bingham model characterized by time-dependent viscosity ratios. The authors have proven that in this case the subsidence following the shear load will develop as of the moment of application of the external load pro rata the logarithm of time irrespectively of the process of filtration consolidation.????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? (??????? ??????. ????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? 1/2 ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ????? ????, ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? 10. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????.??? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? Mathcad. ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????.? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????

  20. Pulse widths effects on scintillator saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test was performed over an extensive range of irrradiance (approximately five orders of magnitude) to see to what extent organic scintillators responded linearly with x-ray input. At the highest levels of irradiance achievable with the experimental configuration, but only for pulses in the region of 4.0 ns or wider, a degree of nonlinear response was observed for some of the scintillators. The data suggest that at levels below 1 mJ/cm2-ns it is safe to asume that for pulses 6.5 ns and shorter there is no significant level of nonlinearity to x rays with spectrum. For the cases of undoped NE111 and NE111 doped with 10 percent benzophenone, experimental conditions were such that it was possible to accumulate data significantly above the 1 mJ/cm2-ns level of irradiance. It is with these cases that a nonlinear response was observed. It is assumed that the same nonlinearity would have also been noticed had experimental conditions been such that equivalent levels of irradiance could have been achieved at the time the other samples were studied

  1. The Khovanov width of twisted links and closed 3-braids

    OpenAIRE

    Lowrance, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Khovanov homology is a bigraded Z-module that categorifies the Jones polynomial. The support of Khovanov homology lies on a finite number of slope two lines with respect to the bigrading. The Khovanov width is essentially the largest horizontal distance between two such lines. We show that it is possible to generate infinite families of links with the same Khovanov width from link diagrams satisfying certain conditions. Consequently, we compute the Khovanov width for all clo...

  2. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajni? Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  3. Strong Shift Equivalence of $C^*$-correspondences

    OpenAIRE

    Muhly, Paul; Pask, David; Tomforde, Mark

    2005-01-01

    We define a notion of strong shift equivalence for $C^*$-correspondences and show that strong shift equivalent $C^*$-correspondences have strongly Morita equivalent Cuntz-Pimsner algebras. Our analysis extends the fact that strong shift equivalent square matrices with non-negative integer entries give stably isomorphic Cuntz-Krieger algebras.

  4. Equivalence Relations of $AF$-Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of $C^?$-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  5. Probing high-equivalent-width nebular emission at z~7 through spectroscopic confirmation of gravitationally lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Richard, Johan; Schaerer, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies are powerful for constraining the abundance and properties of lower-luminosity galaxies in the reionization era. Here, I present the results from a spectroscopic survey of strongly lensed galaxies in massive cluster fields that resulted in the detection of the Lyman-? line for galaxies at redshifts 5.5 energy distribution from the rest-frame UV to optical and derive physical properties of this faint and distant galaxy population. However, it is now suspected that IRAC 3.6/4.5 ?m broad-band measurements of z>6 galaxies may be significantly affected by the presence of strong nebular emission lines such as H?, H?, and [O III] 4959/5007Å lines. Most notably, at 6.7free of any strong line emission. I will focus the discussion on two galaxies at z>6.7 with very blue [3.6] - [4.5] colors that cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light. This allows us to provide for the first time a clean measurement of the combined strength of these nebular emission lines at high redshift

  6. Nonhumans have not yet shown stimulus equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, two published articles have reported finding stimulus equivalence in nonhumans. One suggested that equivalence was due to the mediation of names. The procedure used trained all components of all tested relations. Because nothing was derived, the defining characteristics of equivalence were not achieved. In the second study a definition of equivalence was proposed that fails to distinguish functional stimulus classes from equivalence classes. The resulting data are not clearly releva...

  7. Neutron-induced background by an alpha-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, M; Bellini, A; Aliotta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Costantini, H; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T

    2013-01-01

    The production of the stable isotope Li-6 in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological Li-6 plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of Li-7 abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of Li-6, contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang Li-6 production must be revisited. The main production channel for Li-6 in the Big Bang is the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an {\\alpha}-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction....

  8. GLACE survey: OSIRIS/GTC Tuneable Filter H$\\alpha$ imaging of the rich galaxy cluster ZwCl 0024.0+1652 at z = 0.395. Part I -- Survey presentation, TF data reduction techniques and catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Cepa, Jordi; García, Ana M Pérez; Domínguez-Sánchez, Helena; Bongiovanni, Ángel; Serra, Ana L; Alfaro, Emilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Balkowski, Chantal; Biviano, Andrea; Bremer, Malcom; Castander, Francisco; Castañeda, Héctor; Castro-Rodríguez, Nieves; Chies-Santos, Ana L; Coia, Daniela; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Geach, James; González-Serrano, Ignacio; Haines, Chris P; McBreen, Brian; Metcalfe, Leo; Oteo, Iván; Pérez-Fournón, Ismael; Poggianti, Bianca; Polednikova, Jana; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José M; Santos, Joana S; Smail, Ian; Smith, Graham P; Temporin, Sonia; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The cores of clusters at 0 $\\lesssim$ z $\\lesssim$ 1 are dominated by quiescent early-type galaxies, whereas the field is dominated by star-forming late-type ones. Galaxy properties, notably the star formation (SF) ability, are altered as they fall into overdense regions. The critical issues to understand this evolution are how the truncation of SF is connected to the morphological transformation and the responsible physical mechanism. The GaLAxy Cluster Evolution Survey (GLACE) is conducting a study on the variation of galaxy properties (SF, AGN, morphology) as a function of environment in a representative sample of clusters. A deep survey of emission line galaxies (ELG) is being performed, mapping a set of optical lines ([OII], [OIII], H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$/[NII]) in several clusters at z $\\sim$ 0.40, 0.63 and 0.86. Using the Tunable Filters (TF) of OSIRIS/GTC, GLACE applies the technique of TF tomography: for each line, a set of images at different wavelengths are taken through the TF, to cover a rest fra...

  9. Spreading width of nuclear excitations at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the damping of single-particle states and giant vibrations in heavy nuclei are calculated as a function of the nuclear excitation energy. The single-particle width increases almost linearly with temperature. The width of giant vibrations remains essentially constant in the interval O?T?3 MeV

  10. Quantifying River Widths of North America from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    River width is a fundamental predictor variable in many hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical models, yet current large-scale models rely on theoretical hydraulic geometry relationships that do not fully capture natural variability in river form. Here we present the first high-resolution dataset of long-term mean width of North American rivers wider than 30 m. The dataset contains 7.93 million georeferenced width measurements derived from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery that were acquired when rivers were most likely to be at mean discharge. We built the dataset by developing an automated procedure that selects and downloads raw imagery, creates cloud-free normalized difference water index images, histogram balances and mosaics them together, and produces a water mask using a dynamic water-land threshold technique. We then visually inspected and corrected the mask for errors and used RivWidth software to calculate river width at each river centerline pixel. We validated our dataset using >1000 United States Geological Survey and Water Survey of Canada in situ gauge station measurements. Error analysis shows a robust relationship between the remotely sensed widths and in situ gauge measurements with an r 2 = 0.86 (Spearman's = 0.81) and a mean absolute error of 27.5 m. We find that North American river widths lie on logarithmic frequency curve with some notable exceptions at widths SWOT) satellite mission.

  11. Research on Fairway Width Design in Curved Bridge Waters Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge construction can promote economic development but if the bridge layout is unreasonable, it would hinder ship’s safety navigation in the bridge area. There is little reference for fairway width design about curved bridge channel in ??inland river navigation standards?? of China. In this study, a fairway width design method in curved bridge channel was put forward by taking into account the scope of turbulent scope of pier, ship’s track width, drifting distance due to wind, drifting distance due to current, the scope of ship’s safety field and additional width in curved channel. The fairway width design concept for curved bridge channel presented in this studyit may provide reference for bridge design and other fairway layout.

  12. Spectrums of equivalent Schauder operators

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Luoyi; Cao, Yang; Tian, Geng

    2012-01-01

    Assume that $T_1,T_2$ are equivalent Schauder operators. In this paper, we show that even in this case their Schauder spectrum may be very different in the view of operator theory. In fact, we get that if a self-adjoint Schauder operator $A$ has more than one points in its essential spectrum $\\sigma_e(A)$, then there exists a unitary spread operator $U$ such that the Schauder spectrum $\\sigma_S(UA)$ contains a ring which is depended by the essential spectrum; if there is onl...

  13. Solar Imagery - GONG (H-alpha)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  14. From body burden to effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary data to calculate the effective committed dose equivalent and the effective dose-equivalent rate from measured body burdens are presented. Both ingestion and inhalation intakes are considered, for single intake as well as for continuous exposure

  15. Auto-equivalences of stable module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Dugas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We construct nontrivial auto-equivalences of stable module categories for elementary, local symmetric algebras over a field k. These auto-equivalences are modeled after the spherical twists of Seidel and Thomas and the $\\mathbb{P}^n$-twists of Huybrechts and Thomas, which yield auto-equivalences of the derived category of coherent sheaves on a variety. For group algebras of p-groups in characteristic p we recover many of the auto-equivalences corresponding to endo-trivial mo...

  16. A Discrete Equivalent of the Logistic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulou EugeniaN

    2010-01-01

    A discrete equivalent and not analogue of the well-known logistic differential equation is proposed. This discrete equivalent logistic equation is of the Volterra convolution type, is obtained by use of a functional-analytic method, and is explicitly solved using the -transform method. The connection of the solution of the discrete equivalent logistic equation with the solution of the logistic differential equation is discussed. Also, some differences of the discrete equivalent logistic equa...

  17. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equ...

  18. Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Kazutaka G; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small and becomes larger as the pulse width increases. We also show that the initial phase is dependent on the pulse width and the detuning.

  19. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maxim...

  20. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the regions of high spectral width are observed both on closed and open field lines the use of the boundary between low and high spectral width as an ionospheric proxy for the open/closed field line boundary is not a simple matter, if indeed it is possible at all.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  1. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America

  2. Stimulus Equivalence: Testing Sidman's (2000) Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2006-01-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional…

  3. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  4. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  5. Enhanced effects of the Lorentz invariance and Einstein equivalence principle violation in 229Th nuclear transition

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2015-01-01

    The Lorentz invariance and Einstein equivalence principle violating effects in the narrow 7.8 eV transition in 229Th nucleus may be 100 000 times larger than in atoms. This transition may be investigated using high precision laser spectroscopy methods, has a very small width, and suppressed systematic effects. Similar values of the effects are expected in 73 eV 235U nuclear transition which is coming within the reach of the laser spectroscopy. Mossbauer transitions give another possibility.

  6. Possible Gigantic Variations on the Width of Viscoelastic Fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Poire, E C; Poire, Eugenia Corvera

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the effect of frequency on the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this, and a conservation law, we obtain a lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. Our results indicate that when a small amplitude signal of the frequency that maximizes the permeability is overimposed to a constant pressure drop, gigantic variations are obtained for the finger width.

  7. Statistical uncertainty in line shift and width interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, I H

    2012-01-01

    Elementary but general statistical analyses determine the uncertainty arising from photon statistics in measuring a line shift and width. Account is taken of a background as well as the required signal.

  8. Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.

  9. Calculation of the decay width of decuplet baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Petschlies, Marcus; Pochinsky, Andrew V; Syritsyn, Sergey S

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the coupling constant and decay width of the decuplet to octet baryon transitions in lattice QCD using the transfer matrix method. The transition amplitude is related to the coupling constant and via the Fermi's Golden Rule to the decay width. The method is applicable for near-degeneracy of the energy levels of initial and final states and, when this condition is fulfilled, yields a good estimate of the decay width. We present results using a hybrid action with domain wall valence quarks on a staggered sea with $350$ MeV pion mass as well as for a domain wall fermion action with $180$ MeV pion mass. We find $\\Gamma\\left( \\Delta \\to \\pi\\,N \\right) = 119\\,( 8)\\,( 8)$ MeV for the transition of Delta to pion-nucleon within the unitary domain wall setup. We also report values for the decay widths of the $\\Sigma^*$ and $\\Xi*$ baryons.

  10. Finite coplanar waveguide width effects in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of finite coplanar waveguide (CPW) width on the measurement of the resonance frequency in thin ferromagnetic films has been characterized for pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry. A shift in resonant frequency is a linear function of the ratio of sample thickness to CPW width. The proportionality constant is experimentally determined to be 0.74±0.1 times the saturation magnetization of the film. The frequency shift may be modeled as arising from an effective magnetic-anisotropy field

  11. Unprecedented grain size effect on stacking fault width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hunter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using an atomistic-phase field dislocation dynamics model, we isolate and investigate grain size and stress effects on the stacking fault width created by partial dislocation emission from a boundary. We show that the nucleation stress for a Shockley partial is governed by size of the boundary defect and insensitive to grain size. We reveal a grain size regime in which the maximum value the stacking fault width attains increases with grain size.

  12. Quantum numbers and decay widths of the psi (3684)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for e+e-?hadrons, e+e-, and ?+?- near 3684 MeV are presented. The psi(3684) resonance is established as having the assignment J/sup PC/=1--. The mass is 3684+-5 MeV. The partial width for decay to electrons is GAMMA/sube/=2.1+-0.3 keV and the total width is GAMMA=228+-56 keV

  13. Bone Mineral Density Value Dependence on Bone Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari-Dizaji

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the most widely used measurement for the assessment of bone mass in osteoporosis. In clinical measurement, bone width can affect bone mineral parameters. The purpose of this study was to examine the dependence of bone mineral pa-rameters on bone width. In this study, DXA measurements were conducted on rabbit bone in vivo using clinical instruments. We have selected rabbit’s bones that have low BMD and more collagen tissue to predict structure not only measures BMD, but is also sensitive to the structure of the bone. To investigate the effect of bone width on the measured parameters, three regions of femur and tibia bones (N=132 were processed: upper (1/3 of length, middle (1/2 of length and lower (2/3 of length for BMC, areal BMD and volumetric BMD. The ANOVA analysis of bone mineral extracted by DXA showed significant differences (P<0.05 between BMC, BMDa and BMDv of six groups of upper, middle and lower parts of the femur and the tibia. It shows that BMC and BMD correlate well with the bone width, but BMDv inversely correlates with bone width. Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between DXA characteristics with bone width and the regression function for each parameter is given. We concluded that BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD in rabbit's bone with collagen fibers more than bone mineral are dependent on bone width. This result may be at least in part due to large precision error measurement of the bone width, in vivo.

  14. Crack width monitoring of concrete structures based on smart film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng

    2014-04-01

    Due to its direct link to structural security, crack width is thought to be one of the most important parameters reflecting damage conditions of concrete structures. However, the width problem is difficult to solve with the existing structural health monitoring methods. In this paper, crack width monitoring by means of adhering enameled copper wires with different ultimate strains on the surface of structures is proposed, based on smart film crack monitoring put forward by the present authors. The basic idea of the proposed method is related to a proportional relationship between the crack width and ultimate strain of the broken wire. Namely, when a certain width of crack passes through the wire, some low ultimate strain wires will be broken and higher ultimate strain wires may stay non-broken until the crack extends to a larger scale. Detection of the copper wire condition as broken or non-broken may indicate the width of the structural crack. Thereafter, a multi-layered stress transfer model and specimen experiment are performed to quantify the relationship. A practical smart film is then redesigned with this idea and applied to Chongqing Jiangjin Yangtze River Bridge.

  15. Laryngeal air column width ratio in predicting post extubation stridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep M Venkategowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Correlation of upper air column width ratio in postextubation stridor patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital between January and December 2013. Patients who were admitted in Intensive Care Unit and intubated for >24 h were included (72 patients. The upper airway air column width ratio (air column width before extubation/air column width after intubation was calculated and compared in patient with or without postextubation stridor. Results: The incidence of stridor was 6.9% (5/72. The duration of mechanical ventilation was 5.60 ± 1.14 days and 3.91 ± 1.45 days in stridor and nonstridor group respectively. In all 5 patients who had stridor, the upper airway air column width ratio was 0.8 or less. Conclusion: Air column width ratio of 0.8 or less may be helpful in predicting postextubation stridor, which should be confirmed by large observational studies.

  16. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Changchun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are performed for the test of the equivalent model of micro-grid. The simulation results show that the equivalent model of micro-grid is effective, and the dynamic of equivalent model is similar with the detailed model of micro-grid. The equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid network and distributed components is suitable for the study of micro-grid.  

  17. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  18. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  19. Snow Water Equivalent Reconstruction Using FIA Tree Ring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, D.; Wang, S. Y.; DeRose, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tree ring widths have been used as a proxy for climate variables for several decades. Temperature, precipitation, and less commonly, snow water equivalent have been modeled in numerous locations throughout the world. Typical studies use carefully selected trees to maximize length of record and sensitivity to the variable of interest, and result in a reconstruction for a specific location. Here we use tree ring data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service to reconstruct snow water equivalent for the state of Utah. This program collects increment cores on a geographically unbiased grid at horizontal resolution of 5-km across the U.S., resulting in an unprecedented sample density of tree ring data, and therefore enabling a reconstruction that covers a large geographic area at a resolution not possible using traditional dendroclimatology methods. Prior work (DeRose et al. 2013) has shown FIA to have coherence with previously published chronologies and with water-year precipitation. Snowpack is a major source of water in the Intermountain West, and yet few tree ring studies have reconstructed SWE and the instrumental record is limited in length, so this reconstruction represents a novel and useful dataset for water users and resource managers alike. Here we present initial results and a preliminary analysis of this unique dataset.

  20. A comparison of equivalent moldable glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmons, Alan

    2013-09-01

    There are over one hundred types of glass that are sold as moldable grades. These moldable glasses are manufactured by a limited number of suppliers; each manufacturer with their own grade and designation. Many of these grades can be found to have groupings across the manufacturers, indicating possible equivalency. Equivalency of materials is an important consideration for an optical system as it would eliminate dependency on a single source, and generate cost competition. In order to establish optical equivalency it is necessary to establish significant similarity between materials. This paper compares moldable glass grades from several equivalent glass types from different manufacturers both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental data is based on precision glass molding of the same lens using different but equivalent grades of glass and using standard lens criteria for comparison. Conclusions on whether specific glass types are truly equivalent are then established.

  1. Micro-cavities based on width modulated SOI waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Al-Saadi, Aws; Franke, Bülent A.; Mahdi, Shaimaa; Szczambura, Miroslaw; Kuhlow, Berndt; Woggon, Ulrike; Zimmermann, Lars; Richter, Harald H.; Stolarek, David; Schrader, Sigurd K.; Eichler, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and investigated one-dimensional (1D) micro-cavities in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) waveguides. The single mode waveguides are fabricated in a 220 nm silicon device layer. The 1D micro-cavities in Fabry-Perot structure consist of two Bragg-mirror regions formed by a sinusoidal modulation of the waveguide width. The mirror regions are separated by a sub-micron spacer. The SOI photonic structures are produced in a CMOS environment using 248 nm DUV lithography. The waveguides as well as the width modulated mirror regions are designed using a single mask and are fabricated in a shallow trench process. The transmission spectra of these width modulated micro-cavities with different mirror reflectivities and cavity lengths are investigated. Q-factors up to 855 could be observed at 1550 nm wavelength with low insertion loss of 1.9 dB. The width modulated micro-cavities, including the mirror regions, have lengths of less than 20 microns and widths of maximum 450 nm. These small foot-print cavities act as band pass filters and can be used as resonators for laser or electro-optic modulation of light.

  2. Effective Widths of Compression-Loaded Plates With a Cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the effects of cutouts and laminate construction on the prebuckling and initial postbuckling stiffnesses, and the effective widths of compression-loaded, laminated-composite and aluminum square plates is presented. The effective-width concept is extended to plates with cutouts, and experimental and nonlinear finite-element analysis results are presented. Behavioral trends are compared for seven plate families and for cutout-diameter-to-plate-width ratios up to 0.66. A general compact design curve that can be used to present and compare the effective widths for a wide range of laminate constructions is also presented. A discussion of how the results can be used and extended to include certain types of damage, cracks, and other structural discontinuities or details is given. Several behavioral trends are described that initially appear to be nonintuitive. The results demonstrate a complex interaction between cutout size and plate orthotropy that affects the axial stiffness and effective width of a plate subjected to compression loads.

  3. The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above equality on ? is above equality on P (?), the power set of ?, and any Borel equivalence relation strictly above equality on the reals is above equality modulo finite on P (?). In this article we examine the ...

  4. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  5. Is the principle of equivalence a principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Bozhidar Z.

    1998-01-01

    The work argues the principle of equivalence to be a theorem and not a principle (in a sense of an axiom). It contains a detailed analysis of the concepts of normal and inertial frame of reference. The equivalence principle is proved to be valid (at every point and along every path) in any gravitational theory based on linear connections. Possible generalizations of the equivalence principle are pointed out.

  6. Tropical rational equivalence on R^r

    OpenAIRE

    Allermann, Lars; Rau, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an improved version of rational equivalence in tropical intersection theory which can be seen as a replacement of chapter 8 of our previous article arXiv:0709.3705v2. Using this new definition, rational equivalence is compatible with push-forwards of cycles. Moreover, we prove that every tropical cycle in R^r is equivalent to a uniquely determined affine cycle, called its degree.

  7. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  8. Symphysis pubis width and unaffected hip joint width in patients with slipped upper femoral epiphysis: widening compared with normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact pathomechanism of slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) remains elusive. This paper suggests a generalised abnormality of the development or maturation of cartilage as a possible cause. It is proposed that SUFE is part of a generalised abnormality of the cartilage formation or maturation resulting in abnormal measurements of cartilaginous joint structures. Radiographs of SUFE patients were assessed for the width of the unaffected hip joint and the symphysis pubis. Comparison with previously published normal values was made. Fifty-one patients were assessed, 35 male, 16 female. The average age was 12 years and 11 months combined for both sexes, 13 years 8 months for boys, 11 years 4 months for girls. Width of the symphysis pubis was assessed on 46 datasets, and comparison with normal values was performed using the Wilcoxon paired rank test. Statistical significance was set as p < 0.05. The average expected width was 5.8 mm (5.4-6.2 mm), the average measured width was 7.3 mm (3.5-12 mm), median value 7.0 mm, and the difference is statistically significant. Cartilage thickness of the uninvolved hip joint could be assessed in 46 cases, and comparison using the Wilcoxon paired rank test resulted in a statistically significant difference (significance set as p < 0.05). The average expected width was 4.9 mm (3.6-6.5 mm), the average measured width was 5.5 mm (4-8 mm), and median 5.3 mm. The results indicate that SUFE patients display a generalised increased width of joint cartilage for their age. This could be due to increased cartilage formation or decreased maturation or a combination of the two, and could explain the increased mechanical vulnerability of these children to normal or abnormal stresses, despite histologically normal organisation of the physis as shown in previous studies. (orig.)

  9. On the width of the full-critical region for thermal fluctuations around the superconducting transition in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crossover temperature between the mean-field and the full-critical regions for the thermal fluctuations around the superconducting transition is calculated for the first time in single-layered and bilayered (with two different distances and tunneling couplings between adjacent layers) superconductors at zero applied magnetic field. These results show, in particular, that the width of the full-critical region is somewhat smaller in layered superconductors than in equivalent bulk materials. These results are then discussed in connection with the superconducting transition of the high-Tc copper oxide superconductors. (orig.)

  10. String-junction model and width of baryonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The string-junction model incorporates a selection rule (covalence rule) as a natural extension of the OZI and FWR rules. This rule forbids meson cascade decay among the different kinds of baryonium, M42, M22 and S02, where the lower (upper) index denotes the total number of quarks (junctions). Consequences of the covalence rule for variation in width of baryonium candidates in the mass range 1.4 -- 2.2 GeV are examined. A possibility is pointed out that above 2 GeV candidates with narrow width contain one or more strange quark pairs with small production cross sections (psi like baryonium), while baryonium states without strange quark pairs above 2 GeV have width broad enough and are expected to account for B anti B duality. A brief comparison is made between the string-junction model with models in the bag picture. (author)

  11. The hadronic off-shell width of meson resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Dumm, D G; Portolés, J

    2000-01-01

    Within the resonance chiral effective theory we study the dressed propagators of the spin-1 fields, as arise from a Dyson-Schwinger resummation perturbatively constructed from loop diagrams with absorptive contributions in the s-channel. We apply the procedure to the vector pion form factor and the elastic pion-pion scattering to obtain the off-shell width of the rho_0 meson. We adopt a definition of the off-shell width of spin-1 meson resonances that satisfies the requirements of analyticity, unitarity, chiral symmetry and asymptotic behaviour ruled by QCD. To fulfil these constraints the resummation procedure cannot consist only of self-energy diagrams. Our width definition is shown to be independent of the formulation used to describe the spin-1 meson resonances.

  12. Fast Width Detection in Corridor Using Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Javadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For many robotics and smart car applications it is vitally important to calculate the width. The present paper proposes a new approach for finding the width of a corridor within a constructed image frame that would keep a robot on a safe track away from walls. The main advantage of this approach is less computation time and hence faster response for path recognition. In this new approach, the Hugh Transform technique is also used as the basis of the provided algorithm. Within the determination of corridor width, in order to avoid the accident in the future researches, some approaches such as identify open space, modeling and reconstruction of three-dimensional space, can also be used.

  13. Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in alluvial rivers. References Crosato A. and Mosselman E., 2009. Simple physics-based predictor for the number of river bars and the transition between meandering and braiding. Water Resources Research, 45, W03424, doi: 10.1029/2008WR007242. Crosato A., Mosselman E., Desta F.B. and Uijttewaal W.S.J., 2011. Experimental and numerical evidence for intrinsic nonmigrating bars in alluvial channels. Water Resources Research, AGU, 47(3), W03511, doi 10.1029/2010WR009714. Frascati A. and Lanzoni S., 2013. A mathematical model for meandering rivers with varying width. J. Geophys. Res.Earth Surf., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20084. Olesen K.W., 1984. Alternate bars in and meandering of alluvial rivers. In: River Meandering, Proc. of the Conf. Rivers '83, 24-26 Oct. 1983, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., ed. Elliott C.M., pp. 873-884, ASCE, New York. ISBN 0-87262-393-9. Repetto R., Tubino, M. and Paola C., 2002. Planimetric instability of channels with variable width. J. Fluid Mech., 457, 79-109. Struiksma N., Olesen K.W., Flokstra C. and De Vriend H.J., 1985. Bed deformation in curved alluvial channels. J. Hydraul. Res., 23(1), 57- 79. Wu F.-C. and Yeh T.-H., 2005. Forced bars induced by variations of channel width: Implications for incipient bifurcation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, F02009, doi:10.1029/2004JF000160. Zolezzi, G., R. Luchi, and M. Tubino (2012), Modeling morphodynamic processes in meandering rivers with spatial width variations, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG4005, doi:10.1029/2012RG000392.

  14. Pulse Width Evolution in GRBs Evidence for Internal Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Ruiz, E

    2000-01-01

    Many cosmological models of GRBs envision the energy source to be a cataclysmic stellar event leading to a relativistically expanding fireball. Particles are thought to be accelerated at shocks and produce nonthermal radiation. The highly variable temporal structure observed in most GRBs has significantly constrained models. By using different methods of statistical analysis in the time domain we find that the width of the large amplitude pulses in GRB time histories remain remarkably constant throughout the classic GRB phase. This is also true for small amplitude pulses. However, small and large pulses do not have the same pulse width within a single time history. We find a quantitative relationship between pulse amplitude and pulse width: the smaller amplitude peaks tend to be wider, with amplitude following a power law with an index of about -2.8. Internal shocks simulated by randomly selecting the Lorentz factor and energy per shell are consistent with a power law relationship. This is strong quantitative...

  15. How large is the spreading width of a superdeformed band?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, A N; Davidson, P M; Hussein, M S

    2005-01-01

    Recent models of the decay out of superdeformed bands can broadly be divided into two categories. One approach is based on the similarity between the tunneling process involved in the decay and that involved in the fusion of heavy ions, and builds on the formalism of nuclear reaction theory. The other arises from an analogy between the superdeformed decay and transport between coupled quantum dots. These models suggest conflicting values for the spreading width of the decaying superdeformed states. In this paper, the decay of superdeformed bands in the five even-even nuclei in which the SD excitation energies have been determined experimentally is considered in the framework of both approaches, and the significance of the difference in the resulting spreading widths is considered. The results of the two models are also compared to tunneling widths estimated from previous barrier height predictions and a parabolic approximation to the barrier shape.

  16. How large is the spreading width of a superdeformed band?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. N.; Sargeant, A. J.; Davidson, P. M.; Hussein, M. S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent models of the decay out of superdeformed (SD) bands can broadly be divided into two categories. One approach is based on the similarity between the tunneling process involved in the decay and that involved in the fusion of heavy ions, and it builds on the formalism of nuclear reaction theory. The other arises from an analogy between the superdeformed decay and transport between coupled quantum dots. These models suggest conflicting values for the spreading width of the decaying superdeformed states. In this paper, the decay of superdeformed bands in the five even-even nuclei in which the SD excitation energies have been determined experimentally is considered in the framework of both approaches, and the significance of the difference in the resulting spreading widths is considered. The results of the two models are also compared to tunneling widths estimated from previous barrier height predictions and a parabolic approximation to the barrier shape.

  17. Steganography in Arabic Text Using Zero Width and Kashidha Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Odeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for secure communication methods has significantly increased with the explosive growth of theinternet and mobile communications. The usage of text documents has doubled several times over the pastyears especially with mobile devices. In this paper we propose a new steganography algorithm for Arabictext. The algorithm employs some letters that can be joined with other letters. These letters are theextension letter, Kashida and Zero width character. The extension letter, Kashida, does not have anychange in the word meaning if joined to other letters. Also, the Zero width character (Ctrl+ Shift +1 doesnot change the meaning. The new proposed algorithm, Zero Width and Kashidha Letters (ZKS, mitigatethe possibility to be discovered by steganoanalysis through using parallel connection and permutationfunction.

  18. Analysis on Longitudinal Dose according to Change of Field Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Seok; Shin, Ryung Mi; Oh, Byung Cheon; Jo, Jun Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Jong Geal [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Caner Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To analyze the accuracy of tumor volume dose following field width change, to check the difference of dose change by using self-made moving car, and to evaluate practical delivery tumor dose when tomotherapy in the treatment of organ influenced by breathing. By using self-made moving car, the difference of longitudinal movement (0.0 cm, 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm) was applied and compared calculated dose with measured dose according to change of field width (1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm) and apprehended margin of error. Then done comparative analysis in degree of photosensitivity of DQA film measured by using Gafchromic EBT film. Dose profile and Gamma histogram were used to measure degree of photosensitivity of DQA film. When field width were 1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm, margin of error of dose delivery coefficient was -2.00%, -0.39%, -2.55%. In dose profile of Gafchromic EBT film's analysis, the movement of moving car had greater motion toward longitudinal direction and as field width was narrower, big error increased considerably at high dose part compared to calculated dose. The more field width was narrowed, gamma index had a large considerable influence of moving at gamma histogram. We could check the difference of longitudinal dose of moving organ. In order to small field width and minimize organ moving due to breathing, it is thought to be needed to develop breathing control unit and fixation tool.

  19. Shift adn width of HeII lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobbe, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 1, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Koenies, A.; Guenter, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Halenka, J. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University of Opole, 45-052 Opole, ul. Oleska (Poland)

    1998-10-01

    Based on a quantum statistical many-particle theory, the shift and the width of some He II lines have been evaluated. Ion dynamics have been treated within the model microfield method. Furthermore, fine structure splitting has been taken into account in order to check whether this effect is the cause for the existing large discrepancies between theoretical and experimental line widths. Besides the electronic contributions to the line shift, the shift due to the inhomogeneities of the ionic microfield as well as that due to the quadratic Stark effect has been included. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristroph, Leif [UT-AUSTIN; Thrasher, Matthew [UT-AUSTIN; Swinney, Harry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  1. Breakdown of the Narrow Width Approximation for New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdine, D; Rainwater, D L

    2007-01-01

    The narrow width approximation is used in high energy physics to reduce the complexity of scattering calculations. It is a fortunate accident that it works so well for the Standard Model, but in general it will fail in the context of new physics. We find numerous examples of significant corrections when the calculation is performed fully off-shell including a finite width, notably from effects from the decay matrix elements. If not taken into account, attempts to reconstruct the Lagrangian of a new physics discovery from data would result in considerable inaccuracies and likely inconsistencies.

  2. Quantum molecular dynamics method with dynamical wavepacket widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To extend the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) to the low energy region, the wavepacket widths were described by the time-dependance variables by introducing variables by introducing the phenomenological Public potential in order to take in approximately the properties of fermion. The properties of the ground state of nucleus (the bond energy and the density distribution) could be reproduced by the extended QMD (EQMD). The results of applying it to the calculation of collision of nucleon with nucleon showed that the wavepacket widths of nucleon expressed by time-dependance variable made increase the reproducibility of the experiments because it was easy to produce nuclear emission and fusion. (S.Y.)

  3. Shift adn width of HeII lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a quantum statistical many-particle theory, the shift and the width of some He II lines have been evaluated. Ion dynamics have been treated within the model microfield method. Furthermore, fine structure splitting has been taken into account in order to check whether this effect is the cause for the existing large discrepancies between theoretical and experimental line widths. Besides the electronic contributions to the line shift, the shift due to the inhomogeneities of the ionic microfield as well as that due to the quadratic Stark effect has been included. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Varying Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Three Phase Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Raju J; Kowsalya M

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with designing a control scheme to eliminate the OFF STATE (T0 state) present in a Space Vector Pulse-Width Modulation; this has been achieved by redesigning the equations for calculating the reference vector of modulating signal (Vref). In widely used Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Vmax of carrier signal is greater than Vref of modulating signal (except when Vref = Vmax). Thus during this state the drive goes into the OFF STATE (T0 state). T0 States are similar m...

  5. Efficient algorithms for estimating the width of nearly normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical physics data samples often conform to Gaussian distributions with admixtures of more slowly varying backgrounds. Under such circumstances the standard deviation is known to be a poor statistical measure of distribution width. As an alternative, the performance of Gini's mean difference is compared with the standard deviation and the mean deviation. Variants which sum over subsets of all possible pairs are shown to have statistical efficiencies comparable to the mean difference and mean deviation but do not require extensive data storage or a priori knowledge of the sample mean. These statistics are reasonable candidates for monitoring the distribution width of a real time data stream. (orig.)

  6. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening angle

    CERN Document Server

    Ristroph, L; Mineev-Weinstein, M B; Swinney, H L; Ristroph, Leif; Thrasher, Matthew; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2005-01-01

    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero surface tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths 1/2 lambda_c, where lambda_c is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0 degrees plus or minus 1.0 degree. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  7. Experimental research methodology crack opening width of reinforced concrete elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????????

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The tasks of experimental researches have been formulated, basic of which are: definition of width  disclosing  cracks at a level of the working fixture and in several levels above the stretched fixture; changes of distance between cracks and length of cracks in process of increase of loading with check of multilevel process of formation cracks; definition of deformations of the fixture and concrete with deformation account of effect in a vicinity of a two-console element. The technique of experimental researches of width of disclosing cracks of ferro-concrete designs from a position of the mechanics destruction is developed which has allowed to decide the put tasks.

  8. Quantum numbers and decay widths of the psi (3095)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present cross sections for e+e-? hadrons, e+e-, and ?+?- near 3095 MeV. The psi (3095) resonance is established as having an assignment J/supP//supC/=1--. The mass is 3095 plus-or-minus4 MeV. The partial width to electrons is GAMMA/sube/=4.8plus-or-minus0.6 keV and the total width GAMMA=69plus-or-minus15 keV. Total rates and interference measurements for the lepton channels are in accord with ?-e universality

  9. NOTE: Field equivalence for clinical electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F. M.; Higgins, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of field equivalence for electron beams is examined using a pencil beam theory applied to circular fields. It is shown that a circular field can be found for a field of any size, shape and energy for which the depth dose distribution is approximately equivalent. The usefulness of the concept in clinical dosimetry is discussed.

  10. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  11. Calabi-Yau completions and orbifold equivalences

    CERN Document Server

    Carqueville, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Calabi-Yau algebras are particularly symmetric differential graded algebras. There is a construction due to Keller called `Calabi-Yau completion' which produces a canonical Calabi-Yau algebra from any homologically smooth dg algebra. Homologically smooth dg algebras also form a 2-category to which the construction of `equivariant completion' can be applied. In this theory two objects are called `orbifold equivalent' if there is a 1-morphism with invertible quantum dimensions between them. Any such relation entails a whole family of equivalences between categories. We show that Calabi-Yau completion and equivariant completion are compatible. More precisely, we prove that any orbifold equivalence between two homologically smooth and proper dg algebras lifts to an orbifold equivalence between their Calabi-Yau completions. As a corollary we obtain orbifold equivalences between Ginzburg algebras of Dynkin quivers.

  12. A Measurement of the Total Width, the Electronic Width, and the Mass of the Upsilon(10580) Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a measurement of the parameters of the $\\Upsilon(10580)$ resonance based on a dataset collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric $B$ factory. We measure the total width $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ to be $(20.7\\pm1.6\\pm2.5) {\\rm MeV}$, the electronic partial width $\\Gamma_{ee} = (0.321\\pm0.017\\pm0.029) {\\rm keV}$ and the mass $M = (10579.3\\pm0.4\\pm1.2) {\\rm MeV/c^2}$.

  13. Width of giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach describing the width of the giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei is proposed. The numerical calculations in the schematic model with equally degenerate equidistant shells for a hot nucleus of mass A=110 carrying no angular momentum are performed which provide a good agreement with the behavior of the recent experimental data. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs

  14. Two-loop light quark corrections to the top width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of computing two-loop fermionic contributions to the width of a heavy quark is described. An analytical formula for this effect in the limit of mass of the quark much larger than the decay products is obtained for the first time. The result confirms previous numerical studies. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  15. Width of the Darwin Table for Forbidden Reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that reflections with structure factor equal to zero are not absent, but have very small Darwin table width, which is determined by a shift of the Bragg point and by structure factors of another type. It is pointed out that this effect cannot be obtained within the Ewald theory of dynamical diffraction on single crystals. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Optical line width in quantum dot or nanotransistor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 8, - (2010), s. 136-140. ISSN 1348-0391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866; GA ?R GA202/07/0643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : quantum dot s * line width * optical spectra * nanotransistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Graf C. P.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; La Cruz I. Heredia-De; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; et al.

    2012-05-04

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Gamma}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Gamma}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top-quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Gamma}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb}| < 0.59 for a high-mass fourth-generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth-generation quark-mixing matrix.

  18. Sinusoidal and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mounika#1 , B. Kiran Babu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inverters inherently have the property of controlling output frequency but the output voltage can’t be varied. Usually to vary output voltage we have to vary supply voltage which is not always possible for this reason PWM techniques gained momentum. Basic aim of PWM technique is to control output voltage and harmonic reduction. Pulse-width modulation (PWM, or pulseduration modulation (PDM, is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by modern electronic power switches. Here we apply PWM techniques like Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and Space Vector Pulse width Modulation (SVPWM to inverter and study its performance. In Sinusoidal Pulse width modulation (SPWM we generate the gating signals by comparing a sinusoidal reference signal with a triangular carrier wave. In Space vector Modulation (SVPWM we consider a rotating phased which is obtained by adding all the three voltages. Modulation is accomplished by switching state of an inverter. Thus by comparing these two techniques we study the performance of our inverter.

  19. Pulse-width-modulated servo valve for autopilot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Valve was developed for autopilot wing-lever system and is to be used in light, single-engine aircraft. Valve is controlled by electronic circuit which feeds pulse-width-modulated correction signals to two solenoids. Valve housing is cast from plastic, making it very economical to fabricate.

  20. Factors determining spectral width of HF echoes from high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ponomarenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral width is one of the standard data types produced by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN. A pronounced latitudinal gradient in spectral width has been reported in the literature and is used as an empirical proxy for the ionospheric footprint of the open-closed field-line boundary. In this work we investigated the daytime radar echo properties near the spectral width boundary using a multi-frequency sounding regime. We have found that the relatively large spectral width values ?150 m/s observed poleward of the boundary are produced by ionospheric irregularities with lifetime ?l?10–25 ms, which is essentially independent of the scale size. These irregularities are statistically co-located with low-energy (~100 eV electron precipitation, which may play a major role in producing F-region turbulence above 75 MLAT via restructuring the ionospheric plasma on time scales ~?l.

  1. The width of gamma-ray burst spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the $EF_E$ spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/GBM and CGRO/BATSE. The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability $<10^{-6}$). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes -- synchrotron and blackbody radiation -- the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78% of long GRBs and 85% of short GRBs are incompatible wi...

  2. An Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Aoki, Masato; /Fermilab; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Lambda}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Lambda}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the CKM matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb'}| < 0.59 for a high mass fourth generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth generation quark mixing matrix.

  3. Estimation of the Beam Width in Magnetic Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Peregudov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimation of the beam width in magnetic sector mass spectrometers is proposed. This method consists in the restoration of the initial ion density distribution function in a beam cross-section before the receiving collector slit and can be used for the qualitative estimation of the mass spectrometer ion-optical scheme.

  4. Finite-width effects in the mixing of neutral mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a contribution of the finite-width (mass-smearing) effects to the mixing of neutral mesons. It was shown, that this contribution is dominant in the D-meson system and large in the K-meson one. An account of the mass-smearing effects allows to explain some discrepancy between standard predictions and experimental data in these cases.

  5. Scaling of divertor power footprint width in RF-heated type-III ELMy H-mode on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated experiments for the scaling of divertor power footprint width have been performed in the ITER-relevant radio-frequency (RF)-heated H-mode scheme under the lower single null, double null and upper single null divertor configurations in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) under lithium wall coating conditioning. A strong inverse scaling of the edge localized mode (ELM)-averaged power fall-off width with the plasma current (equivalently the poloidal field) has been demonstrated for the attached type-III ELMy H-mode as ?q?Ip?1.05 by various heat flux diagnostics including the divertor Langmuir probes (LPs), infra-red (IR) thermograph and reciprocating LPs on the low-field side. The IR camera and divertor LP measurements show that ?q,IR??q,div-LPs/1.3=1.15Bp,omp?1.25, in good agreement with the multi-machine scaling trend during the inter-ELM phase between type-I ELMs or ELM-free enhanced D? (EDA). H-mode. However, the magnitude is nearly doubled, which may be attributed to the different operation scenarios or heating schemes in EAST, i.e., dominated by electron heating. It is also shown that the type-III ELMs only broaden the power fall-off width slightly, and the ELM-averaged width is representative for the inter-ELM period. Furthermore, the inverse Ip (Bp) scaling appears to be independent of the divertor configurations in EAST. The divertor power footprint integral width, fall-off width and dissipation width derived from EAST IR camera measurements follow the relation, ?int ? ?q + 1.64S, yielding ?intEAST=(1.39±0.03)?qEAST+(0.97±0.35) mm. Detailed analysis of these three characteristic widths was carried out to shed more light on their extrapolation to ITER. (paper)

  6. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  7. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF PULSE WIDTH FOR 150 RADIO NORMAL PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J. L. [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yuncheng University, 044000, Yuncheng, Shanxi (China); Wang, H. G., E-mail: hgwang.gz@gmail.com [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, 510006, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-01

    The frequency dependence of the pulse width is studied for 150 normal pulsars, mostly selected from the European Pulsar Network, for which the 10% multifrequency pulse widths can be well fit with the Thorsett relationship W {sub 10} = A?{sup ?} + W {sub 10,} {sub min}. The relative fraction of pulse width change between 0.4 GHz and 4.85 GHz, ? = (W {sub 4.85} – W {sub 0.4})/W {sub 0.4}, is calculated in terms of the best-fit relationship for each pulsar. It is found that 81 pulsars (54%) have ? < –10% (group A), showing considerable profile narrowing at high frequencies, 40 pulsars (27%) have –10% ?? ? 10% (group B), meaning a marginal change in pulse width, and 29 pulsars (19%) have ? > 10% (group C), showing a remarkable profile broadening at high frequencies. The fractions of the group-A and group-C pulsars suggest that the profile narrowing phenomenon at high frequencies is more common than the profile broadening phenomenon, but a large fraction of the group-B and group-C pulsars (a total of 46%) is also revealed. The group-C pulsars, together with a portion of group-B pulsars with slight pulse broadening, can hardly be explained using the conventional radius-to-frequency mapping, which only applies to the profile narrowing phenomenon. Based on a recent version of the fan beam model, a type of broadband emission model, we propose that the diverse frequency dependence of pulse width is a consequence of different types of distribution of emission spectra across the emission region. The geometrical effect predicting a link between the emission beam shrinkage and spectrum steepening is tested but disfavored.

  8. Overtraining increases the strength of equivalence relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bortoloti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether overtraining of the conditional discriminations that are the prerequisites of equivalence class formation strengthens the relations among stimuli in an equivalence class. Two groups of college students formed equivalence classes that consisted of faces that expressed emotions (A and arbitrary stimuli (B, C, D, and E. The overtraining group had twice as many training trials as the regular training group. For participants who formed equivalence classes, relational strength was evaluated by the generalization of expressed emotions from the A to the D stimuli, which was measured using a semantic differential. An untrained control group showed semantic differential scores that were positive for happy faces, negative for angry faces, and neutral for the D stimuli. For the experimental groups, the D stimuli, when included in equivalence classes, produced scores that were similar to those produced by the equivalent faces. The overtraining group, however, had average values closer to the values of the faces than the regular training group. These results indicate that the amount of training is an experimental parameter that influences the strength of relations between stimuli that are found to be equivalent in matching-tosample tests.

  9. Overtraining increases the strength of equivalence relations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Bortoloti; Naomi Cristina, Rodrigues; Mariéle Diniz, Cortez; Naiene, Pimentel; Julio C. de, Rose.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether overtraining of the conditional discriminations that are the prerequisites of equivalence class formation strengthens the relations among stimuli in an equivalence class. Two groups of college students formed equivalence classes that consisted of faces that exp [...] ressed emotions (A) and arbitrary stimuli (B, C, D, and E). The overtraining group had twice as many training trials as the regular training group. For participants who formed equivalence classes, relational strength was evaluated by the generalization of expressed emotions from the A to the D stimuli, which was measured using a semantic differential. An untrained control group showed semantic differential scores that were positive for happy faces, negative for angry faces, and neutral for the D stimuli. For the experimental groups, the D stimuli, when included in equivalence classes, produced scores that were similar to those produced by the equivalent faces. The overtraining group, however, had average values closer to the values of the faces than the regular training group. These results indicate that the amount of training is an experimental parameter that influences the strength of relations between stimuli that are found to be equivalent in matching-to-sample tests.

  10. Stimulus Equivalence: Testing Sidman's (2000) Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2006-01-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional discriminations (Ax–Bx, Cx–Bx) for two stimulus classes, A1B1C1 and A2B2C2. A class-common reinforcer, R3, was presented following correct respondi...

  11. The equivalent ellipsoid of a magnetized body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalent ellipsoid for magnetized bodies of arbitrary shape can be determined by imposing the equality between the demagnetization factors of the two shapes of equal volume. It is shown that the 'commonsense' criterion for mapping two different shapes by imposing the equality of the demagnetization factors for equal aspect ratios often results in large errors. We propose a general method for the rigorous determination of the equivalent ellipsoid. The cases of the exact equivalent ellipsoids for discs, cylinders with elliptical cross section and prisms are worked out and discussed

  12. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown

  13. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  14. The Field Of Equivalent Some Numeral Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kashirsky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some properties of methods for numeral solving partial differential equations. A number of identities are proved to show there are regions of equivalency for finite differences methods and finite elements Ritz-method.

  15. Interferometers: equivalent sine condition and pseudoholographic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J M; Lemmi, C C

    1990-05-01

    We show experimentally how an interferometer, which in its current use does not have pseudoholographic properties, acquires them when the working conditions lead to the nonfulfillment of the equivalent sine condition. PMID:20563099

  16. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H., E-mail: hcoronado@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico); Okon, E., E-mail: eokon@filosoficas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-08

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule.

  17. ICD-10 Oregon-Specific Equivalence Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DISCLAIMER: The Oregon-Specific Equivalence Map includes ICD-9 codes translated to ICD-10 based on a clinical and policy analysis of each code. It is not intended...

  18. Topological equivalence in families of complex polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, A; Bodin, Arnaud; Tibar, Mihai

    2003-01-01

    We show that two polynomials, joined by a continuous family of polynomial functions $f_s \\colon \\mathbb{C}^n \\to \\mathbb{C}$ of constant degree and with isolated singularities, are topologically equivalent if $n\

  19. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS...Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment...the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the...

  20. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; ?wiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kur?a, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S

    2011-01-14

    We extract the total width of the top quark, ?(t), from the partial decay width ?(t ? Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t ? Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3??fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is ?(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)??GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of ?(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25) ??s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L. PMID:21405220

  1. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  2. Direct Measurement Of W Boson Decay Width At Do

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Q

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the first direct measurement of the W boson decay width, ?W, with the W decay into an electron and neutrino final state using data collected by the DØ detector at the Tevatran collider. This analysis has used the W event sample collected in the Run I physics program. Backgrounds that contaminate the W sample are estimated using additional DØ data samples. Detailed Monte Carlo samples are used to template the transverse mass spectrum of the W events to extract the W decay width. Various sources of the systematic uncertainties of this measurement are investigated. The direct measurement result obtained in this thesis work is ?W = 2.231+0.145?0.138(stat) ± 0.092(sys) GeV. This result is consistent with the prediction of the Standard Model and the result from the indirect measurement from the DØ experiment.

  3. Tunable plasmonic Bragg reflector with different graphene nanoribbon widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huawei; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Sheng, Shiwei

    2015-09-01

    We propose and numerically analyze a Bragg reflector composed of periodically arranged graphene nanoribbon waveguides with different widths. Because of the unique property of the graphene edge mode, the effective index contrast used for the reflector can be obtained by designing graphene nanoribbons with different widths without changing the dielectric substrate structure. Good band stop filtering characteristics are shown at the band gap of the transmission spectrum by numerical simulation. The performance of the proposed Bragg reflector is analyzed in terms of different parameters, such as the chemical potential, the number of periods, and the size of the unit cell. The proposed Bragg reflector will be expected to have important potential applications in the highly integrated SPP-based photonic devices.

  4. Spectral properties and dynamical tunneling in constant-width billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, B; Guhr, T; Gutkin, B; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A

    2014-08-01

    We determine with unprecedented accuracy the lowest 900 eigenvalues of two quantum constant-width billiards from resonance spectra measured with flat, superconducting microwave resonators. While the classical dynamics of the constant-width billiards is unidirectional, a change of the direction of motion is possible in the corresponding quantum system via dynamical tunneling. This becomes manifest in a splitting of the vast majority of resonances into doublets of nearly degenerate ones. The fluctuation properties of the two respective spectra are demonstrated to coincide with those of a random-matrix model for systems with violated time-reversal invariance and a mixed dynamics. Furthermore, we investigate tunneling in terms of the splittings of the doublet partners. On the basis of the random-matrix model we derive an analytical expression for the splitting distribution which is generally applicable to systems exhibiting dynamical tunneling between two regions with (predominantly) chaotic dynamics. PMID:25215795

  5. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Troy; /University Coll. London

    2008-08-01

    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb{sup -1} is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 {+-} 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 {+-} 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  6. Determination of the width of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Altona, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; \\degAsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besan?con, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdinb, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-P?erez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Th?ery, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M -C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; ?Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; D?eliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, 47 R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J -F; Grohsjean, A; Gr?unendahl, S; Gr?unewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haasc, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; La Cruz, I Heredia-De; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffr?e, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Justed, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kur?ca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garciae, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Maga?na-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Mart?\\inez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Garz?on, G J Otero y; Owen, 1 M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridgec, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; P?etroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M -A; Podesta-Lermaf, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M -E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; S?anchez-Hern?andez, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; S?oldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S Uvarov S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P

    2010-01-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, Gamma_t, from the partial decay width Gamma(t -> W b) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t -> W b) measured in ttbar events using up to 2.3 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron ppbar Collider. The result is Gamma_t = 1.99 +0.69 -0.55 GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of tau_t = (3.3 +1.3 -0.9) x 10^-25 s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |Vtb'| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  7. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the the...

  8. Refining the Proof of Planar Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, A; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We outline a full non-perturbative proof of planar (large-N) equivalence between bosonic correlators in a theory with Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation and one with Dirac fermions in the two-index (anti)symmetric representation. In a particular case (one flavor), this reduces to our previous result - planar equivalence between super-Yang--Mills theory and a non-supersymmetric ``orientifold field theory.'' The latter theory becomes one-flavor massless QCD at N=3.

  9. Mimicking Meaningfulness:stimulus equivalence and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Nartey, Richard Korley

    2010-01-01

    The current paper reflects on some of the basic issues in the concept of stimulus equivalence as proposed by Murray Sidman. The paired-associate paradigm was the predominant method being employed to demonstrate how organisms come to treat dissimilar events that had not been related before as if they were the same. Several papers by Murray Sidman after the demise of the pair-associates methodology brought a paradigm shift in stimulus equivalence research from the paired-associates realm to the...

  10. Quantitative and methodological aspects of stimulus equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mara, Henry

    1991-01-01

    The number of different ways of linking stimuli in the training phase of a conditional discrimination procedure designed to teach equivalence relations has hitherto been underestimated. An algorithm from graph theory that produces the correct number of such different ways is given. The establishment of equivalence relations requires transitive stimulus control. A misconception in a previous analysis of the conditions necessary for demonstrating transitive stimulus control is indicated. This m...

  11. The nonequivalence of behavioral and mathematical equivalence.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, R. R.; Green, G

    1992-01-01

    Sidman and his colleagues derived behavioral tests for stimulus equivalence from the axiom in logic and mathematics that defines a relation of equivalence. The analogy has generated abundant research in which match-to-sample methods have been used almost exclusively to study interesting and complex stimulus control phenomena. It has also stimulated considerable discussion regarding interpretation of the analogy and speculation as to its validity and generality. This article reexamines the Sid...

  12. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, M.

    2000-01-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  13. Bisimulations Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata (PA) [20] have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL [11] and its extension PCTL? [4]. Various behavioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly str...

  14. GIT-equivalence beyond the ample cone

    OpenAIRE

    Berchtold, Florian; Hausen, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Given an algebraic torus action on a normal projective variety with finitely generated total coordinate ring, we study the GIT-equivalence for not necessarily ample linearized divisors, and we provide a combinatorial description of the partially ordered set of GIT-equivalence classes. As an application, we extend in the $\\QQ$-factorial case a basic feature of the collection of ample GIT-classes to the partially ordered collection of maximal subsets with a quasiprojective quo...

  15. Fucoidan Promotes the Reconstruction of Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased exp...

  16. On the generation of equivalent hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to the equivalence problem (in phase space) is presented. Given a Hamiltonian describing a system of particles with two degrees of freedom (and the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation), it is shown how to find the most general family of Hamiltonian functions that generates new Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the following (and essential) characteristic, here defined as equivalence: every new solution is also a solution of the original Hamilton-Jacobi equation and vice-versa. (Author)

  17. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  18. Equivalent Scale on Food Consumption in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Haydar Sengul

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates effect of household composition and size on food consumption in the rural and urban areas of Turkey through equivalence scales that vary by household member age. Food consumption studies on Turkey have tended to ignore the impact of household composition in consumption traditionally analyses of food consumption are conducted on a per capita basis. Equivalence scales were estimated by Engel method using Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) data of the State I...

  19. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    V. DE BONIS; Paladini, R.

    1998-01-01

    According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an ...

  20. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Amalendu; Park, Jinhyun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine and Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the semi-topological $K_0$-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths ...

  1. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian; Esbjerg, P

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little attention in previous studies. In this paper we report on finding for syrphids, spiders and carabids, three taxonomic groups with different mobility, all important for conservation biological control. ...

  2. Shifts and widths of Feshbach resonances in atomic waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidian, Shahpoor; Melezhik, Vladimir S.; Schmelcher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We develop and analyze a theoretical model which yields the shifts and widths of Feshbach resonances in an atomic waveguide. It is based on a multichannel approach for confinement-induced resonances (CIRs) and atomic transitions in the waveguides in the multimode regime. We replace in this scheme the single-channel scalar interatomic interaction by the four-channel tensorial potential modeling resonances of broad, narrow and overlapping character according to the two-channel...

  3. Characterization of the optical line width in individual quantum dots.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 7, ?. 3 (2010), s. 73-78. ISSN 1708-5284 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866; GA ?R GA202/07/0643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : quantum dot s * line width * optical spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://wjoe.hebeu.edu.cn/2010.3/12.pdf

  4. Stark widths of faint Si-II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line profiles of faint Si-II lines of astrophysical interest are observed in a conventional shock tube. Electron density is 1.3 x 1023 m-3, and the temperature is 11.000 K. The Stark effect is the dominant broadening mechanism. The Si-II line at 419.07 nm (multiplet 7.26, Moore 1965) Stark width is measured and compared with theoretical prediction. (authors)

  5. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  6. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Huang, Shi-Ming; Pu, Lin; Shi, Yi; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Ji, Li; Kang, Jun-Yong

    2010-12-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  7. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Shi-Ming; Pu Lin; Shi Yi; Huang Kai; Wu Zhi-Ming; Ji Li; Kang Jun-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure o...

  8. Sinusoidal and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mounika#1 , B. Kiran Babu

    2013-01-01

    Inverters inherently have the property of controlling output frequency but the output voltage can’t be varied. Usually to vary output voltage we have to vary supply voltage which is not always possible for this reason PWM techniques gained momentum. Basic aim of PWM technique is to control output voltage and harmonic reduction. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulseduration modulation (PDM), is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by m...

  9. Total Width of 125 GeV Higgs Boson

    OpenAIRE

    Barger, Vernon(Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706, USA); Ishida, Muneyuki; Keung, Wai-yee

    2012-01-01

    By using the LHC and Tevatron measurements of the cross sections to various decay channels relative to the standard model Higgs boson, the total width of the putative 125 GeV Higgs boson is determined as 6.1 +7.7-2.9 MeV. We describe a way to estimate the branching fraction for Higgs decay to dark matter. We also discuss a No-Go theorem for the gammagamma signal of the Higgs boson at the LHC.

  10. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  11. Neutron Resonance Widths and the Porter-Thomas Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Volya, Alexander; Weidenmüller, Hans A.; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence has recently put the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD) for partial neutron widths into question. We identify two terms in the effective Hamiltonian that violate orthogonal invariance (the basis for the PTD). Both are due to the coupling to the decay channels. We show that realistic estimates for the coupling to the neutron channel and for non-statistical gamma decays yield significant modifications of the PTD.

  12. Neutron Resonance Widths and the Porter-Thomas Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volya, Alexander; Weidenmüller, Hans A.; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Experimental evidence has recently put the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD) for partial neutron widths into question. We identify two terms in the effective Hamiltonian that violate orthogonal invariance (the basis for the PTD). Both are due to the coupling to the decay channels. We show that realistic estimates for the coupling to the neutron channel and for nonstatistical ? decays yield significant modifications of the PTD, similar to the observed ones.

  13. Influence of Doppler Bin Width on GPS Acquisition Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Bernhard C.; Vogel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition is a search in two continuous dimensions, where the digital algorithms require a partitioning of the search space into cells. Depending on the partitioning of the Doppler frequency domain, more than one cell might contain significant signal energy. We present an expression for the expected values of the cells' energies to analyze the impact of the Doppler bin width on detection and false alarm probabilities.

  14. Width of phonon states on defects of various dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Falkovsky, L. A

    2001-01-01

    We consider the localized phonon states created by defects of various geometries near the edge of an optical-phonon branch. The averaged Green's function is calculated to study the Raman line shape. The phonon scattering by the defects induces broadening and line shape asymmetry. The contribution of localized states to Raman spectra has a form of shoulder with a width proportional to the square root of defect concentration.

  15. Steganography in Arabic Text Using Zero Width and Kashidha Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Odeh; Khaled Elleithy

    2012-01-01

    The need for secure communication methods has significantly increased with the explosive growth of theinternet and mobile communications. The usage of text documents has doubled several times over the pastyears especially with mobile devices. In this paper we propose a new steganography algorithm for Arabictext. The algorithm employs some letters that can be joined with other letters. These letters are theextension letter, Kashida and Zero width character. The extension letter, Kashida, does ...

  16. An Unified FPT Algorithm for Width of Partition Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomé, Pascal; Bouvier, Tom; Mazoit, Frédéric; Nisse, Nicolas; Pardo Soares, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Au cours de ces dernières années, plusieurs algorithmes polynomiaux ont été conçus pour décider si un graphe a largeur arborescente (resp., largeur en chemin, branch-width, etc) au plus k, où k est un paramètre fixe. Amini et al. (Discrete Mathematics'09) ont utilisé les notions d'arbres de partition et de fonctions de partition comme une vision généralisée des décompositions des graphes classiques, à savoir la décomposition arborescente, la décomposition en chemin, la décomposition en branch...

  17. Blind City Maps Watermarking Utilizing Road Width Information

    OpenAIRE

    Hornes, E.; Nikolaidis, N.; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) data is a valuable asset that should be protected using digital rights management (DRM) techniques. This paper introduces a new technique for watermarking city maps by altering a basic parameter of a road segment, namely its width to length ratio. A watermark is embedded in the map using an appropriate quantization of this ratio. The watermarked map retains its visual quality since the quadrilateral shape of the buildings and their alignment with road bound...

  18. Markov Equivalences for Subclasses of Loopless Mixed Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Kayvan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss four problems regarding Markov equivalences for subclasses of loopless mixed graphs. We classify these four problems as finding conditions for internal Markov equivalence, which is Markov equivalence within a subclass, for external Markov equivalence, which is Markov equivalence between subclasses, for representational Markov equivalence, which is the possibility of a graph from a subclass being Markov equivalent to a graph from another subclass, and...

  19. A New Measurement of the $\\pi^0$ Radiative Decay Width

    CERN Document Server

    Larin, I; Clinton, E; Ambrozewicz, P; Lawrence, D; Nakagawa, I; Prok, Y; Teymurazyan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Asratyan, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A M; Burkert, V; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagoulian, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, G; Ent, R; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Gevorkyan, S; Glamazdin, A; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; He, J; Ito, M; Jiang, L; Kashy, D; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korchin, A; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovsky, V; Li, X; Martel, P; Matveev, V; Mecking, B; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Miskimen, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Ritchie, B; Rodrigues, T E; Salgado, C; Shahinyan, A; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W; Underwood, J; Vasiliev, A; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M; Zhou, S

    2010-01-01

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

  20. Fast Radio Burst Pulse Widths, Scattering and Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2014-01-01

    By comparing the dispersion measures and pulse widths of two fast radio bursts (FRB) for which pulse widths were measured we show that if the dispersion measures resulted from propagation through the intergalactic medium at cosmological distances and the widths were a consequence of scattering by single thin screens, then the screens' electron densities were $\\gtrsim 20$/cm$^3$, $10^8$ times the intergalactic density. This problem is resolved if the radiation scattered close to its source, where high densities are possible. Observation of dispersion indices close to their low density limit of $-2$ sets a model-independent upper bound on the electron density and a lower bound on the size of the dispersive plasma cloud, excluding terrestrial or Solar System origin. Much of the dispersion measures may be attributed to scattering regions about 1 AU from the sources, with electron densities $\\sim 3 \\times 10^8$/cm$^3$. Transparency to inverse bremsstrahlung requires that scattering occurred in regions with tempera...

  1. The Virgo cluster distance from 21 cm-line widths

    CERN Document Server

    Federspiel, M; Sandage, A

    1997-01-01

    The distance of the Virgo cluster is derived in the B band from the 21 cm-line width-absolute magnitude relation. The latter is calibrated using 18 spirals with Cepheid distances mainly from HST. The calibration is applied to a complete sample of non-peculiar spirals with i>45 deg and lying within the optical (n=49) or X-ray (n=35) contour of the cluster, resulting in a mean cluster distance of (m-M)_0=31.58+/-0.24 mag (external error) or 20.7+/-2.4 Mpc. The mean distance of subcluster A is 0.46+/-0.18 mag smaller than that of subcluster B, but the individual distances of the members of the two substructures show considerable overlap. The distance modulus is corrected by -0.07 mag for the fact that cluster members have lower H I-surface fluxes and are redder in (B-I) at a given line width than the (field) calibrators. Different sources of the B magnitudes and line widths have little effect on the resulting distance. Different precepts for the internal-absorption correction change the result by no more than +/...

  2. The width of the {omega} meson in the nuclear medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona (Spain); Tolos, L. [Facultat de Ciencies, Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molina, R. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Ibaraki (Japan); Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Aptdo. 22085, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    We evaluate the width of the {omega} meson in nuclear matter. We consider the free decay mode of the {omega} into three pions, which is dominated by {rho}{pi} decay, and replace the {rho} and {pi} propagators by their medium-modified ones. We also take into account the quasielastic and inelastic processes induced by a vector-baryon interaction dominated by vector meson exchange, as well as the contributions coming from the {omega}{yields}K anti K mechanism with medium-modified K, anti K propagators. We obtain a substantial increase of the {omega} width in the medium, reaching a value of 121 {+-} 10 MeV at normal nuclear matter density for an {omega} at rest, which comes mainly from {omega}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N, {omega}NN {yields} {pi}NN processes associated to the dominant {omega} {yields} {rho}{pi} decay mode. The value of the width increases moderately with momentum, reaching values of around 200MeV at 600MeV/c. (orig.)

  3. Phase envelopes for variable width square well chain fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingyu; Elliott, J. Richard

    2001-04-01

    Discontinuous Molecular Dynamics (DMD) and Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory (TPT) have been used to study square-well (SW) chain molecules with variable well-width SW potentials. Well widths of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 are considered for united atom models of ethane, n-hexane, and n-octane. The properties studied are the acentric factor, vapor pressure, and liquid density. DMD of purely repulsive potentials was applied to record the number of interaction sites in different wells, giving estimates of the TPT contributions from the attractive potential. DMD simulations of the complete potential near the coexistence condition were used to refine estimates of the derivative quantities related to the compressibility factor. Evaluations of this approach indicate that it is accurate and efficient at ??>0 and ?>0.28. Phase diagrams of pure fluids also indicate quantitative accuracy for DMD/TPT at reduced temperatures less than 0.9. The results show that wider wells improve the representation of thermodynamic properties for longer chains. The well width becomes a function of the molecular weight, however.

  4. Optimization of current injection pulse width in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Il; Park, Chunjae; Pyo, Hyun Chan; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2007-01-01

    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we inject electrical current into a volume conductor to induce a distribution of magnetic flux density. By measuring the internal magnetic flux density using an MR scanner, we reconstruct images of cross-sectional conductivity and current density distributions. One of the most important technical problems in MREIT is to reduce the noise level in the measured magnetic flux density data since it limits the quality of reconstructed images. The noise level is inversely proportional to the current injection pulse width and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of MR magnitude images. Knowing that we cannot simultaneously increase both factors for a chosen echo time, we show that there is an optimal current injection pulse width minimizing the noise level. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimal current injection pulse width and appropriately chosen data acquisition time considerably reduce the noise level. We suggest future works to reduce undesirable side effects due to an increased data acquisition time. PMID:17151414

  5. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  6. Comparing Fixed and Variable-Width Gaussian Networks.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?rková, V?ra; Kainen, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 57, September (2014), s. 23-28. ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Gaussian radial and kernel networks * Functionally equivalent networks * Universal approximators * Stabilizers defined by Gaussian kernels * Argminima of error functionals Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014

  7. Measurements of the Mass, Total Width and Two-Photon Partial Width of the $\\eta_{c}$ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, G; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Vogel, H; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Urner, D; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J

    2000-01-01

    Using 13.4 $fb^{-1}$ of data collected with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have observed 300 events for the two-photon production of ground-state pseudo-scalar charmonium in the decay $\\eta_c$ -> $K_S K^{\\mp} \\pi^{\\pm}$. We have measured the $\\eta_c$ mass to be (2980.4 +- 2.3 (stat) +- 0.6 (sys)) MeV and its full width as (27.0 +- 5.8 (stat) +- 1.4 (sys)) MeV. We have determined the two-photon partial width of the $\\eta_c$ meson to be (7.6 +- 0.8 (stat) +- 0.4 (sys) +- 2.3 (br)) keV, with the last uncertainty associated with the decay branching fraction.

  8. What Shape is a Landslide? Statistical Patterns in Landslide Length to Width Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Witt, Annette

    2015-04-01

    We present a variety of methods to approximate landslide shapes by ellipses, to test the goodness of fit of an elliptical approximation to each landslide shape and to examine the probability distribution of the length-to-width ratio (L/W) of the corresponding ellipses in two substantially complete landslide inventories. The planimetric shape of an individual landslide area is controlled by factors such as terrain morphology, material involved and speed, with landslide shapes varying in total area (AL), type of shape, and their length-to-width ratios. Here, we use mapped polygons from two substantially complete inventories: (i) 11,111 landslides triggered by the 1994 (M = 6.7) Northridge Earthquake, USA (ii) 9,594 landslides triggered by heavy rain during the 1998 Hurricane Mitch in Guatemala. For each landslide polygon, various methods of approximating an elliptical shape were tested. The best method found was fitting a convex hull (CH) to each landslide polygon, approximating an ellipse with equivalent area (ACH) and Perimeter (PCH) of the convex hull and then scaling this ellipse to match the area of the original landslide (AL). The goodness-of-fit (e) of elliptical approximations was tested using a measure of the area of intersection (AI) between the original landslide polygon area (AL) and the elliptical approximation: e = 1 - (2(AL - AI)/AL) =-1+2 AI/AL. The goodness-of-fit e ranges from -1 for an imperfect fit and +1 for a perfect fit. We found that the percentage of landslides having a 'good fit' (e ? 0.5) of the ellipse to the inventory landslide polygons were 99% of landslides from the Northridge inventory and 84% of landslides from the Guatemala inventory. For these landslides, the non-dimensional value of the ratio of the ellipse length-to-width (L/W) was calculated. For the Guatemala landslides, 50 % of landslide ellipse L/W values are ? 2.17, and 90 % of values are ? 3.6. For the Northridge landslides, 50 % of landslide ellipse L/W values are ? 2.5, and 90 % of values are ? 4.4. We find that the probability of the length-to width ratio (L/W) follows a three-parameter inverse gamma distribution, which has an inverse power-law decay for medium and large L/W values (values of L/W > ~2) and exponential rollover for small L/W values. The 'rollover' value where p(L/W) is at its maximum occurs at L/W = 2.1 and L/W = 1.8 for Northridge and Guatemala respectively. There is generally good agreement between the two inventories' statistical distributions in spite of differences in location, triggering mechanism and geology. This work will aid in stochastic modelling of triggered landslide event inventories where it may not be feasible to deterministically define each landside shape. Using these trends, landslide shape can be approximated as an ellipse, and the length to width ratio of that ellipse selected from a general statistical distribution.

  9. Equivalent diffusion coefficient and equivalent diffusion accessible porosity of a stratified porous medium

    OpenAIRE

    Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is an important transport process in low permeability media, which play an important role in contamination and remediation of natural environments. The calculation of equivalent diffusion parameters has however not been extensively explored. In this paper, expressions of the equivalent diffusion coefficient and the equivalent diffusion accessible porosity normal to the layering in a layered porous medium are derived based on analytical solutions of the diffusion equation. The expres...

  10. Development and characterisation of a new line width reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Zhu, Fan; Heidelmann, Markus; Fritz, Georg; Bayer, Thomas; Kalt, Samuel; Fluegge, Jens

    2015-11-01

    A new critical dimension (CD, often synonymously used for line width) reference material with improved vertical parallel sidewalls (IVPSs) has been developed and characterised. The sample has a size of 6?mm??×??6?mm, consisting of 4 groups of 5??×??5 feature patterns. Each feature pattern has a group of five reference line features with a nominal CD of 50?nm, 70?nm, 90?nm, 110?nm and 130?nm, respectively. Each feature pattern includes a pair of triangular alignment marks, applicable for precisely identifying the target measurement position, e.g. for comparison or calibration between different tools. The geometry of line features has been investigated thoroughly using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and a CD atomic force microscope (CD-AFM). Their results indicate the high quality of the line features: the top corner radius of??<7?nm, vertical sidewall (slope mostly within 90°??±??0.5°) and very small line width variation (LWR down to 0.36?nm). The application of the developed sample for calibrating the scaling factor and effective tip geometry of the CD-AFM are demonstrated. The scaling factor of the CD-AFM is calibrated to be 0.9988, coinciding well with the theoretical value 1 as the tool was calibrated to a traceable metrological atomic force microscope. The effective width of a CDR120-EBD tip is calibrated as 128.32?nm. Finally, a strategy for the non-destructive calibration of the developed sample is introduced, which enables the application of the reference material in practice.

  11. Mesiodistal width and proximal enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurélio de Carvalho, Macha; Flávio, Vellini-Ferreira; Helio, Scavone-Junior; Rívea Inês, Ferreira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating measurements relative to the mesiodistal crown width and enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids. The sample consisted of 40 extracted sound bicuspids (20 right and 20 left), selected from white patients (mean age: 23.7 ± 4.2 years), who were treated orthodontica [...] lly with tooth extraction at a private clinic in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axis through the proximal surfaces, parallel to the buccal side, to obtain 0.6-mm central sections. The mesiodistal crown width and proximal enamel thickness were measured using a stereoscopic microscope connected to a computer. Measurements for right and left teeth, as well as the mesial and distal enamel thicknesses in the total sample, were compared by the Wilcoxon test (? = 0.05). The mesiodistal crown width mean values found were 7.51 mm (± 0.54) on the right side and 7.53 mm (± 0.35) on the left side. The mean enamel thickness on the distal surfaces for both sides was 1.29 mm (right: s.d. = 0.12 and left: s.d. = 0.18). The mean values for the mesial surfaces were 1.08 mm (± 0.14) and 1.19 mm (± 0.25), on the right and the left sides, respectively. No significant differences were found between the crown measurements and enamel thicknesses on the left and right sides. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces. Reliable measurements of enamel thickness are useful to guide stripping, which may be an attractive alternative to tooth extraction because it allows the transverse arch dimension to be maintained.

  12. Influence of diffusion on the Moessbauer line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analytically calculated the change of the Moessbauerline due to diffusion of Moessbaueratoms. The correlation effects due to diffusion via the vacancy mechanism have been taken into account. Starting from kinetic equations for single-particle and two-particle densities we have derived an effective equation for the diffusion of Moessbaueratoms using a superposition approximation valid for small vacancy concentrations. This yields the well-known 'encounter-model' which describes the motion of a Moessbaueratom as the result of the action of single vacancies which induce jumps of the Moessbaueratom independently and (due to the small vacancy concentration) consecutively in time. The jumps of the Moessbaueratoms are described by an effective jump frequency matrix whose range extends beyond nearest neighbours because a single vacancy can induce more than one jump of a Moessbaueratom. Due to the correlation of all jumps induced by a single vacancy the effective jump frequency matrix is time dependent. Since the probability for more than one jump of a Moessbaueratom with a single vacancy decreases exponentially with the number of jumps one can use an iteration procedure with respect to the number of Moessbaueratom jumps to calculate the jump frequency matrix. Using an iteration to the second jump we have calculated the self-correlation function of a Moessbaueratom and the resulting change of the Moessbauerline in a single crystal. The result is approximately a broadened Lorentzian line. For the large wave numbers relevant to Moessbauereffect the width varies strongly with the direction of the emission of the Moessbauer quanta relative to the crystal axes. The correlation of the jumps of the Moessbaueratom results in a reduction of the jump frequency and thus of the width, but it also changes the anisotropy of the width and its dependence on the wavenumber. The results are compared with existing theories used to interprete experimental results. (orig.)

  13. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  14. Measured Stark widths of several spectral lines of Pb III

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Medina, Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    The Stark full widths at half of the maximal line intensity (FWHM, ?) have been measured for 25 spectrallines of PbIII (15 measured for the first time) arising from the 5d106s8s, 5d106s7p, 5d106s5f and 5d106s5g electronic configurations, in a lead plasma produced by ablation with a Nd:YAG laser. The optical emission spectroscopy from a laser-induced plasma generated by a 10 640 Å radiation, with an irradiance of 2 × 1010 W cm? 2 on a lead target (99.99% purity) in an atmosphere of argon was a...

  15. On the mass and width of the lowest scalar glueball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use Laplace sum rules to find the values of masses and widths of the lowest scalar glueball compatible with the present knowledge of the vacuum condensates. Our results favour the existence of the light (M < or approx. 0.7 GeV) and narrow (? < or approx. 0.06 GeV) lowest scalar glueball. As a by-product we estimate the value of the dimension-eight condensate, the result being in contradiction with the one obtained using the vacuum saturation hypothesis. (orig.)

  16. Effect of stance width on multidirectional postural responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S. M.; Fung, J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of stance width on postural responses to 12 different directions of surface translations was examined. Postural responses were characterized by recording 11 lower limb and trunk muscles, body kinematics, and forces exerted under each foot of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. A quasi-static approach of force analysis was done, examining force integrals in three different epochs (background, passive, and active periods). The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were quantified for each direction, and muscle tuning curves were used to determine the spatial activation patterns for each muscle. The results demonstrate that the horizontal force constraint exerted at the ground was lessened in the wide, compared with narrow, stance for humans, a similar finding to that reported by Macpherson for cats. Despite more trunk displacement in narrow stance, there were no significant changes in body center of mass (CoM) displacement due to large changes in center of pressure (CoP), especially in response to lateral translations. Electromyographic (EMG) magnitude decreased for all directions in wide stance, particularly for the more proximal muscles, whereas latencies remained the same from narrow to wide stance. Equilibrium control in narrow stance was more of an active postural strategy that included regulating the loading/unloading of the limbs and the direction of horizontal force vectors. In wide stance, equilibrium control relied more on an increase in passive stiffness resulting from changes in limb geometry. The selective latency modulation of the proximal muscles with translation direction suggests that the trunk was being actively controlled in all directions. The similar EMG latencies for both narrow and wide stance, with modulation of only the muscle activation magnitude as stance width changed, suggest that the same postural synergy was only slightly modified for a change in stance width. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the trunk displacement, as well as of CoP displacement, was modified based on the degree of passive stiffness in the musculoskeletal system, which increased with stance width. The change from a more passive to an active horizontal force constraint, to larger EMG magnitudes especially in the trunk muscles and larger trunk and CoP excursions in narrow stance are consistent with a more effortful response for equilibrium control in narrow stance to perturbations in all directions.

  17. Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed

  18. A Study of Large Width Unsigned Multipliers on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiplication is an important fundamental operation in most signal and image processing applications. High definition image processing has put a huge demand on fast and massive data processing and shrinking the CMOS process made the silicon real estate available to provide for such massive data processing building blocks. We compare large width multipliers from an architecture point of view, maximum clock frequency, latency, throughput, resource usage, power consumption. We use a flopped combinational baseline multiplier for our comparison and we use the same FPGA platform to be fair in our analysis. We mention some remarks and conclude that shift and add is the best.

  19. The ?? cloud contribution to the ? width in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, D.Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Rapp, R.

    2014-01-01

    The width of the ? meson in cold nuclear matter is computed in a hadronic many-body approach, focusing on a detailed treatment of the medium modifications of intermediate ?? states. The ? and ? propagators are dressed by their self-energies in nuclear matter taken from previously constrained many-body calculations. The pion self-energy includes Nh and ?h excitations with short-range correlations, while the ? self-energy incorporates the same dressing of its 2? cloud with a full 3-momentum dep...

  20. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2008-01-01

    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  1. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  2. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2015-01-01

    PWM DC-DC power converter technology underpins many energy conversion systems including renewable energy circuits, active power factor correctors, battery chargers, portable devices and LED drivers.  Following the success of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters this second edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded to cover the latest challenges and advances in the field. Key features of 2nd edition:  Four new chapters, detailing the latest advances in power conversion, focus on: small-signal model and dynamic characteristics of the buck converter in continuous conduction

  3. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results

  4. Special Characteristics of Tissue-Equivalent Ionization Chambers and Scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses: the field of application for tissue-equivalent detectors, and the composition of standard human tissue, tissue-equivalent plastics, gases and scintillators, and gives examples of tissue-equivalent detectors. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...60 Primary or equivalent treatment requirements. (a...least primary or equivalent treatment. (b) The applicant...received primary or equivalent treatment. (c)(1) An applicant may request that the...

  6. Equivalence and Isomorphism for Boolean Constraint Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Böhler, E; Reith, S; Vollmer, H; Reith, Steffen; Vollmer, Heribert

    2002-01-01

    A Boolean constraint satisfaction instance is a conjunction of constraint applications, where the allowed constraints are drawn from a fixed set B of Boolean functions. We consider the problem of determining whether two given constraint satisfaction instances are equivalent and prove a Dichotomy Theorem by showing that for all sets C of allowed constraints, this problem is either polynomial-time solvable or coNP-complete, and we give a simple criterion to determine which case holds. A more general problem addressed in this paper is the isomorphism problem, the problem of determining whether there exists a renaming of the variables that makes two given constraint satisfaction instances equivalent in the above sense. We prove that this problem is coNP-hard if the corresponding equivalence problem is coNP-hard, and polynomial-time many-one reducible to the graph isomorphism problem in all other cases.

  7. Bisimulations Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata (PA) have beensuccessfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent andstochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have beenstudied, where the most often used logics for expressing propertiesare based on PCTL and its extensionPCTL*. Variousbehavioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, asa powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization forPAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalencesare well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences inducedby PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strongbisimulation relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL*exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizingPCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, ourpaper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences inthis setting.

  8. Accelerating classical charges and the equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Toth, Viktor T

    2014-01-01

    We compare the behavior of a charged particle in a gravitational field and empty space. We resolve the apparent conflict between the Lorentz-Dirac equation and Larmor's formula of radiation by noting that the former describes an electron that is itself accelerated by an electromagnetic field. If instead, a hypothetical particle is considered that is accelerated by a non-electromagnetic force, Larmor's formula is found to be consistent with the accelerating particle's equation of motion. We consider the consequences concerning the equivalence principle and find that it is indeed violated if one demands that the same electromagnetic field be present in both the gravitational and accelerating cases; however, if one allows for the external electromagnetic fields to be different, the validity of the equivalence principle is restored. In either case, the basic idea behind the equivalence principle, which leads to a geometrized theory of gravity, remains unaffected.

  9. On the Equivalence of Quadratic APN Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Carl; Byrne, Eimear; Mcguire, Gary; Nebe, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the CCZ-equivalence of a pair of APN functions is generally quite difficult. In some cases, when seeking to show that a putative new infinite family of APN functions is CCZ inequivalent to an already known family, we rely on computer calculation for small values of n. In this paper we present a method to prove the inequivalence of quadratic APN functions with the Gold functions. Our main result is that a quadratic function is CCZ-equivalent to the APN Gold function...

  10. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  11. Equivalences between blocks of cohomological Mackey algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Rognerud, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Let $G$ be a finite group and $(K,\\mathcal{O},k)$ be a $p$-modular system "large enough". Let $R=\\mathcal{O}$ or $k$. There is a bijection between the blocks of the group algebra $RG$ and the central primitive idempotents (the blocks) of the so-called cohomological Mackey algebra $co\\mu_{R}(G)$. Here, we prove that a so-called permeable derived equivalence between two blocks of group algebras implies the existence of a derived equivalence between the corresponding blocks of ...

  12. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  13. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  14. Width and strength of the hot Giant Dipole Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of particle evaporation in the properties of the Giant Dipole Resonance built on excited states is investigated. Two phenomena are discussed. The first one is based on the idea that the finite lifetime of the compound nucleus gives a finite width for any of the compound nucleus levels. This leads to the prediction of a fast increase of the width of the observed GDR transitions which is compatible with the data and may partly explain the observed saturation of the photon yield. The second new physical effect is based on the fact that each individual particle emission induces a strong fluctuation of the dipole moment of the nucleus. When the time between two particle emissions becomes comparable to the period of the harmonic oscillation, the transition between the order and the chaos is reached and the collective vibration is suppressed. From this simple argument a quenching factor can be deduced and compared with existing suppression factors. (K.A.) 19 refs., 7 figs

  15. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects. PMID:17927030

  16. Constraining the mass and width of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the existence of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance, which is recently listed by the Particle Data Group as a one-star nucleon resonance, by using a covariant isobar model for kaon photoproduction and assuming that the resonance has $J^p=1/2^+$, in accordance with our previous finding. After the inclusion of this resonance the changes in the total $\\chi^2$ show two clear minima at $M_{N^*}=1650$ and 1696 MeV, which correspond to two different resonance states. The former corresponds to the narrow nucleon resonance found in our previous investigation, whereas the latter corresponds to a new resonance found as we increase the resonance width. From the latter we derive the mass and width relation of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance. We observe that the properties of both the $N^*(1685)$ and $N^*(1710)P_{11}$ resonances are strongly correlated. Although the best fit of the present work yields $M_{N^*}=1696$ MeV and $\\Gamma_{N^*}=76$ MeV, the apparently small $N^*(1710)P_{11}$ coupling constant to the $K^+\\Lambda...

  17. Stellar loci I. Metallicity dependence and intrinsic widths

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu

    2014-01-01

    Stellar loci are widely used for selection of interesting outliers, reddening determinations, and calibrations. However, hitherto the dependence of stellar loci on metallicity has not been fully explored and their intrinsic widths are unclear. In this paper, by combining the spectroscopic and re-calibrated imaging data of the SDSS Stripe 82, we have built a large, clean sample of dwarf stars with accurate colors and well determined metallicities to investigate the metallicity dependence and intrinsic widths of the SDSS stellar loci. Typically, one dex decrease in metallicity causes 0.20 and 0.02 mag decrease in colors u-g and g-r, and 0.02 and 0.02 mag increase in colors r-i and i-z, respectively. The variations are larger for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor ones, and for F/G/K stars than for A/M ones. Using the sample, we have performed two dimensional polynomial fitting to the u-g, g-r, r-i, and i-z colors as a function of color g-i and metallicity [Fe/H]. The residuals, at the level of 0.029, 0.008, 0...

  18. Varying Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Three Phase Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with designing a control scheme to eliminate the OFF STATE (T0 state present in a Space Vector Pulse-Width Modulation; this has been achieved by redesigning the equations for calculating the reference vector of modulating signal (Vref. In widely used Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Vmax of carrier signal is greater than Vref of modulating signal (except when Vref = Vmax. Thus during this state the drive goes into the OFF STATE (T0 state. T0 States are similar mirror image states; hence they have no good or bad effect on the system. But there is an amount of switching loss occurring when the switch executes the T0 state. The new equations for reference vector resulted in reducing the switching losses to half the actual value. Also it has various other advantages like. Increase in DC-Link utilization from 15.47 to 21.14 at 2 KHz carrier frequency and Reduction in THD of the system compared to widely used SVPWM.

  19. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.

    2010-09-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  20. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK General § 157.07 Equivalents. The Coast...substituted for a design or equipment requirement that is also required under the MARPOL 73/78. [CGD 82-28, 50 FR...

  1. Household Equivalence Scales and Household Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Plug, E.J.S.; Praag, B.M.S. van; Hartog , J.

    1998-01-01

    Strictly equal utility is seldom used as a compensation principle in real-world policy applications. We specify less radical norms for deriving income tax rates and find that equivalence defined as equal proportional sacrifice best fits the observed income tax structure in the Netherlands. We use the Leyden welfare function of income as our measure of utility.

  2. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  3. Neutron Attenuation Through Borated Tissue Equivalent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture process in biological tissues occurs at low energies and account for a very significant fraction of the tissue dose for very low energy neutrons (thermal and epithermal). Study the behaviour of slow, thermal and epithermal neutron flux emerged through different layers of both water and tissue equivalent material (TEM) was carried out using the transmission method. The water, as reference material, was chosen for all intents and can be considered to be tissue equivalent when corrected for density while tissue equivalent material in the present study was prepared from glycerol, urea, sucrose and water with density of 1.12 g/cm3. In order to enhance the linear energy transfer in the biological tissue, boric acid of different concentrations (up to 3%) was added to the tissue equivalent material. The results show a pronounced peak of flux (consequently the dose) at depth 40 mm followed by an exponential decrease in both water and TEM for slow and thermal neutrons flux without any appearance of this peak in case of epithermal neutrons. Results also show that the maximum values of macroscopic cross sections were appeared at epithermal neutrons for both un borated TEM and all values of boric acid concentrations through TEM.

  4. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  5. Canonical equivalence between massive spin 1 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Arias, Pio J.; Perez-Mosquera, Jean C.

    2004-01-01

    The model of Cremmer-Scherck and Proca are considered in dimensions greater than 3+1. It is obtained that the Proca model correspond to a gauged fixed version of the Cremmer-Scherck one, and we show their canonical equivalence.

  6. Spin^c structures and homotopy equivalences

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    We show that a homotopy equivalence between manifolds induces a correspondence between their spin^c-structures, even in the presence of 2-torsion. This is proved by generalizing spin^c-structures to Poincare complexes. A procedure is given for explicitly computing the correspondence under reasonable hypotheses.

  7. GIT-equivalence and diagonal actions

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenkova, Polina Yu.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the GIT-equivalence classes of linearized ample line bundles for the diagonal actions of the linear algebraic groups $SL(V)$ and $SO(V)$ on ${\\mathbb{P}(V)^{m_1}\\times \\mathbb{P}(V^*)^{m_2}}$ and $\\mathbb{P}(V)^m$ respectively.

  8. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  9. Equivalent martingale measures and Lévy processes

    OpenAIRE

    José Santiago Fajardo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we compute equivalent martingale measures when the asset price returns are modelled by a Lévy process. We follow the approach introduced by Gerber and Shiu (1994).Neste trabalho calculamos as medidas martingalas equivalentes quando os retornos dos preços dos ativos são modelados por um Processo de Lévy. Seguimos a formulação introduzida por Gerber and Shiu (1994).

  10. Stimulus Equivalence in Rudimentary Reading and Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Harry A.

    1985-01-01

    Programs were designed to teach three severely retarded adolescents to use individual anagram letters to construct the appropriate color words when shown color patches. After learning visual equivalences between colors and printed words, Ss demonstrated auditory reading-comprehension (matching printed words to dictated words) and oral reading…

  11. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, ?. 1 (2008), s. 23-30. ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Correlation of Density Pedestal Width and Neutral Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. Q.; Nevins, W. M.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pedestal studies in DIII-D and C-Mod find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length.[1][2] These results suggest that the width may be set by the combined effects of neutral and plasma transport. This paper is a report on fluid simulations of boundary plasma using BOUT code [3] with neutral source added. Thus both neutral and plasma physics are treated. The plasma transport is self-consistently driven by boundary turbulence due to the resistive X-point mode, while neutral is described by a simple fluid diffusive model. The plasma profiles are evolved on the same time scale as the turbulence for the given heat source from the core plasma and particle source from the neutrals. For prescribed neutral profiles, we find the formation of a density pedestal inside the separatrix in the L-mode even though the calculated plasma diffusion coefficients are almost radially constant and without the formation of a temperature pedestal. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling can provide the dominant control for the size of the H-mode density barrier. The width of the density barrier, and its relationship to pedestal height and neutral penetration length at the midplane, will be given by using hyperbolic-tangent fit to the simulation data. [1] R.J.Groebner, M.A.Mahdavi, A.W.Leonard, 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference(Lyon, France, 14 to 19 October 2002), IAEA-CN-94/EX/C2-3. [2] D.Mossessian, J.W.Hughes, M.Greenwald, et al., ``Local dimensionless identity method as a tool for studying H-mode pedestal'', The 9th Joint US-European TTF workshop (Madison, Wisconsin, April 2nd - 5th, 2003). [3] X.Q.Xu, R.H.Cohen, T.D.Rognlien and J.R.Myra, Physics of Plasma, Vol. 7, 1951-1958 (2000).

  13. Comment on the width and the life-time of multiphonon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between the width of a multiphonon state and the width of the single phonon is discussed. While it is clear that the inverse of the multiphonon life-time 1/? is an additive function of the inverse of the phonon life-times 1/?i, it is pointed out that this is not necessarily true for the width of the multiphonon response function, and that the phonon widths can be quadratically additive. (author) 10 refs

  14. Effect of the Detector Width and Gas Pressure on the Frequency Response of a Micromachined Thermal Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Courteaud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the design and the environmental conditions of a micromachined thermal accelerometer, based on convection effect, are discussed and studied in order to understand the behavior of the frequency response evolution of the sensor. It has been theoretically and experimentally studied with different detector widths, pressure and gas nature. Although this type of sensor has already been intensively examined, little information concerning the frequency response modeling is currently available and very few experimental results about the frequency response are reported in the literature. In some particular conditions, our measurements show a cut-off frequency at ?3 dB greater than 200 Hz. By using simple cylindrical and planar models of the thermal accelerometer and an equivalent electrical circuit, a good agreement with the experimental results has been demonstrated.

  15. Crack observation and width measurement of in-operation coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T. (and others)

    1988-03-01

    A cooled lance with a TV camera at the head is lowered through a heating flue. Crack width is assessed to 0.5 mm by comparison with brick width. Measurements at Wakayama coking plant show that crack width follows a Poisson frequency distribution.

  16. The Blaschke-Lebesgue problem for constant width bodies of revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Anciaux, Henri; Georgiou, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    We prove that among all constant width bodies of revolution, the minimum of the ratio of the volume to the cubed width is attained by the constant width body obtained by rotation of the Reuleaux triangle about an axis of symmetry.

  17. Electroweak supersymmetric quantum corrections to the top quark width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the MSSM, we compute the electroweak one-loop supersymmetric quantum corrections to the width ?(t?W+b) of the canonical main decay of the top quark. The results are presented in two on-shell renormalization schemes parametrized either by ? or GF. While in the Standard Model, and in the Higgs sector of the MSSM, the electroweak radiative corrections in the GF-scheme are rather insensitive to the top quark mass and are of order of 1% at most, the rest (''genuine'' part) of the supersymmetric quantum effects in the MSSM amount to a non-negligible correction that could be about one order of magnitude larger, depending on the top quark mass and of the region of the supersymmetric parameter space. These new electroweak effects, therefore, could be of the same order (and go in the same direction) as the conventional leading QCD corrections. ((orig.))

  18. On the pulse-width statistics in radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kolonko, M; Maciesiak, K; Kolonko, Marcin; Gil, Janusz; Maciesiak, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulations of pulsar periods, pulse-widths and magnetic inclination angles are performed. Using the available observational data sets we study a possible trial parent distribution functions by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov significance tests. We also use an additional condition that the numbers of generated interpulses, whether from both magnetic poles or from single pole, are at the observed levels. We conclude that the parent distribution function of magnetic inclination angles is neither flat nor cosine but it is a more complicated function with a local maximum near alpha=25deg and another weaker one near alpha=90deg. The plausible distribution function of pulsar periods is represented by the gamma function. The beaming fraction describing the fraction of observable radio pulsars is about 0.12.

  19. Directed path-width and monotonicity in digraph searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barat, Janos

    2006-01-01

    Directed path-width was defined by Reed, Thomas and Seymour around 1995. The author and P. Hajnal defined a cops-and-robber game on digraphs in 2000. We prove that the two notions are closely related and for any digraph D, the corresponding graph parameters differ by at most one. The result is achieved using the mixed-search technique developed by Bienstock and Seymour. A search is called monotone, in which the robber's territory never increases. We show that there is a mixed-search of D with k cops if and only if there is a monotone mixed-search with k cops. For our cops-and-robber game we get a slightly weaker result: the monotonicity can be guaranteed by using at most one extra cop.

  20. Gaussian Radial and Kernel Networks with Varying and Fixed Widths.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?rková, V?ra

    Vol. 2. Prague : Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2013 - (van Emde Boas, P.; Groen, F.; Italiano, G.; Nawrocki, J.; Sack, H.), s. 95-102 ISBN 978-80-87136-15-7. [SOFSEM 2013. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /39./. Špindler?v Mlýn (CZ), 26.01.2013-31.01.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP202/11/1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Gaussian radial and kernel networks * functionally equivalent networks * universal approximators * stabilizers defined by Gaussian kernels Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  1. Alpha-particle decay widths of levels in 19F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 19F in the excitation region 4x12C(11B, ?) reaction, using a recoil-coincidence technique to measure values of ??/?. The information obtained has been combined with known values of ? ? to determine alpha-particle widths in the range ? 1-100 eV for various levels. The highest lying level observed to have a significant gamma-decay probability was a new level at Ex = 10.927 ± 0.008 MeV with ??/? = 0.051 ± 0.004. The 11/24-, 9.873 MeV level was observed to have a surprisingly large value for ??/? of 0.43 ± 0.04, which gives ?? = 1.4 ± 0.3 eV, ?? = 0.10 ± 0.03 eV, and a total width ? 2.6 ± 0.4 eV. The present measurements of ?? for the 11/21- and 11/24- levels, together with previous information for the 11/22- and 11/23- levels, provide for the first time a complete unambiguous picture of the distribution of alpha-strength among these 11/2- levels and clarify a long outstanding problem concerning the 11/2- member of the ?? = 1/2- alpha-cluster band. We conclude that the 11/22-, 8.953 MeV level is the best candidate for this alpha-cluster state, and there is very little configuration mixing among the 11/2- levels. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  3. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  4. GIT-equivalence beyond the ample cone

    CERN Document Server

    Berchtold, F; Berchtold, Florian; Hausen, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Given an algebraic torus action on a normal projective variety with finitely generated total coordinate ring, we study the GIT-equivalence for not necessarily ample linearized divisors, and we provide a combinatorial description of the partially ordered set of GIT-equivalence classes. As an application, we extend in the $\\QQ$-factorial case a basic feature of the collection of ample GIT-classes to the partially ordered collection of maximal subsets with a quasiprojective quotient: for any two members there is at most one minimal member comprising both of them. Moreover, we demonstrate in an example, how our theory can be applied for a systematic treatment of ``exotic projective orbit spaces'', i.e., projective geometric quotients that do not arise from any linearized ample divisor.

  5. Motivatio for different characterization of Equivalent Persegrams.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Václav

    Ostrava : University of Ostrava, 2009 - (Novák, V.; Pavliska, V.; Št?pni?ka, M.), s. 67-78 [Czech-Japan Seminar on Data Analysis and Decision-Making under Uncertainty /12./. Litomyšl (CZ), 24.09.2009-27.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2C06019; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ?R GA201/09/1891 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(XE) ICC/08/E010 Eurocores LogICCC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Compositional model * Equivalence problem * persegram Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/MTR/kratochvil-motivation for different characterization of equivalent persegrams.pdf

  6. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Adunas, G Z; Ahluwalia, D V

    2001-01-01

    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and the general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we present arguments that support the view that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principl...

  7. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  8. Speed and Accuracy in Fluency and Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Petursson, Petur Ingi

    2012-01-01

    Speed and accuracy are the two main themes of the current thesis. Article 1 presents the conceptual, historical and empirical basis of behavioral fluency, how speed and accuracy are involved in fluency-based training and treatment, and the evidence for the superiority of fluency training. The possible implications of basic research on stimulus equivalence will be related to behavioral fluency, while considering a possible complementarity between the fields. Article 2 is an empirical study on ...

  9. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were est...

  10. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word...

  11. Speed and accuracy in fluency and equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Pétursson, Pétur Ingi

    2012-01-01

    Speed and accuracy are the two main themes of the current thesis. Article 1 presents the conceptual, historical and empirical basis of behavioral fluency, how speed and accuracy are involved in fluency-based training and treatment, and the evidence for the superiority of fluency training. The possible implications of basic research on stimulus equivalence will be related to behavioral fluency, while considering a possible complementarity between the fields. Article 2 is an empirical study on ...

  12. Determining mean equivalent mass of sodium sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachmar, O.S.; Bodan, A.N.; Sloboda, A.V.; Teslyar, F.I.

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of techniques (T) for determining mean equivalent mass of sodium sulfonates in order to select one that is most efficient; a new technique is suggested. This technique consists of extraction and cleaning of sodium sulfonates by silica-gel chromatography and subsequent determination of sulfate ash and then calculation of mol. mass on the basis of the latter. The given technique provides more accurate results in comparison to known methods and can be used to test commercial products.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. The Search for a New Equivalence Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Lucian M

    2007-01-01

    The new emerging quantum physics - quantum computing conceptual bridge, mandates a ``grand unification'' of space-time-matter and quantum information (all quantized), with deep implications for science in general. The major physics revolutions in our understanding of the universe are briefly reviewed and a ``missing'' equivalence principle is identified and its nature explained. An implementation as an external super-symmetry $\\C{E}=ic\\C{P}$ is suggested, generalizing the Wi...

  15. Lasso and equivalent quadratic penalized models

    OpenAIRE

    Hummelsheim, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and ridge regression produce usually different estimates although input, loss function and parameterization of the penalty are identical. In this paper we look for ridge and lasso models with identical solution set. It turns out, that the lasso model with shrink vector $\\lambda$ and a quadratic penalized model with shrink matrix as outer product of $\\lambda$ with itself are equivalent, in the sense that they have ...

  16. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melikyan, A; Rivelles, V O

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the non-linear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  17. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikyan, A.; Pereira, E.; Rivelles, V. O.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday–Arutyunov–Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the nonlinear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  18. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  19. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 159, ?. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979. ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  20. The Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis: Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiki, Jalal Uddin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis (REH) and its sources of failure in the case of Bangladesh using various theoretical specifications, annual data from 1974-2001 and linear and non-linear time series techniques. The general findings tend to invalidate the REH: a finite time horizon and the presence of liquidity-constrained individuals are the sources of deviation from the REH. Empirical results reveal that real per capita private consumption (C) unde...