WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground reaction force

  1. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  2. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana M. F., Barela; Paulo B. de, Freitas; Melissa L., Celestino; Marcela R., Camargo; José A., Barela.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it w [...] ould be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  3. Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces During Forward and Backward Walking In Flat Foot Female Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gohar Pay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Flexible flat foot is a common deformity in lower extremity, the foot arch collapses and the ground reaction forces does not apply properly to the foot. Backward walking is a common rehabilitive technique and is utilized to improve strength and balance. The purpose of this present study is to compare the salient points vertical ground reaction force measurements in flat foot patients while walking forward and backward with those of healthy subjects using a force plate system.Materials and methods: 10 flexible falt foot female subjects and 10 healthy female subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each Subject walked 5 times forward and 5 times backward and the vertical ground reaction force was measured by a force platform.Results: The results of this present study suggest a significant difference in kinetic pattern of forward walking compared to backward walking in both healthy and flexible flat foot participants. The force related to first peak of vertical ground reaction force was significantly less in forward walking compared to backward walking (p=0.000. Whereas the force related to trough and second peak of vertical ground reaction force were significantly high in forward walking compared to backward walking (p=0.000.Conclusion: The results of this study show that backward walking changes the ground reaction force compared to forward walking; and the main characteristic of this difference is due to decrease of forces applied to the heel of foot which may be important in flat foot patients.

  4. The Effect of Increasing Inertia upon Vertical Ground Reaction Forces during Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Hagan, R. Donald; Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2007-01-01

    The addition of inertia to exercising astronauts could increase ground reaction forces and potentially provide a greater health benefit. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding the adaptations to additional mass (inertia) without additional net weight (gravitational force) during locomotion. We examined the effect of increasing inertia while maintaining net gravitational force on vertical ground reaction forces and kinematics during walking and running. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten healthy adults (5 male/5 female) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) using a force-measuring treadmill. Subjects completed locomotion at normal weight and mass, and at 10, 20, 30, and 40% of added inertial force. The added gravitational force was relieved with overhead suspension, so that the net force between the subject and treadmill at rest remained equal to 100% body weight. Peak vertical impact forces and loading rates increased with increased inertia during walking, and decreased during running. As inertia increased, peak vertical propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased during walking and running, and contact time increased during running. Vertical ground reaction force production and adaptations in gait kinematics were different between walking and running. The increased inertial forces were utilized independently from gravitational forces by the motor control system when determining coordination strategies.

  5. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluitenberg Bas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1 and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%. Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%. The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89, but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an instrumented treadmill seems to be suitable for measuring representative vertical ground-reaction forces during running.

  6. A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

  7. The influence of cricket fast bowlers' front leg technique on peak ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Peter; King, Mark; Ranson, Craig

    2013-01-01

    High ground reaction forces during the front foot contact phase of the bowling action are believed to be a major contributor to the high prevalence of lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers. This study aimed to investigate the influence of front leg technique on peak ground reaction forces during the delivery stride. Three-dimensional kinematic data and ground reaction forces during the front foot contact phase were captured for 20 elite male fast bowlers. Eight kinematic parameters were determined for each performance, describing run-up speed and front leg technique, in addition to peak force and time to peak force in the vertical and horizontal directions. There were substantial variations between bowlers in both peak forces (vertical 6.7 ± 1.4 body weights; horizontal (braking) 4.5 ± 0.8 body weights) and times to peak force (vertical 0.03 ± 0.01 s; horizontal 0.03 ± 0.01 s). These differences were found to be linked to the orientation of the front leg at the instant of front foot contact. In particular, a larger plant angle and a heel strike technique were associated with lower peak forces and longer times to peak force during the front foot contact phase, which may help reduce the likelihood of lower back injuries. PMID:23098100

  8. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SPRINT VELOCITIES, HORIZONTAL GROUND REACTION FORCE, AND ISOKINETIC TRUNK STRENGTH VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among sprint velocities, horizontal ground reaction force, and isokinetic trunk strength variables. Voluntary 19 athletes were participated to the study [age (year= 20.9±2.3, training age (month= 91.3±48.2, body height (cm= 173.1±6.5, body weight (kg= 64.7±8.4] from different sports including in explosive strength. Sprints (10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m were tested on a non-motorized treadmill. Velocities (V10m, V20m, V30m, and V40m and horizontal ground reaction forces (HGRF-10m, HGRF-20m, HGRF-30m, and HGRF-40m of the sprints were calculated. Isokinetic trunk strength criteria (flexion-extension peak torques at 3 different angular velocities (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1 were tested. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Probability level was p?0.05. All sprint velocities was correlated with all horizontal ground reaction forces (except the correlation between V10m and HGRF-20m and all isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (except the correlation between V10m and isokinetic trunk flexion peak torque at 120o.s-1. Statistically highest significant correlations have been found between V40m and all horizontal ground reaction forces and also between V40m and isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. There were significant relationships of horizontal ground reaction forces with isokinetic trunk extension-flexion peak torques at 30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. In conclusion, isokinetic trunk flexion and extension strength values are crucial for improving sprint acceleration and horizontal component of ground reaction force.

  9. BILATERAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND JOINT MOMENTS FOR LATERAL SIDESTEPPING AND CROSSOVER STEPPING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Sellers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS and crossover stepping (XS movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work

  10. Effect of dog breed and body conformation on vertical ground reaction forces, impulses, and stance times

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, K; Wiestner, T; Galeandro, L; Hässig, M; Montavon, P M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether fully normalised vertical ground reaction forces and stance times obtained at a trot depend on dog breed or body conformations. METHODS: Peak vertical forces (PVF), vertical impulses (VI), stance times (ST), and ratio of forelimb impulse to total impulse (RVI) of 54 dogs of seven different breeds were normalised to body weight and body size according to the theory of dynamic similarity, and were tested for differences between breeds. Breeds were Borzoi...

  11. Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to coll...

  12. Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2014-03-27

    A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ?(2) = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ?(2)= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing. PMID:25031674

  13. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago B., Muniz; Renato, Moraes; Rinaldo R. J., Guirro.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy y [...] oung adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities.

  14. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natália Mariana Silva, Luna; Angelica Castilho, Alonso; Guilherme Carlos, Brech; Luis, Mochizuki; Eduardo Yoshio, Nakano; Júlia Maria D' Andrea, Greve.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5) years were di [...] vided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26), a long-distance runner group (n = 23), and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s) was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s) was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  15. GROUND REACTION FORCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUNNING SHOES, RACING FLATS, AND DISTANCE SPIKES IN RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Logan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various shoes are worn by distance runners throughout a training season. This study measured the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in order to provide information about the potential effects of footwear on injury risk in highly competitive runners. Ten male and ten female intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7 m·s-1 (for males and 5.7 m·s-1 (for females in each of the three types of shoes. To control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who exhibited a heel strike were included in the data analysis. Two repeated-measures ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests (p < 0.05 were used to detect differences in shoe types among males and females. For the males, loading rate, peak vertical impact force and peak braking forces were significantly greater in flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Vertical stiffness in spikes was also significantly greater than in running shoes. Females had significantly shorter stance times and greater maximum propulsion forces in racing flats compared to running shoes. Changing footwear between the shoes used in this study alters the loads placed on the body. Care should be taken as athletes enter different phases of training where different footwear is required. Injury risk may be increased since the body may not be accustomed to the differences in force, stance time, and vertical stiffness

  16. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  17. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by?t? test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to the control group. Vertical ground reaction force variables are also altered. Conclusion: Significant changes ( P value < .05 in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces show that gait pattern is not normalized after THR and weight-bearing is not equally shared by both hips. Patient walks with residual antalgic gait even after surgery, which results in abnormal loading around hip joints and the integrity of the prosthesis fixation could be compromised.

  18. Ground reaction force adaptations during cross-slope walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Dixon, Philippe C; Pearsall, David J

    2012-02-01

    Though transversely inclined (cross-sloped) surfaces are prevalent, our understanding of the biomechanical adaptations required for cross-slope locomotion is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine ground reaction forces (GRF) in cross-sloped and level walking and running. Nine young adult males walked and ran barefoot along an inclinable walkway in both level (0°) and cross-slope (10°) configurations. The magnitude and time of occurrence of selected features of the GRF were extracted from the force plate data. GRF data were collected in level walking and running (LW and LR), inclined walking and running up-slope (IWU and IRU), and down-slope (IWD and IRD), respectively. The GRF data were then analyzed using repeated measures MANOVA. In the anteroposterior direction, the timing of the peak force values differed across conditions during walking (p=.041), while the magnitude of forces were modified across conditions for running (p=.047). Most significant differences were observed in the mediolateral direction, where generally force values were up to 390% and 530% (p<.001) larger during the cross-slope conditions compared to level for walking and running, respectively. The maximum force peak during running occurred earlier at IRU compared to the other conditions (p?.031). For the normal axis a significant difference was observed in the first maximum force peak during walking (p=.049). The findings of this study showed that compared to level surfaces, functional adaptations are required to maintain forward progression and dynamic stability in stance during cross-slope walking and running. PMID:21840076

  19. Gender Differences among Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematic and Ground Reaction Force Characteristics during a Rapid Sprint and Cut Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-01-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…

  20. A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments

  1. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic(®) insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions. PMID:26674403

  2. Normalization of ground reaction forces, joint moments, and free moments in human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2012-12-01

    Authors who report ground reaction force (GRF), free moment (FM), and resultant joint moments usually normalize these variables by division normalization. Normalization parameters include body weight (BW), body weight x height (BWH), and body weight x leg length (BWL). The purpose of this study was to explore the appropriateness of division normalization, power curve normalization, and offset normalization on peak GRF, FM, and resultant joint moments. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 98 subjects who walked at 1.2 and 1.8 m/s and ran at 3.4 and 4.0 m/s. Linear curves were best fit to the data, and regression analyses performed to test the significance of the correlations. It was found that the relationship between peak force and BW, as well as joint moments and BW, BWH, and BWL, were not always linear. After division normalization, significant correlations were still found. Power curve and offset normalization, however, were effective at normalizing all variables; therefore, when attempting to normalize GRF and joint moments, perhaps nonlinear or offset methods should be implemented. PMID:23348130

  3. Ground Reaction Force and Cadence during Stationary Running Sprint in Water and on Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, H de Brito; Ruschel, C; Haupenthal, A; Hubert, M; Roesler, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing the cadence (Cadmax) and the peak vertical ground reaction force (Fymax) during stationary running sprint on dry land and at hip and chest level of water immersion. We hypothesized that both Fymax and Cadmax depend on the level of immersion and that differences in Cadmax between immersions do not affect Fymax during stationary sprint. 32 subjects performed the exercise at maximum cadence at each immersion level and data were collected with force plates. The results show that Cadmax and Fymax decrease 17 and 58% from dry land to chest immersion respectively, with no effect of cadence on Fymax. While previous studies have shown similar neuromuscular responses between aquatic and on land stationary sprint, our results emphasize the differences in Fymax between environments and levels of immersion. Additionally, the characteristics of this exercise permit maximum movement speed in water to be close to the maximum speed on dry land. The valuable combination of reduced risk of orthopedic trauma with similar neuromuscular responses is provided by the stationary sprint exercise in water. The results of this study support the rationale behind the prescription of stationary sprinting in sports training sessions as well as rehabilitation programs. PMID:25700098

  4. Effects of slip-induced changes in ankle movement on muscle activity and ground reaction forces during running acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Shahin; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Ground contact in running is always linked to a minimum amount of slipping, e.g., during the early contact phase when horizontal forces are high compared to vertical forces. Studies have shown altered muscular activation when expecting slips [2-4]. It is not known what the mechanical effect of such slip episodes are on joint loading or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of changes in ankle movement on ankle joint loading, muscle activity, and ground reaction forces during linear acceleration.

  5. Effects of slip-induced changes in ankle movement on muscle activity and ground reaction forces during running acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Shahin; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Ground contact in running is always linked to a minimum amount of slipping, e.g., during the early contact phase when horizontal forces are high compared to vertical forces. Studies have shown altered muscular activation when expecting slips [2-4]. It is not known what the mechanical effect of such slip episodes are on joint loading or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of changes in ankle movement on ankle joint loading, muscle activity, and ground reaction forc...

  6. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  7. The measurement of ground reaction force in dogs trotting on a treadmill: an investigation of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchon, L; Valette, J-P; Sanaa, M; Grandjean, D

    2006-01-01

    We studied the time necessary to obtain reliable kinetic data from healthy dogs trotting on a treadmill. Ten adult male Malinois Belgian Shepherd dogs were made to trot on an instrumented treadmill to record the ground reaction force for the entire body and to determine the vertical force variables (peak [PFz], impulse [IFz], stride time [Str], peak time [Tz] and contact time [Ct]). Data were collected from each dog, during three sequences per day, on three consecutive days. In order to determine the contribution of the sequence, day of measurement, and dog factors and the percentage of variance attributable to dogs, data were analyzed with a linear mixed model. The curve shapes were similar to those obtained with a floor-mounted force platform. Intra-dog coefficients of variation were between 1.57 and 3.46%. Inter-dog coefficients of variation were between 4.18 and 7.82%. A sequence effect was not noted. Each day had a significant effect on all of the data. All variables differed significantly from the first day compared to the other days. However there was not any difference between days 2 and 3. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs ranged from 37 to 88%. The coefficients of variation were lower than those obtained with common protocols. The treadmill locomotion remained consistent during a single session. Even if interday variation needs to be accounted for, reliable data can still be obtained after a single training session. The majority of the variation was attributable to the dog. An instrumented treadmill may be used for kinetic analysis. PMID:16810349

  8. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  9. Ground reaction force and 3D biomechanical characteristics of walking in short-leg walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songning; Clowers, Kurt G; Powell, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Short-leg walking boots offer several advantages over traditional casts. However, their effects on ground reaction forces (GRF) and three-dimensional (3D) biomechanics are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to examine 3D lower extremity kinematics and joint dynamics during walking in two different short-leg walking boots. Eleven (five females and six males) healthy subjects performed five level walking trials in each of three conditions: two testing boot conditions, Gait Walker (DeRoyal Industries, Inc.) and Equalizer (Royce Medical Co.), and one pair of laboratory shoes (Noveto, Adidas). A force platform and a 6-camera Vicon motion analysis system were used to collect GRFs and 3D kinematic data during the testing session. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate selected kinematic, GRF, and joint kinetic variables (p<0.05). The results revealed that both short-leg walking boots were effective in minimizing ankle eversion and hip adduction. Neither walker increased the bimodal vertical GRF peaks typically observed in normal walking. However, they did impose a small initial peak (<1BW) earlier in the stance phase. The Gait Walker also exhibited a slightly increased vertical GRF during midstance. These characteristics may be related to the sole materials/design, the restriction of ankle movements, and/or the elevated heel heights of the tested walkers. Both walkers appeared to increase the demand on the knee extensors while they decreased the demand of the knee and hip abductors based on the joint kinetic results. PMID:16414263

  10. Squat Ground Reaction Force on a Horizontal Squat Device, Free Weights, and Smith Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Caldwell, Erin; DeWitt, John K.; Peters, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is an analog to spaceflight and advancement of exercise countermeasures is dependent on the development of exercise equipment that closely mimic actual upright exercise. The Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) was developed to allow a supine exerciser to perform squats that mimic upright squat exercise. PURPOSE: To compare vertical ground reaction force (GRFv) on the HSD with Free Weight (FW) or Smith Machine (SM) during squat exercise. METHODS: Subjects (3F, 3M) performed sets of squat exercise with increasing loads up to 1-repetition (rep) maximum. GRF data were collected and compared with previous GRF data for squat exercise performed with FW & SM. Loads on the HSD were adjusted to magnitudes comparable with FW & SM by subtracting the subject s body weight (BW). Peak GRFv for 45-, 55-, 64-, & 73-kg loads above BW were calculated. Percent (%) difference between HSD and the two upright conditions were computed. Effect size was calculated for the 45-kg load. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg on the HSD; however, 1 subject completed all loads. Anecdotal evidence suggested that most subjects shoulders or back failed before their legs. The mean % difference are shown. In the 45-kg condition, effect sizes were 0.37 & 0.83 (p>0.05) for HSD vs. FW and HSD vs. SM, respectively, indicating no differences between exercise modes. CONCLUSION: When BW was added to the target load, results indicated that vertical forces were similar to those in FW and SM exercise. The exercise prescription for the HSD should include a total external resistance equivalent to goal load plus subject BW. The HSD may be used as an analog to upright exercise in bed rest studies, but because most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg, it may be necessary to prescribe higher reps and lower loads to better target the leg musculature

  11. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  12. NUMBER OF TRIALS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE PERFORMANCE STABILITY OF SELECTED GROUND REACTION FORCE VARIABLES DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roger James

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to determine the number of trials necessary to achieve performance stability of selected ground reaction force (GRF variables during landing and to compare two methods of determining stability. Ten subjects divided into two groups each completed a minimum of 20 drop or step-off landings from 0.60 or 0.61 m onto a force platform (1000 Hz. Five vertical GRF variables (first and second peaks, average loading rates to these peaks, and impulse were quantified during the initial 100 ms post-contact period. Test-retest reliability (stability was determined using two methods: (1 intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC analysis, and (2 sequential averaging analysis. Results of the ICC analysis indicated that an average of four trials (mean 3.8 ± 2.7 Group 1; 3.6 ± 1.7 Group 2 were necessary to achieve maximum ICC values. Maximum ICC values ranged from 0.55 to 0.99 and all were significantly (p < 0. 05 different from zero. Results of the sequential averaging analysis revealed that an average of 12 trials (mean 11.7 ± 3.1 Group 1; 11.5 ± 4.5 Group 2 were necessary to achieve performance stability using criteria previously reported in the literature. Using 10 reference trials, the sequential averaging technique required standard deviation criterion values of 0.60 and 0.49 for Groups 1 and 2, respectively, in order to approximate the ICC results. The results of the study suggest that the ICC might be a less conservative, but more objective method for determining stability, especially when compared to previous applications of the sequential averaging technique. Moreover, criteria for implementing the sequential averaging technique can be adjusted so that results closely approximate the results from ICC. In conclusion, subjects in landing experiments should perform a minimum of four and possibly as many as eight trials to achieve performance stability of selected GRF variables. Researchers should use this information to plan future studies and to report the stability of GRF data in landing experiments

  13. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue; Tao Liu(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany)

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural...

  14. Effects of perturbation training on ground reaction force and function in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Kazemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury is common in sports competition and training. Following ACL rupture, neuromuscular system performance is disrupted. Perturbation training can improve the function of patients with ACL reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of perturbation training on ground reaction force and functional status of these patients .   Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with ACL reconstruction were randomly assigned into intervention (mean age: 24/2 ±3/4 years and control (mean age: 27/1 ± 2/5 years groups. The intervention group performed ten sessions perturbation training with rocker board, wobble board and Bosu. Peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF and time to peak vertical GRF were recorded by KISTLER force plate during single leg landing from a 30cm height step. In addition, cross hop test also was evaluated as a functional test.   Results: Before perturbation training, both GRF and time to peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee had not significant difference between two groups (P>0/05. In addition, functional test score had not significant difference between the groups (P=0/62. Following perturbation training, peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee was greater than that in control groups (P<0/003.Although time to peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee increased, there was not statistically significant difference between two groups (P=0/50. Furthermore, functional test score was statistically greater in intervention group (P=0/03.   Conclusion: This s tudy showed that perturbation training can improve functional status in patients with ACL reconstruction. In addition, force plate findings indicated that the patients tolerated more forces at longer time in single leg landing.   Key words: Perturbation training, Ground reaction force, ACL reconstruction, Function

  15. An investigation into the vertical ground reaction force status in the coper and non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects during walking on level ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Soltani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: An immaculate review of the literature reveals some changes on the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF in ACL deficient knee subjects. However, the details are not clear yet. The current study aimed to study these changes in the ACL-deficient and apparently healthy knees of the coper and non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects in comparison with the normal knees. Materials and Methods: Sixteen unilateral ACL-torn subjects included 8 copers and 8 non-copers were recruited in this quasi-experimental study and were compared with 16 normal knee subjects (8 subjects matched to each coper and non-coper groups. All subjects walked barefoot and with their preferred speed in a 6-meter walkway and placed their wanted foot on the platform of a Zebris pedobarograph tool. The patients were asked to place their injured and healthy feet separately on the platform. The control group placed their foot matched to the ACL-deficient legs on the platform. The testes were repeated so much to have five acceptable trials. The outcome measures included the peak F1Z, F2Z, F3Z of the vertical ground reaction force values and the times to reach these peak values as well as total stance time of the tested feet. Results: The results showed only a significant lower F1Z value in the non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects (p=0.008. No significant changes were shown in the F2Z, F3Z or the times reach to F1Z, F2Z and F3Z values (p>0.05. The stance time of the coper ACL-deficient knee subjects increased significantly in the non-coper ACL-deficeint knee subjects when compared to the coper and healthy knees (p=0.005. Conclusion: The reduced F1Z of the vertical ground reaction force at initial contact as well as increased total stance time seen only in non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects reveals inadequate compensatory mechanism in these patients as a counter force stress at initial contact and weight bearing. However, the coper ACL-deficient knee subjects compensated these forces with good strategies and walked very similar to the control group. Keywords: Vercial ground reaction force (VGRF, Time to peak vertical ground reaction force components, Coper & non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects, Pedobarography.

  16. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in silico development and testing of hip prostheses.

  17. The effect of ankle bracing on peak mediolateral ground reaction force during cutting maneuvers in collegiate male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloak, Ross; Galloway, Shaun; Wyon, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    The literature suggests that one-third of ankle injuries sustained during a collegiate basketball season are due to the poor execution of dynamic cutting movements, leading to increased mediolateral force being placed on the unstable ankle. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of ankle bracing on peak mediolateral ground reaction forces (PMGRF) during sidestep cutting motions in collegiate basketball players. Ten male collegiate basketball players, with no previous history of ankle trauma, performed sidestep cutting motions past a static defensive opponent at speeds between 4.5 and 5.5 meters per second under 2 different conditions, with and without ankle bracing. Peak mediolateral ground reaction force was recorded (as a unit of body weight) for each subject in both bracing and control conditions. The application of an Aircast brace significantly (P = 0.01) reduced peak mediolateral forces during cutting maneuvers compared with no brace. Results suggest that the application of an Aircast ankle brace significantly reduces PMGRF during cutting maneuvers around a static defensive opponent. PMID:20802285

  18. The effects of changes in the sagittal plane alignment of running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shuichi; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Usui, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of sagittal plane alignment changes in running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces (GRFs). [Subjects and Methods] Eight transtibial amputees who used running-specific prostheses during sprinting participated. The sprint movements were recorded using a Vicon-MX system and GRF measuring devices. The experiment levels were set as regularly recommended alignment (REG; the normal alignment for the subjects) and dorsiflexion or plantar flexion from the REG. [Results] The subjects were classified into fast (100-m personal best braking directions in both groups. [Conclusion] The GRFs are affected by sagittal plane alignment changes in running-specific prostheses. Moreover, our results suggest that the change in GRFs along with the altered sagittal plane alignment influenced the step length and step rate. PMID:26157216

  19. Predicting Complete Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait With Insole Plantar Pressure Information Using a Wavelet Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Kwon, Hyunbin; Oh, Seung Eel; Joo, Su-Bin; Choi, Ahnryul; Heo, Hyun Mu; Kim, Kisun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-09-01

    In general, three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) and ground reaction moments (GRMs) that occur during human gait are measured using a force plate, which are expensive and have spatial limitations. Therefore, we proposed a prediction model for GRFs and GRMs, which only uses plantar pressure information measured from insole pressure sensors with a wavelet neural network (WNN) and principal component analysis-mutual information (PCA-MI). For this, the prediction model estimated GRFs and GRMs with three different gait speeds (slow, normal, and fast groups) and healthy/pathological gait patterns (healthy and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) groups). Model performance was validated using correlation coefficients (r) and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE%) and was compared to the prediction accuracy of the previous methods using the same dataset. As a result, the performance of the GRF and GRM prediction model proposed in this study (slow group: r?=?0.840-0.989 and NRMSE%?=?10.693-15.894%; normal group: r?=?0.847-0.988 and NRMSE% =?10.920-19.216%; fast group: r?=?0.823-0.953 and NRMSE%?=?12.009-20.182%; healthy group: r?=?0.836-0.976 and NRMSE%?=?12.920-18.088%; and AIS group: r?=?0.917-0.993 and NRMSE%?=?7.914-15.671%) was better than that of the prediction models suggested in previous studies for every group and component (p?

  20. Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rafajlovi?

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

  1. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Voigt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction force information. Features were derived from measurements made using two parallel 3-dimensional force plates. The approach presented is based on clustering of Centre of Pressure (COP) trace points ov...

  2. The Effect of pPoron Layered Insole on Ground Reaction Force in Comparison with Common Insole on Subjects with Flexible Flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khanmohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexible flat foot is a congenital common deformity in lower extremity associated with ligamentus laxity. This deformity may cause hammer toe, heel spur, inflammation of achille tendon, early muscle fatigue during sport, foot imbalance and pain in leg, knee and hip. The use of insole with medial arch support considered as one of the common treatments for patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a composite insole, Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA with Poron layer on ground reaction force on subjects with flexible flat foot in comparison with common EVA insole. Materials and Methods: Fifty two subjects (14 Male and 38 female between 18-40 years of age with flexible flat foot participated in this study. Twenty six subjects received Poron insole (EVA with Poron layer and 26 subjects received common EVA insole. After assessment each subject asked to walk with normal speed across two force plate in two conditions, walking with insole and shoe and walking without insole. Then each subject asked to use insole for forty hours during two weeks. Vertical ground reaction force in the first session and after two weeks was assessed.Results: Impact force and first peak of vertical ground reaction force (F1 with Poron insole in comparison with shoe significantly increased in second session (P<0.05. The second peak (F3 with common insole in comparison with shoe significantly increased in second session (P<0.05. Significant reduction was noted in first peak (F1 with common insole in second session in comparison with first session (P<0.05. There was no observable significant difference in two groups before and after intervention.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study show that both insoles change vertical ground reaction force in comparison with shoe alone. But using a composite Poron Layer on EVA insole has not demonstrated a significant difference with common arch support insoles. Therefore appli

  3. Predição da força de reação do solo durante a corrida na água Prediction of ground reaction force during water immersion running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Haupenthal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou desenvolver um modelo para a predição da força de reação do solo na corrida subaquática. Participaram 20 sujeitos (9 homens e 11 mulheres, que realizaram corrida subaquática em dois níveis de imersão e três velocidades. Para cada sujeito foram coletadas seis passagens válidas em cada condição, com a utilização de uma plataforma subaquática de força. O modelo para predição da força foi construído por regressão linear múltipla. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes a componente vertical e a componente ântero-posterior da força de reação do solo. As variáveis imersão, sexo, velocidade, massa corporal, densidade corporal e percentual de gordura foram consideradas independentes. Permaneceu no modelo final de regressão para a componente vertical a velocidade (pThis study aimed at developing a model to predict ground reaction force during deep-water running. A total of 20 subjects ((9 men, 11 women ran in water at two immersion levels and three different speeds. Each subject performed six valid trials in each condition, data being captured by an underwater force plate. The force prediction model was build by multiple linear regression. Dependent variables were the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force; independent variables were runners' immersion, sex, speed, body mass, body density, and percentage of fat. At the final regression model for the vertical component, only speed remained (p<0.001, while for the anteroposterior component, speed, immersion, and body mass were maintained (all at p<0.001. The obtained model for the anteroposterior component of ground reaction force may be found satisfactory, as adjusted determination coefficient was 0.79. However, the prediction model for the vertical component cannot be recommended for prediction during deep-water running, since that coefficient was 0.18. It must be noted that the proposed prediction model applies to subjects provided that they have similar characteristics to those who took part in this study.

  4. Ground Reaction Forces and Gait Parameters during Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Walking and Runing on the International Space Station Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Norcross, Jason; DeWitt, John; Lee, Stuart M.; McCleary, Frank; Edwards, W. Brent

    2006-01-01

    Both motorized (T-M) and non-motorized (T-NM) treadmill locomotion are used on the International Space Station (ISS) as countermeasures to the deleterious effects of prolonged weightlessness. However, the ground reaction forces (GRF) and gait parameters of these exercise modes have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in GRF and gait parameters exist while walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on T-M and T-NM. Dissimilar GRF and gait parameters suggest that T-M and T-NM locomotion may elicit different physiologic effects. T-NM may result in a reduced stimulus to bone formation due to a lower LR, but an increased energy cost as a result of shorter, more frequent strides. Therefore, the usage of each mode should depend upon the desired training stimulus.

  5. Força de reação do solo como subsídio para prescrição de exercícios aquáticos: estudo de caso / Ground reaction force as a subsidy for prescribing aquatic exercises: case study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro, Haupenthal; Caroline, Ruschel; Marcel, Hubert; Heiliane de Brito, Fontana; Helio, Roesler.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a componente vertical da força de reação do solo nos exercícios de caminhada, corrida com deslocamento, corrida estacionária e salto vertical, realizados em ambiente aquático em diferentes níveis de imersão. MÉTODO: Participou deste estudo de caso um sujeito do sexo masculino (27 [...] anos, 1,80 m e 84,3 kg). Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados uma plataforma subaquática de força posicionada no fundo de uma piscina térmica. O sujeito realizou 30 tentativas válidas de cada exercício, imerso nos níveis do processo xifoide e do quadril. Os dados foram analisados com a utilização da estatística descritiva, teste "t" de Student para amostras pareadas e ANOVA, para medidas repetidas (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the vertical component of the ground reaction force in the exercises of walking, running, stationary running and vertical jump in the water, performed in different levels of immersion. METHODS: This case study was conducted with one subject (male, 27 years, 1,80 m and 84,3 kg). [...] An underwater force plate was used for data collection, placed at the bottom of a thermal swimming pool. The subject performed 30 valid passages for each exercise in two immersion levels: xiphoid process and hip. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, Student's "t" test for paired samples and ANOVA for repeated measures (p

  6. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SkjØth, F; Thorup, Vivi MØrkØre

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction force information. Features were derived from measurements made using two parallel 3-dimensional force plates. The approach presented is based on clustering of Centre of Pressure (COP) trace points over space and time, combined with logical sequencing of stance phases based on the dynamics of quadrupedal walking. The clusters were identified as full or truncated (incomplete) stance phases furthermore the stance phases were classified as originating from a front or hind foot. Data from 370 walking trials made by 9 cows on 5 experiment days were used to test the method. Four cows were moderately lame at experimental onset. On average 5.1 stance phases per cow per trial were obtained of which 3.2 were classified as full stance phases and therefore appropriate for further gait analysis (the latter not being the scope of this study). Of the 2617 identified clusters 1844 were classified as stance phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high number of stance phases obtained per trial. It is thus a combination which has the potential to enable unsupervised gait analysis based on data collected automatically on-farm

  7. Reversal of radiation reaction force and instability of the ground state of an atom located above the surface of an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spontaneous emission of an excited atom is suppressed, and electromagnetic instability of the ground state is possible, if an atom is located in the vicinity of an active medium which amplifies the propagating radiation. The effect is due to a modified and phase-shifted near field of an oscillating atomic dipole, which prevails over the usual radiation reaction field related to the wave zone. The necessary conditions for the reversal of the total electromagnetic back reaction are found, and possible experimental realizations are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots REPRODUCIBILIDAD DE LAS VARIABLES ESPACIO-TEMPORALES Y DE LAS COMPONENTES DE LA FUERZA DE REACCIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA MARCHA CON BOTAS DE BOMBERO [Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gavilanes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la reproducibilidad de las variables espacio-temporales y de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS durante la marcha con botas de bombero y compararla con la mostrada durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña. Se registraron las variables espacio-temporales de 39 personas así como las variables que definen las tres componentes de la FRS con dos tipos de calzado diferente. Se utilizó la prueba T para contrastar la hipótesis referida a la diferencia del coeficiente de variación (CV entre los dos tipos de calzado. El CV de las variables espacio-temporales (p. ej. velocidad (V, condición I = 2,01%; condición II = 1,81%, así como de las que definen la componente vertical (p. ej. fuerza de apoyo (FZA del pie izquierdo, condición I = 2,54%; condición II = 2,73% y antero-posterior (p. ej. fuerza máxima (FXMAX del pie izquierdo, condición I = 4,47%; condición II = 4,59% de la FRS fue inferior a 12,5%, sugiriendo que estas variables pueden ser utilizadas para analizar la influencia de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. La baja reproducibilidad mostrada por las variables que definen la componente medio-lateral desaconseja la utilización de las mismas para evaluar el efecto de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. A excepción del tiempo de apoyo bipodal, el resto de variables durante la marcha con botas de bombero no mostró una variabilidad diferente a la obtenida durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña.Palabras clave: biomecánica, calzado, variabilidad. AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions.Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

  9. Estudo da variabilidade das forças de reação do solo na aquisição do andar independente em bebês / A study of ground reaction forces variability during acquisition of independent gait in toddlers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovana, Levada; Paula Hentschel Lobo da, Costa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o comportamento das forças de reação do solo (FRS) nos primeiros meses do andar independente, a fim de identificar mudanças na capacidade infantil de propulsionar e equilibrar o corpo em condição dinâmica. Foram avaliadas no período de três meses dez crianças com idade de 13 mese [...] s na primeira avaliação. As crianças caminharam em uma passarela de cinco metros de comprimento com duas plataformas de força embutidas. Foram estudadas magnitudes máximas e mínimas das FRS e as respectivas variabilidades. As avaliações foram comparadas através do teste não-paramétrico ANOVA de Friedman (p Abstract in english This study aimed to describe ground reaction forces' profiles during toddler's gait at the first months of the acquisition phase of independent walking, in order to identify whether there are changes in the ability to propel and balance the body in this dynamic condition. Ten thirteen-month old todd [...] lers volunteered to the study and were evaluated three times in a three-month interval. The toddlers walked over a 5 m long walkway with two force plates fixed at ground level. Vertical and horizontal peak reaction forces and variability coefficients were selected for analysis. To compare the results of the three evaluations ANOVA Friedman's tests were used at 5% level of significance. The walking experience achieved by the toddlers month after month was not sufficient to significantly change the biomechanical selected variables and statistically significant differences were not found for the selected variables along three months. However, a reduction in the variability coefficient for the vertical reaction forces suggests development towards an increasingly mature gait pattern.

  10. The Origin of the Radiation Reaction Force

    CERN Document Server

    Harpaz, A

    2000-01-01

    The emission of radiation from an accelerated charge is analyzed. It is found that at zero velocity, the radiation emitted from the charge imparts no counter momentum to the emitting charge, and no radiation reaction force is created by the radiation. A reaction force is created by the stress force that exists in the curved electric field of the charge, and the work done in overcoming this force is the source of the energy carried by the radiation.

  11. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  12. Resonantly Forced Inhomogeneous Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, C. J.; Kapral, R.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of spatiotemporal patterns in oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems subject to periodic forcing with a spatially random forcing amplitude field are investigated. Quenched disorder is studied using the resonantly forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in the 3:1 resonance regime. Front roughening and spontaneous nucleation of target patterns are observed and characterized. Time dependent spatially varying forcing fields are studied in the 3:1 forced FitzHugh-Na...

  13. A influência do uso acumulado de calçados de corrida sobre a força de reação do solo e as respostas de pressão plantar The influence of running shoes cumulative usage on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressure responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bianco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a eficiência do calçado seja afetada pelo uso prolongado, mas as alterações biomecânicas ainda não estão bem compreendidas. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a influência do uso de calçados de corrida na força de reação do solo e os parâmetros de pressão plantar. Três corredores do sexo masculino receberam quatro calçados de corrida para usarem em suas sessões de treinamento. O Sistema Gaitway e o Sistema de F-scan foram usados para registrar a força de reação do solo e parâmetros pressão plantar em diferentes regiões do pé. As coletas ocorreram em quatro momentos: novo e 100, 200 e 300 km de uso. O primeiro pico diminuiu da condição novo para os 300 km de uso (p The prolonged use of a running shoe is thought to affect the efficiency of its impact attenuation properties. However, its effect over biomechanical variables has yet not been well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of running shoe usage on ground reaction force and plantar pressure parameters. Three male runners received four running shoes each to use at their training sessions. The Gaitway System was used to register the vertical component of the ground reaction force, whereas the contact area and peak plantar pressure at different regions of the foot were assessed via the the F-scan System. Data collection occurred at baseline (when the shoes were new - New and after 100, 200 and 300km of use. The first peak decreased significantly from New to 300km (p < 0.01 and the loading rate showed a significant decrease at 200km in relation to the New condition (p < 0.01. Total area increased significantly from New to 100km (p < 0.01 of use and maintained a similar value when compared with the other conditions. There was a continuous and significant decrease (p < 0.01 on forefoot peak pressure as the mileage increased from New to 300km. The hallux peak pressure values were significantly smaller (p < 0.01 at 300km when compared with the New condition. Considering that the first peak, loading rate and plantar peak pressure values did not increase and that the plantar total contact area increased, it can be concluded that the running shoe did not suffer consistent alterations in ground reaction force and in plantar pressure after 300km of use.

  14. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention???24?weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150?minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75?minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ?0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to???0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28?g’s, 1632 participants, g?=?0.288, 95% CI?=?0.102, 0.474, p?=?0.002, Q?=?90.5, p?I2?=?70.1%, NNT?=?6 and LS (28?g’s, 1504 participants, g?=?0.179, 95% CI?=??0.003, 0.361, p?=?0.05, Q?=?77.7, p?I2?=?65.3%, NNT?=?6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed-effects ANOVA analyses were statistically significant. Statistically significant, or a trend for statistically significant, associations were observed for changes in FN and LS BMD and 20 different predictors. Conclusions The overall findings suggest that exercise may result in clinically relevant benefits to FN and LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Several of the observed associations appear worthy of further investigation in well-designed randomized controlled trials.

  15. A influência do uso acumulado de calçados de corrida sobre a força de reação do solo e as respostas de pressão plantar / The influence of running shoes cumulative usage on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressure responses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Bianco; Ana Paula da Silva, Azevedo; Carina Helena Wasem, Fraga; Fernanda Michelone, Acquesta; Luis, Mochizuki; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Júlio Cerca, Serrão.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a eficiência do calçado seja afetada pelo uso prolongado, mas as alterações biomecânicas ainda não estão bem compreendidas. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a influência do uso de calçados de corrida na força de reação do solo e os parâmetros de pressão plantar. Três corredores do [...] sexo masculino receberam quatro calçados de corrida para usarem em suas sessões de treinamento. O Sistema Gaitway e o Sistema de F-scan foram usados para registrar a força de reação do solo e parâmetros pressão plantar em diferentes regiões do pé. As coletas ocorreram em quatro momentos: novo e 100, 200 e 300 km de uso. O primeiro pico diminuiu da condição novo para os 300 km de uso (p Abstract in english The prolonged use of a running shoe is thought to affect the efficiency of its impact attenuation properties. However, its effect over biomechanical variables has yet not been well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of running shoe usage on ground reaction force and plant [...] ar pressure parameters. Three male runners received four running shoes each to use at their training sessions. The Gaitway System was used to register the vertical component of the ground reaction force, whereas the contact area and peak plantar pressure at different regions of the foot were assessed via the the F-scan System. Data collection occurred at baseline (when the shoes were new - New) and after 100, 200 and 300km of use. The first peak decreased significantly from New to 300km (p

  16. Ground reaction force and electromyographic activity of transfemoral amputee gait: a case series / Força de Reação do Solo e atividade eletromiográfica da marcha de amputados transfemorais: uma série de casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex Sandra Oliveira de, Cerqueira; Edward Yuji, Yamaguti; Luis, Mochizuki; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Júlio Cerca, Serrão.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento da Força de Reação do Solo (FRS) e a atividade eletromiográfica formam uma parte dos dados que caracterizam a biomecânica da marcha. O estudo destes parâmetros é importante para a recuperação da locomoção e para compreensão do impacto da amputação e dos componentes protéticos nos mov [...] imentos desenvolvidos no andar. Portanto, esta série de casos tem como objetivo descrever a atividade eletromiográfica e a FRS de amputados transfemorais. Para mensurar a FRS, foi utilizada uma plataforma de força e um sistema de eletromiografia monitorou os músculos vasto lateral, bíceps femoral, tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio lateral da perna não-amputada. As médias das componentes vertical e ânteroposterior da FRS, a atividade eletromiográfica e variáveis descritivas foram analisadas. Foi observado uma diminuição da magnitude da FRS vertical e ânteroposterior e das variáveis descritivas da componente ânteroposterior da FRS durante a fase de propulsão na perna amputada. Houve aumento na atividade fásica muscular e co-ativação na perna não-amputada. Pode-se concluir que os amputados transfemorais unilaterais analisados nesta série de casos desenvolveram menor FRS na perna amputada e longos períodos de atividade eletromiográfica na perna não amputada durante a marcha. Abstract in english Ground reaction forces (GRF) and electromyographic activity form a part of the descriptive data that characterise the biomechanics of gait. The research of these parameters is important in establishing gait training and understanding the impact of amputation and prosthetic components on movement dur [...] ing the act of walking. Therefore, this case series describes the GRF and electromyographic activity in the gait of transfemoral amputees. A force plate was used to measure GRF, and an electromyographic system monitored the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the non-amputated leg. The average vertical and anteroposterior GRF time-curves, average electromyographic activity, and descriptor variables were then analysed. We observed decreases in vertical and anteroposterior GRF magnitudes as well as in anteroposterior GRF descriptor variables during the propulsive phase in the amputated leg. There were increases in phasic muscle activity and co-activation in the non-amputated leg. We concluded that, during walking, the unilateral transfemoral amputees (who were analysed in this case series) developed lower GRF in the amputated limb and a longer period of electromyographic activity in the non-amputated limb.

  17. Ground reaction force in basketball cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and taping / Análise da força de reação do solo durante o cutting no basquetebol com e sem o uso de implementos no tornozelo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel de Camargo Neves, Sacco; Henrique Yuji, Takahasi; Eneida Yuri, Suda; Linamara Rizzo, Battistella; Cristianne Akie, Kavamoto; José Augusto Fernandes, Lopes; Jeane Cintra Peixoto de, Vasconcelos.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A lesão mais comum no basquetebol é a entorse de tornozelo. Assim, os atletas freqüentemente utilizam suportes externos como medidas profiláticas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as respostas da força de reação do solo (FRS) durante a execução do movimento de cutting do basque [...] tebol com e sem acessórios de tornozelo. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo comparativo. Delineamento experimental de grupo único com medidas repetidas; Divisão de Medicina de Reabilitação, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas as forças vertical (Fy) e médio-lateral (Fz) em três condições (bandagem, Aircast e calçado esportivo) e analisados os picos de força e de propulsão no contato com o solo (Fymax1, Fzmax1, Fymax2 e Fzmax2), o gradiente de crescimento (pico/tempo) (GC Fymax1, GC Fzmax1, GC Fymax2 e GC Fzmax2) e o impulso após o contato. RESULTADOS: Os acessórios reduziram significativamente Fymax2 e GC Fymax2. GC FZmax1 foi maior na situação com tênis quando comparado com bandagem. No momento do impacto, a bandagem aumentou a Fy em relação ao calçado, mas em um intervalo de tempo maior, não aumentando a carga articular. Fz atingiu um pico em menor tempo, podendo gerar maior carga eversora/inversora. O Aircast exerceu um melhor efeito de absorção de impacto, pois gera menor Fy em um maior intervalo de tempo. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do uso freqüente deste tipo de recurso pelos atletas, seu mecanismo de ação ainda é confuso. Mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer seus efeitos nas atividades esportivas a longo prazo. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In basketball, the most common injuries are ankle sprains. For this reason, players frequently use external ankle devices or taping as prophylactic and rehabilitation measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ground reaction force (GRF) responses in basketball player [...] s while performing typical cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and ankle taping. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparative study with experimental design of single-group repeated measurements, at Medical Rehabilitation Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Vertical (Fy) and medial-lateral (Fz) GRF measurements were made under three conditions (taping, Aircast-type orthosis and basketball shoes alone), with analysis of peak forces at foot contact (Fymax1, Fzmax1, Fymax2 and Fzmax2), growth gradient (peak/time) (GG Fymax1, GG Fzmax1, GG Fymax2 and GG Fzmax2) and impulse after foot contact. RESULTS: Bracing significantly reduced Fymax2 and GG Fymax2. GG Fzmax1 was significantly higher for the sport shoe condition than for the taping condition. Taping increased Fy in relation to the sport shoe at foot contact, but over a longer time interval, without increasing excessive ankle loading. Fz reached a peak in less time, which might generate greater inversion/eversion loading on a player's foot. The Aircast exerted better shock-absorbing effect than did the other two conditions, since it generated less vertical force over longer time intervals and smaller medial-lateral forces in relation to taping. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle bracing and ankle taping action mechanisms are still unclear and therefore should be carefully prescribed. More studies are needed to clarify taping and bracing effects on sporting activities.

  18. Ground state octupole correlation energies with effective forces

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the l...

  19. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  20. Ground state octupole correlation energy with effective forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, L. M.

    2015-05-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the latter on theoretical binding energies indicates that octupole correlations do not affect in a significant way the trend and systematic of binding energies and therefore can not improve the performance of theoretical models in this respect. In particular, the too-large ‘shell gaps’ predicted by self-consistent mean field models and relevant in astrophysics scenarios are not altered by the octupole correlations.

  1. Radiation reaction force and unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics such that the radiation reaction force is accounted for. The analysis leads to a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. The theory is supported by showing that, for the case of a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field, the radiation reaction force is indeed included. Moreover, this example shows explicitly that physical changes are associated with the fifth variable. Thus, the notion of a physical five-dimensional space should be seriously taken into consideration

  2. The reaction force: Three key points along an intrinsic reaction coordinate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Politzer; Alejandro Toro-Labbé; Soledad Gutiérrez-Oliva; Bárbara herrera; Pablo Jaque; Monica C Concha; Jane S Murray

    2005-09-01

    The concept of the reaction force is presented and discussed in detail. For typical processes with energy barriers, it has a universal form which defines three key points along an intrinsic reaction coordinate: the force minimum, zero and maximum. We suggest that the resulting four zones be interpreted as involving preparation of reactants in the first, transition to products in the second and third, and relaxation in the fourth. This general picture is supported by the distinctive patterns of the variations in relevant electronic properties. Two important points that are brought out by the reaction force are that (a) the traditional activation energy comprises two separate contributions, and (b) the transition state corresponds to a balance between the driving and the retarding forces.

  3. Forced thermal cycling of catalytic reactions: experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Hansen, Ole; Quaade, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of catalytic reactions subjected to fast forced temperature oscillations have revealed a rate enhancement increasing with temperature oscillation frequency. We present detailed studies of the rate enhancement up to frequencies of 2.5 Hz. A maximum in the rate enhancement is observed at about 1 Hz. A model for the rate enhancement that includes the surface kinetics and the dynamic partial pressure variations in the reactor is introduced. The model predicts a levelling off of the ra...

  4. Identification of excitation and reaction forces spectra for offshore platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafey, A.A. [Minufiya Univ., Shebin Elkom (Egypt). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Haddara, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Marzouk, H. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-01-15

    Offshore platforms subjected to random waves are typically modelled as multi-degree of freedom systems. This paper presented a method of predicting damping and natural frequencies for fixed offshore platform subjected to random wind-generated waves. The method predicted the reaction forces and bending moment at the foundation of the platform. A random decrement signature was used to identify the parameters in the equation of motion. The free decay motion was derived from the stationary random response. The RD was used to describe the free decay response of the system. A simple beam was used to discuss the relationship between the natural frequency of the system and the range of the frequencies of the spectrum of the excitation. Results of the analysis indicated that the RD technique is best applied to lightly damp, linear systems with natural frequencies within the frequency range of the excitation spectrum. The methods can be used to predict the wave exciting force and its location on an offshore structure, as well as to predict reaction forces at the foundation of an offshore structure, and to estimate the total virtual mass of the structure in waves. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Forced thermal cycling of catalytic reactions: experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, SØren; Olsen, Jakob Lind

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of catalytic reactions subjected to fast forced temperature oscillations have revealed a rate enhancement increasing with temperature oscillation frequency. We present detailed studies of the rate enhancement up to frequencies of 2.5 Hz. A maximum in the rate enhancement is observed at about 1 Hz. A model for the rate enhancement that includes the surface kinetics and the dynamic partial pressure variations in the reactor is introduced. The model predicts a levelling off of the rate enhancement with frequency at about 1 Hz. The experimentally observed decrease above 1 Hz is explained by dynamic thermal limitations of the reactor. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The solar forcing on the ground 7 Be concentration variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 Be, natural radionuclide, is produced by the interaction of cosmic radiation with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 7 Be production in atmosphere depends on the intensity of cosmic radiation which is influenced by the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetosphere shape depends on solar activity. This paper presents the influence of sunspots number (11 years period) on the ground 7 Be concentration variability. (authors)

  7. Tethered satellite system control using electromagnetic forces and reaction wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandi Hallaj, Mohammad Amin; Assadian, Nima

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel non-rotating space tethered configuration is introduced which its relative positions controlled using electromagnetic forces. The attitude dynamics is controlled by three reaction wheels in the body axes. The nonlinear coupled orbital dynamics of a dumbbell tethered satellite formation flight are derived through a constrained Lagrangian approach. These equations are presented in the leader satellite orbital frame. The tether is assumed to be mass-less and straight, and the J2 perturbation is included to the analysis. The forces and the moments of the electromagnetic coils are modeled based on the far-filed model of the magnetic dipoles. A guidance scheme for generating the desired positions as a function of time in Cartesian form is presented. The satellite tethered formation with variable length is controlled utilizing a linear controller. This approach is applied to a specified scenario and it is shown that the nonlinear guidance method and the linear controller can control the nonlinear system of the tethered formation and the results are compared with optimal control approach.

  8. Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal f...

  9. Resolution of Forces and Strain Measurements from an Acoustic Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald; Waldon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Conservatism in Typical Vibration Tests was Demonstrated: Vibration test at component level produced conservative force reactions by approximately a factor of 4 (approx.12 dB) as compared to the integrated acoustic test in 2 out of 3 axes. Reaction Forces Estimated at the Base of Equipment Using a Finite Element Based Method were Validated: FEM based estimate of interface forces may be adequate to guide development of vibration test criteria with less conservatism. Element Forces Estimated in Secondary Structure Struts were Validated: Finite element approach provided best estimate of axial strut forces in frequency range below 200 Hz where a rigid lumped mass assumption for the entire electronics box was valid. Models with enough fidelity to represent diminishing apparent mass of equipment are better suited for estimating force reactions across the frequency range. Forward Work: Demonstrate the reduction in conservatism provided by; Current force limited approach and an FEM guided approach. Validate proposed CMS approach to estimate coupled response from uncoupled system characteristics for vibroacoustics.

  10. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased

  11. Handgrip force of maltreating mothers in reaction to infant signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Reijman, Sophie; Werner, Claudia D; Maras, Athanasios; Rijnberk, Corine; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-02-01

    Handgrip force responses to infant signals were examined in a sample of 43 maltreating and 40 non-maltreating mothers. During a standardized handgrip paradigm, mothers were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half of their maximal handgrip strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds. Maltreating mothers used excessive force more often while listening to infant crying and laughter than non-maltreating mothers. Of the maltreating mothers, only neglectful mothers (n=20) tended to use excessive force more often during crying than non-maltreating mothers. Participants did not rate the sounds differently, indicating that maltreating mothers cannot be differentiated from non-maltreating mothers based on their perception of infant signals, but show different behavioral responses to the signals. Results imply that, in response to infant signals (i.e., crying or laughing), maltreating mothers may be insufficiently able to regulate the exertion of physical force. PMID:24717144

  12. Skyrme-force parametrization: Least-squares fit to nuclear ground-state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate systematically the possibilities and the limits of the Skyrme force for reproducing nuclear ground-state properties in a spherical Hartree-Fock calculation. This investigation is performed by means of least-squares fits of the force parameters to the measured binding energy, diffraction radius, and surface width of eight selected nuclei. Particular emphasis is put on the density dependence of the interaction, which turns out to be determined mainly by the surface width. The least-squares fitting procedure yields the best-fit parameters together with uncertainties on them, and it also allows one to estimate the uncertainties of an extrapolation to other fields, e.g., nuclear matter properties. We also study the contribution of random-phase-approximation correlations to the ground-state properties and their influence on the parameters of the effective interaction. Here, we also compare to giant dipole resonance energies

  13. Reactions of ground-state and electronically excited sodium atoms with methyl bromide and molecular chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactions of ground- and excited-state Na atoms with methyl bromide (CH3Br) and chlorine (Cl2) have been studied by using the crossed molecular beams method. For both reactions, the cross sections increase with increasing electronic energy. The product recoil energies change little with increasing Na electronic energy, implying that the product internal energies increase substantially. For Na + CH3Br, the steric angle of acceptance opens with increasing electronic energy

  14. Separable Forces for $(d,p)$ Reactions in Momentum Space

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, L; Eremenko, V; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J; Arbanas, G; Escher, J

    2015-01-01

    Treating $(d,p)$ reactions in a Faddeev-AGS framework requires the interactions in the sub-systems as input. We derived separable representations for the neutron- and proton-nucleus interactions from phenomenological global optical potentials. In order to take into account excitations of the nucleus, excitations need to be included explicity, leading to a coupled-channel separable representation of the optical potential.

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits

  18. Ground-state van der Waals forces in planar multilayer magnetodielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, S Y; Welsch, D G; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Kampf, Thomas; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Within the frame of lowest-order perturbation theory, the van der Waals potential of a ground-state atom placed within an arbitrary dispersing and absorbing magnetodielectric multilayer system is given. Examples of an atom situated in front of a magnetodielectric plate or between two such plates are studied in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the competing attractive and repulsive force components associated with the electric and magnetic matter properties, respectively, and conditions for the formation of repulsive potential walls are given. Both numerical and analytical results are presented.

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  20. Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; De Pablo, F.; Rivas-Soriano, L.; Leite, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36-44° N, 10° W-5° E) is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr). Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs), first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash). This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales) and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures) over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1) orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2) tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3) near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

  1. Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36–44° N, 10° W–5° E is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr. Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs, first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash. This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1 orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2 tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3 near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

  2. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base...334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force...

  3. BALANCE : a computer program for calculating mass transfer for geochemical reactions in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Thorstenson, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    BALANCE is a Fortran computer designed to define and quantify chemical reactions between ground water and minerals. Using (1) the chemical compositions of two waters along a flow path and (2) a set of mineral phases hypothesized to be the reactive constituents in the system, the program calculates the mass transfer (amounts of the phases entering or leaving the aqueous phase) necessary to account for the observed changes in composition between the two waters. Additional constraints can be included in the problem formulation to account for mixing of two end-member waters, redox reactions, and, in a simplified form, isotopic composition. The computer code and a description of the input necessary to run the program are presented. Three examples typical of ground-water systems are described. (USGS)

  4. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003–2009 (7 yr. Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May–September period (71%, with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC. In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  5. Quasi in situ scanning force microscope with an automatic operated reaction chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Markus; Olszowka, Violetta; Fischer, Franz; Krejtschi, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    We describe the design and performance of a quasi in situ scanning force microscope with an automatic operated reaction chamber. The design provides a repetitive hermetically sealed sample environment for successive processing. The reaction chamber is based on a combination of a flexure-guided cover, a piezo-positioning system and a force applicator system. An axial force seals the cover against the reactor enabling flow-through applications at low pressure, ambient pressure, or elevated pressure. The position stability of the sample relative to the probe is characterized and a full automated operation of the instrument is explored by the alignment of an ABC terblock copolymer thin film undergoing solvent vapor annealing in the presence of a high electric field. Due to the high electric field strength and the sharp scanning force microscope tip it is impossible to perform in situ scanning in the presence of the electric field. PMID:22128986

  6. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  7. Forced expiratory volume is associated with cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Douglas; Bibbey, Adam; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C; Ginty, Annie T.; Rooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress reflect a dysregulation of the neural system that supports motivation. We examined the association between forced expiratory volume in one second, an effort, hence motivation, dependent measure of lung function measured by spirometry, and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a battery of standard psychological stress tasks (Stroop, mirror-tracing, speech), assessed seven years later among ...

  8. Optimal control of the initiation of a pericyclic reaction in the electronic ground state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Timm Bredtmann; Jörn Manz

    2012-01-01

    Pericyclic reactions in the electronic ground state may be initiated by down-chirped pump-dump sub-pulses of an optimal laser pulse, in the ultraviolet (UV) frequency and sub-10 femtosecond (fs) time domain. This is demonstrated by means of a quantum dynamics model simulation of the Cope rearrangement of Semibullvalene. The laser pulse is designed by means of optimal control theory, with detailed analysis of the mechanism. The theoretical results support the recent experimental initiation of a pericyclic reaction. The present approach provides an important step towards monitoring asynchronous electronic fluxes during synchronous nuclear pericyclic reaction dynamics, with femto-to-attosecond time resolution, as motivated by the recent prediction of our group.

  9. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff. (paper)

  10. ND elastic scattering, breakup reactions and the search for three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experimental situation in the nd scattering system is reviewed for the elastic scattering and for the breakup reaction channel. Faddeev calculations show the need of precise two-nucleon input in higher partial waves, especially p-waves for the description of spin-dependent observables. The experimental effort in the nd breakup reaction studies is to be guided by reliable Faddeev predictions. The sensitivity of specific kinematical situations has to be studied carefully. The inclusion of three-body forces in these calculations should be combined with a careful check of Coulomb correction methods. The pd breakup reaction could yield more information than the experimentally more difficult nd studies. (orig.)

  11. A method of hydraulic reaction force computation due to fluid jet at a steamline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of hydraulic jet reaction force computation is presented at a 100% steamline break. The steamline break analysis is performed by the use of NOTRUMP code. Formation of supersonic flow at the converging-diverging flow restrictor is computed with a homogeneous equilibrium model. However, consideration is given on the slip ratio of the liquid and steam phases, thermal non-equilibrium effects, and normal and oblique shocks

  12. A method of computing hydraulic reaction force due to a fluid jet at a steamline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of computing hydraulic jet reaction force at a 100% steamline break is presented. The steamline break analysis is performed by the use of the NOTRUMP code. Formation of supersonic flow at the converging-diverging flow restrictor is computed with a homogeneous equilibrium model. Consideration is given, however, to the slip ratio of the liquid and steam phases, thermal nonequilibrium effects, and normal and oblique shocks

  13. Impact of walking speed and slope of the ground on axial force of poles in Nordic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pšurný

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nordic walking (NW, due to its attractiveness and convenience of equipment, is becoming more popular and utilised in the areas of sports, recreation and physiotherapy. Some of its impacts on load to the body have not yet been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of walking speed and slope of the ground on the magnitude of axial forces, transferred to the poles by upper extremities during NW. METHODS: The study was participated in by 17 healthy subjects, aged 25.9?±?3.6 years, who went through 12 independent measurements on a treadmill in various speeds (6.0; 6.6; 7.2 and 7.8?km?•?h–1 and slopes (0; 5 and 7.5%. These measurements provided us with values of basic spatiotemporal variables, characterizing NW performance and force variables, acting on the poles. RESULTS: Increased walking speed led to increase in cycle frequency (p?force and average poling force (p?ground had no significant impact on the magnitude of time and dynamic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Increased walking speed during NW increases the force, generated by the upper extremities on the poles. During NW it is possible to prefer walking speed rather than to change the slope of the ground for those patients, who are indicated to strengthen upper extremities.

  14. Forced mouth opening reaction: a primitive reflex released from cortical inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Riina; Saito, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Takehiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Nagaishi, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who showed 'forced mouth opening reaction' during the course of acute encephalopathy due to adrenal crisis. When an object was moved towards her mouth, or when the corner of her mouth was stroked with a tongue depressor, she would immediately open her mouth fully and hold it open. This reaction appeared transiently during the course of her illness in association with other frontal release signs including the rooting, groping and palmomental reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral widespread lesions involving the gray and white matters in the frontal lobes, and less severe lesions in the temporal and parietal areas. We propose that this unique reaction is a sign of a release phenomenon, and represents the emergence of primitive reflexes in the absence of cortical inhibition in some types of encephalopathies. PMID:16368214

  15. The gravitational radiation reaction force of a continuous medium. I. Perturbation of a quasi-newtonian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine, within the general theory of relativity, the equations of motion in the slow approximation of a continuous medium in which the forces from material stresses do not play a leading part with respect to the gravitational forces. The gravitational radiation reaction force appears as a disturbing force in the post-post-newtonian equations of motion. Then, we deduce the formula for the variation of the energy of the system due to the gravitational radiation

  16. A theoretical investigation of ground effects on USB configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A formulation predicts the variation of circulation forces and jet reaction forces in ground proximity as a function of ground height. The predicted results agree well with available experimental data. It is shown that the wing-alone theory is not capable of predicting the ground effect for USB configurations.

  17. Reactions of Ground State Nitrogen Atoms N(4S) with Astrochemically-Relevant Molecules on Interstellar Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Lahouari; Nourry, Sendres

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, ambitious programs were launched to probe the interstellar medium always more accurately. One of the major challenges of these missions remains the detection of prebiotic compounds and the understanding of reaction pathways leading to their formation. These complex heterogeneous reactions mainly occur on icy dust grains, and their studies require the coupling of laboratory experiments mimicking the extreme conditions of extreme cold and dilute media. For that purpose, we have developed an original experimental approach that combine the study of heterogeneous reactions (by exposing neutral molecules adsorbed on ice to non-energetic radicals H, OH, N...) and a neon matrix isolation study at very low temperatures, which is of paramount importance to isolate and characterize highly reactive reaction intermediates. Such experimental approach has already provided answers to many questions raised about some astrochemically-relevant reactions occurring in the ground state on the surface of dust grain ices in dense molecular clouds. The aim of this new present work is to show the implication of ground state atomic nitrogen on hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from some astrochemically-relevant species, at very low temperatures (3K-20K), without providing any external energy. Under cryogenic temperatures and with high barrier heights, such reactions involving N(4S) nitrogen atoms should not occur spontaneously and require an initiating energy. However, the detection of some radicals species as byproducts, in our solid samples left in the dark for hours at 10K, proves that hydrogen abstraction reactions involving ground state N(4S) nitrogen atoms may occur in solid phase at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show the efficiency of radical species formation stemming from non-energetic N-atoms and astrochemically-relevant molecules. We will then discuss how such reactions, involving nitrogen atoms in their ground states, might be the first key step towards complex organic molecules production in the interstellar medium.

  18. Low-energy neutron-deuteron reactions with N{sup 3}LO chiral forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golak, J.; Skibinski, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Witala, H. [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Kamada, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kitakyushu (Japan); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Bernard, V. [CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Maris, P.; Vary, J. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, Iowa (United States); Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Langhammer, J.; Roth, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hebeler, K. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Nogga, A. [Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Liebig, S.; Minossi, D. [Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Emphasis is put on A{sub y} puzzle in elastic scattering and cross sections in symmetric-space-star and neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering breakup configurations, for which large discrepancies between data and theory have been reported. (orig.)

  19. Low-energy neutron-deuteron reactions with N3LO chiral forces

    CERN Document Server

    Golak, J; Topolnicki, K; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Krebs, H; Kamada, H; Meissner, Ulf-G; Bernard, V; Maris, P; Vary, J; Binder, S; Calci, A; Hebeler, K; Langhammer, J; Roth, R; Nogga, A; Liebig, S; Minossi, D

    2014-01-01

    We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Emphasis is put on Ay puzzle in elastic scattering and cross sections in symmetric-space-star and neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering breakup configurations, for which large discrepancies between data and theory have been reported.

  20. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability. PMID:25645733

  1. Radiation-Reaction Force on a Small Charged Body to Second Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Eanna

    2015-04-01

    In classical electrodynamics, an accelerating charge emits radiation and experiences a corresponding radiation reaction force, or self force. We extend to greater precision (higher order in perturbation theory) a previous rigorous derivation of the electromagnetic self force in flat spacetime by Gralla, Harte, and Wald. The method introduced by Gralla, Harte, and Wald computes the self-force from the Maxwell field equations and conservation of stress-energy, and does not require regularization of a singular point charge, as has been necessary in prior computations. For our higher order compuation, it becomes necessary to adopt an adjusted definition of the mass of the body to avoid including self-energy from the electromagnetic field sourced during the history of the body. We derive the evolution equations for the mass, spin, and center of mass position of an extended body through second order using our adjusted formalism. The final equations give an acceleration dependent evolution of the spin (self-torque), as well as a mixing between the extended body effects and the acceleration dependent effects on the overall body motion.

  2. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  3. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  4. Constructing a Mass-Current Radiation-Reaction Force For Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, L; Asada, H; Baumgarte, T W; Shapiro, S L

    1999-01-01

    We present a new set of 3.5 Post-Newtonian equations in which Newtonian hydrodynamics is coupled to the nonconservative effects of gravitational radiation emission. Our formalism differs in two significant ways from a similar 3.5 Post-Newtonian approach proposed by Blanchet (1993, 1997). Firstly we concentrate only on the radiation-reaction effects produced by a time-varying mass-current quadrupole $S_{ij}$. Secondly, we adopt a gauge in which the radiation-reaction force densities depend on the fourth time derivative of $S_{ij}$, rather than on the fifth, as in Blanchet's approach. This difference makes our formalism particularly well-suited to numerical implementation and could prove useful in performing fully numerical simulations of the recently discovered $r$-mode instability for rotating neutron stars subject to axial perturbations.

  5. Atomic force microscopy of hot spot reaction sites in impacted RDX and laser heated AP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, J.; Coffey, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Ramaswamy, A.L.; Armstrong, R.W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to reveal residual sub-micron sized decomposition sites in drop weight impacted RDX and laser irradiated AP crystals. In impacted RDX, the small and early reaction sites observed are hemispherical craters, ranging in size from 20--300 nm. The smallest reaction site encompassed about 10,000 molecules with an expected energy evolution of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} J. On a somewhat larger scale hillocks of 200--800 nm were observed, their shape giving evidence of internal reaction and hot spot melting. Dislocation densities as high as 5 {times} 10{sup 12} per cm{sup 2} were observed in sub-ignited RDX. High resolution AFM images of the RDX lattice structure indicate molecular rotation as well as displacements at dislocation sites. In AP, after nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation, reaction sites were trumpet shaped with a smallest size of approximately 50 nm. Most sites contained a crystallographically oriented central square lid formed above the surrounding crystal surface, probably relating to the orthorhombic to cubic phase transition documented in micron scale cracking patterns observed at the laser heated sites.

  6. Force-balance and differential equation for the ground-state electron density in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas and March (1995) established a force-balance equation from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. Here, the authors propose this as a basis for the construction of a (usually approximate) differential equation for the ground-state electron density. By way of example they present the simple case of two-electron systems with different external potentials but with weak electron-electron Coulomb repulsion ?e2/r12. In this case first-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory of the ground-state wave function is known to lead to a compact expression for the first-order density matrix ?(r,rprime) in terms of its diagonal density ?(r) and the density corresponding to ? = 0. This result allows the force-balance equation to be written as a third-order linear, differential homogeneous equation for the ground-state electron density ?(r). The example of the two-electron Hookean atom is treated: For this case one can also transcend the first-order RS perturbation theory and get exact results for discrete choices of force constants (external potential)

  7. Study of the ground-state wave function of 6He via the 6He(p, t)? transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the 6He(p,t)? transfer reaction in inverse kinematics at 25 MeV/nucleon. The data were compared to DWBA calculations in order to extract the spectroscopic amplitudes for ?+2n and t+t configurations in the ground state of 6He. (orig.)

  8. Referral of tactile stimuli to action points in virtual reality with reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moizumi, Shunjiro; Yamamoto, Shinya; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    When we touch something with a tool, we feel the touch at the tip of the tool rather than at the hand. Yamamoto and Kitazawa [Yamamoto, S., Kitazawa, S., 2001b. Sensation at the tips of invisible tools. Nat. Neurosci. 4, 979-980] previously showed that the judgment of the temporal order of two successive stimuli, delivered to the tips of sticks held in each hand, was dramatically altered by crossing the sticks without changing the positions of the hands. This provided evidence for the referral of tactile signals to the tip of a tool in hand. In this study, we examined importance of force feedback from the tool in the referral by manipulating the direction of force feedback in a virtual reality. The virtual tool consisted of a spherical action point that was moved with a stylus in hand. Subjects held two styli, one in each hand, put each action point on each of two buttons in the virtual reality, and were required to judge the order of successive taps, delivered to the two styli. We manipulated the direction of reaction force from each button so that it was congruent or incongruent to the visual configuration of the button. When the arms were uncrossed, judgment primarily depended on whether the action points were crossed or not in the visual space. But when the arms were crossed, judgment critically depended on the direction of force feedback. The results show that tactile signals can be referred to the action point in the virtual reality and that the force feedback becomes a critical factor when the arms are crossed. PMID:17617482

  9. Effect of tensor force and one-nucleon exchange in the quasielastic (6Li, 6He) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the tensor force and one-nucleon exchange is studied by applying the antisymmetrized DWBA method to the 48Ca(6Li,6He)48Sc (?fsub(7/2)?fsu6(7/2)-1)sub(J) reaction. The exchange effect increases the cross sections but does not change the angular shapes. In contrast to the tensor force with Gaussian shape, the TWOPEP tensor contribution is larger than that of the central force and dominates the reaction for large L-transfer. (Auth.)

  10. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J.A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; S. M. Leite; Correia, S; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003–2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large numbe...

  11. Influence of walking speed in backpacker's gait : ground reaction forces and plantar pressure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Maria Cristina Pinto Leite Braamcamp

    2011-01-01

    O modo como nos deslocamos influencia os parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha, alterando-os, podendo vir a originar lesões a curto ou longo prazo. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer, em primeiro lugar, uma revisão sistemática da literatura acerca do que consiste a influência da velocidade nos parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha e, depois, estudar o efeito que a velocidade tem nas forças de reacção ao solo e na pressão plantar durante a marcha quando se transporta, ou não, uma carga. Assim, um do...

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  13. Using Anomalous Along-Track Forces for Topex/Poseidon Ground Track Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B.; Bhat, R.; Frauenholz, R.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPES/POSEIDON satellite is maintained in a nearly circular, frozen orbit at an altitude of =1336 km. and an inclination of i = 66.4, which provides an exact repeat ground track every 127 revolutions and overflies two altimetry verifications sites.

  14. Sensitive and specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk and ground beef with the polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, E. J. (Edward John); King, R K; Burchak, J; Gannon, V P

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk and ground-beef samples is described. It consists of culturing samples in listeria enrichment broth (LEB) and subculturing them from LEB to listeria plating media, followed by DNA extraction and species-specific detection of the organism by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In developing the L. monocytogenes PCR assay, five oligonucleotide primers complementary to the nucleotide sequence of the listerioly...

  15. Kinesiological Study of Push-up Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Floor Reaction on a Force Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa,Harutomo; Tokuhiro,Akihiro

    1995-01-01

    To find an effective way to handle wheelchairs, 3-dimensional floor reactions of the hand and angular deviation of the elbow and wrist joints during push-up motion were studied in 10 healthy men. The push-up was carried out using 3 hand positions (fist, finger and palm) and a push-up device. In all hand positions, anteroposterior force (Fx) and the mediolateral force (Fy) appeared after the vertical force (Fz). The end point of Fx and Fy was observed before that of Fz. Among the 4 different h...

  16. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with carbonyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The rate parameters for the reaction of O(3P) with carbonyl sulfide, O(3P) + OCS yields CO + SO, have been determined directly by monitoring O(3P) using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The value for reaction rate was measured over a temperature range of 263-502 K and the data were fitted to an Arrhenius expression with good linearity. A comparison of the present results with those from previous studies of this reaction is also presented.

  17. Criteria for Side-Force Control in Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Robert I.; McNeill, Walter E.; Bunnell, John W.

    1982-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well with equivalent time constant of the initial response and with system bandwidth. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through level 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  18. Numerical verification of B-WIM system using reaction force signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges are ones of fundamental facilities for roads which become social overhead capital facilities and they are designed to get safety in their life cycles. However as time passes, bridge can be damaged by changes of external force and traffic environments. Therefore, a bridge should be repaired and maintained for extending its life cycle. The working load on a bridge is one of the most important factors for safety, it should be calculated accurately. The most important load among working loads is live load by a vehicle. Thus, the travel characteristics and weight of vehicle can be useful for bridge maintenance if they were estimated with high reliability. In this study, a B-WIM system in which the bridge is used for a scale have been developed for measuring the vehicle loads without the vehicle stop. The vehicle loads can be estimated by the developed B-WIM system with the reaction responses from the supporting points. The algorithm of developed B-WIM system have been verified by numerical analysis

  19. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with dimethyl sulfide and episulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Timmons, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that the investigated reaction of oxygen with dimethyl sulfide may play an important role in photochemical smog formation and in the chemical evolution of dense interstellar clouds. Kinetic data were obtained with the aid of the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence method. The photodecomposition of molecular oxygen provided the oxygen atoms for the experiments. The decay of atomic oxygen was studied on the basis of resonance fluorescence observations. Both reactions investigated were found to be fast processes. A negative temperature dependence of the rate constants for reactions with dimethyl sulfide was observed.

  20. Use of aquifer testing to complete ground water remedial design, shallow aquifer Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a US Army Corps of Engineers-directed remedial action, a ground water treatment system is being installed at Site 27, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. Twenty-three extraction wells were installed in the center and on the leading edge of a jet fuel plume of free and dissolved product in the uppermost (nonpotable) aquifer. The purpose of the extraction well system is to contain and remediate the plume, and to recover free product, which is over 10 feet thick in one well. Aquifer testing, including step and constant discharge tests, was conducted during well installation in order to (1) assist in location of subsequent wells, (2) obtain dynamic product thickness data for selection of wells in which skimmer pumps will be installed, (3) determine initial pumping rates, (4) determine aquifer parameters for modeling and optimization, and (5) provide baseline data on well performance to evaluate possible future biofouling

  1. Reaction Force/Torque Sensing in a Master-Slave Robot System without Mechanical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In human-robot cooperative control systems, force feedback is often necessary in order to achieve high precision and high stability. Usually, traditional robot assistant systems implement force feedback using force/torque sensors. However, it is difficult to directly mount a mechanical force sensor on some working terminals, such as in applications of minimally invasive robotic surgery, micromanipulation, or in working environments exposed to radiation or high temperature. We propose a novel force sensing mechanism for implementing force feedback in a master-slave robot system with no mechanical sensors. The system consists of two identical electro-motors with the master motor powering the slave motor to interact with the environment. A bimanual coordinated training platform using the new force sensing mechanism was developed and the system was verified in experiments. Results confirm that the proposed mechanism is capable of achieving bilateral force sensing and mirror-image movements of two terminals in two reverse control directions.

  2. Reaction Force/Torque Sensing in a Master-Slave Robot System without Mechanical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue; Chunguang Li; Tao Liu(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany)

    2010-01-01

    In human-robot cooperative control systems, force feedback is often necessary in order to achieve high precision and high stability. Usually, traditional robot assistant systems implement force feedback using force/torque sensors. However, it is difficult to directly mount a mechanical force sensor on some working terminals, such as in applications of minimally invasive robotic surgery, micromanipulation, or in working environments exposed to radiation or high temperature. We propose a novel ...

  3. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  4. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom. Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model.

  5. Tensor force in single-nucleon knock-on exchange in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion form factors for single-nucleon knock-on exchange are calculated with a two-body force comprising both central and tensor components. Central forces were found to greatly influence the cross section magnitude while tensor components seem to be negligible. (orig.)

  6. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted $T_{1/2}$ values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases $T_{1/2}$ value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM.

  7. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted T1/2 values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases T1/2 value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM. (author)

  8. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Joseph, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted T1/2 values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases T1/2 value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM.

  9. The challenge of distinguishing figure from ground: reaction to Gelso's work on the real relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Leigh

    2009-05-01

    The motives of the beginning psychotherapist for choosing his or her orientation are an underresearched issue in psychotherapy training. This study focuses on the role of personality-based factors, specifically the epistemological preferences of the therapist that Kolb (1984) has termed "learning style" (LS). The aim of the present study was to explore possible associations between psychology students' developing LSs and their choice of psychotherapeutic orientation (psychodynamic [PDT] vs. cognitive-behavioural [CBT]). Students in a psychologist's program (N = 175) took the Learning Style Inventory in their third semester and, before their formal choice, in their seventh semester. Besides a common trend toward radicalization or purification of their LS, the average PDT student tended to stick to the "feel and watch" style from the third semester to the seventh, whereas the CBT student tended to move toward "think and do." A cluster analysis revealed that the average movement among the CBT students was the result of the forces in two different subgroups, one toward "think" (and, more weakly, "watch"), the other toward "do" (and, more weakly, "feel"). PMID:20183388

  10. Low forced expiratory volume is associated with blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress in a community sample of middle-aged men and women

    OpenAIRE

    CARROLL, D.; Phillips, A.; G (eds); Hunt, K.; Bibbey, A.; Benzeval, M.; Ginty, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued recently that blunted cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress have adverse behavioural and health corollaries that reflect dysregulation of the neural systems that support motivation. We examined the association between cardiovascular reactions to a standard stress task, the paced auditory serial arithmetic rest, and forced expiratory volume in one second, an effort, hence motivation, dependent assessment of lung function measured by spirometry. Low forced ex...

  11. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

  12. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  13. Kinesiological Study of Push-up Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Floor Reaction on a Force Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikawa,Harutomo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available To find an effective way to handle wheelchairs, 3-dimensional floor reactions of the hand and angular deviation of the elbow and wrist joints during push-up motion were studied in 10 healthy men. The push-up was carried out using 3 hand positions (fist, finger and palm and a push-up device. In all hand positions, anteroposterior force (Fx and the mediolateral force (Fy appeared after the vertical force (Fz. The end point of Fx and Fy was observed before that of Fz. Among the 4 different hand positions, Fx and Fy appeared first in the palm, followed by the finger and fist positions, and lastly in the push-up devices. The results indicate that the more unstable pushing-up the body is, the earlier and longer Fx and Fy are. Thus, Fx and Fy are considered to be good indicators of body balance during the push-up motion. The elbow joint showed a hyperextended position only when using the palm position in the maintenance phase. The wrist joint showed palmar flexion only when using the fist position.

  14. Finite size corrections to the radiation reaction force in classical electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Chad R; Leibovich, Adam K; Rothstein, Ira Z

    2010-08-27

    We introduce an effective field theory approach that describes the motion of finite size objects under the influence of electromagnetic fields. We prove that leading order effects due to the finite radius R of a spherically symmetric charge is order R2 rather than order R in any physical model, as widely claimed in the literature. This scaling arises as a consequence of Poincaré and gauge symmetries, which can be shown to exclude linear corrections. We use the formalism to calculate the leading order finite size correction to the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force. PMID:20868166

  15. EMMI rapid reaction task force meeting on quark matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buballa, Michael; Dexheimer, Veronica; Drago, Alessandro; Fraga, Eduardo; Haensel, Pawel; Mishustin, Igor; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Schramm, Stefan; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2014-12-01

    The recent measurement of two solar mass pulsars has initiated an intense discussion on its impact on our understanding of the high-density matter in the cores of neutron stars. A task force meeting was held from 7-10 October 2013 at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies to address the presence of quark matter in these massive stars. During this meeting, the recent observational astrophysical data and heavy-ion data was reviewed. The possibility of pure quark stars, hybrid stars and the nature of the QCD phase transition were discussed and their observational signals delineated.

  16. Radiated power and radiation reaction forces of coherently oscillating charged particles in classical electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejadi, Pardis; Madey, John M. J.; Kowalczyk, Jeremy M. D.

    2015-05-01

    For the foreseeable future, the analysis and design of the complex systems needed to generate intense beams of radiation via the process of coherent emission into free-space will depend on the principles and methods of classical electrodynamics (CED). But the fields and forces predicted by the currently accepted CED theory are manifestly incompatible with Maxwell's equations' energy integral as applied to the process of coherent emission into free-space. It is the purpose of this paper to review the evidence for these limitations of conventional CED, to identify an alternative formulation of CED that does not suffer from these defects, and to describe how the predictions of this more physically realistic formulation of electrodynamics, including the role of the advanced interactions allowed by Maxwell's equations and thermodynamics, might be tested by experiment and applied to enhance the capabilities of devices and systems employing the mechanism of "radiation into free-space."

  17. Progress on Light-Ion Fusion Reactions with Three-Nucleon Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupin, G.; Quaglioni, S.; Langhammer, J.; Navrátil, P.; Calci, A.; Roth, R.

    2014-08-01

    The description of structural and dynamical properties of nuclei starting from the fundamental interaction between nucleons has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model combined with the Resonating-Group Method (NCSM/RGM) is capable of addressing both structural and reaction properties of light-nuclei. While promising results have already been achieved starting from a two-body Hamiltonian, a truly realistic prediction of nuclear observables requires the treatment of the three-nucleon interaction. Using similarity-renormalization-group evolved two- and three-nucleon interactions, we will present recent applications to n-4He scattering process when accounting for the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interaction versus the chiral two-nucleon interaction. We compare our results to phase shifts obtained from R-matrix analysis of data up to 16 MeV neutron energy, below the d-3H threshold.

  18. Progress on Light-Ion Fusion Reactions with Three-Nucleon Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Hupin, Guillaume; Langhammer, Joachim; Navrátil, Petr; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The description of structural and dynamical properties of nuclei starting from the fundamental interaction between nucleons has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model combined with the Resonating-Group Method (NCSM/RGM) is capable of addressing both structural and reaction properties of light-nuclei. While promising results have already been achieved starting from a two-body Hamiltonian, a truly realistic prediction of nuclear observables requires the treatment of the three-nucleon interaction. Using similarity-renormalization-group evolved two- and three-nucleon interactions, we will present recent applications to n-4He scattering process when accounting for the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interaction versus the chiral two-nucleon interaction. We compare our results to phase shifts obtained from R-matrix analysis of data up to 16 MeV neutron energy, below the d-3H threshold.

  19. Where the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation for the radiation reaction force fails, and why the "proofs" break down

    CERN Document Server

    Gromes, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the energy radiated coherently by a system of $N$ charged non relativistic particles. It disagrees with the energy loss which is obtained if one employs the Lorentz Abraham Dirac (LAD) equation for each particle, and sums up the contributions. This fact was already clearly stated in the classical literature long ago. The reason for the discrepancy is the omission of the mixing terms in the Poynting vector. For some simple systems we present a generalized equation for the radiation reaction force which cures this defect. The counter examples show that the LAD equation cannot be generally valid and that all "proofs" must fail somewhere. We demonstrate this failure for some popular examples in the literature.

  20. Chemical reactions in low-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz flight experiment, 'Chemical Foams' demonstrated that foams and air/liquid dispersions are much more stable in low-gravity than on the ground. It thus should be possible to conduct unique chemical reactions in space foams. The low-g results and subsequent ground work on the formaldehyde clock reaction indicate that the reaction is strongly influenced by (1) dissociated and undissociated solution species being adsorbed at solid/liquid and gas/liquid surfaces and (2) chemical reaction rates apparently being affected by long-range forces determined by the liquid mass and the extent and nature of all surface interfaces.

  1. Annual to Decadal Scale Evolution of the Pine Island and Thwaites Grounding Lines in Response to Ocean Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous observations have revealed strong thinning and speedup on glaciers along the Amundsen Coast. Recent work indicates that current thinning marks the early stages of a potentially irreversible marine ice sheet collapse. While it may take centuries to reach late stage collapse, the pattern of thinning and retreat on these glaciers is evolving rapidly. Models and observation indicate that the increased ice discharge causing these losses is driven by a complex ice-ocean interaction in response to increased transport of circum-polar deep water beneath ice shelf cavities. Glacier speedups tend to occur as a series of stepwise increases, in some cases separated by a few decades or more. Between such speedups, the spatial pattern of thinning evolves considerably. The spatio-temporal variation of the thinning is important because it determines the rate of grounding-line retreat. For example, if thinning remains concentrated at the coast, grounding-line retreat will occur more rapidly. By contrast, if thinning rapidly diffuses inland, then grounding lines can maintain fixed positions for longer intervals. We applied a shallow-shelf ice flow model to examine the annual- to decadal-scale variation of thinning in response to varying degrees of ocean melting. The results show that the pattern of thinning evolves at annual time scales. Ungrounding initially produces strong speedups near the grounding line accompanied by stretching that concentrates thinning at the coast. This thinning, however, quickly influences flow farther inland. As a consequence, thinning diffuses inland, causing near grounding-line thinning to decline sharply. The rate of ocean melting plays an important role in this evolution. The model results agree well with observations of thinning. In addition to improving our understanding of grounding line dynamics, such models are important for providing the context in which to interpret the relatively short (~20 year) observational record.

  2. The effect of basketball footwear on the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of drop jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes\\u00FAs C\\u00E1mara Tobalina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la etiología de las lesiones por sobreuso es multifactorial, los impactos repetidos y la amortiguación insuficiente, han sido propuestos como dos de las principales causas de lesión. Los impactos son caracterizados por la fuerza de reacción vertical del suelo en dos picos. El primero de ellos, se corresponde con el aterrizaje de la parte delantera del pie (F1 y el segundo (F2, esta mas asociado a la producción de lesiones. El calzado de baloncesto, debido a su diseño y materiales, también podría ayudar a amortiguar el impacto del pie con la tierra. Sin embargo, no ha sido averiguado aún, si este calzado reduce dicho impacto. Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio, fue determinar que el efecto del calzado de baloncesto sobre la fuerza de reacción de la tierra en la componente vertical durante el aterrizaje. Treinta estudiantes de la Universidad del País Vasco (Edad = 21.54 ± 1.12 años; masa corporal = 71.83 ± 8.15 kg; Altura = 177 ± 7 cm tomaron parte en este estudio. Todos ellos, realizaron 3 aterrizajes, después de ejecutar un salto drop (DL desde 30 cm (DL30 y desde 60 cm (DL60 de altura, en 2 condiciones diferentes: con calzado de baloncesto o con calzado de running. El periodo de descanso entre saltos fue de entre 60 a 90 sg. Se presentan datos desde 30 cm de altura, 2.27 ± 1.07, v (m. s–1 con calzado de baloncesto y de 2.49 ± 1.23 v (m • s–1 con calzado de running. Respecto a F2, el análisis concluyó que en ambas alturas desde 30 cm y desde 60 cm, se presentaron diferencias entre las botas de baloncesto y el calzado de running (6.20 ± 1.93 vs. 5.72 ± 1.79 Bw; 9.34 ± 2.16 vs. 8.27 ± 2.07 Bw. Los valores de F2 registrados con calzado de running fueron más bajos que los registrados con los de baloncesto (DL30: 11.13% DL60: 11.46%. Los impactos de la parte delantera y de reverso, son más altos cuando se ejecutan los saltos desde 60 cm con ambos calzados. El parámetro F2, fue el único estadísticamente distinto entre ambos calzados, desde ambas alturas de salto, con valores más bajos para el calzado de running.

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  4. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Bowen, P; Kappl, M; Butt, H.J.; Stuer, M.; Pecharromán, C.; Aschauer, U.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomi...

  5. Vertical force calibration of smart force platform using artificial neural networks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo André, Toso; Herbert Martins, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The human body may interact with the structures and these interactions are developed through the application of contact forces, for instance due to walking movement. A structure may undergo changes in the dynamic behaviour when subjected to loads and human bodies. The aim of this paper [...] is to propose a methodology using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to calibrate a force platform in order to reduce uncertainties in the vertical Ground Reaction Force measurements and positioning of the applied force for the human gait. METHODS: Force platforms have been used to evaluate the pattern of applied human forces and to fit models for the interaction between pedestrians and structures. The designed force platform consists in two force plates placed side by side in the direction of walking. The reference voltages applied to the Wheatstone bridge were used for calibration as the input data to the ANN, while the output data were the estimated values of the standard weights applied to the force platform. RESULTS: It was presented a framework to enhance traditional calibration methods for force platforms (vertical component) using an ANN. The use of ANN shows significant improvements for the measured variables, leading to better results with lower uncertain values that are smaller than those using a simple traditional calibration. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the calibration with the ANN method may be useful in obtaining more accurate vertical Ground Reaction Forces and positioning measurements in a force platform for human gait analysis.

  6. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  7. Ground-water investigation for U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility O-O, Griggs County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, G.L.; Downey, Joe S.

    1975-01-01

    U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility 0-0 is located about 3.6 miles (5.6 kilometres) north of Cooperstown, Griggs County, North Dakota.  Test drilling indicates that a glacial-drift aquifer located within about 0.2 mile (0.3 kilometre) of the site will supply 2 to 3 gallons per minute (0.13 to 0.19 litre per second) of acceptable quality water for the facility.

  8. A comparison of ground-based and space flight data: Atomic oxygen reactions with boron nitride and silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.; Koontz, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed the materials coated over thin (approx 250 Angstrom) silver films whose electrical resistance was measured in situ to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the in-flight and ground-based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the in-flight or ground-based experiments. The ground-based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground-based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results.

  9. Ground effects on USB configurations. [Upper Surface Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Recent investigations of ground effects on aerodynamic characteristics have been stimulated by the interest in powered-lift STOL airplanes. The ground effects on upper-surface-blowing (USB) configurations may involve change in both the circulation forces and the jet reaction forces. In this note, a theoretical method is proposed for predicting these effects. It is shown that the predicted results agree well with available experimental data. In particular, the wing-alone method is shown to be incapable of predicting the ground effects of USB configurations.

  10. Ground-water investigations at U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility E-0, Ramsey County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility E-0 is located in Ramsey County, North Dakota. Geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the fractured Pierre Shale is the only aquifer in the vicinity of the facility that will supply acceptable water at the required rate of 5 gallons per minute (0.32 liters per second}. The chemical quality of the water is generally considered marginally satisfactory for the intended use due to the presence of high concentrations of dissolved solids, and chloride or sulfate.

  11. Internal radiation exposure of Ground Self-Defense Force members involved in the management of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Akira; Kyoto, Yukishige; Kunishima, Naoaki; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    When the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) was dispatched nationally to Northeast area in Japan. The highly trained GSDF members were simultaneously assigned to various missions for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants disaster. The missions of GSDF terminated on August 31, 2011. Special medical examinations were conducted for the members as they returned to each military unit. GSDF members who were assigned to the nuclear power plant were at risk of radiation exposure; therefore, pocket dosimeters were used to assess external radiation exposure. A few months after the mission was terminated, measurements of internal radiation exposure were performed. This is the first report of the internal exposure of GSDF members who worked in the restricted radiation contamination area. Here, we report the amounts of internal and external exposure of and the equipment used by the GSDF members. PMID:24352931

  12. Ground states of molecules. XLIX. MINDO/3 study of the retro-diels-alder reaction of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, M.J.S.; Olivella, S.; Rzepa, H.S.

    1978-08-30

    The retro-Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene to form ethylene and butadiene has been studied, using MINDO/3. The transition state is predicted to be very unsymmetric, corresponding to weakening of one of the two breaking CC bonds. The calculated entropy of activation agrees well with experiment and the calculated secondary isotope effects for 4,4-dideuteriocyclohexene and 4,4,5,5-tetradeuteriocyclohexene are similar to those measured for an analogous reaction by Taagepera and Thornton. Discrepancies between the conclusions reached here and those from recent ab-initio calculations are discussed. 4 tables, 3 figures, 53 references.

  13. Ground states of molecules. XLIX. MINDO/3 study of the retro-diels-alder reaction of cyclohexene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retro-Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene to form ethylene and butadiene has been studied, using MINDO/3. The transition state is predicted to be very unsymmetric, corresponding to weakening of one of the two breaking CC bonds. The calculated entropy of activation agrees well with experiment and the calculated secondary isotope effects for 4,4-dideuteriocyclohexene and 4,4,5,5-tetradeuteriocyclohexene are similar to those measured for an analogous reaction by Taagepera and Thornton. Discrepancies between the conclusions reached here and those from recent ab-initio calculations are discussed. 4 tables, 3 figures, 53 references

  14. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects for S/sub N/2 bromine exchange reactions of alkyl bromides: development of transition-state force field for calculation of NPE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transition-state force field for S/sub N/2 bromine-exchange reactions with a series of alkyl bromides has been developed and checked by calculation of 14C primary and (mostly) 2H secondary hydrogen isotope effects for these reactions in reasonable agreement with experimental values for related reactions

  15. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface over land (DSSF, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of regional applications of the method is attainable by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite instrument which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and radiative transfer computations.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments: an urban site near Paris and a continental background site located South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6 in magnitude. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 W m?2 (5% in relative in 70% of the situations, and within 40 W m?2 in 90% of the situations, for the two case studies considered here.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 W m?2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous aerosol radiative impact at the ground level over land with METEOSAT-7 visible channel.

  16. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface (DSSF over land, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of global applications of the method is fulfilled by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and DSSF computed with a radiative transfer code.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments, i.e. an urban site near Paris and a continental background site in South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 Wm?2 (5% in relative in 70% of the cases, and within 40 Wm?2 in 90% of the cases.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently the ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 Wm?2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we therefore prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous aerosol radiative impact at the ground level over land with METEOSAT-7 visible channel.

  17. Ground-state correlations in 12C and the mechanism of the (e,e'p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the results of an investigation into two aspects of the mechanism of the quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reaction: the interaction between the incident electron and the bound proton and the residual nucleus (final-state interaction (FSI)), are presented and used in the extraction of nuclear-structure information from (e,e'p) measurements on 12C. The experiments were carried out at NIKHEF-K with a high-resolution spectrometer. Two kinds of experiments have been performed on 12C. The first was aimed at obtaining accurate momentum distributions for various final states in 11B. Some special measurements were carried out in order to vary the parameters influencing the FSI. The role of coupled-channels effects in the 12C(e,e'p)11Be reaction is discussed. It is discussed whether some of the weak transitions observed in this reaction, can be associated with knockout from normally unoccupied shell-model orbitals. The second experiment on 12C was devoted to the e-p coupling. These measurements were supplemented with data taken on 6Li. The latter measurement allowed for measuring simultaneously knockout from the relatively dense 4He core and the relatively dilute deuteron. In this way the density dependence of the e-p coupling in the nucleus could be studied. The results of these experiments have been compared to various models that take into account the effect of the nuclear medium upon the e-p coupling. The possible role of charge-exchange and meson-exchange currents in the interpretation of these experiments is also considered. A brief survey of the formalism of the quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reaction is also presented. (author). 196 refs.; 53 figs.; 21 tabs

  18. Diffusion and reactivity of ground-state nitrogen atoms N(4S) between 3 and 15 K: application to the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane under non-energetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourry, Sendres; Krim, Lahouari

    2015-07-01

    We have characterized the CH4 + N(4S) reaction in solid phase, at very low temperature, under non-energetic conditions and where the CH4 and N reactants are in their ground states. A microwave-driven atomic source has been used to generate ground-state nitrogen atoms N(4S), and experiments have been carried out at temperatures as low as 3 K to reduce the mobility of the trapped species in solid phase and hence to freeze the first step of the CH4 + N reaction pathway. Leaving the formed solid sample in the dark for a while allows all trapped reactants to relax to the ground state, specifically radicals and excited species streaming from the plasma discharge. Such a method could be the only possibility of proving that the CH4 + N reaction occurs between CH4 and N reactants in their ground states without any additional energy to initiate the chemical process. The appearance of the CH3 reaction product, just by inducing the mobility of N atoms between 3 and 11 K, translates that a hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane, under non-energetic conditions, will start occurring at very low temperature. The formation of methyl radical, under these experimental conditions, is due to recombination processes N(4S)-N(4S) of ground-state nitrogen atoms without any contribution of cosmic ray particles or high-energy photons.

  19. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  20. Application of catalyst-free click reactions in attaching affinity molecules to tips of atomic force microscopy for detection of protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Subhadip; Manna, Saikat; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming

    2013-11-26

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been extensively used in studies of biological interactions. Particularly, AFM based force spectroscopy and recognition imaging can sense biomolecules on a single molecule level, having great potential to become a tool for molecular diagnostics in clinics. These techniques, however, require affinity molecules to be attached to AFM tips in order to specifically detect their targets. The attachment chemistry currently used on silicon tips involves multiple steps of reactions and moisture sensitive chemicals, such as (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, making the process difficult to operate in aqueous solutions. In the present study, we have developed a user-friendly protocol to functionalize the AFM tips with affinity molecules. A key feature of it is that all reactions are carried out in aqueous solutions. In summary, we first synthesized a molecular anchor composed of cyclooctyne and silatrane for introduction of a chemically reactive function to AFM tips and a bifunctional polyethylene glycol linker that harnesses two orthogonal click reactions, copper free alkyne-azide cycloaddition and thiol-vinylsulfone Michael addition, for attaching affinity molecules to AFM tips. The attachment chemistry was then validated by attaching antithrombin DNA aptamers and cyclo-RGD peptides to silicon nitride (SiN) tips, respectively, and measuring forces of unbinding these affinity molecules from their protein cognates human ?-thrombin and human ?5?1-integrin immobilized on mica surfaces. In turn, we used the same attachment chemistry to functionalize silicon tips with the same affinity molecules for AFM based recognition imaging, showing that the disease-relevant biomarkers such as ?-thrombin and ?5?1-integrin can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity by the single molecule technique. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of our attachment chemistry for the use in functionalization of AFM tips with affinity molecules. PMID:24180289

  1. The gravitational radiation reaction force of a continuous medium. II. Perturbation of a quasi-minkowskian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine, within the framework of the first approximation of general relativity, the equations of motion of a continuous medium in which the forces from material stresses play a leading part with respect to the gravitational forces. In the slow approximation, we deduce the formula for the variation of the energy of the system due to the gravitational radiation. We obtain the surprising result that it has exactly the same form that one determined in the preceding paper (not only when averaged over a quasi-periodic motion)

  2. Electron-transfer reactions involving two harmonic potentials with a different force constant: The Zusman approach versus the spin-boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches: (a generalized spin-boson model with a nonlinear spin-boson coupling and the Zusman's stochastic Liouville formalism) are employed to analyze the electron-transfer reactions involving two harmonic potentials with a different force constant. An analytical rate formula, expressed as a convoluted integral of the individual rate kernel for each mode, is derived with full consideration of quantum tunneling effects. For a dominant solvent mode at low frequency, the formula can be reduced to the results of the Zusman's theory, showing asymmetry of the Marcus rate plot between the normal and the inverted regions

  3. Odd oxygen formation in the laser irradiation of O2 at 248 nm - Evidence for reactions of O2 in the Herzberg states with ground state O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jichun; Barker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Two O3 formation processes (initiation and autocatalytic) are studied in pure O2 and in O2+N2 and O2+Ar mixtures at pressures between 200 and 1600 torr and at temperatures between 298 and 370 K. Evidence is presented that the initiation process produces O3 through chemical reactions between ground state O2 and excited O2 in the Herzberg states, which are produced by the photoabsorption of O2 at 248 nm. For the autocatalytic process, the results are consistent with the proposal that the O3 formation is accelerated by photodissociating vibrationally excited O2(nu), produced in the photolysis of O3 following its initial formation. It is argued that the O2 Herzberg states and O2(nu) may play important roles in the odd oxygen chemistry in the middle atmosphere. It is estimated that the O2(A3Sigma-u(+))+O2 reaction may yield up to about 6 percent of the total odd oxygen production rate near 50 km.

  4. A global ab initio potential energy surface for the X{sup ?2}A{sup ?} ground state of the Si + OH ? SiO + H reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayou, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.dayou@obspm.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique (UMR 8112 du CNRS), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Duflot, Denis; Rivero-Santamaría, Alejandro; Monnerville, Maurice [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules (UMR 8523 du CNRS), Université Lille I Sciences et Technologies, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-11-28

    We report the first global potential energy surface (PES) for the X{sup ?2}A{sup ?} ground electronic state of the Si({sup 3}P) + OH(X{sup 2}?) ? SiO(X{sup 1}?{sub g}{sup +}) + H({sup 2}S) reaction. The PES is based on a large number of ab initio energies obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations plus Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. Corrections were applied to the ab initio energies in the reactant channel allowing a proper description of long-range interactions between Si({sup 3}P) and OH(X{sup 2}?). An analytical representation of the global PES has been developed by means of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The reaction is found barrierless. Two minima, corresponding to the SiOH and HSiO isomers, and six saddle points, among which the isomerization transition state, have been characterized on the PES. The vibrational spectra of the SiOH/HSiO radicals have been computed from second-order perturbation theory and quantum dynamics methods. The structural, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of the two isomers are in good agreement with experimental data and previous high quality calculations.

  5. Development of polarizable force fields and hybrid QM/MM methods for the study of reaction mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Benjamin M.; Richards, W. Graham

    2003-01-01

    Computational chemists have successfully simulated many systems by applying the principles of quantum mechanics, while approximate molecular mechanical models have seen great utility in problems of biochemical interest. In recent years, a number of methods have been developed to combine the advantages of both techniques. In this study the so-called QM/MM method is developed and applied to the determination of the free energy of a simple Menshutkin SN2 chemical reaction. This is an extremely d...

  6. Guideline on the investigation and management of acute transfusion reactions. Prepared by the BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinegate, Hazel; Birchall, Janet; Gray, Alexandra; Haggas, Richard; Massey, Edwin; Norfolk, Derek; Pinchon, Deborah; Sewell, Carrock; Wells, Angus; Allard, Shubha

    2012-10-01

    Although acute non-haemolytic febrile or allergic reactions (ATRs) are a common complication of transfusion and often result in little or no morbidity, prompt recognition and management are essential. The serious hazards of transfusion haemovigilance organisation (SHOT) receives 30-40 reports of anaphylactic reactions each year. Other serious complications of transfusion, such as acute haemolysis, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) may present with similar clinical features to ATR. This guideline describes the approach to a patient developing adverse symptoms and signs related to transfusion, including initial recognition, establishing a likely cause, treatment, investigations, planning future transfusion and reporting within the hospital and to haemovigilance organisations. Key recommendations are that adrenaline should be used as first line treatment of anaphylaxis, and that transfusions should only be carried out where patients can be directly observed and where staff are trained in manging complications of transfusion, particularly anaphylaxis. Management of ATRs is not dependent on classification but should be guided by symptoms and signs. Patients who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be discussed with an allergist or immunologist, in keeping with UK resuscitation council guidelines. PMID:22928769

  7. Lesiones de los sargentos alumnos del Ejército de Tierra y factores de riesgo lesional / Injuries of the Ground Forces Student Sergeants and injury risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.A., Valero Capilla; L., Franco Bonafonte; F.J., Rubio Pérez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: los cursos de entrenamiento militar requieren un alto nivel de exigencia física y provocan un número importante de lesiones osteomusculares. Es de interés conocer el tipo de lesiones que se observan en estos cursos y los factores de riesgo lesional asociados, para poder implantar poste [...] riormente medidas preventivas adecuadas y correctas gestiones de los recursos que se disponen. Objetivo: presentar el tipo de lesiones observadas durante la fase común del primer curso de formación de los sargentos alumnos del Ejército de Tierra (ET) y analizar la frecuencia lesional y factores de riesgo relacionados. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal de 15 semanas de duración, en el que se incluyeron 579 sargentos alumnos (49 mujeres), edad media de 25,9 años (Rango 18-31). Al inicio del curso, se obtuvieron los parámetros antropométricos de los alumnos y se midió su condición física mediante las marcas obtenidas en carrera de 6000, 1000 y 50 m, y pruebas de salto vertical y flexo extensiones en suelo. Durante el curso, se registraron las lesiones observadas, sus causas, localización y tiempo de recuperación. Al final del curso, se comparó la frecuencia lesional observada y sus causas entre hombres y mujeres, y en el grupo de hombres, se compararon las marcas obtenidas y los parámetros antropométricos entre los lesionados y no lesionados. Resultados: la edad media del grupo de mujeres vs hombres fue de 27,1 (3,18) vs 25,7 (3,03) años p Abstract in english Background: military training courses are very physically demanding and they cause a significant number of musculoskeletal injuries. It is of interest to know the type of injuries observed in these courses and the associated injury risk factors in order to subsequently implant appropriate preventive [...] measures and manage available resources. Objective: to present the type of injuries observed during the common phase of the first training course of the Ground Forces Student Sergeants and to analyze the frequency of injuries and related risk factors. Material and Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional, 15 week duration study, which included 579 student sergeants (49 women), average age of 25.9 years (range 18-31). At the beginning of the course, the anthropometric parameters of students were obtained and their physical condition was measured through the marks obtained in 6000, 1000 and 50 m career, and through vertical jump and flexion/extension tests on the ground. During the course, observed injuries, their causes, location and recovery time were recorded. At the end of the course, the observed frequency of injuries and their causes were compared between men and women, and in the male group, the obtained marks and the anthropometric parameters were compared between the injured and not injured. Results: the average age of the women vs men´s group was 27.1 (3.18) vs. 25.7 (3.03) years p

  8. Testing the cosmic censorship conjecture with point particles: The effect of radiation reaction and the self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical thought-experiment to destroy black holes was envisaged by Wald in 1974: it consists of throwing particles with large angular momentum into an extremal black hole, checking whether their capture can overspin the black hole past the extremal limit and create a naked singularity. Wald showed that in the test-particle limit, particles that would be otherwise capable of producing naked singularities are simply scattered. Recently, Jacobson and Sotiriou showed that if one considers instead a black hole that is almost, but not exactly extremal, then in the absence of backreaction effects particle capture could indeed overspin the spacetime above the Kerr limit. Here we analyze backreaction effects and show that for some of the trajectories giving rise to naked singularities, radiative effects can be neglected. However, for these orbits the conservative self-force is important, and seems to have the right sign to prevent the formation of naked singularities.

  9. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous-waste disposal. In addition, the results from the passive-diffusion samples may show that TCE concentrations are stratified across some screened intervals. The overall results of the limited test of passive-diffusion samplers at site SS-34N were similar to more detailed tests conducted at other contaminated sites across the country and indicate that further evaluation of the use of passive-diffusion samplers at McChord site SS-34N is warranted.

  10. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  11. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  12. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-05-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Zero Horizontal Reaction Force Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Inventor); Nick, Andrew J. (Inventor); Schuler, Jason M. (Inventor); Smith, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An excavator includes a mobile chassis with a first bucket drum and a second bucket drum coupled thereto. The first bucket drum and second bucket drum are coupled to the chassis for positioning thereof on the surface at opposing ends of the chassis. Each first scoop on the first bucket drum is a mirror image of one second scoop on the second bucket drum when (i) the first bucket drum and second bucket drum are on the surface adjacent opposing ends of the chassis, and (ii) the first bucket drum is rotated in one direction and the second bucket drum is simultaneously rotated in an opposing direction.

  14. Large atmospheric shortwave radiative forcing by Mediterranean aerosols derived from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne observations and dependence on the aerosol type and single scattering albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Biagio, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties and shortwave irradiance measurements at the island of Lampedusa (central Mediterranean) during 2004-2007 are combined with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System observations of the outgoing shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The measurements are used to estimate the surface (FES), the top of the atmosphere (FETOA), and the atmospheric (FEATM) shortwave aerosol forcing efficiencies for solar zenith angle (?) between 15° and 55° for desert dust (DD), urban/industrial-biomass burning aerosols (UI-BB), and mixed aerosols (MA). The forcing efficiency at the different atmospheric levels is derived by applying the direct method, that is, as the derivative of the shortwave net flux versus the aerosol optical depth at fixed ?. The diurnal average forcing efficiency at the surface/TOA at the equinox is (-68.9 ± 4.0)/(-45.5 ± 5.4) W m-2 for DD, (-59.0 ± 4.3)/(-19.2 ± 3.3) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (-94.9 ± 5.1)/(-36.2 ± 1.7) W m-2 for MA. The diurnal average atmospheric radiative forcing at the equinox is (+7.3 ± 2.5) W m-2 for DD, (+8.4 ± 1.9) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (+8.2 ± 1.9) W m-2 for MA, suggesting that the mean atmospheric forcing is almost independent of the aerosol type. The largest values of the atmospheric forcing may reach +35 W m-2 for DD, +23 W m-2 for UI-BB, and +34 W m-2 for MA. FETOA is calculated for MA and 25° ? ? ? 35° for three classes of single scattering albedo (0.7 ? ? < 0.8, 0.8 ? ? < 0.9, and 0.9 ? ? ? 1) at 415.6 and 868.7 nm: FETOA increases, in absolute value, for increasing ?. A 0.1 increment in ? determines an increase in FETOA by 10-20 W m-2.

  15. Investigating the relationship between pressure force and acoustic waveform in footstep sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Serafin, Stefania; Götzen, Amalia De; Overholt, Daniel; Topel, Spencer

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair of sandals embedded with six pressure sensors each. Investigations of the relationships between recorded force and footstep sounds is presented, together with several possible applications of the system.

  16. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) ? OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) ? OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment

  17. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  18. Análise da força articular resultante entre diferentes movimentos do ombro com e sem carga: estudo preliminar / Analysis of the joint reaction forces during different shoulder movements with and without external load: a preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss; Joelly Mahnic de, Toledo; Marcelo Peduzzi de, Castro; Fábia Milman, Krumholz; Felipe de Osório, Marques.

    Full Text Available Os modelos de segmentos rígidos são extremamente úteis para auxiliar a compreensão do tipo de sobrecarga que as articulações estão expostas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a força articular resultante e momento proximal durante atividades sem e com carga externa, em um estudo preliminar. Um [...] indivíduo realizou flexão, extensão, abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo (sem e com carga). Dados cinemáticos foram obtidos por videogrametria (freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/s). Um modelo de segmentos rígidos foi utilizado para obtenção dos dados cinéticos. O modelo é regido pelas equações de movimento de Newton-Euler. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram aumentos não proporcionais na força e momento resultante. A força resultante longitudinal foi a única que apresentou aumento proporcional frente à carga externa. As componentes da força de cisalhamento e momento proximal apresentaram aumentos aleatórios. O aumento da carga externa promoveu aumentos da força e momento proximal, porém não de forma proporcional. As componentes de força e momento resultante sofrem influência da carga externa de maneira independente. Isto evidencia a necessidade de um controle rígido sobre os exercícios prescritos para diferentes disfunções do membro superior. Abstract in english Link segment models are extremely useful for increasing the comprehension of joint overload. The aim of the present study was to analyze proximal joint reaction forces and moments during different movements performed with and without external load. One subject performed shoulder flexion, extension a [...] nd abduction, and elbow flexion movements (with and without external load) Kinematic data were obtained by videogrammetry (frequency sample 50 fields/s). One link segment model was used to obtain kinetic data. The model is governed by Newton/Euler movement equations. The results suggested a not proportional increasing of proximal joint reaction forces and moments. The proximal joint reaction force longitudinal component was the only one that increased proportionally to the external load. Proximal joint reaction force shearing components and proximal moments presented increasing values of different magnitudes. The use of external load promoted increased magnitudes of proximal joint reaction force and moment, although it was not proportional. Proximal joint reaction force and moment are influenced in different ways by the external load. This suggests the need of a strict control of the prescribed exercises for different shoulder dysfunctions.

  19. Calibration of CR-39 with atomic force microscope for the measurement of short range tracks from proton-induced target fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the track response of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) for low (<6 MeV/n) and high (>100 MeV/n) energy heavy ions using the atomic force microscope (AFM). CR-39 PNTD was exposed to several heavy ion beams of different energy at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba). For AFM measurement, the amount of bulk etch was controlled to be ?2 ?m in order to avoid etching away of short range tracks. The response data obtained by AFM for ?2 ?m bulk etch was in good agreement with data obtained by the conventional optical microscope analysis for larger bulk etch. The response data from low energy beams (stopping near the surface) was also consistent with the data from high energy beams (penetrating the detector) as a function of REL (restricted energy loss) with the ?-ray cut off energy of ?0 = 200 eV. We experimentally verified that REL (?0 = 200 eV) gives a universal function for wide energy range in CR-39 PNTD. This work has been done as part of a basic study in the measurement of secondary short range tracks produced by target fragmentation reactions in proton cancer therapy fields. - Highlights: ? Track response of CR-39 for low and high energy heavy ions was studied. ? Track measurement was carried out with AFM. ? Amount of bulk etch was controlled to be shallowly ?2 ?m ? REL model with the 200 eV ?-ray cut-off energy gives a universal function for wide energy range

  20. NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

  1. On ground model definability

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, Victoria; Johnstone, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Laver, and Woodin independently, showed that models of ${\\rm ZFC}$ are uniformly definable in their set-forcing extensions, using a ground model parameter. We investigate ground model definability for models of fragments of ${\\rm ZFC}$, particularly of ${\\rm ZF}+{\\rm DC}_\\delta$ and of ${\\rm ZFC}^-$, and we obtain both positive and negative results. Generalizing the results of Laver and Woodin, we show that models of ${\\rm ZF}+{\\rm DC}_\\delta$ are uniformly definable in thei...

  2. Análisis cuantitativo de la evolución post-quirúrgica de la rotura de ligamento cruzado anterior mediante el uso de la plataforma de fuerza - Quantitative analysis of the evolution of post-surgical anterior cruciate ligament rupture using force platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilar, JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl analisis cinético mediante plataforma de fuerza es un método objetivo de cuantificar el apoyo de los miembros en los animales domésticos.SummaryKinetic análisis by jeans of force platforms is an objetive method to measure weight - bearing or ground reaction force (GRF.

  3. Ab initio study of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions and the tensor force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D. [Division of General Education, Nagaoka National College of Technology, 888 Nishikatakai, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-8532 (Japan); Center for Academic Information Service, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P.229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Quantique, CP165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions at low energies are studied with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in an ab initio approach. The obtained astrophysical S-factors are all in very good agreement with experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  4. [The ecdysteroid fraction of the above-ground portion of Serratula coronata L. in the spontaneous E-rosette formation reaction and the agar migration test in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenin, D S; Volodin, V V; Be?kin, Ia B; Shlykova, A B

    1996-01-01

    Reaction of E-rosette formation and agar migration test in vitro showed that small concentrations (7.5.10(-13) -7.5.10(-8) M) of phytosteroid ecdysterone (20-hydroxyecdysone) induce the activation of human lymphocytes. The effect of higher concentrations (7.5.10(-7) -7.5.10(-5) M) is less pronounced (two-phase effect). PMID:8704636

  5. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites, respectively. The ARF readings at the top of the atmosphere were approximately -30W/sq m in rural and -40-60W/sq m in urban areas.

  6. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  7. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  8. Exact integral constraint requiring only the ground-state electron density as input on the exchange-correlation force - partial differential(V)(xc)(r)/partial differential(r) for spherical atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, N H; Nagy, A

    2008-11-21

    Following some studies of integral(n)(r)inverted DeltaV(r)dr by earlier workers for the density functional theory (DFT) one-body potential V(r) generating the exact ground-state density, we consider here the special case of spherical atoms. The starting point is the differential virial theorem, which is used, as well as the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg [Phys. Rev. A 18, 2399 (1978)] identity to show that the scalar quantity paralleling the above vector integral, namely, integral(n)(r) partial differential(V)(r)/partial differential(r)dr, is determined solely by the electron density n(0) at the nucleus for the s-like atoms He and Be. The force - partial differential(V)/ partial differential(r) is then related to the derivative of the exchange-correlation potential V(xc)(r) by terms involving only the external potential in addition to n(r). The resulting integral constraint should allow some test of the quality of currently used forms of V(xc)(r). The article concludes with results from the differential virial theorem and the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity for the exact many-electron theory of spherical atoms, as well as for the DFT for atoms such as Ne with a closed p shell. PMID:19026052

  9. A new potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of the LiH2 system, and dynamics studies on the H((2)S) + LiH(X(1)?(+)) ? Li((2)S) + H2(X(1)?g(+)) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiuchuang; He, Di; Chen, Maodu

    2015-05-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) is obtained for the ground electronic state of the LiH2 system based on high-level energies. The energy points are calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5) basis sets, and these energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The neural network method and hierarchical construction scheme are applied in the fitting process and the root mean square error of the fitting result is very small (0.004 eV). The dissociation energies and equilibrium distances for LiH(X(1)?(+)) and H2(X(1)?g(+)) obtained from the new PES are in good agreement with the experimental data. On the new PES, time-dependent wave packet studies for the H((2)S) + LiH(X(1)?(+)) ? Li((2)S) + H2(X(1)?g(+)) reaction have been carried out. In this reaction, no threshold is found due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. The calculated integral cross sections are high at low collision energy and will decrease with the increase of the collision energy. The product molecule H2 tends to be forward scattering due to direct reactive collisions, which becomes more evident at higher collision energies. PMID:25870863

  10. Calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements for ground and excited state electron transfer reactions: Comparison of the generalized Mulliken-Hush and block diagonalization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Robert J.; Newton, Marshall D.

    1997-06-01

    Two independent methods are presented for the nonperturbative calculation of the electronic coupling matrix element (Hab) for electron transfer reactions using ab initio electronic structure theory. The first is based on the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) model, a multistate generalization of the Mulliken Hush formalism for the electronic coupling. The second is based on the block diagonalization (BD) approach of Cederbaum, Domcke, and co-workers. Detailed quantitative comparisons of the two methods are carried out based on results for (a) several states of the system Zn2OH2+ and (b) the low-lying states of the benzene-Cl atom complex and its contact ion pair. Generally good agreement between the two methods is obtained over a range of geometries. Either method can be applied at an arbitrary nuclear geometry and, as a result, may be used to test the validity of the Condon approximation. Examples of nonmonotonic behavior of the electronic coupling as a function of nuclear coordinates are observed for Zn2OH2+. Both methods also yield a natural definition of the effective distance (rDA) between donor (D) and acceptor (A) sites, in contrast to earlier approaches which required independent estimates of rDA, generally based on molecular structure data.

  11. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition. PMID:17705682

  12. Evidence for the ground-state resonance of 26O

    CERN Document Server

    Lunderberg, E; Kohley, Z; Attanayake, H; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Christian, G; Divaratne, D; Grimes, S M; Haagsma, A; Finck, J E; Frank, N; Luther, B; Mosby, S; Nagy, T; Peaslee, G F; Schiller, A; Snyder, J; Spyrou, A; Strongman, M J; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the ground state of the neutron-unbound nucleus 26O was observed for the first time in the single proton-knockout reaction from a 82 MeV/u 27F beam. Neutrons were measured in coincidence with 24O fragments. 26O was determined to be unbound by 150+50-150 keV from the observation of low-energy neutrons. This result agrees with recent shell model calculations based on microscopic two- and three-nucleon forces.

  13. Electrodynamic Radiation Reaction and General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Kozameh, Carlos; Newman, Ezra T; Ortega, Raul; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the well-known problem of the instabilities associated with the self-forces (radiation reaction forces) in classical electrodynamics are possibly stabilized by the introduction of gravitational forces via general relativity.

  14. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  15. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  16. Determination of external forces in alpine skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Chardonnens, Julien; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2013-01-01

    In alpine ski racing the relationships between skier kinetics and kinematics and their effect on performance and injury-related aspects are not well understood. There is currently no validated system to determine all external forces simultaneously acting on skiers, particularly under race conditions and throughout entire races. To address the problem, this study proposes and assesses a method for determining skier kinetics with a single lightweight differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS). The dGNSS kinetic method was compared to a reference system for six skiers and two turns each. The pattern differences obtained between the measurement systems (offset ± SD) were -26 ± 152 N for the ground reaction force, 1 ± 96 N for ski friction and -6 ± 6 N for the air drag force. The differences between turn means were small. The error pattern within the dGNSS kinetic method was highly repeatable and precision was therefore good (SD within system: 63 N ground reaction force, 42 N friction force and 7 N air drag force) allowing instantaneous relative comparisons and identification of discriminative meaningful changes. The method is therefore highly valid in assessing relative differences between skiers in the same turn, as well as turn means between different turns. The system is suitable to measure large capture volumes under race conditions. PMID:23917257

  17. Determination of External Forces in Alpine Skiing Using a Differential Global Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Müller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In alpine ski racing the relationships between skier kinetics and kinematics and their effect on performance and injury-related aspects are not well understood. There is currently no validated system to determine all external forces simultaneously acting on skiers, particularly under race conditions and throughout entire races. To address the problem, this study proposes and assesses a method for determining skier kinetics with a single lightweight differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS. The dGNSS kinetic method was compared to a reference system for six skiers and two turns each. The pattern differences obtained between the measurement systems (offset ± SD were ?26 ± 152 N for the ground reaction force, 1 ± 96 N for ski friction and ?6 ± 6 N for the air drag force. The differences between turn means were small. The error pattern within the dGNSS kinetic method was highly repeatable and precision was therefore good (SD within system: 63 N ground reaction force, 42 N friction force and 7 N air drag force allowing instantaneous relative comparisons and identification of discriminative meaningful changes. The method is therefore highly valid in assessing relative differences between skiers in the same turn, as well as turn means between different turns. The system is suitable to measure large capture volumes under race conditions.

  18. Motion synthesis and force distribution analysis for a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnacki, Maciej T; Zieli?ska, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of generating biped robot motion using recorded human gait is presented. The recorded data were modified taking into account the velocity available for robot drives. Data includes only selected joint angles, therefore the missing values were obtained considering the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which means obtaining an adequate motion trajectory of the so-called Zero Moment Point (ZMT). Also, the method of determining the ground reaction forces' distribution during the biped robot's dynamic stable walk is described. The method was developed by the authors. Following the description of equations characterizing the dynamics of robot's motion, the values of the components of ground reaction forces were symbolically determined as well as the coordinates of the points of robot's feet contact with the ground. The theoretical considerations have been supported by computer simulation and animation of the robot's motion. This was done using Matlab/Simulink package and Simulink 3D Animation Toolbox, and it has proved the proposed method. PMID:21761810

  19. Some applications of the virial theorem to molecular force fields: the zero virial reaction coordinate and diatomic potentials from the normalized kinetic field functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a fixed-angle potential energy surface (PES), W(Q), following the zero virial path (ZVP), on which ?/sub ?//sup N/Q/sub ?/ . del /sub ?/W(Q) = 0, provides an efficient way for locating the transition state and generating a good approximation to the minimum-energy reaction path; vector Q = (Q1, ..., Q/sub N/ stands for nuclear coordinates. An algorithm which employs the ZVP following is proposed for exploring PESs when starting from the reactant (or product) region. It seems that this approach allows one to avoid some discontinuities in the reaction coordinate, which often result from the bottom-following procedures. The implications of the integral forms of the virial theorem are examined and a new way of constructing potential energy functions W(R) for diatomic molecules is proposed. It starts with the normalization of the kinetic component T(R) of the potential: integral0/sup infinity/[T(R) - T(infinity)]dR = Z/sub A/Z/sub B/, where Z/sub A/ and Z/sub B/ are the nuclear charges and R is the internuclear distance. The modified potentials are derived for four different analytical representations of T(R), T/sub X(R)(X = M, R, RM, and HH) by the Morse, Rydberg, Rosen--Morse, and Hulbert--Hirschfelder functions, respectively. The three-parameter modified potentials (X = M, R, and RM) are tested against known spectroscopic data for H2+ and H2.The modified potentials require one less experimental constant to fit the potential parameters than do their original analogs. It follows that the Morse and Rydberg functions constitute satisfactory representations of the kinetic component T(R), and that enforcing its normalization improves predictions of spectroscopic constants and relations between them. 46 references

  20. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  1. Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

    2012-08-21

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be ?-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). PMID:22839691

  2. Ground Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Marlene

    1998-01-01

    Many public school districts have adopted a policy of zero tolerance toward drug use, weapon possession, and sexual harassment on school grounds. Although a study by the National Center for Education Statistics reported no evidence that zero tolerance policies have lowered school crime rates, prominent education groups favor them. (JOW)

  3. Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: Push more, brake less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Slawinski, Jean; Dorel, Sylvain; de Villareal, Eduardo Saez; Couturier, Antoine; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-09-18

    Overground sprint studies have shown the importance of net horizontal ground reaction force impulse (IMPH) for acceleration performance, but only investigated one or two steps over the acceleration phase, and not in elite sprinters. The main aim of this study was to distinguish between propulsive (IMPH+) and braking (IMPH-) components of the IMPH and seek whether, for an expected higher IMPH, faster elite sprinters produce greater IMPH+, smaller IMPH-, or both. Nine high-level sprinters (100-m best times range: 9.95-10.60s) performed 7 sprints (2×10m, 2×15m, 20m, 30m and 40m) during which ground reaction force was measured by a 6.60m force platform system. By placing the starting-blocks further from the force plates at each trial, and pooling the data, we could assess the mechanics of an entire "virtual" 40-m acceleration. IMPH and IMPH+ were significantly correlated with 40-m mean speed (r=0.868 and 0.802, respectively; Pbraked less" (lower IMPH-) in the horizontal direction. PMID:26209876

  4. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  5. Coaxial atomic force microscope tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. A.; Aguilar, J. A.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force versus applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers can perform three-dimensional assembly by picking up a specified silica microsphere, imaging with the microsphere at the end of the tip, and placing it at a target destination.

  6. Assessment of Knee Cartilage Stress Distribution and Deformation Using Motion Capture System and Wearable Sensors for Force Ratio Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijailovic, N.; Vulovic, R.; Milankovic, I.; Radakovic, R.; Filipovic, N.; Peulic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the knee cartilage deformation ratio as well as the knee cartilage stress distribution is of particular importance in clinical studies due to the fact that these represent some of the basic indicators of cartilage state and that they also provide information about joint cartilage wear so medical doctors can predict when it is necessary to perform surgery on a patient. In this research, we apply various kinds of sensors such as a system of infrared cameras and reflective markers, three-axis accelerometer, and force plate. The fluorescent marker and accelerometers are placed on the patient's hip, knee, and ankle, respectively. During a normal walk we are recording the space position of markers, acceleration, and ground reaction force by force plate. Measured data are included in the biomechanical model of the knee joint. Geometry for this model is defined from CT images. This model includes the impact of ground reaction forces, contact force between femur and tibia, patient body weight, ligaments, and muscle forces. The boundary conditions are created for the finite element method in order to noninvasively determine the cartilage stress distribution. PMID:26417382

  7. Modelo dinâmico de simulação e otimização da força normal de reação do solo para um mecanismo de corte basal / Dynamic model of simulation and optimization of the normal force of soil reaction for a mechanism of base cutter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E. S., Volpato; Oscar A., Braunbeck; Carlos A. A. de, Oliveira.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo físico foi baseado no método de Newton-Euler, sendo o mesmo desenvolvido utilizando o programa computacional científico Mathematica®. Realizaram-se várias simulações, nas quais se procurou obter a força normal de reação do solo variando velocidades de avanço (0,69; 1,12; 1,48; 1,82 e 2,12 m [...] s-1); perfis de solo (senoidal, rampa ascendente e descendente) e altura do camalhão (0,025 e 0,05 m). Após as simulações iniciais, o mecanismo foi otimizado utilizando o programa computacional científico Matlab®, tendo como critério (função-objetivo) a minimização da força normal de reação do perfil (F N) e como variáveis de projeto os comprimentos das barras (L1y, L2, l3 e L4), altura da operação (L7), o comprimento inicial da mola (Lmo) e a constante elástica da mola (k t). A falta de robustez do mecanismo em relação à variável altura de operação foi contornada por meio do uso de mola com baixa rigidez e grande comprimento. Os resultados demonstraram que o mecanismo otimizado obteve desempenho de flutuação muito bom, em relação ao mecanismo inicial. Abstract in english The physical model was based on the method of Newton-Euler. The model was developed by using the scientific computer program Mathematica®. Several simulations where tried varying the progress speeds (0.69; 1.12; 1.48; 1.82 and 2.12 m s-1); soil profiles (sinoidal, ascending and descending ramp) and [...] height of the profile (0.025 and 0.05 m) to obtain the normal force of soil reaction. After the initial simulations, the mechanism was optimized using the scientific computer program Matlab® having as criterion (function-objective) the minimization of the normal force of reaction of the profile (FN). The project variables were the lengths of the bars (L1y, L2, l3 and L4), height of the operation (L7), the initial length of the spring (Lmo) and the elastic constant of the spring (k t). The lack of robustness of the mechanism in relation to the variable height of the operation was outlined by using a spring with low rigidity and large length. The results demonstrated that the mechanism optimized showed better flotation performance in relation to the initial mechanism.

  8. Modelo 3D para quantificação das forças articulares e momentos proximais resultantes para o membro superior / 3D model for analysis of resultant proximal reaction forces and moments for the upper limb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss.

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo implementar um modelo biomecânico, de segmentos articulados, associado à dinâmica inversa que permita a análise em três dimensões das forças de reação proximais e momentos proximais resultantes para diferentes gestos do membro superior. Método: Os gestos ava [...] liados foram: flexão, extensão e abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo, os quais foram realizados por um indivíduo do sexo masculino. O modelo implementado é composto por cinco segmentos rígidos (mão, antebraço, braço, escápula e tronco) conectados. As equações de movimento de Newton-Euler foram utilizadas para quantificação das forças e momentos proximais resultantes. Para registro cinemático foram utilizadas cinco câmeras digitais, com freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/seg. A precisão estimada do sistema de videogrametria foi, em média, de 1,7 mm. Foi monitorada a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos deltóide (anterior, médio e posterior), bíceps braquial, tríceps braquial e peitoral maior. O modelo foi avaliado através da comparação qualitativa dos resultados de momento proximal resultante, com a atividade eletromiográfica. Resultados: Os resultados sugerem que o modelo apresenta resultados coerentes. O sinal eletromiográfico e o momento proximal apresentam sincronismo temporal. Conclusão: O modelo foi capaz de estimar as forças de reacção e momentos proximais resultantes nos diferentes gestos. Abstract in english Objectives: The aim of this study was to implement a biomechanical model, with linked segments associated with inverse dynamics, to analyze proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities. Methods: one male subject performed flexion, extension and abduction of the shoulder a [...] nd flexion of the elbow. The model is composed of five connected rigid segments (hand, forearm, arm, scapula and trunk). The Newton-Euler motion equations were used to quantify proximal net reaction forces and moments. For kinematics recording, five cameras with a frequency sample of 50 fps were used. Videogrammetry accuracy was, on average, 1,7mm. The following muscles had their activities monitored: deltoid (anterior, medial, posterior), biceps brachialis, triceps brachialis, pectoralis major. The model was evaluated by qualitative comparison of proximal net moments with electromyographic signal of agonist muscles. Results: The results showed a temporal synchronism between the proximal net moments and agonist EMG activity. Conclusions: The model was able to estimate proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities.

  9. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  10. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico, Eisner; María del Carmen, González; Jorge Ricardo, Letelier D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of ov [...] erlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bond of some simple molecules and the connection between the forces acting upon atoms and the rules derived from conservation of orbital symmetry in concerted reaction. The results show good agreement with the experimental evidence and the known symmetry rules

  11. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Eisner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of overlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bond of some simple molecules and the connection between the forces acting upon atoms and the rules derived from conservation of orbital symmetry in concerted reaction. The results show good agreement with the experimental evidence and the known symmetry rules

  12. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Eisner; María del Carmen González; Jorge Ricardo Letelier D

    2003-01-01

    The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of overlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bo...

  13. Strong Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  14. Level locomotion in wood ants: evidence for grounded running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In order to better understand the strategies of locomotion in small insects, we have studied continuous level locomotion of the wood ant species Formica polyctena. We determined the three-dimensional centre of mass kinematics during the gait cycle and recorded the ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping frequency. The centre of mass energetics indicated a bouncing gait, in which horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy fluctuated in close phase. We determined a high degree of compliance especially in the front legs, as the effective leg length was nearly halved during the contact phase. This leads to only small vertical oscillations of the body, which are important in maintaining ground contact. Bouncing gaits without aerial phases seem to be a common strategy in small runners and can be sufficiently described by the bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model. Thus, with our results, we provide evidence that wood ants perform 'grounded running'. PMID:24744414

  15. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  16. Hexagonal walking vehicle with force sensing capability

    OpenAIRE

    Schmucker, U; Schneider, A; Ihme, T.

    1996-01-01

    New results on the development of an adaptive six-legged hexagonal walking robot and its control system are presented. The major part of the paper considers control of foot force distribution and control of body motion based on the information about force foot reactions and the information about the main force vector acting on the robot's body. Inserting and drilling operations based on the force control are considered.

  17. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Logar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers’ body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  18. Estimation of joint forces and moments for the in-run and take-off in ski jumping based on measurements with wearable inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers' body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill. PMID:25985167

  19. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory env...

  20. Comparative analysis of the ground reaction forces, during the support phase, in a group of pregnant women on their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in a group of not pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rubim; Gil, Belandina; Marques, Alda; Vilas Boas, João; Silva, José

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: caracterizar e comparar as forças de reação do solo (FRS), durante a fase de apoio num ciclo de marcha da mulher grávida do 3º trimestre e na não grávida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 20 mulheres, 10 grávidas e dez não grávidas, participaram voluntariamente neste estudo. Os valores relativos às forças de reação do solo (FRS) foram medidos (1000 Hz) usando uma plataforma de força (BERTEC 4060-15), ligada a um amplificador (BERTEC AM 6300) e a um conversor analógico-digital de 16 Bits (Bio...

  1. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  2. Design Optimization of Ground Clearance of Domestic Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Mitra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag and lift forces plays a vital role in the performance and stability of vehicles. Less drag means less fuel consumption and hence less vehicular pollution. Also, lower lift force means higher chance of adhesion of the car body with the ground causing less overturning of the vehicle, which improves the vehicle performance. Both drag and lift forces can be manipulated by varying the ground clearance of the cars. The present study concentrates on studying the effect of ground clearance on these aerodynamic forces experimentally. Wind tunnel studies with a notch-back car model revealed increase in drag and decrease in lift with increase in ground clearance. Therefore, optimization is required for designing the best ground clearance and a preferable value of the same is thus obtained.

  3. Vacuum force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  4. gamma-decay of resonance-like structure observed in sup 3 sup 0 Si(p,gamma) sup 3 sup 1 P reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Kachan, A S; Korda, L P; Mishchenko, V M; Korda, V Y

    2002-01-01

    gamma-Decay of a resonance-like structure observed in the reaction sup 3 sup 0 Si (p, gamma) sup 3 sup 1 P in the energy region E sub p = 1.4 - 2.7 MeV of accelerated protons is studied. The M1 resonance built on the ground state of sup 3 sup 1 P is identified. The position of the M1 resonance is explained taking into account pairing forces.

  5. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  6. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  7. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  8. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  9. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ? 20 cm ground reaction force ? 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  10. Rhythmic performance during a whole body movement: dynamic analysis of force-time curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Boudolos, Konstantinos D

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rhythmic performance during two-legged hopping in place. In particular, it was tested whether (a) timing control is independent of force control, (b) a dynamic timer model explains rhythmic performance, and (c) it is a force related parameter that carries the timing information. Eleven participants performed two-legged hopping at their preferred hopping frequency (PHF) and at two hopping frequencies set by an external rhythmic stimulus as lower (LHF) and higher (HHF) than their PHF, respectively. A force plate was used to record the ground reaction force (GRF) time curves during two-legged hopping. The primary temporal and force related parameters determined from the GRF-time curves were the durations of the cycle of movement (t(cycle)), of the contact phase (t(contact)), of the flight phase (t(flight)), the magnitude of peak force (Fz(peak)) and the rate of peak force development (RFD). Control of t(cycle) was independent of force control as shown by the non-significant correlations between t(cycle) and the force parameters of the GRF-time curve. Lag 1 autocorrelations of t(cycle) were not significant in any of the HF, thereby a dynamic timer model is considered to explain the timing of t(cycle) during two-legged hopping. RFD varied more than any other GRF-time curve parameter, exhibited consistent significant strong correlations with the GRF-time curve parameters and significant negative lag 1 autocorrelations in PHF, thus, it was highlighted as the potent timing control parameter. Finally, we provide a practical application for the optimization of rhythmic performance. PMID:16563538

  11. Inflight Performance of Cassini Reaction Wheel Bearing Drag in 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2013-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended missions through September 2017. Cassini is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. It uses reaction wheels to achieve high level of spacecraft pointing stability that is needed during imaging operations of several science instruments. The Cassini flight software makes in-flight estimates of reaction wheel bearing drag torque and made them available to the mission operations team. These telemetry data are being trended for the purpose of monitoring the long-term health of the reaction wheel bearings. Anomalous drag torque signatures observed over the past 15 years are described in this paper. One of these anomalous drag conditions is bearing cage instability that appeared (and disappeared) spontaneously and unpredictably. Cage instability is an uncontrolled vibratory motion of the bearing cage that can produce high-impact forces internal to the bearing that will cause intermittent and erratic torque transients. Characteristics of the observed cage instabilities and other drag torque "spikes" are described in this paper. In day-to-day operations, the reaction wheels' rates must be neither too high nor too low. To protect against operating the wheels in any undesirable conditions (such as prolonged low spin rate operations), a ground software tool named Reaction Wheel Bias Optimization Tool (RBOT) was developed for the management of the wheels. Disciplined and long-term use of this ground software has led to significant reduction in the daily consumption rate of the wheels' low spin rate dwell time. Flight experience on the use of this ground software tool as well as other lessons learned on the management of Cassini reaction wheels is given in this paper.

  12. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  13. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  14. Identification of mouse gaits using a novel force-sensing exercise wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Cullingford, Lottie; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-15

    The gaits that animals use can provide information on neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as the biomechanics of locomotion. Mice are a common research model in many fields; however, there is no consensus in the literature on how (and if) mouse gaits vary with speed. One of the challenges in studying mouse gaits is that mice tend to run intermittently on treadmills or overground; this paper attempts to overcome this issue with a novel exercise wheel that measures vertical ground reaction forces. Unlike previous instrumented wheels, this wheel is able to measure forces continuously and can therefore record data from consecutive strides. By concatenating the maximum limb force at each time point, a force trace can be constructed to quantify and identify gaits. The wheel was three dimensionally printed, allowing the design to be shared with other researchers. The kinematic parameters measured by the wheel were evaluated using high-speed video. Gaits were classified using a metric called "3S" (stride signal symmetry), which quantifies the half wave symmetry of the force trace peaks. Although mice are capable of using both symmetric and asymmetric gaits throughout their speed range, the continuum of gaits can be divided into regions based on the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric gaits; these divisions are further supported by the fact that mice run less frequently at speeds near the boundaries between regions. The boundary speeds correspond to gait transition speeds predicted by the hypothesis that mice move in a dynamically similar fashion to other legged animals. PMID:26139220

  15. Activation of C-O and C-C bonds and formation of novel HAlOH-ether complexes: an EPR study of the reaction of ground-state Al atoms with methylethyl ether and diethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, François D; Feola, Julie C; Joly, Helen A

    2012-03-15

    Reaction mixtures, containing Al atoms and methylethyl ether (MEE) or diethyl ether (DEE) in an adamantane matrix, were prepared with the aid of a metal-atom reactor known as a rotating cryostat. The EPR spectra of the resulting products were recorded from 77-260 K, at 10 K intervals. Al atoms were found to insert into methyl-O, ethyl-O, and C-C bonds to form CH(3)AlOCH(2)CH(3), CH(3)OAlCH(2)CH(3), and CH(3)OCH(2)AlCH(3), respectively, in the case of MEE while DEE produced CH(3)CH(2)AlOCH(2)CH(3) and CH(3)AlCH(2)OCH(2)CH(3), respectively. From the intensity of the transition lines attributed to the Al atom C-O insertion products of MEE, insertion into the methyl-O bond is preferred. The Al hyperfine interaction (hfi) extracted from the EPR spectra of the C-O insertion products was greater than that of the C-C insertion products, that is, 5.4% greater for the DEE system and 7% greater for the MEE system. The increase in Al hfi is thought to arise from the increased electron-withdrawing ability of the substituents bonded to Al. Besides HAlOH, resulting from the reaction of Al atoms with adventitious water, novel mixed HAlOH:MEE and HAlOH:DEE complexes were identified with the aid of isotopic studies involving H(2)(17)O and D(2)O. The Al and H hfi of HAlOH were found to decrease upon complex formation. These findings are consistent with the nuclear hfi calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) method with close agreement between theory and experiment occurring at the B3LYP level using a 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set. PMID:22299675

  16. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel mechanical noise is one of the largest sources of disturbance forcing on space-based observatories. Such noise arises from mass imbalance, bearing...

  17. 75 FR 76444 - Department of the Air Force and U.S. Army; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...by 150 NM wide; 0 feet above ground level [AGL]--flight level...deliver supplies and equipment to ground forces. JPADS is not currently...must currently travel to Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona to conduct this training....

  18. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54,56,57,58Fe($p, n$) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damewan Suchiang; J Joseph Jeremiah; B M Jyrwa

    2014-10-01

    The cross-sections for the formation of 54,56,57,58Co in the 54,56,57,58Fe($p, n$) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV protons have been theoretically calculated using the TALYS-1.4 nuclear model code, whereby we have studied major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, preequilibrium and compound nuclear reaction. Subsequently, the level density and shell damping parameters have been adjusted and at the same time, the odd–even effects are well comprehended. The excitation functions have been compared with experimental nuclear data. It is observed that the theoretical cross-sections match fairly well. Proton-induced reaction cross-sections provide clues to understand the nuclear structure and offers a good testing ground for ideas about nuclear forces. In addition, complete information in this field is very much required for application in accelerator-driven subcritical system.

  19. Naval Flanking in Ground Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Raz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea, Israel’s only open border, also borders Israel’s enemies to the north and the Gaza Strip to the south, thereby linking it to enemy states. Thus, Israel’s control of this naval arena would enable it to project military strength from the sea, and afford it the capability to embark on landing operations of various types. “The shores of the State of Israel, the naval interface with each of our enemies, require us to expand our naval strength to the point of being able to land forces from the sea. David Ben-Gurion even said that we are bound to view the sea as Israel’s extended western territory.” The naval arena is the Achilles’ heel of Israel’s enemies and therefore also an opportunity for the IDF.However, even if Israel enjoys superiority in the naval arena, it is clear that the battle cannot be decided at sea. In fact, the IDF has aerial and naval superiority, two essential components for the existence of a naval ?anking option. In constructing a larger amphibious force, the IDF would be able to translate its naval superiority into a signi?cant contribution for attaining decisions in ground battles. The essay below examines the components of the landing process and offers some recommendations on construction of this type of force.

  20. Current status on design ground motion for buildings in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper firstly describes the design seismic force and design ground motion currently used in Japan. In the past, the static force representing the effect of earthquake motion on the structures was used directly for design. When computer technology advanced, and a precise analytical modelling became possible, analysis using time-dependent ground motion data became more common for seismic design analysis. The design static force is given considering some uncertainties due to variations of the ground motion properties, whereas the ground motion time history is regarded as a sample data picked up from the whole data set representing the average properties of design ground motions. In general, the design seismic force should be evaluated based on the ground motions corresponding to the site conditions and the specified occurrence rate of motion. However, the consideration of such characteristics has not been possible until recently, since the earthquake data was not sufficient and the simulation technique was not fully established either. These were made possible with many experiences of structural damage, accumulation of strong motion records with the recent advances in computing technology. Here, current evaluation practice of design ground motion is introduced and some problems to be solved in near future will be added. (author)

  1. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your doctor prescribes medicine according to your size, gender and age. The wrong amount of medicine may cause adverse reactions. The medicines you're taking are probably different from the medicines the other person takes. This ...

  2. Greater lower limb flexion in gymnastic landings is associated with reduced landing force: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Allana; Campbell, Amity; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2015-03-01

    High impact forces during gymnastic landings are thought to contribute to the high rate of injuries. Lower limb joint flexion is currently limited within gymnastic rules, yet might be an avenue for reduced force absorption. This study investigated whether lower limb flexion during three gymnastic landings was related to force. Differences between landings were also explored. Twenty-one elite women's artistic gymnasts performed three common gymnastic techniques: drop landing (DL), front and back somersaults. Ankle, knee, and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction force [(vGRF) magnitude and time to peak], were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis and force platform. The DL had significantly smaller peak vGRF, greater time to peak vGRF and larger lower limb flexion ranges than landing from either somersault. Peak vGRF and time to peak vGRF were inversely related. Peak vGRF was significantly reduced in gymnasts who landed with greater hip flexion, and time to peak was significantly increased with increasing ankle, knee, and hip flexion. Increased range of lower limb flexion should be encouraged during gymnastic landings to increase time to peak vGRF and reduce high impact force. For this purpose, judging criteria limitations on lower limb flexion should be reconsidered. PMID:25895434

  3. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  4. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. PMID:23831138

  5. Dispersive forces on bodies and atoms: a unified approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, Christian; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    A unified approach to the calculation of dispersive forces on ground-state bodies and atoms is given. It is based on the ground-state Lorentz force density acting on the charge and current densities attributed to the polarization and magnetization in linearly, locally, and causally responding media. The theory is applied to dielectric macro- and micro-objects, including single atoms. Existing formulas valid for weakly polarizable matter are generalized to allow also for stro...

  6. Carry-Over of Force Production Symmetry in Athletes of Differing Strength Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher A; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus; Stone, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    Bailey, CA, Sato, K, Burnett, A, and Stone, MH. Carry-over of force production symmetry in athletes of differing strength levels. J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3188-3196, 2015-This study sought to determine the level of association between bilateral force production symmetry assessment methods (standing weight distribution [WtD], unloaded and lightly loaded jumps, and isometric strength) and to determine whether the amount of symmetry carry-over between these tasks differs for strong and weak athletes. Subjects for this study included male (n = 31) and female (n = 32) athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I sports. Athletes performed WtD, unloaded and lightly loaded (20 kg) static and countermovement jumps, and isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) assessments on 2 adjacent force plates. Ground reaction force data were used to calculate symmetry variables and performance-related variables. Using Pearson zero order correlations, evaluations of the amount of symmetry carry-over were made. Weight distribution correlated strongly with jump peak force (PF) (r = 0.628-0.664). Strong relationships were also observed between loading conditions for jump variables (r = 0.568-0.957) as were the relationships between jump types for PF, peak power, and net impulse (r = 0.506-0.834). Based on the pooled sample, there was a lack of association between IMTP and WtD for jump symmetry variables. However, when examining strong and weak groups, rate of force development showed moderate to strong symmetry carry-over in the strongest athletes (r = 0.416-0.589). Stronger athletes appear to display similar explosive strength symmetry characteristics in dynamic and isometric assessments, unlike weaker athletes. Strength seems to influence the amount of force production symmetry carry-over between bilateral assessments. There may be optimal loads and variables for symmetry assessment, but these may differ based on population characteristics. PMID:25944457

  7. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  8. The quantum dynamics of chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1983-03-01

    In this project, we developed accurate and approximate methods for calculating cross sections of elementary reactions. These methods were applied to systems of importance for the fundamental aspects of chemical dynamics and for advanced technologies of interest to the United States Air Force. The application included calculations of three-atom exchange reactions, break-up and three-body recombination collisions and vibrational quenching by reaction. These calculations improved our understanding of such processes and permitted an assessment of some approximate methods.

  9. On the entropy of radiation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, David; Noble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The inexorable development of ever more powerful laser systems has re-ignited interest in electromagnetic radiation reaction and its significance for the collective behaviour of charged matter interacting with intense electromagnetic fields. The classical radiation reaction force on a point electron is non-conservative, and this has led some authors to question the validity of methods used to model ultra-intense laser-matter interactions including radiation reaction. We expl...

  10. Perl Tools for Automating Satellite Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, David; Haar, Therese; McDonald, James

    2000-01-01

    The freeware scripting language Pert offers many opportunities for automating satellite ground systems for new satellites as well as older, in situ systems. This paper describes a toolkit that has evolved from of the experiences gained by using Pert to automate the ground system for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and for automating some of the elements in the Earth Observing System Data and Operations System (EDOS) ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). CGRO is an older ground system that was forced to automate because of fund cuts. Three 8 hour shifts were cut back to one 8 hour shift, 7 days per week. EDOS supports a new mission called Terra, launched December 1999 that requires distribution and tracking of mission-critical reports throughout the world. Both of these ground systems use Pert scripts to process data and display it on the Internet as well as scripts to coordinate many of the other systems that make these ground systems work as a coherent whole. Another task called Automated Multimodal Trend Analysis System (AMTAS) is looking at technology for isolation and recovery of spacecraft problems. This effort has led to prototypes that seek to evaluate various tools and technology that meet at least some of the AMTAS goals. The tools, experiences, and lessons learned by implementing these systems are described here.

  11. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  12. Convection in Drying and Freezing Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the drying of a soil composed of particles, water and solute impurities, and study the occurrence of convective instabilities during evaporation. We find that the main driving force for instability is the formation of a concentration gradient at the soil surface due to the evaporation of water. A similar phenomenon may occur during the thawing of frozen ground in Arctic regions.

  13. Convection in drying and freezing ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir; Peppin, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we analyse the drying of a soil composed of particles, water and solute impurities, and study the occurrence of convective instabilities during evaporation. We find that the main driving force for instability is the formation of a concentration gradient at the soil surface due to the evaporation of water. A similar phenomenon may occur during the thawing of frozen ground in Arctic regions.

  14. Transforming School Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities and benefits of transforming school grounds into natural spaces for learning as well as for playing. A brief history of campaigns to utilize school grounds from the 1850s to the 1940s school Victory Gardens to present-day efforts is also included. Concludes by describing the calming effect on students and the economic…

  15. Electronic transitions and intermolecular forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes two different subjects - electronic transitions and intermolecular forces - that are related mainly by the following observation: The wavenumber at which an electronic transition in an atom or molecule occurs, depends on the environment of that atom or molecule. This implies, for instance, that when a molecule becomes solvated its absorption spectrum may be shifted either to the blue or to the red side of the original gasphase spectrum. In part I attention is paid to the experimental aspects of VUV spectroscopy, both in the gasphase and in the condensed phase. In part II a series of papers are presented, dealing with the calculation of intermolecular forces (and some related topics) both for the ground state and for the excited state interactions, using different non-empirical methods. The calculations provide, among other results, a semiquantitative interpretation of the spectral blue shifts encountered in our experiments. (Auth.)

  16. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medications, and pollens) can ... it. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... release more venom. If the person develops an itchy rash, apply ...

  17. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Modern airports are centers of transportation that service a large number of aircraft and passengers every day. To facilitate this large volume of transportation, airports are subject to many logistical and decision problems that must continuously be solved to make sure each flight and passenger travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators to increase cost effectiveness and deliver fast and reliable service. This thesis presents models and algorithms for general optimization and decision problems arising within ground handling. The thesis contains an introductory part which provide an overview of the ground handling environment and reviews a series of optimization problems from the specific perspective of airport ground handling. In addition, the thesis contains five scientific papers, which consider specific optimization problems within ground handling in detail. The considered problems range from generalized approaches to workforce planning, to highly detailed scheduling problems arising in the highly dynamic environment of airports.

  18. Design of Low Cost Force Sensor System for Human Machine Interaction – Force Feedback Joystick

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Petkovi?; Goran S. ?or?evi?

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a low cost force sensor system ready to be evaluated in force-feedback joystick designed for a medical haptics application. It is based on low-cost parts from home appliance scale with strain gauge technology, and of-theshelf IC instrumentation amplifier. The development process, electronic circuitry and designed software are presented. Experimental results give a good ground to believe that this approach can provide sufficient quality in further development of human-machi...

  19. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  20. Snowboard Jumping, Newton's Second Law and the Force on Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    An application of Newton's second law to a snowboarder dropping off a vertical ledge shows that the average normal force during landing (force exerted by the ground on the snowboarder) is determined by four factors. It is shown that the flexing of the legs, the softness of the snow, the angle of the landing surface and the forward motion of the…

  1. Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed

  2. Gamov-Teller transitions from 14N ground to 14C ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Gamov-Teller transitions from the $^{14}$N ground state to the $^{14}$C ground and excited states were investigated, based on the model of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The calculated strengths for the allowed transitions to the $0^+$, $1^+$, and $2^+$ states of $^{14}$C were compared with the experimental data measured by high-resolution charge-exchange reactions. The calculated GT transition to the $2^+_1$ state is strong while those to the $0^+_{2,3}$ and $2^+_{2,3}$ states having dominant $2\\hbar\\omega$ excited configurations are relatively weak. The present calculation can not describe the anonymously long life time of $^{14}$C, though the strength of the $^{14}$C ground state is somewhat suppressed because of the cluster (many-body) correlation in the ground states of $^{14}$C and $^{14}$N.

  3. Force modeling for incision surgery into tissue with haptic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel force modeling for an incision surgery into tissue and its haptic application for a surgeon. During the robot-assisted incision surgery, it is highly urgent to develop the haptic system for realizing sense of touch in the surgical area because surgeons cannot sense sensations. To achieve this goal, the force modeling related to reaction force of biological tissue is proposed in the perspective on energy. The force model describes reaction force focused on the elastic feature of tissue during the incision surgery. Furthermore, the force is realized using calculated information from the model by haptic device using magnetorheological fluid (MRF). The performance of realized force that is controlled by PID controller with open loop control is evaluated.

  4. Ground Source Heat Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Lale Valizade

    2013-01-01

    A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP) is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is ...

  5. Ground potential rise monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  6. Active Experiments from Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of recent results obtained primarily through the use of ground based active experiments is presented. Results illustrate the key role of controlled experiments in studying a wide range of magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena

  7. Surveillance and reconnaissance ground system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devambez, Francois

    2001-12-01

    Modern conflicts induces various modes of deployment, due to the type of conflict, the type of mission, and phase of conflict. It is then impossible to define fixed architecture systems for surveillance ground segments. Thales has developed a structure for a ground segment based on the operational functions required, and on the definition of modules and networks. Theses modules are software and hardware modules, including communications and networks. This ground segment is called MGS (Modular Ground Segment), and is intended for use in airborne reconnaissance systems, surveillance systems, and U.A.V. systems. Main parameters for the definition of a modular ground image exploitation system are : Compliance with various operational configurations, Easy adaptation to the evolution of theses configurations, Interoperability with NATO and multinational forces, Security, Multi-sensors, multi-platforms capabilities, Technical modularity, Evolutivity Reduction of life cycle cost The general performances of the MGS are presented : type of sensors, acquisition process, exploitation of images, report generation, data base management, dissemination, interface with C4I. The MGS is then described as a set of hardware and software modules, and their organization to build numerous operational configurations. Architectures are from minimal configuration intended for a mono-sensor image exploitation system, to a full image intelligence center, for a multilevel exploitation of multi-sensor.

  8. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff ...

  9. Teaching Visual Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The paper is based on personal 20-years experience of teaching methodology of grounded theory and qualitative methods. In the following paper I would like to show the usefulness of visual analysis in teaching methodology of grounded theory. A very important tool is to use pictures and a sequencing of pictures, which give a comparative insight into empirical data and teaches the comparative method that is so important to generate theory (Glaser 1965; Glaser, Straus...

  10. Ground Metric Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cuturi, Marco; Avis, David

    2011-01-01

    Transportation distances have been used for more than a decade now in machine learning to compare histograms of features. They have one parameter: the ground metric, which can be any metric between the features themselves. As is the case for all parameterized distances, transportation distances can only prove useful in practice when this parameter is carefully chosen. To date, the only option available to practitioners to set the ground metric parameter was to rely on a prio...

  11. Reactions of carbanions with triplet and singlet molecular oxygen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bierbaum, V. M.; Schmitt, R. J.; DePuy, C H

    1980-01-01

    The gas phase reactions of carbanions with molecular oxygen in both its ground state (X3 sigma g-) and first electronically excited state (a1 delta g) have been studied by the flowing afterglow technique. Reactions include cleavage processes, charge transfer, hydride transfer, formation of hydroxide ion and processes which involve secondary reactions within a long-lived complex. The mechanisms of the reactions are discussed. The usefulness of molecular oxygen as a reagent for the structural d...

  12. Discussion about grounding of OVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of Grounding of OVATION platform applied in Digital Control System of SANMEN Nuclear Station are introduced and explained the detail functions for each type of grounding. Also, grounding principles and points for attention in engineering are given. (author)

  13. Gamov-Teller transitions from 14N ground to 14C ground and excited states

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Suhara, Tadahiro

    2014-01-01

    Gamov-Teller transitions from the $^{14}$N ground state to the $^{14}$C ground and excited states were investigated, based on the model of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The calculated strengths for the allowed transitions to the $0^+$, $1^+$, and $2^+$ states of $^{14}$C were compared with the experimental data measured by high-resolution charge-exchange reactions. The calculated GT transition to the $2^+_1$ state is strong while those to the $0^+_{2,3}$ and $2^+_{2,3}...

  14. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkheads and transverse frames, floors and bulkheads. The expressions are derived by use of an energy method or a type of 'upper bound' method which rigorously takes into account the effects of large plastic de...

  15. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  16. Spallation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from ? 0.1 to ? 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author)

  17. Macroscopic QED in linearly responding media and a Lorentz-Force approach to dispersion forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Christian

    2008-07-08

    In this thesis, a very general quantization scheme for the macroscopic electromagnetic field in arbitrary linearly responding media is presented. It offers a unified approach to QED in such media. Applying the quantization scheme, a theory of the dispersion forces on the basis of the Lorentz force is developed. By regarding the dispersion force as the (ground-state or thermal-state) expectation value of the Lorentz force that acts on appropriately defined charge and current densities, Casimir, Casimir-Polder, and van der Waals forces are united in a very natural way that makes transparent their common physical basis. Application of the theory to planar structures yields generalizations of well-known Lifschitz and Casimir-type formulas. (orig.)

  18. Macroscopic QED in linearly responding media and a Lorentz-Force approach to dispersion forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, a very general quantization scheme for the macroscopic electromagnetic field in arbitrary linearly responding media is presented. It offers a unified approach to QED in such media. Applying the quantization scheme, a theory of the dispersion forces on the basis of the Lorentz force is developed. By regarding the dispersion force as the (ground-state or thermal-state) expectation value of the Lorentz force that acts on appropriately defined charge and current densities, Casimir, Casimir-Polder, and van der Waals forces are united in a very natural way that makes transparent their common physical basis. Application of the theory to planar structures yields generalizations of well-known Lifschitz and Casimir-type formulas. (orig.)

  19. Anti-gravity treadmills are effective in reducing knee forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Bugbee, William D; Goldberg, Timothy; Colwell, Clifford W; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2013-05-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills permit significant unweighting of patients and have the potential to enhance recovery following lower limb surgery. We determined the efficacy of an LBPP treadmill in reducing knee forces in vivo. Subjects, implanted with custom electronic tibial prostheses to measure forces in the knee, were tested on a treadmill housed within a LBPP chamber. Tibiofemoral forces were monitored at treadmill speeds from 1.5?mph (0.67?m/s) to 4.5?mph (2.01?m/s), treadmill incline from -10° to +10°, and four treadmill chamber pressure settings adjusted to decrease net treadmill reaction force from 100% to 25% of the subject's body weight (BW). The peak axial tibiofemoral force ranged from 5.1 times BW at a treadmill speed of 4.5?mph (2.01?m/s) and a pressure setting of 100% BW to 0.8 times BW at 1.5?mph (0.67?m/s) and a pressure setting of 25% BW. Peak knee forces were significantly correlated with walking speed and treadmill reaction force (R(2) ?=?0.77, p?=?0.04). The LBPP treadmill might be an effective tool in the rehabilitation of patients following lower-extremity surgery. The strong correlation between tibiofemoral force and walking speed and treadmill reaction forces allows for more precisely achieving the target knee forces desired during early rehabilitation. PMID:23239580

  20. Orthodontic Force Induces Systemic Inflammatory Monocyte Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Zhang, J; Yan, Y; Liu, F; He, D; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were colocalized with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that orthodontic force could upregulate the expression of pivotal monocyte chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in periodontal tissues or cultured periodontal ligament cells, which may contribute to monocyte recruitment to regional sites. These data suggest that orthodontic force induces systemic immune responses related to inflammatory monocytes and that systemic inflammatory monocytes can be recruited to periodontal tissues by orthodontic force stimulus. PMID:26130260

  1. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics. PMID:25489788

  2. Effects of vertical ground motion on seismic performance verification system of RC underground structures. Discussion on response of RC structures embedded in horizontally layered ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is how to estimate vertical ground motion on the seismic performance verification method for crucial civil engineering structures in nuclear power plants. This paper presents the numerical study about the effects of vertical ground motion on underground RC structures. Several soil-structure interaction models embedded in horizontally layered ground were prepared, and the nonlinear earthquake response of the models were discussed under observed earthquake ground motion. Based on the numerical results, the findings are summarized as follows: Horizontal component of earthquake load is hardly affected by vertical ground motion, then the deformation angle, section force (bending moment and shear force) and curvature in RC member cause by global shear deformation on structure almost coincide with them developed by horizontal ground motion. On the other hand, the vertical ground motion brings a slight increase of axial force on upward columns, however that has little effect on limit deformation angle and shear strength of RC member which are affected by axial force fluctuation. And response and limit state values on structure are almost stable regardless of time instant difference of the peak acceleration between horizontal and vertical ground motions. (author)

  3. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  4. Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Valizade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is a big difference. The cost of equipment, material and installation can be expensive, depending on the type of heat pump installation planned.

  5. Reinventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground and discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory’s popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed—‘theory,’ ‘ground’ and ‘discovery’—which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory, these notions—embodied in continuing reinventions of grounded theory—constrain and distort qualitative inquiry, and that what is contrived is not in f...

  6. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups involved in binding of cellulase to lignin. Results Trichoderma reesei, ATCC 26921, a commercial cellulase system, was immobilized onto silicon wafers and used as a substrate to measure forces involved in cellulase non-productive binding to lignin. Attraction forces between cellulase and lignin, and between cellulase and cellulose were compared using kraft lignin- and hydroxypropyl cellulose-coated tips with the immobilized cellulase substrate. The measured adhesion forces between kraft lignin and cellulase were on average 45% higher than forces between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase. Specialized AFM tips with hydrophobic, -OH, and -COOH chemical characteristics were used with immobilized cellulase to represent hydrophobic, H-bonding, and charge-charge interactions, respectively. Forces between hydrophobic tips and cellulase were on average 43% and 13% higher than forces between cellulase with tips exhibiting OH and COOH groups, respectively. A strong attractive force during the AFM tip approach to the immobilized cellulase was observed with the hydrophobic tip. Conclusions This work shows that there is a greater overall attraction between kraft lignin and cellulase than between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase, which may have implications during the enzymatic reaction process. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions appear to be the dominating attraction force in cellulase binding to lignin, while a number of other interactions may establish the irreversible binding. PMID:24742184

  7. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  8. Three-Nucleon Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Sauer, Peter U

    2014-01-01

    The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian; they represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the decription of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces.

  9. A Study of Winglet and Aerodynamic Interferences in 3-D Viscous Flow around a Flying-Boat in Ground Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afshar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow field about a complete flying-boat in ground effect is resolved. The influences of using winglet in ground and out of ground effects are compared and it is shown that ground affects this influence to a large extent. It is also shown that with careful shaping of the body and using a step underneath the body a propulsive force can be produced in vicinity of the ground. However, this causes an increase in drag force in free flight.

  10. Trois familles, quatre forces

    CERN Multimedia

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

  11. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Seligman, T.H.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bou...

  12. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G. unknown

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the probabilistic and physical nature of such accidents, and consequences on watertight integrity, structural integrity and environment.

  13. Metal support - natural ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosyuk, V.P.; Pron' , V.V.; Filonenko, V.A.; Evdokimova, V.G. (MakNII (USSR))

    1989-09-01

    Describes how metal arch supports may be used as electric grounds for equipment operating in underground mine roadways. The governing regulations are the instructions for use of natural grounds of Minugleprom SSSR dated 1 July 1988. Usually steel pipes or strips inserted into boreholes are used. MakNII performed a study to prove that existing arch supports could perform the same function. The area of an arch in contact with rock is 3120-4800 cm{sup 2}. This gives a range of resistance values of 0.3-64 ohm (av. 10.4). Calculations showed that a minimum of 3 arches needs to be linked by a conductor to provide an equivalent ground to a steel pipe or strip. Tests in mines showed a range of resistance values between adjacent arches of 0.1-24 ohm (av. 4.36). The adjacent arches must be well established and the conducting link between them must be bolted or welded on. Since up to 1000 local grounds are installed annually in coal mines, the savings in using existing arches are considerable.

  14. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  15. The nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the parameters obtained in a previous paper for the P11 pion-nucleon state, the ground state potential is determined and the meson probability density is calculated. The results hold for the simplest form of the overlap matrix and are phase-equivalent to an infinite set of nonlocal potentials

  16. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  17. Crossflow force transducer. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahy, T M

    1982-05-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related.

  18. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  19. Aerodynamic ground effect in fruitfly sized insect takeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling, considering the voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore the possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. The numerical method is based on a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver and a simple flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia, and the leg thrust. Forces, power and displacements are compared for takeoffs with and without ground effect. Natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly, modified takeoffs and hovering are analyzed. The results show that the ground effect during the natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, the ground effect does not produce any significant increase of the vertical force neither. Moreover, the vertical force even drops in most of the cases considered. There is a consistent increase of the horizontal force, and a decrease of the aerodynamic power, if the rate of climb is suff...

  20. First observation of $^{13}$Li ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Kohley, Z; DeYoung, P A; Volya, A; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Christian, G; Cooper, N L; Frank, N; Gade, A; Hall, C; Hinnefeld, J; Luther, B; Mosby, S; Peters, W A; Smith, J K; Snyder, J; Spyrou, A; Thoennessen, M

    2013-01-01

    The ground state of neutron-rich unbound $^{13}$Li was observed for the first time in a one-proton removal reaction from $^{14}$Be at a beam energy of 53.6 MeV/u. The $^{13}$Li ground state was reconstructed from $^{11}$Li and two neutrons giving a resonance energy of 120$^{+60}_{-80}$ keV. All events involving single and double neutron interactions in the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) were analyzed, simulated, and fitted self-consistently. The three-body ($^{11}$Li+$n+n$) correlations within Jacobi coordinates showed strong dineutron characteristics. The decay energy spectrum of the intermediate $^{12}$Li system ($^{11}$Li+$n$) was described with an s-wave scattering length of greater than -4 fm, which is a smaller absolute value than reported in a previous measurement.

  1. Noncontact atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Seizo; Meyer, Ernst; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in noncontact atomic force microscopy. It deals with the following outstanding functions and applications that have been obtained with atomic resolution after the publication of volume 2: (1) Pauli repulsive force imaging of molecular structure, (2) Applications of force spectroscopy and force mapping with atomic resolution, (3) Applications of tuning forks, (4) Applications of atomic/molecular manipulation, (5) Applications of magnetic exchange force microscopy, (6) Applications of atomic and molecular imaging in liquids, (7) Applications of combine

  2. Contribution to the models for calculation and analysis of grounding grids and grounding systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this dissertation is improving the existing models and finding new for calculating the conditions in the complex grounding systems and analyzing their performances. For that purpose, firstly, a model network of the grounding system is created, and the ways of modelling the separate elements are studied and elaborated also. Some methods for solving groundings with arbitrary complexity and dimensions are studied and worked out too. Afterwards the TL in models are worked out, with or without protective rope. Appropriate models are detail worked out and formed for the energetic cables, both for isolated and distributive outer shield - type PP, XHP, XHE, IPO, and IPZO. At the same time, the eventual presence of additional groundings like steel tapes and cooper ropes placed into the cable trench together with the cable is considered. Particular attention is dedicated on the cables with steel reinforcement, whose parameters of the 'unit length depends of the current in the shield and in the reinforcement, because they are sources of nonlinearity and also of the problems connected with its modelling and solving. Therefore an approach is made to the modelling of the mutual conductive couplings between the elements of the grounding system (ex. between two and more cables, the parts of one cable, the groundings of one substation and the cables in theirs immediate nearness and so on.). The electromagnetic couplings existing between the phases conductors, under the influence of the fault, like, (protective rope (TL), the metal shields, and the cables with electric protection, are included too. The mutual couplings are estimated over introducing inducted electro motor forces (EMF) in the transversal and/or longitudinal branches of the elements of the grounding system. (depending on what kind of coupling we are talking-conductive or inductive). These inductive EMF later are transformed into equivalent current generators and in that way the system will be harnessed. The number of the current generators that appear in the cycle with the procedure 'replacing of the current generators' are transferred easily into the node of the network where the fault is made previously. Further on, some modem numerical methods and procedures for calculating the grounding system, convenient for the use of the personal computers are studied. Some modem numerical procedures are adopted and worked out for calculating networks (cycles) with radial structure and/or with small number of loops. They are used for solving the condition in the network part of the grounding system, which means that up to now the researches are pointing to the adequacy of the use of the methods for summarizing admittances and summarizing current (MSAC). The next step, after the distribution of the whole system is defined, is passing to the estimation of the safety conditions from high touch and step voltages in the environment of the different groundings. For that purpose, the characteristics of the biggest number of typical groundings of the MV/LV substations, the characteristics of some kind's network groundings of the HV/N4V substation are studied. The tower TL groundings (ring shaped, square shaped, ray shaped) are analyzed in details. At the same time, a data multitude is calculated, necessary for the further analysis, and consisting theirs resistances to ground.(for a given value of a specific resistance of the soil), the maximum and the average values of touch and step potentials, as well as the frequencies of their appearances,. (frequent histograms FH) of the touch and step potential differences) and so on. All these quantities are depending on the geometry of the grounding. The calculating FH of different kinds of groundings is performed with a computer simulation-'simulation Monte Carlo'. In order to obtain them, an appropriate software is produced, which by making the number of experiments (simulations), defines the needed performances of the grounding statistically, and at the same time, accidentally generates the position of the human in the electro energetic

  3. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

  4. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force".

  5. Interatomic Forces in Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Introduction. 1.1. Born's theory: harmonic approximation and adiabatic approximation. 1.2. Relation between force constants and dynamical matrix. 1.3. Illustration with a 3-D lattice and symmetry effect. 1.4. Central and tensor forces. 2. Forces in simple solids. 2.1. Central force and tensor force model for Na. 2.2. Method of Fourier analysis. 2.3. Work of de Launay, Bhatia and Krebs; failure of Cauchy relations. 3. Forces in alkali halides and semiconductors. 3.1. Discussion on Ge. 3.2. Discussion Na I. 4. Forces in free-electron-like metals. 4.1. Pseudopotential approach of Harrison and Sham. 4.2. Harrison's method. 4.3. Work of Sham and others. (author)

  6. Quantum fictitious forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: ''Force without force''. (orig.)

  7. Operational Considerations when Designing New Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith; Barbahenn, George; Crabb, William; Miebach, Manfred; Pataro, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) launched in April of 1991 with a nominal 15-year old mission. Since then, the HST mission life has been extended to 2010. As is true for all NASA missions, HST is being asked to decrease its operational costs for the remainder of its mission life. Various techniques are being incorporated for cost reductions, with one of the core means being the design of a new and more efficient ground system for HST operations. This new ground system, "Vision 2000", will reduce operational and maintenance costs and also provide the HST Project with added flexibility to react to future changes. Vision 2000 began supporting HST Operations in January of 1999 and will support the mission for the remainder of the mission life. Upgrading a satellite's ground system is a popular approach for reducing costs, but it is also inherently risky. Validating a new ground system can be a severe distraction to a flight team while operating a satellite. Mission data collection and health and safety requirements are rarely, if ever, relaxed during this validation period, forcing flight teams to undertake an additional task while operating the satellite. Additionally, flight teams must usually undergo extensive training to effectively utilize the new system. Once again, this training usually occurs as an additional task, in addition to the nominal satellite operations. While operating the spacecraft, the Flight Team typically assists in the design, validation, and verification of a new ground system. This is a distraction and strain on the Flight Team, but the benefit of using the Flight Team in all phases of ground system development far outweigh the negative aspects. Finally, above the cost of the new system, the integration into the facility with the current control center system are resources and costs not normally taken into account in the design phase of the new system. In addition to the standard issues faced by a Project when upgrading its ground system, the HST Project also must continue to support Space Shuttle servicing missions, which occur approximately every two to three years. This paper will address many of the issues common to all missions when re-hosting ground systems, and those faced by the HST Project in particular.

  8. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

  9. Reactions Of Atomic Oxygen {O(3P)} With Polybutadienes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Morton A.; Lerner, Narcinda R.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of chemical reactions of atomic oxygen in ground state {O(3P)} with polybutadienes and related polymers. Attention focused on such reactions because of adverse effects of environmental atomic oxygen on polymeric materials in low orbits around Earth.

  10. Actin polymerization front propagation in a comb-reaction system

    CERN Document Server

    Iomin, A; Pfohl, T

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous transport and reaction dynamics are considered by providing the theoretical grounds for the possible experimental realization of actin polymerization in comb-like geometry. Two limiting regimes are recovered, depending on the concentration of reagents (magnesium and actin). These are both the failure of the reaction front propagation and a finite speed corresponding to the Fisher-KPP long time asymptotic regime.

  11. Women and forced migration in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki? Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of forced migration on women from the republics of former Yugoslavia in Serbia. It gives some back­ground on refugee movements and continuity and change in women character­istics and needs after two decades of displacement. As one of the vulnerable groups recognized by UNHCR, women and especially elderly women are facing distinct economic and social problems. This research offers insight into gender differences in educational outcomes, the labor market and primary income sources of forced migrants in Serbia. Women who had families, single parent families and widows who are particularly vulnerable are briefly discussed in order to improve assistance and programs servicing the needs of female forced migrants.

  12. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  13. As forças transientes durante a marcha militar / Transient forces during military marching / Las fuerzas con efecto transiente durante la marcha militar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais Pereira, Guisande; Julio Cerca, Amadio; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Luis, Mochizuki.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O padrão vertical anormal da força de reação do solo (FRS) apresenta a assimetria ou mais de dois picos como marcha patológica típica. Uma força típica e assimétrica é a força transiente. Será que a marcha militar é uma espécie de marcha patológica? OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar a força [...] de reação do solo vertical durante a fase de apoio da marcha militar. MÉTODO: Os participantes foram 20 soldados do Exército Brasileiro que tiveram anteriormente uma lesão nos membros inferiores relacionada com a marcha militar. Duas plataformas de força foram usadas para medir as componentes da FRS (mediolateral, anteroposterior e vertical) durante a marcha. Para cada lado e condição (andar e marcha), cinco amostras para cada pé foram registradas. A análise de variância foi utilizada para comparar os parâmetros da FRS durante o andar e marcha. RESULTADO: O primeiro pico de força foi o mais alto durante a condição de marcha. O pico de força transiente durante a marcha foi maior que o primeiro pico durante o andar. A força mínima foi a maior durante a marcha. CONCLUSÃO: A análise das forças de reação do solo marcha militar mostra uma força vertical transiente que não está normalmente presente no padrão de marcha normal. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: El estándar vertical anormal de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS) presenta la asimetría, o más de dos picos, como marcha patológica típica. Una fuerza típica y asimétrica es la fuerza con efecto transiente. ¿Será que la marcha militar es un tipo de marcha patológica? Objetivo: Desc [...] ribir y analizar la fuerza vertical de reacción del suelo durante la fase de apoyo de la marcha militar. MÉTODO: Los participantes fueron 20 soldados del Ejército Brasileño, quienes tuvieron antes una lesión en los miembros inferiores relacionada con la marcha militar. Se usaron dos plataformas de fuerza para medir los componentes de la FRS (mediolateral, anteroposterior y vertical) durante la marcha. Para cada lado y condición (andar y marcha), se registraron cinco muestras para cada pie. El análisis de la variación fue utilizado para comparar los parámetros de la FRS durante el andar y la marcha. RESULTADO: El primer pico de fuerza fue el más alto durante la condición de marcha. El pico de fuerza, con efecto transiente durante la marcha, fue mayor que el primer pico durante el andar. La fuerza mínima fue mayor durante la marcha. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis de las fuerzas de reacción del suelo, en la marcha militar, muestra una fuerza vertical, con efecto transiente, que normalmente no está presente en el estándar de marcha normal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The abnormal vertical ground reaction force (GRF) pattern presents the asymmetry or the presence of more than two peaks as typical pathological gait. The typical asymmetric force is the transient force. Is the military marching a kind of pathological gait? OBJECTIVE: To describe and an [...] alyze the vertical ground reaction forces during the stance phase of the military marching. METHOD: Participants were 20 Brazilian Army soldiers who previously had an injury in the lower limbs related to the military marching. Two strain-gauge force platforms measured the GRF components (mediolateral, anterior posterior; and vertical components) during gait. To each side and condition (gait and marching) five samples for each foot were recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the GRF parameters during gait and marching. RESULTS: The first force peak was the highest during the marching condition. The first force peak was the highest during marching condition. The peak transient force during marching was higher than the first peak during gait. The minimum force was higher during marching. CONCLUSION: The analysis of ground reaction forces in military marching shows a transient vertical force that is not usually present in normal gait pattern.

  14. Goddard Ground System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  15. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen; Liithi, B.

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using inte...

  16. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  17. Resolution of the 95Zr ground state into a doublet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground state of 95Zr is studied using (d,p) reaction on 94Zr by 15.5 MeV deuterons. With a resolution in energy of about 13 KeV it was shown that this g.s. is in fact a doublet with a separation of about 23 KeV. (Author)

  18. The LOFT ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barret, D.; Binko, Pavel; Brandt, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Courvoisier, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Feroci, M.; Ferrigno, C.; Giommi, P.; Götz, D.; Guy, L.; Hernanz, M.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Klochkov, D.; Kuulkers, Erik; Motch, C.; Lumb, D.; Papitto, A.; Pittori, Carlotta; Rohlfs, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schmid, C.; Schwope, A. D.; Smith, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.

    2014-07-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book1. We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase ( >2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  19. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . Wedescribe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase (> 2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  20. Working Through Preconception: Moving from Forcing to Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Kwok; Antoinette McCallin; Geoff Dickson

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about grounded theory and the processes of theory generation. Less is written about managing the problem of preconception, which has the potential to undermine the openness and emergence that are fundamental to classic grounded theory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of managing preconception, and to draw attention to less well recognised factors that contribute to forcing. The topic interest, tactical innovation in rugby, is introduced. R...

  1. Force field development on pigments of photosystem 2 reaction centre.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palen?ár, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 43, ?. 3 (2005), s. 417-420. ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP206/02/D177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : photosystem 2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2005

  2. Testing two-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism with elementary modes of excitation in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, R A; Idini, A; Barranco, F; Vigezzi, E

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Field Theory of structure and reactions is confronted with observations made on neutron halo dripline nuclei, resulting in the prediction of a novel (symbiotic) mode of nuclear excitation, and on the observation of the virtual effect of the halo phenomenon in the apparently non-halo nucleus $^7$Li. This effect is forced to become real by intervening the virtual process with an external (t,p) field which, combined with accurate predictive abilities concerning the absolute differential cross section, reveals an increase of a factor 2 in the cross section due to the presence of halo ground state correlations, and is essential to reproduce the value of the observed $d \\sigma(^7$Li(t,p)$^9$Li)/d$\\Omega$.

  3. Kinetics and mechanisms of some atomic oxygen reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovic, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of some reactions of the ground state of oxygen atoms, O(3P), are briefly summarized. Attention is given to reactions of oxygen atoms with several different types of organic and inorganic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and some oxygen, nitrogen, halogen and sulfur derivatives of these compounds. References to some recent compilations and critical evaluations of reaction rate constants are given.

  4. Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun

    A potential energy surface was constructed for the triatomic molecule Li_2H using a semiempirical method akin to the diatomics-in-molecules theory. Valence bond configurations were chosen to include the major ionic contributions in the ground state potential energy. Quasiclassical trajectories were run on this potential energy surface. The results of these calculations are shown to be generally in accord with the experimental investigations of analogous reactions of H atoms with bigger alkali dimer molecules. Certain aspects of chemical reaction dynamics which have been largely overlooked were examined. These involve correlations of vector properties in chemical reactions. Specifically, the strong correlation between orbital and rotational angular momenta in the product channel of this reaction was shown to be the reason for a seemingly contradictory set of distributions of different angles. Gas phase solvation of nucleic acid base molecules was studied using clusters produced by supersonic expansion. Relative stabilities of the species with different numbers of solvent molecules were studied by varying the expansion conditions. The ionization potentials were measured as a function of the number of solvent molecules. Rather distinct effects of hydration were observed for the ionization potentials of adenine and thymine.

  5. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has b...

  6. Drilling with force feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Industrial robots have been used for a long time in the industry. Despite this thedevelopment of advanced force control system using industrial robots is relativelylimited. Using force controlled robot systems expands the possibility of what canbe done with industrial robots.Previously a force feedback system for a standard industrial robot from ABBhas been developed. The system is developed towards the aircraft industry, where amounted drill machine on the robot has to fulfill the requiremen...

  7. Evaluation of Ground Response Due to Earthquakes-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam G. Jardaneh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods are usually available for designing structures subjected to seismic loads. They are equivalent static load method and dynamic analysis method. The dynamic method of analysis is not widely used, but it may be necessary for important structures. Dynamic analysis usually has three phases, defining the expected source of earthquake, evaluating ground surface response spectra taking into account local soil properties and applying response spectra to proposed structure to evaluate seismic forces. In this study, the first two phases are discussed. The recent methods in evaluating the ground response that take into account soil properties are presented. This includes sources of earthquakes in Palestine and their characteristics such as earthquake magnitude, predominant period, maximum acceleration and duration. Furthermore, this study presents a case study for evaluating ground response spectra using computer program called Shake that may be used to evaluate ground response in Palestine.

  8. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  9. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  10. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  11. The Electronic Flux in Chemical Reactions. Insights on the Mechanism of the Maillard Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Patricio; Gutiérrez-Oliva, Soledad; Herrera, Bárbara; Silva, Eduardo; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2007-11-01

    The electronic transfer that occurs during a chemical process is analysed in term of a new concept, the electronic flux, that allows characterizing the regions along the reaction coordinate where electron transfer is actually taking place. The electron flux is quantified through the variation of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate and is used, together with the reaction force, to shed light on reaction mechanism of the Schiff base formation in the Maillard reaction. By partitioning the reaction coordinate in regions in which different process might be taking place, electronic reordering associated to polarization and transfer has been identified and found to be localized at specific transition state regions where most bond forming and breaking occur.

  12. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins

  13. Charm production and the confining force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that charm production at SPS energies can be understood simply from O(?2 sub (s)) QCD processes when combined with fragmentation of the colour fields stretched by the final state partons. The tension of the confining force field responsible for particle production is found to pull the charmed particles away from the reaction centre, giving rise to a harder x sub (F)-spectrum than would be expected from the bare QCD matrix elements. (Authors)

  14. Simulation of a force on force exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Security Exercise Evaluation System (SEES) is under development for use in planning Force on Force exercises and as an aid in post-exercise evaluation. This study is part of the development cycle where the simulation results are compared to field data to provide guidance for further development of the model. SEES is an event-driven stochastic computer program simulating individual movement and combat within an urban terrain environment. The simulator models the physics of movement, line of sight, and weapon effects. It relies on the controllers to provide all knowledge of security tactics, which are entered by the controllers during the simulation using interactive color graphic workstations. They are able to develop, modify and implement plans promptly as the simulator maintains real time. This paper reports on how SEES will be used to develop an intrusion plan, test the security response tactics and develop observer logistics. A Force on Force field exercise will then be executed to follow the plan with observations recorded. An analysis is made by first comparing the plan and events of the simulation with the field exercise, modifying the simulation plan to match the actual field exercise, and then running the simulation to develop a distribution of possible outcomes

  15. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  16. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  17. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  18. Design of a ground terminal for the STRV-2 satellite-to-ground lasercom experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Eric J.; Schuster, John J.; Hakakha, Harel; Stieger, Ron; Adhikari, Prasanna; Riley, Brian; Moursund, Carter; Koontz, Joseph; Lath, Arunabh; Barclay, Micah

    1998-05-01

    A laser communications terminal built under funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) will be flown as part of the Space Technology Research Vehicle 2 (STRV-2) experiment to be launched as part of Air Force mission TSX-5 in late 1998. The flight hardware, which weighs 31.5 pounds and is capable of communications data rates above 1 Gb/s, was delivered to JPL for integration in July 1997. The planned satellite-to-ground lasercom experiment is designed for slant ranges up to 2000 km and elevation angles above the horizon down to 15 degrees. The ground terminal, described in this paper, is being built now and will be used to measure various link parameters such as burst error rates due to scintillation in addition to demonstrating high speed communications.

  19. Theory of diffusion controlled reactions of point defects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is presented on the various aspects of the theory of diffusion and reactions of point defects in metals: properties of the Green function for diffusion in a discrete lattice, interaction of defects in metals, diffusion in force fields, phenomenological theory for reactions of point defects, lattice theory for the reaction probability, influence of long-range interaction potentials between sinks and mobile defects on the rate constant. (GSCH) 891 GSCH/GSCH 892 CKA

  20. Approximate photochemical dynamics of azobenzene with reactive force fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Hartke, Bernd [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Olshausenstr. 40, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-12-14

    We have fitted reactive force fields of the ReaxFF type to the ground and first excited electronic states of azobenzene, using global parameter optimization by genetic algorithms. Upon coupling with a simple energy-gap transition probability model, this setup allows for completely force-field-based simulations of photochemical cis?trans- and trans?cis-isomerizations of azobenzene, with qualitatively acceptable quantum yields. This paves the way towards large-scale dynamics simulations of molecular machines, including bond breaking and formation (via the reactive force field) as well as photochemical engines (presented in this work)

  1. Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegelmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundary conditions must be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field vector in the solar photosphere. This approach is currently of large interests, as accurate measurements of the photospheric field become available from ground-based (for example SOLIS and space-born (for example Hinode and SDO instruments. If we can obtain accurate force-free coronal magnetic field models we can calculate the free magnetic energy in the corona, a quantity which is important for the prediction of flares and coronal mass ejections. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma.

  2. Classical model for strongly damped collisions in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical model with nuclear stretching under the influence of a repulsive conservative force and a dissipative radial force is proposed to explain the observed kinetic energy spectra and angular distributions of very heavy-ion reactions. The model is applied to the strongly damped collisions in the 209Bi + 84Kr reaction

  3. Integrating Multiple Space Ground Sensors to Track Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Doubleday, Joshua; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Samuel; Kjartansson, Einar; Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur; Vogfjord, Kristin; Guomundsson, Magnus; Thordarson, Thor; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity can occur with little or no warning. Increasing numbers of space borne assets can enable coordinated measurements of volcanic events to enhance both scientific study and hazard response. We describe the use of space and ground measurements to target further measurements as part of a worldwide volcano monitoring system. We utilize a number of alert systems including the MODVOLC, GOESVOLC, US Air Force Weather Advisory, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) alert systems. Additionally we use in-situ data from ground instrumentation at a number of volcanic sites, including Iceland.

  4. Staying Open: The use of theoretical codes in grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD., Hon. PhD.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical codes (TCs are abstract models that emerge during the sorting and memoing stages of grounded theory (GT analysis. They conceptualize the integration of substantive codes as hypotheses of a theory. In this article, I explore the importance of their emergence in the development of a grounded theory and I discuss the challenge of the researcher in staying open to their emergence and earned relevance rather than their preconceived forcing on the theory under development. I emphasize the importance of GT researchers developing theoretical sensitivity to a wide range of theoretical perspectives and their associated codes. It is a skill that all GT researchers can and should develop.

  5. Performing Isometric Force Control in Combination with a Cognitive Task: A Multidimensional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Vieluf, Solveig; Bricot, Nicolas; Berton, Eric; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We used a multidimensional approach to study isometric force control in single and dual-task conditions. Methods Multiple measures of performance, efficiency, variability, and structural interference were calculated at low and higher force levels under single (force maintenance) and dual-task (force maintenance and reaction time) conditions. Results Reaction time and signal-to-noise ratio were larger in the dual-task conditions. They were also greater for the higher force condition, while sample entropy was lower. Perturbation analyses revealed smaller relative amplitude of downward perturbations for the higher force level. Discussion Attentional effort and efficiency are positively related when force level increases, and inversely related to entropy. These relations were presumably mediated by attentional investment. Behavioral perturbations show that attentional resources and structural interference models are not mutually exclusive to account for dual-task situation. Overall, the present study highlights the interest of a multidimensional assessment of force control. PMID:26571036

  6. Feature Selection and Predictors of Falls with Foot Force Sensors Using KNN-Based Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shengyun; Ning, Yunkun; Li, Huiqi; Wang, Lei; Mei, Zhanyong; Ma, Yingnan; Zhao, Guoru

    2015-01-01

    The aging process may lead to the degradation of lower extremity function in the elderly population, which can restrict their daily quality of life and gradually increase the fall risk. We aimed to determine whether objective measures of physical function could predict subsequent falls. Ground reaction force (GRF) data, which was quantified by sample entropy, was collected by foot force sensors. Thirty eight subjects (23 fallers and 15 non-fallers) participated in functional movement tests, including walking and sit-to-stand (STS). A feature selection algorithm was used to select relevant features to classify the elderly into two groups: at risk and not at risk of falling down, for three KNN-based classifiers: local mean-based k-nearest neighbor (LMKNN), pseudo nearest neighbor (PNN), local mean pseudo nearest neighbor (LMPNN) classification. We compared classification performances, and achieved the best results with LMPNN, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy all 100%. Moreover, a subset of GRFs was significantly different between the two groups via Wilcoxon rank sum test, which is compatible with the classification results. This method could potentially be used by non-experts to monitor balance and the risk of falling down in the elderly population. PMID:26610503

  7. Predictive models of lameness in dairy cows achieve high sensitivity and specificity with force measurements in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Jason; Dyer, Robert M; Neerchal, Nagaraj K; McHenry, Jonathan S; Rajkondawar, Parimal G; Steingraber, Gary; Tasch, Uri

    2015-11-01

    Lameness remains a significant cause of production losses, a growing welfare concern and may be a greater economic burden than clinical mastitis . A growing need for accurate, continuous automated detection systems continues because US prevalence of lameness is 12·5% while individual herds may experience prevalence's of 27·8-50·8%. To that end the first force-plate system restricted to the vertical dimension identified lame cows with 85% specificity and 52% sensitivity . These results lead to the hypothesis that addition of transverse and longitudinal dimensions could improve sensitivity of lameness detection. To address the hypothesis we upgraded the original force plate system to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) across three directions. GRFs and locomotion scores were generated from randomly selected cows and logistic regression was used to develop a model that characterised relationships of locomotion scores to the GRFs. This preliminary study showed 76 variables across 3 dimensions produced a model with greater than 90% sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). The result was a marked improvement on the 52% sensitivity, and 85% specificity previously observed with the 1 dimensional model  or the 45% sensitivities reported with visual observations. Validation of model accuracy continues with the goal to finalise accurate automated methods of lameness detection. PMID:26278403

  8. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  9. Interactions between internal forces, body stiffness, and fluid environment in a neuromechanical model of lamprey swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Tytell, Eric D.; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L.; Cohen, Avis H.; Fauci, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The mod...

  10. Improving the optomechanical entanglement and cooling by photothermal force

    CERN Document Server

    Abdi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Cooling and Entanglement in optomechanical systems coupled through radiation pressure and photothermal force is studied. To develop the photothermal model, we derive an expression for deformation constant of the force. Exploiting linearized quantum Langevin equations we investigate dynamics of such systems. According to our analysis, in addition to separate action of radiation pressure and photothermal force, their cross correlation effect plays an important role in dynamics of the system. We also achieve an exact relation for the phonon number of the mechanical resonator in such systems, and then we derive an analytical expression for it at weak coupling limit. At strong coupling regime, we show that utilizing the photothermal pressure makes the ground state cooling more approachable. The effect of photothermal force on the optomechanical entanglement is investigated in detail. According to our exact numerical and approximate analytical studies, even though the photothermal force is naturally a dissipative f...

  11. Dynamics of thermal Casimir-Polder forces on polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S A; Scheel, S

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of thermal Casimir-Polder forces on the near-surface trapping of cold polar molecules, with emphasis on LiH and YbF near an Au surface at room temperature. We show that for a molecule initially prepared in its electronic and rovibrational ground state, the Casimir-Polder force oscillates with the molecule-wall separation. The non-resonant force contribution and the evanescent part of the resonant force contribution almost exactly cancel at high temperature which results in a saturation of the (attractive) force in this limit. A dynamical calculation reveals how the spatial oscillations die out as thermalisation of the molecule with its environment sets in.

  12. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by the Weyl van der Pol solution with the single parameter model of the ground impedance. The method of determining of the referenced A-weighted power spectrum is presented.

  13. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  14. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  15. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details of these products and recent test results will be presented.

  16. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events

  17. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  18. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    OpenAIRE

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  19. Polynomial force approximations and multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A.; Haviland, David B.

    2013-01-01

    We present polynomial force reconstruction from experimental intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) data. We study the tip–surface force during a slow surface approach and compare the results with amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy (ADFS). Based on polynomial force reconstruction we generate high-resolution surface-property maps of polymer blend samples. The polynomial method is described as a special example of a more general approximative force reconstruction, where the aim is...

  20. Breakup Reactions of Drip Line Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam, R.; Chatterjee, R.

    2003-01-01

    The formal theory of breakup reactions is reviewed. The direct breakup mechanism which is formulated within the framework of the post form distorted wave Born approximation is discussed in detail. In this theory, which requires the information about only the ground state wave function of the projectile, the fragment-target interactions are included to all orders while fragment-fragment interaction is treated only in the first order. The general applicability of this theory t...

  1. Study of clustering structures through breakup reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Capel, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Models for the description of breakup reactions used to study the structure of exotic cluster structures like halos are reviewed. The sensitivity of these models to the projectile description is presented. Calculations are sensitive to the projectile ground state mostly through its asymptotic normalisation coefficient (ANC). They also probe the continuum of the projectile. This enables studying not only the bound states of the projectile but also its continuum, both resonant...

  2. Forced guidance and distribution of practice in sequential information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, L. R.; Rogers, C. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Distribution of practice and forced guidance were used in a sequential information-processing task in an attempt to increase the capacity of human information-processing mechanisms. A reaction time index of the psychological refractory period was used as the response measure. Massing of practice lengthened response times while forced guidance shortened them. Interpretation was in terms of load reduction upon the response-selection stage of the information-processing system.-

  3. Ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons: Natural biodegradation in a dynamic hydrologic and geochemical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surficial aquifer contaminated with gasoline was studied as part of the US Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program to determine how ground-water chemistry is controlled by microbial degradation processes. This paper presents a study of the temporal changes in hydrologic and geochemical conditions in an aquifer in the Atlantic coastal plain that was affected by hydrocarbon contaminants. The biogeochemical reactions and the resulting chemical composition of shallow ground water were controlled by (1) microbially-mediated reactions that occurred at a small spatial scale, and by (2) changes in these reactions over time due to mixing with infiltrating water, and rising and falling water levels. The concentration gradients observed in contaminated ground water were complicated by seasonal changes in the local hydrology that caused variability in the availability of electron acceptors. Shifts in the biogeochemical reactions occurred rapidly in response to these changes in the hydrogeochemical conditions

  4. Evaluation of simple to complex parameterizations of bare ground evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Jennifer L.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2015-09-01

    Integrated hydrologic models coupled to land surface models link water and energy movement among the subsurface, land surface, and atmosphere. These connections are especially important when estimating a complex, nonlinear process like evaporation. A comprehensive sensitivity study of an evaporation parameterization was conducted using the integrated ParFlow-Common Land Model (PF-CLM). Estimates of ground evaporation using three forms of the same equation, two simplified closed-form solutions and one fully-coupled PF-CLM equation, are systematically compared. The parameterizations vary in complexity, coupling strength, and nonlinearity. Forcing data from three climate regions (alpine, plains, and tropical) are used to compare estimates of bare ground evaporation across all three formulations, thus exploring the process and coupling sensitivity in a novel way. The overall behavior of ground evaporation is consistent throughout the year for all parameterizations, but magnitudes vary with respect to parameterization complexity during energy-limited and water-limited times of the year. A relationship between ground evaporation and ground temperature is shown to exist across all climates and aggregate by pressure, wind speed, and air temperature in the plains climate. Furthermore, results show how increasing complexity through the addition of land surface conditions, atmospheric conditions, and atmospheric stability uniquely compound to influence the relationship between bare ground evaporation and subsurface pressure. Identification of sensitive interactions and unique relationships is necessary to further understand and predict hydrologic processes like evaporation.

  5. Incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  6. Burial ground technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste is a common disposal method which has been practiced for many years. This technique has the advantage of being inexpensive and technologically simple when compared to other treatment or disposal alternatives. Usual methods practiced to date were simply to place containers of contaminated material, untreated, in excavations and cover them with the native geologic material. Such methods have not provided complete containment of radionuclides because circulating ground water migrates through the buried waste and transports contaminants to the surface. If such a condition develops at a disposal site, the exhumation of buried waste, repackaging, transport to an alternative disposal site, and site cleanup is an expensive process and presents numerous problems related to logistics and personnel radiation exposure. Therefore, it is imperative from both a safety and economic viewpoint that radioactive waste be buried such that the risk of release if minimal and any resultant dose to man is as low as reasonably achievable

  7. Active and Passive Flow Control around Simplified Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H Bruneau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to control the flow around ground vehicles by active or/and passive strategies. The active control is achieved by steady, pulsed or closed-loop jets located at the backof the simplified car model. The passive control is performed using porous layers between the solid body and the fluid in order to modify the shear forces. The two previous control methods can be coupled to improve the drag reduction.

  8. Numerical study of the unsteadiness of a ground vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Ricardo Bruno Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Single impinging jets in a crossflow are typical in impingement cooling applications in industry, as well as of the flow beneath a V/STOL aircraft. In this latter application, a primary design consideration is the flow environment induced by the propulsion system during hover with zero or small forward momentum. Ground effect phenomena may occur and change the lift forces on the aircraft, cause re-ingestion of exhaust gases into the engine intake and raise fuselage skin temperatures. An impor...

  9. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto, André; Grand, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on demanding maneuvers. Th...

  10. Ground states of dispersion-managed nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    OpenAIRE

    Zharnitsky, V.; grenier, E; Turitsyn, SK; Jones, CKRT; Hesthaven, Jan S.

    2000-01-01

    An exact pulse for the parametrically forced nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) is isolated. The equation governs wave envelope propagation in dispersion-managed fiber lines with positive residual dispersion. The pulse is obtained as a ground state of an averaged variational principle associated with the equation governing pulse dynamics. The solutions of the averaged and original equations are shown to stay close for a sufficiently long time. A properly adjusted pulse will therefore exhibi...

  11. Event structure in reactions with prompt photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The event structure resulting from reactions with a prompt photon trigger is studied for pp-collisions. The analysis is made in the part of phase-space where the Compton graph is known to dominate prompt photon production. The basic tools are a model for the force fields stretched between the final state colour charges together with the Lund model for fragmenting these fields into final state hadrons. Multiplicity- and p sub (T)-spectra show sizeable, experimentally measureable asymmetries, which can be used to give information about the nature of confining force field. (Authors)

  12. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  13. Physics investigate the forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Jane P

    2014-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that the physical world works in certain ways? When you push an object it moves. Skateboarders use force and motion to perform tricks. If you jump up as high as you can, you''ll quickly fall back to the ground. Baseball players use gravity to bring the ball back down when they throw it. When you flip a switch, electricity powers your toaster. Rock bands use electricity to put on a show. The fascinating science of physics helps you understand why forces, motion, gravity, electricity, light, and sound work in predictable ways.Combining inquiry-based, age-appropriate activities with physics topics, Physics: Investigate the Forces of Nature features graphic novel illustrations, fascinating sidebars, youtube links, and a glossary of important vocabulary to illuminate the complex world of physics and bring it to life. Projects include designing a skateboard park that maps the forces at work on the skateboarder and the skateboard, arguing your way out of a speeding ticket using the properties o...

  14. Separable Potentials for (d,p) Reaction Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Elster, Ch; Eremenko, V; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E

    2015-01-01

    An important ingredient for applications of nuclear physics to e.g. astrophysics or nuclear energy are the cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not possible, indirect methods like $(d,p)$ reactions must be used instead. Those $(d,p)$ reactions may be viewed as effective three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. An additional challenge posed by $(d,p)$ reactions involving heavier nuclei is the treatment of the Coulomb force. To avoid numerical complications in dealing with the screening of the Coulomb force, recently a new approach using the Coulomb distorted basis in momentum space was suggested. In order to implement this suggestion, one needs to derive a separable representation of neutron- and proton-nucleus optical potentials and compute their matrix elements in this basis.

  15. Designing the Successful Grounds Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratto, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The most important component of any service organization is people. This is especially true of grounds management, because effective maintenance is dependent on good supervision and knowledgeable people. The grounds management function, therefore, must have personnel who are competent and committed. They must fully understand the scope of their …

  16. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  17. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rong-rong; Deng, Lie-zheng; Shi, Wen-bo; Yang, He-ping; Sha, Guo-he; Zhang, Cun-hao

    2011-02-01

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O2(a1?g) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O2(1?) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O2(1?) was detected via the spectrum of O2(1?) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O2(1?) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O2(1?) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl2 unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H2O2 into ground-state O2 remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O2(1?). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H2O2 with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl2, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H2O2 + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O2(1?) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities.

  18. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O2(a1?g) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O2(1?) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O2(1?) was detected via the spectrum of O2(1?) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O2(1?) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O2(1?) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl2 unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H2O2 into ground-state O2 remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O2(1?). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H2O2 with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl2, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H2O2 + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O2(1?) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities. (active media)

  19. Ground-State Electromagnetic Moments of Calcium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, R F Garcia; Blaum, K; Frommgen, N; Hammen, M; Holt, J D; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Menendez, J; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Nowacki, F; Papuga, J; Poves, A; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Yordanov, D T

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy was used to measure the optical hyperfine spectra of the $^{43-51}$Ca isotopes. The ground state magnetic moments of $^{49,51}$Ca and quadrupole moments of $^{47,49,51}$Ca were measured for the first time, and the $^{51}$Ca ground state spin $I=3/2$ was determined in a model-independent way. Our results provide a critical test of modern nuclear theories based on shell-model calculations using phenomenological as well as microscopic interactions. The results for the neutron-rich isotopes are in excellent agreement with predictions using interactions derived from chiral effective field theory including three-nucleon forces, while lighter isotopes illustrate the presence of particle-hole excitations of the $^{40}$Ca core in their ground state.

  20. Chiral drag force

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We provide a holographic evaluation of novel contributions to the drag force acting on a heavy quark moving through strongly interacting plasma. The new contributions are chiral in that they act in opposite directions in plasmas containing an excess of left- or right-handed quarks and in that they are proportional to the coefficient of the axial anomaly. These new contributions to the drag force act either parallel to or antiparallel to an external magnetic field or to the vorticity of the fluid plasma. In all these respects, these contributions to the drag force felt by a heavy quark are analogous to the chiral magnetic effect on light quarks. However, the new contribution to the drag force is independent of the electric charge of the heavy quark and is the same for heavy quarks and antiquarks. We show that although the chiral drag force can be non-vanishing for heavy quarks that are at rest in the local fluid rest frame, it does vanish for heavy quarks that are at rest in a frame in which there is no local ...

  1. Optical "Bernoulli" forces

    CERN Document Server

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2013-01-01

    By Bernoulli's law, an increase in the relative speed of a fluid around a body is accompanies by a decrease in the pressure. Therefore, a rotating body in a fluid stream experiences a force perpendicular to the motion of the fluid because of the unequal relative speed of the fluid across its surface. It is well known that light has a constant speed irrespective of the relative motion. Does a rotating body immersed in a stream of photons experience a Bernoulli-like force? We show that, indeed, a rotating dielectric cylinder experiences such a lateral force from an electromagnetic wave. In fact, the sign of the lateral force is the same as that of the fluid-mechanical analogue as long as the electric susceptibility is positive (\\epsilon>\\epsilon_{0}), but for negative-susceptibility materials (e.g. metals) we show that the lateral force is in the opposite direction. Because these results are derived from a classical electromagnetic scattering problem, Mie-resonance enhancements that occur in other scattering ph...

  2. Working Through Preconception: Moving from Forcing to Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kwok

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about grounded theory and the processes of theory generation. Less is written about managing the problem of preconception, which has the potential to undermine the openness and emergence that are fundamental to classic grounded theory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of managing preconception, and to draw attention to less well recognised factors that contribute to forcing. The topic interest, tactical innovation in rugby, is introduced. Researcher motivation and the management of preconception are discussed. The example used is the theory of developing, which explains how rugby coaches in New Zealand manage the problem of winning games. The research demonstrates how the novice grounded theory researcher who is prepared to follow the method and trust the process can produce a rigorous grounded theory that makes a meaningful contribution to rugby coaches, players and their administrators.

  3. Locomotive and reptation motion induced by internal force and friction

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ishihara, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanical model of locomotion induced by internal force and friction. We first construct a system of two elements as an analog of the bipedal motion. The internal force does not induce a directional motion by itself because of the action-reaction law, but a directional motion becomes possible by the control of the frictional force. The efficiency of these model systems is studied using an analogy to the heat engine. As a modified version of the two-eleme...

  4. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  5. Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Allergy & Clinical Immunology View full profile Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions When exposed to a foreign substance, ... treatment is the same as for anaphylaxis. More Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions Information Back to Anaphylaxis Print Page ...

  6. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths About Acne Peer Pressure Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > First Aid & Injuries > Serious ... know about anaphylaxis and be prepared. Signs of Anaphylaxis How can people tell if an allergic reaction ...

  7. Preequilibrium Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a survey on existing experimental data on precompound reactions and a description of preequilibrium reactions, theoretical models and quantum mechanical theories of preequilibrium emission are presented. The 25 papers of this meeting are analyzed separately

  8. Effects of an Unstable Load on Force and Muscle Activation During a Parallel Back Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael A; Carlson, Lara A

    2015-10-01

    Lawrence, MA and Carlson, LA. Effects of an unstable load on force and muscle activation during a parallel back squat. J Strength Cond Res 29(10): 2949-2953, 2015-Stability training has become commonplace in the strength and conditioning field. Although unstable surface training has been investigated, little is known regarding the efficacy of performing resistance exercises with an unstable load. The purpose of this study was to determine if performing a parallel back squat with an unstable load (weights suspended from the bar by an elastic band) produces greater ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activation in the trunk and lower extremities than a stable condition (a normally loaded barbell). Fifteen resistance-trained males (age: 24.2 ± 3.4 years, mass: 83.4 ± 18.7 kg) completed 10 repetitions of the back squat, with 60% of their 1 repetition maximum in both stable and unstable conditions. Peak vertical GRF and the integrated muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles on the right side of the body were determined The unstable load resulted in a small (3.9%) but significant decrease in peak vertical GRF. The unstable load also produced greater muscle activation in the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and soleus. The findings of this study suggest that squatting with an unstable load will increase activation of the stabilizing musculature; and while force decrements were statistically significant, the decrease was so small it may not be relevant to practitioners. PMID:25844869

  9. Personal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel vapors and exhaust at air force bases.

    OpenAIRE

    Pleil, J D; Smith, L. B.; Zelnick, S D

    2000-01-01

    JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and ground crew personnel during preflight operations and for maintenance personnel performing routine tasks. Personal exposure at an Air Force base occurs through occupational exposure for personnel involved with fuel and airc...

  10. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process of defining and changing organizational strategies.

  11. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  12. Anaphylactoid reactions to paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    Ayonrinde, O.; Saker, B.

    2000-01-01

    The toxic effects of paracetamol in overdose quantities are well recognised but the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions to paracetamol is infrequently identified by consumers and health care professionals. Nevertheless adverse reactions to this drug, even in therapeutic doses, can have fatal or near fatal consequences. A case of an anaphylactoid reaction to paracetamol is described.???Keywords: paracetamol; anaphylaxis; allergy; hypersensitivity

  13. Baryon exchange binary reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the reaction of associated production of ? and f2 resonances in ?++p??+++f20 baryon exchange reaction at 3.94 GeV/c momentum are presented. Some general experimental regularities of binary reactions of baryon exchange induced by incident pions are considered. 44 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Flexible Impact Force Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Liu; Yukio Fujimoto; Yoshikazu Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    When human body is punched by boxing glove, both body surface and boxing glove deform in a complex shape. The purpose of this study is to develop a flexible sensor that can be used in such interface. Firstly, several mechanical phenomena, which are the cause of the error signal of the sensor, are discussed. These are the influences of out-of-plane bending deformation, shear force caused by rubbing, shear force caused by the Poisson’s effect of contact material, and the lateral compressiv...

  15. Optical Bernoulli forces

    OpenAIRE

    Movassagh, Ramis; Johnson, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    By Bernoulli's law, an increase in the relative speed of a fluid around a body is accompanies by a decrease in the pressure. Therefore, a rotating body in a fluid stream experiences a force perpendicular to the motion of the fluid because of the unequal relative speed of the fluid across its surface. It is well known that light has a constant speed irrespective of the relative motion. Does a rotating body immersed in a stream of photons experience a Bernoulli-like force? We ...

  16. The cumulative measure of a force: A unified kinetic theory for rigid-sphere and inverse-square force law interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbin Chang; Larry A. Viehland

    2011-01-01

    By introducing a cutoff on the cumulative measure of a force, a unified kinetic theory is developed for both rigid-sphere and inverse-square force laws. The difference between the two kinds of interactions is characterized by a parameter, ?, which is 1 for rigid-sphere interactions and -3 for inverse-square force law interactions. The quantities governed by ? include the specific reaction rates, kernels, collision frequencies, arbitrarily high orders of transition moments, arbitrarily high or...

  17. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System for ground control installation.

  18. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System for ground control installation

  19. Kinetic comparison of walking on a treadmill versus over ground in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Sloot, Lizeth H; Buizer, Annemieke I; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-10-15

    Kinetic outcomes are an essential part of clinical gait analysis, and can be collected for many consecutive strides using instrumented treadmills. However, the validity of treadmill kinetic outcomes has not been demonstrated for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study we compared ground reaction forces (GRF), center of pressure, and hip, knee and ankle moments, powers and work, between overground (OG) and self-paced treadmill (TM) walking for 11 typically developing (TD) children and 9 children with spastic CP. Considerable differences were found in several outcome parameters. In TM, subjects demonstrated lower ankle power generation and more absorption, and increased hip moments and work. This shift from ankle to hip strategy was likely due to a more backward positioning of the hip and a slightly more forward trunk lean. In mediolateral direction, GRF and hip and knee joint moments were increased in TM due to wider step width. These findings indicate that kinetic data collected on a TM cannot be readily compared with OG data in TD children and children with CP, and that treadmill-specific normative data sets should be used when performing kinetic gait analysis on a treadmill. PMID:26315918

  20. Reaction Rate Constant for Radiative Association of CF$^+$

    OpenAIRE

    Öström, Jonatan; Bezrukov, Dmitry S.; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants and cross sections are computed for the radiative association of carbon cations ($\\text{C}^+$) and fluorine atoms ($\\text{F}$) in their ground states. We consider reactions through the electronic transition $1^1\\Pi \\rightarrow X^1\\Sigma^+$ and rovibrational transitions on the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a^3\\Pi$ potentials. Semiclassical and classical methods are used for the direct contribution and Breit--Wigner theory for the resonance contribution. Quantum m...

  1. Training augmentation device for the Air Force satellite Control Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoates, Keith B.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1960's and into the early 1980's satellite operations and control were conducted by Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), now Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), out of the Satellite Control Facility at Onizuka AFB, CA. AFSC was responsible for acquiring satellite command and control systems and conducting routine satellite operations. The daily operations, consisting of satellite health and status contacts and station keeping activities, were performed for AFSC by a Mission Control Team (MCT) staffed by civilian contractors who were responsible for providing their own technically 'qualified' personnel as satellite operators. An MCT consists of five positions: mission planner, ground controller, planner analyst, orbit analyst, and ranger controller. Most of the training consisted of On-the-Job-Training (OJT) with junior personnel apprenticed to senior personnel until they could demonstrate job proficiency. With most of the satellite operators having 15 to 25 years of experience, there was minimal risk to the mission. In the mid 1980's Air Force Space Command (AFSPACOM) assumed operational responsibility for a newly established control node at Falcon AFB (FAFB) in CO. The satellites and ground system program offices (SPO's) are organized under AFSC's Space and Missiles Systems Center (SMC) to function as a systems engineering and acquisition agency for AFSPACECOM. The collection of the satellite control nodes, ground tracking stations, computer processing equipment, and connecting communications links is referred to as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN).

  2. Anisotropy of intermolecular forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonas, V.B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent literature on anisotropic intermolecular interactions. Attention is given to: (1) the theory of intermolecular potentials, (2) theoretical and semiempirical determinations of short-duration intermolecular forces, and (3) experimental data on anisotropic intermolecular interactions. Prospects for future studies in this field are discussed.

  3. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K0 - anti K0 parameters

  4. Separation problems and forcing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jind?ich

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 13, ?. 1 (2013), s. 1350002. ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  5. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO2 laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D2CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D2CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D2CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 ?m ir fluorescence from D2CO is proportional to the square of the D2CO pressure in pure D2CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D2CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm2 at 946.0 cm-1. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D2CO. In H2CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF4 - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel

  6. Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes may Quantify Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, W.

    2012-04-01

    Repeat temperature vs. depth measurements acquired during a twenty-seven year period in three boreholes specifically drilled and completed for heat flow measurements provide a record of surface energy flux that may provide a measure of non-solar climate forcing. Because conductive diffusion of the surface temperature into the ground filters short-period temperature changes, using the air temperature record as forcing signal should yield computed temperature vs. depth profiles that agree with the observed profiles. The boreholes are located near the North Dakota- Manitoba border in the center of the North American continent. The terrain is flat and ground cover is grass and seasonal grain crops. The boreholes were drilled in a homogeneous shale (Pierre Shale, Cretaceous) which has a thermal conductivity of 1.2 W m-1K-2. We used time-series of surface air temperatures from an array of automated weather stations operated by the MidWest Regional Climate Center as a proxy for ground surface temperature for the twenty-seven year period during which the boreholes were logged. The initial borehole measurements (1984) were subtracted from each subsequent temperature profile (1995, 2002, 2007, 2009, 2011) for both the observations and the models to yield a record of changes. The results show close agreement between observation and models. The energy flux into the ground was determined to be approximately 40 mW m-2. We then used the daily TOA solar irradiance as a forcing signal (0.3 K per W) and found that solar forcing was only a fraction of the observed change. We propose that the difference between the observed temperature flux and that calculated from solar irradiance may yield a measurement of greenhouse gas forcing.

  7. Fifth force, sixth force and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant

  8. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  9. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  10. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  11. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Papetti, Stefano; Fontana, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features.

  12. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features.

  13. Assessing photocatalytic power of g-C3N4 for solar fuel production: A first-principles study involving quasi-particle theory and dispersive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guillén, J. M.; Espinosa-García, W. F.; Moyses Araujo, C.

    2015-09-01

    First-principles quasi-particle theory has been employed to assess catalytic power of graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, for solar fuel production. A comparative study between g-h-triazine and g-h-heptazine has been carried out taking also into account van der Waals dispersive forces. The band edge potentials have been calculated using a recently developed approach where quasi-particle effects are taken into account through the GW approximation. First, it was found that the description of ground state properties such as cohesive and surface formation energies requires the proper treatment of dispersive interaction. Furthermore, through the analysis of calculated band-edge potentials, it is shown that g-h-triazine has high reductive power reaching the potential to reduce CO2 to formic acid, coplanar g-h-heptazine displays the highest thermodynamics force toward H2O/O2 oxidation reaction, and corrugated g-h-heptazine exhibits a good capacity for both reactions. This rigorous theoretical study shows a route to further improve the catalytic performance of g-C3N4.

  14. Effects of vascular infusion with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates with or without vitamin C on carcass traits, Warner-Bratzler shear force, flavor-profile, and descriptive-attribute characteristics of steaks and ground beef from Charolais cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Addis, P B; Katsanidis, E; Pullen, M

    2002-04-01

    Two groups of 18 grain-finished steers were utilized. Nine from one group were infused via the carotid artery immediately after jugular vein exsanguination with an aqueous solution containing saccharides, NaCl, and phosphates (MPSC; MPSC, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, USA). Nine steers served as non-infused controls (CON). An additional 18 steers were infused with either MPSC (n=9) or MPSC plus 1000 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C, n=9) solutions. Steers infused with MPSC had higher dressing percentages and organ weights than CON steers. Vascular infusion with MPSC had no effects on USDA yield or quality grade traits, descriptive-attribute sensory panel evaluations, or Warner-Bratzler shear force of longissimus lumborum and semitendinosus muscles. Vascular infusion with MPSC resulted in some significant, but inconsistent effects on flavor-profile characteristics of cooked beef. The addition of vitamin C to the MPSC solution did not provide any benefit. PMID:22063636

  15. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  16. Force reflection with compliance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Two types of systems for force-reflecting control, which enables high force-reflection gain, are presented: position-error-based force reflection and low-pass-filtered force reflection. Both of the systems are combined with shared compliance control. In the position-error-based class, the position error between the commanded and the actual position of a compliantly controlled robot is used to provide force reflection. In the low-pass-filtered force reflection class, the low-pass-filtered output of the compliance control is used to provide force reflection. The increase in force reflection gain can be more than 10-fold as compared to a conventional high-bandwidth pure force reflection system, when high compliance values are used for the compliance control.

  17. Steady-State Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Spool Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Lugowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed jet flowing inside of a partially-open hydraulic valve is accompanied by a reaction force, also referred to as flow force. The nature of this force has remained a mystery despite an extensive research effort spanning many decades. The momentum theory on the flow force by Lee and Blackburn (1952) explains the origin of the flow force and offers a design solution to shape the valve spool as a turbine bucket. It provides a model to calculate the compensated flow fo...

  18. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  19. Atom-wall dispersive forces: a microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of atom-wall interactions in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics by functional integral methods. The Feynman-Kac path integral representation is generalized when the particle interacts with a radiation field, providing an additional effective potential that contains all the interactions induced by the field. We show how one can retrieve the standard van der Waals, Casimir-Polder and classical Lifshiftz forces in this formalism for an atom in its ground state. Moreover, when electrostatic interactions are screened in the medium, we find low-temperature corrections that are not included in the Lifshitz theory of fluctuating forces and are opposite to them.

  20. Is Gravity Entropic Force?

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjia Yang

    2014-01-01

    If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ? and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  1. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kind...

  2. Activation Force Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach ge...

  3. Force Distribution in Macromolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Stacklies, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    All living organisms utilize thousands of molecular building blocks to perform mechanical tasks. These building blocks are mostly proteins, and their mechanical properties define the way they can be utilized by the cell. The spectrum ranges from rope like structures that give hold and stability to our bodies to microscopic engines helping us to perform or sense mechanical work. An increasing number of biological processes are revealed to be driven by force and well-directed distribution of...

  4. Ultrasonic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Oleg; Briggs, Andrew

    Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, or UFM, allows combination of two apparently mutually exclusive requirements for the nanomechanical probe—high stiffness for the efficient indentation and high mechanical compliance that brings force sensitivity. Somewhat inventively, UFM allows to combine these two virtues in the same cantilever by using indention of the sample at high frequency, when cantilever is very rigid, but detecting the result of this indention at much lower frequency. That is made possible due to the extreme nonlinearity of the nanoscale tip-surface junction force-distance dependence, that acts as "mechanical diode" detecting ultrasound in AFM. After introducing UFM principles, we discuss features of experimental UFM implementation, and the theory of contrast in this mode, progressing to quantitative measurements of contact stiffness. A variety of UFM applications ranging from semiconductor quantum nanostructures, graphene, very large scale integrated circuits, and reinforced ceramics to polymer composites and biological materials is presented via comprehensive imaging gallery accompanied by the guidance for the optimal UFM measurements of these materials. We also address effects of adhesion and topography on the elasticity imaging and the approaches for reducing artifacts connected with these effects. This is complemented by another extremely useful feature of UFM—ultrasound induced superlubricity that allows damage free imaging of materials ranging from stiff solid state devices and graphene to biological materials. Finally, we proceed to the exploration of time-resolved nanoscale phenomena using nonlinear mixing of multiple vibration frequencies in ultrasonic AFM—Heterodyne Force Microscopy, or HFM, that also include mixing of ultrasonic vibration with other periodic physical excitations, eg. electrical, photothermal, etc. Significant section of the chapter analyzes the ability of UFM and HFM to detect subsurface mechanical inhomogeneities, as well as describes related sample preparation methods on the example of subsurface imaging of nanostructures and iii-v quantum dots.

  5. Forced Granular Orifice Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zheng; Zheng, Hepeng; Jiang, Yimin

    2009-01-01

    The flow of granular material through an orifice is studied experimentally as a function of force $F$ pushing the flow. It is found that the flow rate increases linearly with $F$ -- a new, unexpected result that is in contrast to the usual view that $F$, completely screened by an arch formed around the orifice, has no way of altering the rate. Employing energy balance, we show that this behavior results mainly from dissipation in the granular material.

  6. Concepts of force

    CERN Document Server

    Jammer, Max

    2011-01-01

    Both historical treatment and critical analysis, this work by a noted physicist takes a fascinating look at a fundamental of physics, tracing its development from ancient to modern times. Kepler's initiation of scientific conceptualization, Newton's definition, post-Newtonian reinterpretation - contrasting concepts of Leibniz, Boscovich, Kant with those of Mach, Kirchhoff, Hertz. In-depth analysis of contemporary trend toward eliminating force from conceptual scheme of physics. ""An excellent presentation."" - Science. 1962 edition.

  7. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard; Guo, Jiong; Baumbach, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the biological data has dramatically reformed today's biological research. The need to integrate and analyze high-dimensional biological data on a large scale is driving the development of novel bioinformatics approaches. Biclustering, also known as 'simultaneous clustering' or 'co-clustering', has been successfully utilized to discover local patterns in gene expression data and similar biomedical data types. Here, we contribute a new heuristic: 'Bi-Force'. It is based on the we...

  8. Is Gravity Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ? and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  9. Urban task force

    OpenAIRE

    Grubovi? Ljiljana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Urban Task Force Report has brought to our attention, that English towns and cities today require a new renaissance. The comprehensive planning has retarded urban living (Urban Renaissance, Sharing the Vision 01.99, 1999). Forty percent of inner-urban housing stock is subsidized 'social' housing. A review of the demographic and development trends have lead to the UK Government’s new urban policy that prioritizes the regeneration of towns and cities by building on recycled urban land and p...

  10. Force Unfolding Single RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Tong, Huan; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2005-01-01

    We develop a continue time Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate single RNAs unfolded by a time-dependent external force on the secondary structure level. Two recent unfolding RNA experiments carried out by Bustamante group are mainly investigated. We find that, in contrast to popular two-state assumption about the RNAs free energy landscape along the molecular extension, the molecules used in the experiments do not present apparent energy barriers. The strong cooperative folding and unfolding tr...

  11. Carbohydrate force fields

    OpenAIRE

    FOLEY, B. LACHELE; Tessier, Matthew B; Woods, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates present a special set of challenges to the generation of force fields. First, the tertiary structures of monosaccharides are complex merely by virtue of their exceptionally high number of chiral centers. In addition, their electronic characteristics lead to molecular geometries and electrostatic landscapes that can be challenging to predict and model. The monosaccharide units can also interconnect in many ways, resulting in a large number of possible oligosaccharides and polysac...

  12. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sobrado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenhorn, Albrecht Ludwig

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber in 1986 as an offspring of the very successful scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which Binnig and Rohrer invented in 1982 and for which they shared the Nobel prize. While the STM can only image conducting surfaces, the AFM has overcome this limitation. An AFM creates a three-dimensional image of the sample surface by raster scanning this surface under a sharp tip that is attached to a cantilever. The tip moves the cantilever up and down while going over "hills" and through "valleys" of the surface. The vertical motion of the cantilever deflects a laser beam that is reflected off the back of the cantilever toward a two-segment photodiode. The difference of the intensity of the two segments is used as the deflection signal. A feedback loop is used to keep the deflection signal constant by moving the sample surface up and down accordingly. This vertical motion gives a direct measurement of the surface height. The forces involved in the imaging process have been studied in air and water. Due to adsorbed layers on tip and sample surface when scanning in air (capillary condensation) the imaging forces are >10 ^{-7} N. If the tip and sample surface are immersed in water the forces can be reduced to {~}10^{ -9} N. An AFM with a large scanner can image up to tens of micrometers like an optical microscope. Zooming in allows one to get resolution of a few nanometers, which makes the AFM a natural continuation of the optical microscope towards higher magnification. Integrated circuit chips, photographic film, bacteria, red and white blood cells, purple membrane, polymerized Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and stoma have been imaged at low and high magnification. The AFM has shown its power by imaging "hard" and "soft" surfaces with atomic and (sub)molecular resolution respectively. The "hard" crystalline surfaces of mica, graphite, RuCl_3, Ge(111), Bi(111), and zeolites (clinoptilolite (010), scolecite (001), stilbite (010), faujasite (111)) have been resolved atomically or molecularly. Soft surfaces such as polyalanine, DNA, LB films, Fab fragments, and the proteins fibrinogen and actin have been imaged with sub-molecular resolution. The DNA, Fab fragments and proteins were either adsorbed to a mica surface or a LB film or they were covalently linked to a LB film. This achievement in resolution points toward the possibility of sequencing DNA with an AFM. Furthermore, since the AFM can image under liquids, real-time processes and lithography can be studied readily. Fibrinogen and actin polymerization, antibody-antigen reaction removal of Al-oxide in a GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice, and clustering as well as ordered arrangement of organic molecules on a zeolite surface have been observed. Lithography on an adsorbed organic layer has also been performed.

  14. Estimation of the Ground State Energy of an Atomic Solid by Employing Quantum Trajectory Dynamics with Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bing; Hinde, Robert J; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Garashchuk, Sophya

    2015-07-14

    Evolution with energy dissipation can be used to obtain the ground state of a quantum-mechanical system. This dissipation is introduced in the quantum trajectory framework by adding an empirical friction force to the equations of motion for the trajectories, which, as an ensemble, represent a wave function. The quantum effects in dynamics are incorporated via the quantum force derived from the properties of this ensemble. For scalability to large systems, the quantum force is computed approximately yet with sufficient accuracy to describe the strongly anharmonic ground state of solid (4)He represented by a simulation cell of 180 atoms. PMID:26575727

  15. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  16. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  17. Process and separation and reaction device for immunological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a reaction and separation device for fast automatic solid-phase immunological analyses wherein the components are mixed, transported and separated by centrifugal force, the special feature of the device being that it possesses a column open at both ends, a retention and filtration system placed inside the column, impermeable to aqueous solutions at approximately atmospheric pressure but permeable to aqueous solutions when subjected to a centrifugal force, and a reaction and separation chamber placed above the filtration device and containing at least one substance intended for the immobilisation and separation of at least one component of an antigen-antibody system

  18. Reaction matrix calculations for neutron-rich He-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron-rich He-isotopes are investigated by carrying out the renormalized reaction matrix calculation, starting with the realistic two-body nuclear force. The single-particle wave function is assumed to be of the harmonic oscillator type which is permitted to have a different oscillator constant in each orbit. Several factors which influence the stability of the neutron-rich nuclei are discussed; the spin-orbit force, the starting-energy-dependence of the reaction matrix and the behaviour of the single-particle wave function. (auth.)

  19. Nuclear reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ``hot`` nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ``flow`` measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study {sup 40}Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs.

  20. CMLSnap: Animated Reaction Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, Gemma L.; Mitchell, John B O; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Reactions with many steps can be represented by a single XML-based table of the atoms, bonds and electrons. For each step the complete Chemical Markup Language1 representation of all components is given. These snapshots can then be combined to give an animated description of the complete reaction, both in "2D" chemical structure diagrams and in three dimensions. Here we demonstrate the method's power with enzymatic reactions.

  1. Force Measurement Enabling Precise Analysis by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hidemi Shigekawa; Osamu Takeuchi; Yuuichi Hirano; Atsushi Taninaka

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) makes it possible to investigate specific interactions between two molecules such as ligand-receptor pairs at the single-molecule level. In the DFS method based on the Bell-Evans model, the unbinding force applied to a molecular bond is increased at a constant rate, and the force required to rupture the molecular bond is measured. By analyzing the relationship between the modal rupture force and the logarithm of the loading rate, microscopic potential barrier ...

  2. Unified description of $^6$Li structure and deuterium-$^4$He dynamics with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces

    CERN Document Server

    Hupin, Guillaume; Navrátil, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Prototype for the study of weakly bound projectiles colliding on stable targets, the scattering of deuterium ($d$) on $^4$He ($\\alpha$) is an important milestone in the search for a fundamental understanding of low-energy reactions. At the same time, it is also important for its role in the Big-bang nucleosynthesis of $^6$Li and applications in the characterization of deuterium impurities in materials. We present the first unified {\\em ab initio} study of the $^6$Li ground state and $d$-$^4$He elastic scattering using two- and three-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. The six-nucleon bound-state and scattering observables are calculated by means of the no-core shell model with continuum. %and are compared to available experimental data. We analyze the influence of the dynamic polarization of the deuterium and of the chiral three-nucleon force, and examine the role of the continuum degrees of freedom in shaping the low-lying spectrum of $^6$Li. We find that the adopted...

  3. Biocatalytic reactions: selected highlights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashrita Rajagopalan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalytic reactions have been identified as an outstanding option for various applications in material chemistry such as modifying surfaces under mild conditions, preparing polymers, controlling self-assembly systems and manufacturing (chiral monomers. Mostly driven by research for producing bioactive compounds, ‘novel’ biocatalytic reactions have recently become mature enough to be exploited. While transformations involving lipases and laccases/peroxidases are already widely applied, more recent improved reactions allow the (asymmetric amination of ketones/aldehydes, the oxidation of amines and alcohols, the asymmetric reduction of ketones, or the hydroxylation of alkanes and fatty acids. Many of these reactions are ready to be exploited for materials science.

  4. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  5. Transfer reactions at the neutron dripline with triton target

    CERN Multimedia

    Two-neutron transfer to $^{9}$Li will populate the ground state of $^{11}$Li as well as low-lying resonances in a way that is complementary to studies of these states performed at higher beam energies. We aim at detecting the charged particles from the transfer reactions as well as neutrons coming from the decay of possible $^{11}$Li resonances.

  6. Theoretical Studies of Chemical Reactions following Electronic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of multi-configurational wave functions is demonstrated for several processes: tautomerization reactions in the ground and excited states of the DNA base adenine, dissociation of glycine molecule after electronic excitation, and decomposition/deformation of novel rare gas molecules HRgF. These processes involve bond brealung/formation and require multi-configurational approaches that include dynamic correlation.

  7. Does entropic force always imply the Newtonian force law?

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We study the entropic force by introducing a bound $S \\le A^{3/4}$ between entropy and area which was derived by imposing the non-gravitational collapse condition. In this case, applying a modified entropic force to this system does not lead to the Newtonian force law.

  8. Kozyrev's asymmetrical force and its possible impact on geodynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Kozyrev postulated absolute difference of past and future, right and left rotation and grounded causal or asymmetrical mechanics, according to which in a rotating system appears an additional asymmetrical force Fasym. Laboratory measurements with rotated bodies proved that asymmetric force carry energy and angular moment, but no momentum. It means, that in rapidly rotated parts of a body asymmetrical force directed along axes of rotation, in slowly rotating parts (near the axes) - in opposite directions to yield null result after summation. Applying the result to rotated planets, one can expect that at some latitude asymmetrical force pass through zero changing the sign. Direct Kozyrev's measurements at northern latitudes ? from 45 deg to 84 deg proved that causal force is directed along Earth rotation axis: to the North for ?73 deg, The change of the direction occur at the distance 1860 km from the Earth's axes. The magnitude of causal force has order (1-5)x10-5 of gravity force. Liquid core has radius 3490 km, then at the distances from the Earth's axes more than 1860 km asymmetrical force is directed to the North, in the nearer parts to the Earth's axes, - to the South. As result, asymmetrical forces form a system of vortexes in meridian plains which in the near to axes region deflected by the internal solid core with radius 1220 km. Flow of matter in liquid core has radial (in cylindrical system) component directed to or from axes. The first (to axes) is transformed by Carioles force into the counter-clockwise (seeing to the Earth from North) circular currents, the second - into clockwise currents: two in Northern and two in Southern hemispheres. These currents (flow of matter) should be important for geomagnetic field generation, especially during epoch of small geomagnetic field and its reversal.

  9. The historical development of grounds for divorce in the French and Dutch civil codes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emese, von Bóné.

    Full Text Available In this contribution the grounds for divorce in ancient Roman law as well as in Hugo Grotius' Introduction to Dutch Law and the 1806 proposed Dutch Civil Code of Joannes van der Linden are examined to determine whether these grounds had become part of the Dutch Civil Code of 1838. The grounds for di [...] vorce in the French Civil Code, too, are analysed as this Code, which was introduced into the Netherlands in 1811, when the Netherlands became a part of the French Empire, remained in force until 1838 when the Netherlands introduced its own national Civil Code.

  10. Bayesian hidden Markov model analysis of single-molecule force spectroscopy: Characterizing kinetics under measurement uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Chodera, John D.; Elms, Phillip; Noé, Frank; Keller, Bettina; Kaiser, Christian M.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Marqusee, Susan; Bustamante, Carlos,; Hinrichs, Nina Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for studying the kinetic behavior of biomolecules. Through application of an external force, conformational states with small or transient populations can be stabilized, allowing them to be characterized and the statistics of individual trajectories studied to provide insight into biomolecular folding and function. Because the observed quantity (force or extension) is not necessarily an ideal reaction coordi...

  11. Noncontact atomic force microscopy 2

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Seizo; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This report on scanning probe microscopy covers the latest in many related topics such as force spectroscopy and mapping with atomic resolution, atomic manipulation, magnetic exchange force microscopy, atomic and molecular imaging in liquids, and much more..

  12. Control of Multi-Linkage Planar Systems in the Air and on the Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Sichani, Bahman

    Control of a general n-link planar system is studied by geometric and Lie algebraic concepts, digital computer simulations and physical human-like maneuvers. The Lie algebraic study of controllability results in the following facts with regard to the n-link system: (1) The rotational motion of the system is globally controllable on the ground. (2) The motion of the center of mass of the system is not controllable in the air. The center of mass moves on a parabola determined by initial condition at the time of take-off. (3) Rotational motion of the n-link system is not globally controllable in the air because of the conservation of the angular momentum. However, the rotational motion is controllable on a manifold of dimension 2n-1 if the total angular momentum is nonzero, and a manifold of dimension 2n-2 otherwise. For the airborne phase of motion a heuristic method, based on the boundary condition of the desired trajectories, is proposed that guarantees the existence of the inverse plant. An open-loop control strategy is devised to control the airborne motion. The control strategy for the system on the ground uses both feedforward and feedback concepts of control. The physical examples of human-like manuevers are studied in order to validate the devised control schemes. A simple diving maneuver for a two-link system and a back somersault maneuver for a four-link system are described and their corresponding control strategies are specified. For the diving maneuver two phases of motion are distinguished --a take-off phase and a flight phase. The take-off phase of both motions involve energy transfer to the flight phase, and change of direction of the translational velocities. The roles of ground reaction forces and the effect of surface friction in this energy transfer and direction change of velocity at the take-off time are illustrated by considering a broad jump. For this purpose, an optimal control strategy is represented to maximize the length of a broad jump for a multi-linkage system. The control algorithm is applied to a two-link model. The effect of running before the jump and the effect of surface friction on which the final impact takes place are demonstrated. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  13. Considerations about the construction of an accelerator tunnel and the ground conditions in the seaside site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction site of J-PARC is located in the dune zone of seaside site. The ground of this site has complicated burying valley formed by erosion caused by former glacier-related sea-level change. It is one of the most important demand performances to make a stable tunnel on the design of the accelerator facilities. However, we were often forced to the review of the original design because of this unfavorable ground. The main change was a pile foundation, sheathing method of construction, and anti-subsurface water measures etc, by this shore-related ground condition. This report extracts a problem of some engineering about the underground structure and the geological feature under the ground that we faced by the construction of MR tunnel. Furthermore, I consider an ideal method about the accelerator facility design and the ground investigation plan for a future accelerator construction project. (author)

  14. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  15. Supersymmetry of gravitational ground states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of black objects which are solutions of pure gravity with negative cosmological constant are classified through the mapping between the Killing spinors of the ground state and those of the transverse section. It is shown that these geometries must have transverse sections of constant curvature for spacetime dimensions d below seven. For d?7, the transverse sections can also be euclidean Einstein manifolds. In even dimensions, spacetimes with transverse section of non-constant curvature exist only in d=8 and 10. This classification goes beyond standard supergravity and the eleven-dimensional case is analyzed. It is shown that if the transverse section has negative scalar curvature, only extended objects can have a supersymmetric ground state. In that case, some solutions are explicitly found whose ground state resembles a wormhole. (author)

  16. Efficient Groundness Analysis in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, J M; Howe, Jacob M.; King, Andy

    2002-01-01

    Boolean functions can be used to express the groundness of, and trace grounding dependencies between, program variables in (constraint) logic programs. In this paper, a variety of issues pertaining to the efficient Prolog implementation of groundness analysis are investigated, focusing on the domain of definite Boolean functions, Def. The systematic design of the representation of an abstract domain is discussed in relation to its impact on the algorithmic complexity of the domain operations; the most frequently called operations should be the most lightweight. This methodology is applied to Def, resulting in a new representation, together with new algorithms for its domain operations utilising previously unexploited properties of Def -- for instance, quadratic-time entailment checking. The iteration strategy driving the analysis is also discussed and a simple, but very effective, optimisation of induced magic is described. The analysis can be implemented straightforwardly in Prolog and the use of a non-groun...

  17. Muscular forces from static optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Heintz, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    At every joint there is a redundant set of muscle activated during movement or loading of the system. Optimization techniques are needed to evaluate individual forces in every muscle. The objective in this thesis was to use static optimization techniques to calculate individual muscle forces in the human extremities. A cost function based on a performance criterion of the involved muscular forces was set to be minimized together with constraints on the muscle forces, restraining negative and ...

  18. Electrodynamic forces in circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main theme of this article is creation and operation of electrodynamic forces in current track of circuit breaker. Electrodynamic forces cause many unpleasant impacts on current track especially on contact system and locations of bend . These forces arise when current flows through circuit breaker and their value depends on size of current. The highest electrodynamic forces are caused by lightning current and may have destructive effect on circuit breaker. (Authors)

  19. Optimizations of protein force fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sakae, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    In this Chapter we review our works on force fields for molecular simulations of protein systems. We first discuss the functional forms of the force fields and present some extensions of the conventional ones. We then present various methods for force-field parameter optimizations. Finally, some examples of our applications of these parameter optimization methods are given and they are compared with the results from the existing force-fields.

  20. Severe scratcher-reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  1. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  2. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  4. Forces of nature. 2. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The book on 'the forces of nature' explains the concepts underlying the recent advances in the understanding of the microcosmos - the world within the atom. The subject is discussed in six chapters, which include: forces and fields, the structure of matter, inside the nucleus, nuclear forces, symmetry in the microworld, and the road to unification. (U.K.).

  5. Ground states in complex bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo Maria

    2008-01-01

    A unified framework for analyzing the existence of ground states in wide classes of elastic complex bodies is presented here. The approach makes use of classical semicontinuity results, Sobolev mappinngs and Cartesian currents. Weak diffeomorphisms are used to represent macroscopic deformations. Sobolev maps and Cartesian currents describe the inner substructure of the material elements. Balance equations for irregular minimizers are derived. A contribution to the debate about the role of the balance of configurational actions follows. After describing a list of possible applications of the general results collected here, a concrete discussion of the existence of ground states in thermodynamically stable quasicrystals is presented at the end.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...grounding bus shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord...counter-mounted cooking units, and wall-mounted ovens shall be insulated from...Equipment grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the...

  7. Calorimetry Task Force Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.

  8. Moving forces of technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nadtochiy, Y.O.

    2012-01-01

    We live in the world of technological devices. In the XX century people discovered, designed and invented as much as never before. And technology doesn’t seem to slow down its victorious march. People speak a lot about advantages and disadvantages of technology but what makes it develop so fast? To my mind there are two main forces that move technology forward. They are curiosity and laziness. These are two main features of peoples’ character that will always help us to discover new things...

  9. Relativistic nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of development of theoretical and experimental researches in relativistic nuclear reaction field is presented. Two categories of theoretical models are distinguished: the models developed to explain the experimental data for relativistic nuclear reactions with incident energies on the order of 1 GeV/A; and models developed for ultrarelativistic nuclear reactions with incident energy on the order of 10 GeV/A to promote a possible phase transition in quark and gluon plasma. In relativistic nuclear reaction category the intranuclear cascade model is presented where the importance of correlations of some particles in the nuclear collision process is discussed. With regard to ultrarelativistic nuclear reaction some fundamental concepts, important for studying heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy are discussed. (M.C.K.)

  10. Rate enhancement in microfabricated chemical reactors under fast forced temperature oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heine Anton; Olsen, Jakob L.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation of CO under fast forced temperature oscillations shows increased reaction rate compared to steady state. A maximum increase of 40% is observed relative to steady state. The reaction rate is investigated for varying mean temperature, amplitude and frequency. As function of mean temperature and amplitude a maximum is observed, whereas the reaction rate increases monotonically as function of frequency. The phase difference between the CO, O2 and CO2 signals changes monotonically with varying oscillation parameters.

  11. Rate enhancement in microfabricated chemical reactors under fast forced temperature oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heine Anton; Olsen, Jakob L.; Jensen, Søren; Hansen, Ole; Quaade, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation of CO under fast forced temperature oscillations shows increased reaction rate compared to steady state. A maximum increase of 40% is observed relative to steady state. The reaction rate is investigated for varying mean temperature, amplitude and frequency. As function of mean temperature and amplitude a maximum is observed, whereas the reaction rate increases monotonically as function of frequency. The phase difference between the CO, O2 and CO2 signals changes monotonically with vary...

  12. Influence of atmospheric forcing parameters on modelled mountain permafrost evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Markus [Inst. of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (Germany); Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Hauck, Christian [Inst. of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (Germany); Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland); Salzmann, Nadine [Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to atmospheric forcing, the dominant meteorological variables such as temperature, precipitation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered. Simulations with a one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer model (CoupModel) are used to investigate the interactions between the atmosphere and the ground focusing on ground temperature evolution and the temporal variability of the depth of the unfrozen top layer in summer (active layer depth). Idealised and observed atmospheric forcing data sets are used to determine the meteorological conditions, which show the largest impact on the permafrost regime. Borehole temperature and energy balance data from the permafrost station Schilthorn (2900 m asl, Berner Oberland) are used for verification. The results for the Schilthorn site show the largest impact due to summer temperatures changes during the snow free period and to a lesser extent winter precipitation which influence the duration of the snow cover. Similarly important is the timing of the first snow event in autumn which leads to a sufficiently large snow cover to isolate the ground from atmospheric forcing. Simulations with different data sets from Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations derived from an ensemble of models and scenarios show that the differences in changes of active layer depth between different RCMs are on the same order than between different scenarios. (orig.)

  13. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  14. Men pressured and forced into sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman-Johnson, C; Struckman-Johnson, D

    1994-02-01

    A predominantly heterosexual sample of 204 college men were asked to report incidents of pressured or forced sexual touch or intercourse since age 16. About 34% indicated they had received coercive sexual contact: 24% from women, 4% from men, and 6% from both sexes. Contact involved only sexual touching for 12% and intercourse for 22%. Sexual contact was pressured in 88% of the 81 reported incidents by tactics of persuasion, intoxication, threat of love withdrawal, and bribery. In 12% of the incidents, sexual contact was forced through physical restraint, physical intimidation, threat of harm, or harm. Contact was initiated by an acquaintance or intimate in 77% of incidents. The negative emotional impact of male contact was rated significantly higher than the impact of female contact. Men with and without coercion experience did not differ, however, for scale scores on sexual esteem, depression, and preoccupation. Interviews with 10 subjects revealed complex reactions to coercive male and female contact, including doubts about one's sexuality, resentment of unexpected or forceful contact, and fear of telling others about the event. PMID:8135654

  15. Compilation and R-matrix analysis of Big Bang nuclear reaction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Adahchour, Abderrahim; Angulo, Carmen; Coc, Alain; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. A special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats.

  16. Evaluation of experimental results on prevention of ground surface settlement by use of vertical anchor bolts; Suichoku hochi boruto wo riyo shita chihyomen chinka no yokushi ni kansuru jikken kekka no hyoka to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, M.; Abe, T. [Japan Railway Construction Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-20

    A special vertical anchor bolt is designed and executed in order to prevent ground surface settlement which is one of the biggest problems in the application of the NATM method to tunnel construction in thinly covered unconsolidated ground in urban areas. The prevention effect of the vertical anchor bolts on ground surface settlement is evaluated quantitatively based on measurements of characteristics of the ground surface settlement in thinly covered unconsolidated ground, displacement of the ground surface and mid-ground and the axial force of the bolt with vertical anchor bolt execution. The distribution of ground strain is quantified and analyzed by the inverse analysis. Execution of the vertical anchor bolts is found to promote the formation of the beam and ground arch in the ground above the tunnel and to reduce significantly an amount of ground surface settlement. Inelastic inverse analysis is effective in determination of the bold arrangement and verification of the result. 12 refs., 25 figs.

  17. Environmental Crack Driving Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of environment on the crack driving force is considered, first by assuming quasistatic extension of a stationary crack and second, by use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth rate models developed previously by this author and developed further here. A quasistatic thermodynamic energy balance approach, of the Griffith-Irwin type, is used to develop stationary crack threshold expressions, tilde{J}_c , which represent the conjoint mechanical and electrochemical conditions, below which stationary cracks are stable. Expressions for the electrochemical crack driving force (CDF) were derived using an analysis that is analogous to that used by Irwin to derive his "strain energy release rate," G, which Rice showed as being equivalent to his mechanical CDF, J. The derivations show that electrochemical CDFs both for active path dissolution (APD) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanisms of SCC are simply proportional to Tafel's electrochemical anodic and cathodic overpotentials, ? a and ? c, respectively. Phenomenological SCC models based on the kinetics of APD and HE crack growth are used to derive expressions for the kinetic threshold, J scc, below which crack growth cannot be sustained. These models show how independent mechanical and environmental CDFs may act together to drive SCC crack advance. Development of a user-friendly computational tool for calculating Tafel's overpotentials is advocated.

  18. Foundations And Task Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. A number of disease-specific foundations are heavily funded by industry that creates serious conflict of interest likely to result in favourably recommending therapies of sponsors. The example of Alteplase and the American Heart Foundation is a recent one.2. Whistle blowing papers and research to expose misdemeanours must be undertaken and journals and their editors should welcome such papers as legitimate research, but without encouraging a witch-hunt. 3. The USP of journals and researchers is credibility. Credibility can be marketed, but it cannot be bought. Sponsors will be forced to seek such credibility without allowing them to compromise it. Such is the game journal publishers/editors and genuine researchers will have to play with sponsors. But they can do so only if they are thoroughly competent and have abiding faith in an uncompromising set of ethical values. 4. The Task Force of the AAMC in its two reports of 2001 and 2002 recognises the necessity and inevitability of the academia-industry connect, but wants to avoid its undesirable influence on the integrity of research and the welfare of human research subjects. It is specially concerned that public, activist and governmental control and concern not cast a spanner in the works of a potentially promising relationship.

  19. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  20. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  1. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times there were confusing records about the cause or equipment. Some times wrong operator actions were not duly recorded. From the data it can be observed that the most scrams took place in 1982, a number of 208 scrams. It have to emphasize that this was the first year of reactor operation with irradiation devices. The scrams number began to lower thereafter and at the end of the eighties began to Increase again. The longest downtime was recorded in 1987, but the availability of the reactor was almost constant. The greatest number of the scrams were caused by the reactor electrical control and instrumentation (344), while an important number of scrams were caused by the irradiation devices (273), which caused a total reactor down time of 3168 hours. So this occurs to be the main cause for unavailability for this reactor. It is also interesting that the 110 KV grid frequency find in this data base is comparable in value with that used in the PSA studies. The insights are useful to improve the operational procedures, the maintenance strategy and the logbook recording

  2. On gravity as an entropic force

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2011-01-01

    We consider E. Verlinde's proposal that gravity is an entropic force -- we shall call this theory entropic gravity (EG) -- and reanalyze a recent claim that this theory is in contradiction with the observation of the gravitationally-bound ground state of neutrons in the GRANIT experiment. We find that EG does not necessarily contradict the existence of gravitationally-bound quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field, since EG is equivalent to Newtonian gravity in this case. However, certain transitions between the gravitationally-bound quantum states of neutrons, in particular spontaneous decay of excited states, which can hopefully be observed in future experiments, cannot be explained in the framework of EG, unless essential ingredients are introduced into it. Otherwise, a quantized description of gravity will be required.

  3. THEMIS Ground-Based Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Chi, P. J.; Dearborn, D. J.; Ge, Y. S.; Kuo-Tiong, B.; Means, J. D.; Pierce, D. R.; Rowe, K. M.; Snare, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    The THEMIS mission includes a comprehensive ground-based measurement network that adds two additional dimensions to the information gained in the night magnetosphere by the five THEMIS spacecraft. This network provides necessary correlative data on the strength and extent of events, enables their onsets to be accurately timed, and provides an educational component in which students have an active participation in the program. This paper describes the magnetometers installed to obtain these ground-based North American magnetic measurements, including the magnetometers installed as part of the educational effort, and the support electronics provided by UCLA for the ground-based observatories. These magnetometers measure the Earth’s magnetic field with high resolution, and with precise timing provided by the Global Positioning System. They represent UCLA’s next generation of low-cost, ground-based magnetometers using an inexpensive personal computer for data collection, storage and distribution. These systems can be used in a stand-alone mode requiring only AC power. If there is Internet connectivity, they can be configured to provide near real-time data over the web. These data are provided at full resolution to the entire scientific community over the web with minimal delay.

  4. Projectile fragmentation reactions - some new aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey of the theories of projectile break-up reactions is presented. The role of the higher order effects in the entrance channel in the post break-up theories is discussed. It is shown that contributions of such higher order effects are not significant. Recent suggestions regarding the application of the break-up reactions in nuclear astrophysics are discussed. An indirect access to the interactions of charged particles at very low relative energies seems possible with the so called Trojan horse method. The proposal that the electromagnetic dissociation of the fast projectile can be used to obtain information on the astrophysically relevant radiative capture processes is critically examined in the light of first experimental results on 6Li and 7Li nuclei. The possibility of using the electromagnetic dissociation of the projectile to determine the ground-state momentum distribution of loosely-bound neutron-rich exotic cluster nuclei is discussed. (author). 23 refs., 3 figs

  5. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  6. Classical helium atom with radiation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelio, G; Carati, A; Galgani, L

    2012-06-01

    We study a classical model of helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models, most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zero-dipole manifold that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole approximation). We finally study numerically the invariant measure naturally induced by the time-evolution on such a manifold, and this corresponds to studying the formation process of the atom. Indications are given that such a measure may be singular with respect to that of Lebesgue. PMID:22757518

  7. An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Makoto; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki

    2014-01-01

    We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.

  8. An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields

  9. Operational experience with forced cooled superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, D.P., E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Kolbasov, B.N., E-mail: kolbasov@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Anashkin, I.O.; Khvostenko, P.P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Pan, W.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pradhan, S.; Sharma, A.N. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Song, Y.T.; Weng, P.D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? Seventeen breakdowns happened in the fusion facilities with forced cooled superconducting magnets (FCSMs). ? The breakdowns always began on the electric, cryogenic and diagnostic communications (ECDCs) and never on the coils. ? In all the FCSMs the ECDCs were always insulated worse than the coils. ? For reliable operation of ITER organization team should essentially improve the ECDC insulation. ? Use of stainless steel grounded casings filled up with solid insulation over all the ECDCs is the best way to get reliable insulation. -- Abstract: Force-cooled concept has been chosen for ITER superconducting magnet to get reliable coil insulation using vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) technology. However 17 breakdowns occurred during operation of six magnets of this type or their single coil tests at operating voltage < 3 kV, while ITER needs 12 kV. All the breakdowns started on electric, cryogenic and diagnostic communications (ECDCs) by the high voltage induced at fast current variations in magnets concurrently with vacuum deterioration, but never on the coils, though sometimes the latter were damaged too. It suggests that simple wrap insulation currently employed on ECDCs and planned to be used in ITER is unacceptable. Upgrade of the ECDC insulation to the same level as on the coils is evidently needed. This could be done by covering each one from ECDCs with vacuum-tight grounded stainless steel casings filled up with solid insulator using VPI-technology. Such an insulation will be insensitive to in-cryostat conditions, excluding helium leaks and considerably simplifying the tests thus allowing saving time and cost. However it is not accepted in ITER design yet. So guarantee of breakdown prevention is not available.

  10. Laser Photonic Propulsion Force for Station-Keeping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Andres Dono; Yang, Fan Yang; Foster, Cyrus; Faber, Nicolas; Jonsson, Jonas; Stupl, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small satellites, e.g. cubesats, do not tend to incorporate propulsion subsystems that can compensate for perturbation forces, which causes orbital decay. Cubesats are especially susceptible to the phenomenon of orbital decay, which limits their potential performance, since these effects are more noticeable in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). We postulate that a network of ground-based lasers could extend the operational lifetimes of these satellites by applying a photonic force onto their surfaces. This boosting force would help to counteract the degrading force, which is mainly produced by the drag of the atmosphere. This solution may present an advantage for low cost missions, in that it would enable longer mission durations without the need to incorporate a propulsion system, which comprises a large part of the mass budget and the power constraints of a satellite. This poster presents an analysis of the trade space for both the required network of laser ground stations and the satellite orbits. The analysis is based on simulations of the orbital decay of model satellites.

  11. Locomotion of Electrocatalytic Nanomotors due to Reaction Induced Charge Auto-Electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, J L; Posner, J D

    2010-01-01

    Bimetallic rod-shaped nanomotors swim autonomously in hydrogen peroxide solutions. Here we present a scaling analysis, computational simulations, and experimental data that show that the nanomotor locomotion is driven by fluid slip around the nanomotor surface due to electrical body forces. The body forces are generated by a coupling of charge density and electric fields induced by electrochemical reactions occurring on the nanomotor surface. We describe the dependence of nanomotor motion on the nanomotor surface potential and reaction-driven flux.

  12. MODELLING OF THE PROCESS OF DECOMPACTION OF ROAD SUPPORTING GROUND MADE OF HIGH-DENSITY SOILS / ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovik V. S. / ??????? ??????? ?????????

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the main factors influencing on the process of decompaction of road dressing ground made of high-density soils. It is proved that in overconsolidated soils the processes of osmosis, diffusion and capillary height take place. Additional forces separating the walls of pore space and contributing to the increase of free energy are investigated / ????????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????

  13. Optimization of Reaction Plates for Wave Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Reaction forces are generated as energy is extracted from the motion of ocean waves relative to a wave energy converter (WEC). The reaction forces effect the momentum of the WEC, and in most cases it is beneficial to transfer the loads to a relatively stationary external body. It has become common for WECs to include reaction plates that use hydrodynamic damping to transfer the loads developed during energy extraction to the relatively stationary water below the surface of the ocean. Reaction plates allow WECs to use compliant moorings, which reduce mooring loads and are more easily deployed than taut moorings. Heave plates are commonly used on offshore platforms, but the design of reaction plates for wave energy converters has received little attention. This work presents an initial optimization of reaction plate form to improve the heave and surge performance of the WEC reference models developed for the US Department of Energy. The benefits and drawbacks of various reaction plate geometries are compared, and the impacts on WEC stability, peak loading, and energy production are considered.

  14. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  15. Nucleon knockout: reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of the reactions mechanisms involved in nucleon knockout concerns the ideas of what actually happens in nucleon knockout, whether the deviations from the simplest plane wave picture interfere with an extraction of the wave function, and whether or not the desire to measure the bound state wave functions blinds one to the possibility of obtaining other interesting information from this reaction or from finding exciting new processes taking place. Included are the plane- and distorted-wave impulse approximations, some failures, and more sophisticated reaction mechanisms. 12C(P,2P) and 4He(P,2P) are discussed covering cross sections and spectroscopic factors

  16. Asymmetric conjugate addition reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Scott Alexander; Davies, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of a range of chiral nucloeophiles.Chapter 1 introduces the conjugate addition reaction as a valuable carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond forming reaction in organic chemistry, and explores the asymmet- ric conjugate addition of a range of chiral and achiral carbon and nitrogen nucleophiles to a range of acceptors.Chapter 2 explores the use of the N-benzyl-N-(?-methylbenzyl)amino group as a chi- ral auxiliary, by e...

  17. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  18. Efficient Removal of Arsenic from Polluted Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhaumik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic concentration in the polluted ground water has been sufficiently reduced from its alarming limit to a permissible one (~0.02 mg L-1 employing the intercalation behaviour of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH Mg-Al hydrotalcite. The exchange reaction was very simple and the efficiency of the process remained almost same after many cycles. This efficiency of arsenic removal from contaminated ground water has been drastically improved using pre-treatment with a small amount of dilute aqueous H2O2 to oxidize As3+ to As5+ under mild acid pH condition and followed by its exchange with hydrotalcite. After few exchange cycles the solid exchanger could be easily exchanged with a saturated NaCl solution to regenerate the LDH for further use.

  19. Force Limit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  20. Activities of military forces and defence forces of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper deals with the activity of the USSR Military Forces and Civil Defense Forces to eliminate the CNPP accident consequences in 1986-1990. Attention is focused on the accident localization, on conduction of engineering, water-protective and other efforts at the CNPP site and at its vicinities, on the radiation protection of the personnel and population under the emergency, on information support of the activities taken by the military and civil defense forces. 4 figs