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Sample records for ground reaction force

  1. Ground reaction forces during caterpillar climbing

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    Barry Andrew Trimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Larval Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm, are remarkable climbers and crawlers. They have evolved to navigate up, down, and across the branched and highly variable terrain on vegetation. Their locomotion, therefore, must be robust to any possible orientation. Furthermore, caterpillars lack a rigid support structure and the control of their increased degrees of freedom is not well understood. Our research explores Manduca’s locomotion in two orthogonal crawling modes: horizontal and vertical. Previous studies have demonstrated that caterpillars do not necessarily change their kinematics for crawling in these two orientations. We hypothesize that they also do not change the pattern of proleg force exertion in these two orientations, effectively using the same strategy to both crawl horizontally and to climb. To measure proleg force exertions, we used a biaxial strain gauge array to sense ground reaction forces of a crawling Manduca in vertical and horizontal directions. By averaging forces and looking at the general force distributions, we found that there is no difference in the pattern of axial forces between the two crawling directions but more variations in the normal forces. While caterpillar ground reaction forces are highly variable in nature, trends and shapes often persist between trials. Our data show that caterpillars maintain net drag on the abdominal segments, keeping their bodies in tension during both modes of locomotion. Axial forces during climbing are equivalent to axial forces during crawling offset by the addition of bodyweight. This suggests that the variations in the normal forces are due to the physics of vertical climbing and that Manduca accounts for bodyweight passively. This result also supports the general finding that caterpillars can use an environmental skeleton: the animal does not actively force any posture and only the axial forces are under active control to achieve forward progression. In climbing, gravity exerts drag on the body, providing the force necessary to maintain body tension. The animal passively resists the pitch-back moment generated by its bodyweight using fail-safe grippers at the tip of each proleg. This allows the animal to use the same crawling pattern with no additional compensation for changing orientations. Another important finding of this study is that the thoracic legs are necessary for normal locomotion, providing a tensioning thrust force in both orientations. Based on these results, we propose that caterpillars have developed a single locomotor strategy that allows them to move in any orientation, effectively ignoring gravitational effects.

  2. Crouched Posture Maximizes Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Muscles

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    Hoang, Hoa X.; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for children with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may allow biomechanical advantages that lead some children to adopt a crouch gait. To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle for a total of 45 different postures. A series of optimizations was performed for each posture to maximize transverse plane ground reaction forces in the 8 compass directions by modifying muscle forces acting on the model. We compared the force profile areas across all postures. Larger force profile areas were allowed by postures from mild crouch (for initial stance) to crouch (for final stance). The overall ability to generate larger ground reaction force profiles represents a mechanical advantage of a crouched posture. This increase in muscle capacity while in a crouched posture may allow a patient to generate new movements to compensate for impairments associated with cerebral palsy, such as motor control deficits. PMID:22542242

  3. Ground Reaction Forces in Alternative Footwear during Slip Events

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    Harish Chander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slips, trips and falls are major causitive factors for occupational and non-occupational falls. Alternative footwear such has crocs and flip flops have been used in and around work places and communities that can be slip prone environments. The purpose of the study is to analyze the effects of alternative footwear [crocs (CC, flip-flops (FF] and industry standard slip resistant shoes (LT on ground reaction forces (GRFs during slip events. Eighteen healthy male participants following a repeated measures design for each footwear condition, were tested for heel kinematics during normal dry surface gait (NG; unexpected slip (US, alert slip (AS and expected slip (ES. A 3x4 repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the dependent vertical GRFs parameters (Mean Z-GRF and Peak Z-GRF at p = 0.05. Significant interactions between footwear and gait trials were found for Mean Z-GRF and significant main effect in gait trials for Peak Z-GRF were evident. On average significantly lower GRFs were seen in slip trials compared to normal gait. FF exhibited significantly lower GRFs during slip trials while LT demonstrated lower GRFs in normal gait. The reduced ground reaction forces during all slip events compared to normal gait can be attributed to the incomplete weight transfer on the slipping foot during the unexpected and alert slips and to the anticipation of the slippery environment in expected slips. Flip flops which had greater incidence of slips also demonstrated reduced GRFs compared to CC and LT during slip events, further suggesting incomplete weight transfer, while during normal gait, LT demonstrated reduced GRFs compared to alternative footwear owing to its cushioning midsole properties. The LT with lowest incidence of slips demonstrates to be the choice of footwear for maneuvering slippery flooring conditions and for reducing impact reaction forces during non-slippery flooring conditions.Keywords: Slips, Falls, Alternative Footwear, Ground Reaction Forces, Perception of Slipperiness

  4. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

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    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  5. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

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    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  6. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Kluitenberg Bas; Bredeweg Steef W; Zijlstra Sjouke; Zijlstra Wiebren; Buist Ida

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Me...

  7. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

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    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  8. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana M. F., Barela; Paulo B. de, Freitas; Melissa L., Celestino; Marcela R., Camargo; José A., Barela.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it w [...] ould be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  9. Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces During Forward and Backward Walking In Flat Foot Female Subjects

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    Shahin Gohar Pay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Flexible flat foot is a common deformity in lower extremity, the foot arch collapses and the ground reaction forces does not apply properly to the foot. Backward walking is a common rehabilitive technique and is utilized to improve strength and balance. The purpose of this present study is to compare the salient points vertical ground reaction force measurements in flat foot patients while walking forward and backward with those of healthy subjects using a force plate system.Materials and methods: 10 flexible falt foot female subjects and 10 healthy female subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each Subject walked 5 times forward and 5 times backward and the vertical ground reaction force was measured by a force platform.Results: The results of this present study suggest a significant difference in kinetic pattern of forward walking compared to backward walking in both healthy and flexible flat foot participants. The force related to first peak of vertical ground reaction force was significantly less in forward walking compared to backward walking (p=0.000. Whereas the force related to trough and second peak of vertical ground reaction force were significantly high in forward walking compared to backward walking (p=0.000.Conclusion: The results of this study show that backward walking changes the ground reaction force compared to forward walking; and the main characteristic of this difference is due to decrease of forces applied to the heel of foot which may be important in flat foot patients.

  10. The Effect of Increasing Inertia upon Vertical Ground Reaction Forces during Locomotion

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    DeWitt, John K.; Hagan, R. Donald; Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2007-01-01

    The addition of inertia to exercising astronauts could increase ground reaction forces and potentially provide a greater health benefit. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding the adaptations to additional mass (inertia) without additional net weight (gravitational force) during locomotion. We examined the effect of increasing inertia while maintaining net gravitational force on vertical ground reaction forces and kinematics during walking and running. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten healthy adults (5 male/5 female) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) using a force-measuring treadmill. Subjects completed locomotion at normal weight and mass, and at 10, 20, 30, and 40% of added inertial force. The added gravitational force was relieved with overhead suspension, so that the net force between the subject and treadmill at rest remained equal to 100% body weight. Peak vertical impact forces and loading rates increased with increased inertia during walking, and decreased during running. As inertia increased, peak vertical propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased during walking and running, and contact time increased during running. Vertical ground reaction force production and adaptations in gait kinematics were different between walking and running. The increased inertial forces were utilized independently from gravitational forces by the motor control system when determining coordination strategies.

  11. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

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    Kluitenberg Bas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1 and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%. Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%. The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89, but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an instrumented treadmill seems to be suitable for measuring representative vertical ground-reaction forces during running.

  12. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female) were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1)) and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA) were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%). Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%). The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89), but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an instrumented treadmill seems to be suitable for measuring representative vertical ground-reaction forces during running. PMID:23186326

  13. Software for analysis of equine ground reaction force data

    OpenAIRE

    Schamhardt, H.C.; Merkens, H.W.; Lammertink, J.L.M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Software for analysis of force plate recordings of the horse at normal walk is described. The data of a number of stance phases are averaged to obtain a representative tracing of that horse. The amplitudes of a number of characteristic peaks in the force-time curves are used to compare left and right front limbs and left and right hind limbs. The averaged tracings are plotted, default on the line printer or, via a separate program, on a high quality pen plotter. A version of the program appli...

  14. A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity

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    Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

  15. Does maximising ball speed in cricket fast bowling necessitate higher ground reaction forces?

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    King, M A; Worthington, P J; Ranson, C A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether high peak ground reaction forces and high average loading rates are necessary to bowl fast. Kinematic and kinetic bowling data were collected for 20 elite male fast bowlers. A moderate non-significant correlation was found between ball speed and peak vertical ground reaction force with faster bowlers tending to have lower peak vertical ground reaction force (r = -0.364, P = 0.114). Faster ball speeds were correlated with both lower average vertical and lower average horizontal loading rates (r = -0.452, P = 0.046 and r = -0.484, P = 0.031, respectively). A larger horizontal (braking) impulse was associated with a faster ball speed (r = 0.574, P = 0.008) and a larger plant angle of the front leg (measured from the vertical) at front foot contact was associated with a larger horizontal impulse (r = 0.706, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that there does not necessarily need to be a trade-off between maximum ball release speed and the forces exerted on fast bowlers (peak ground reaction forces and average loading rates). Furthermore, it appears that one of the key determinants of ball speed is the horizontal impulse generated at the ground over the period from front foot contact until ball release. PMID:26186222

  16. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SPRINT VELOCITIES, HORIZONTAL GROUND REACTION FORCE, AND ISOKINETIC TRUNK STRENGTH VARIABLES

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    Kale Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among sprint velocities, horizontal ground reaction force, and isokinetic trunk strength variables. Voluntary 19 athletes were participated to the study [age (year= 20.9±2.3, training age (month= 91.3±48.2, body height (cm= 173.1±6.5, body weight (kg= 64.7±8.4] from different sports including in explosive strength. Sprints (10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m were tested on a non-motorized treadmill. Velocities (V10m, V20m, V30m, and V40m and horizontal ground reaction forces (HGRF-10m, HGRF-20m, HGRF-30m, and HGRF-40m of the sprints were calculated. Isokinetic trunk strength criteria (flexion-extension peak torques at 3 different angular velocities (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1 were tested. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Probability level was p?0.05. All sprint velocities was correlated with all horizontal ground reaction forces (except the correlation between V10m and HGRF-20m and all isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (except the correlation between V10m and isokinetic trunk flexion peak torque at 120o.s-1. Statistically highest significant correlations have been found between V40m and all horizontal ground reaction forces and also between V40m and isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. There were significant relationships of horizontal ground reaction forces with isokinetic trunk extension-flexion peak torques at 30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. In conclusion, isokinetic trunk flexion and extension strength values are crucial for improving sprint acceleration and horizontal component of ground reaction force.

  17. BILATERAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND JOINT MOMENTS FOR LATERAL SIDESTEPPING AND CROSSOVER STEPPING TASKS

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    William I. Sellers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS and crossover stepping (XS movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work

  18. Effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force.

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    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kang, Yang Hun; Kim, Je Ho; Uhm, Yo Han; Lee, Yong Seon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 young adult males, who were divided into a Nordic walking group of 15 subjects and a walking group of 15 subjects. [Methods] To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters and ground reaction force during walking in the two groups, the six-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system was used. The subjects were asked to walk 12 meters using the more comfortable walking method for them between Nordic walking and walking. After they walked 12 meters more than 10 times, their most natural walking patterns were chosen three times and analyzed. To determine the pole for Nordic walking, each subject's height was multiplied by 0.68. We then measured the spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Results] Compared with the walking group, the Nordic walking group showed an increase in cadence, stride length, and step length, and a decrease in stride time, step time, and vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that Nordic walking increases the stride and can be considered as helping patients with diseases affecting their gait. This demonstrates that Nordic walking is more effective in improving functional capabilities by promoting effective energy use and reducing the lower limb load, because the weight of the upper and lower limbs is dispersed during Nordic walking. PMID:26504319

  19. Effect of dog breed and body conformation on vertical ground reaction forces, impulses, and stance times

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, K; Wiestner, T; Galeandro, L; Hässig, M; Montavon, P M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether fully normalised vertical ground reaction forces and stance times obtained at a trot depend on dog breed or body conformations. METHODS: Peak vertical forces (PVF), vertical impulses (VI), stance times (ST), and ratio of forelimb impulse to total impulse (RVI) of 54 dogs of seven different breeds were normalised to body weight and body size according to the theory of dynamic similarity, and were tested for differences between breeds. Breeds were Borzoi...

  20. Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to coll...

  1. Mechanical stimulation of the foot sole in a supine position for ground reaction force simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Juan; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Galen, Sujay; Conway, Bernard A.; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To promote early rehabilitation of walking, gait training can start even when patients are on bed rest. Supine stepping in the early phase after injury is proposed to maximise the beneficial effects of gait restoration. In this training paradigm, mechanical loading on the sole of the foot is required to mimic the ground reaction forces that occur during overground walking. A pneumatic shoe platform was developed to produce adjustable forces on the heel and the forefoot with an ...

  2. The forelimb in walking horses: 1. Kinematics and ground reaction forces.

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    Hodson, E; Clayton, H M; Lanovaz, J L

    2000-07-01

    Video (60 Hz) and force (2000 Hz) data were collected from 5 sound horses during walking. Forelimb data were analysed for 8 strides (4 left, 4 right) per horse to determine sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs). The results suggested that brachial rotation was responsible for protraction and retraction of the limb as a whole, while rotations of the scapula and antebrachium elevated the distal limb during breakover and early swing then lowered it in preparation for ground contact. The coffin joint was flexed maximally at the time of peak longitudinal braking force, which occurred during breakover of the contralateral forelimb. The metacarpus was vertical at 28% stride. This was considerably earlier than the change from a braking to a propulsive longitudinal force (34% stride), which coincided with maximal extension of the fetlock joint. The longitudinal propulsive force peaked just after contact of the contralateral forelimb. During the swing phase the joints distal to the shoulder showed a single flexion cycle that peaked at 76% stride at the carpus, 81% stride at the fetlock and 84% stride at the elbow and coffin joints. The coffin and shoulder joints began to extend in the terminal swing phase and continued to extend through ground contact and early stance. The results provide normative data that will be applied in detecting changes in kinematics and ground reaction forces that are associated with specific lamenesses. PMID:10952376

  3. Analysis of kinematic data and determination of ground reaction force of foot in slow squat

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    Zhang, Xu-Shu; Guo, Yuan; An, Mei-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yi

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, the ground reaction force (GRF) acting on foot in slow squat was determined through a force measuring system, and at the same time, the kinematic data of human squat were obtained by analyzing the photographed image sequences. According to the height and body weight, six healthy volunteers were selected, three men in one group and the other three women in another group, and the fundamental parameters of subjects were recorded, including body weight, height and age, etc. Based on the anatomy characteristics, some markers were placed on the right side of joints. While the subject squatted at slow speed on the force platform, the ground reaction forces on the forefoot and heel for each foot were obtained through calibrated force platform. The analysis results show that the reaction force on heel is greater than that on forefoot, and double feet have nearly constant force. Moreover, from processing and analyzing the synchronously photographed image sequences in squat, the kinematic data of human squat were acquired, including mainly the curves of angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration varied with time for knee, hip and ankle joints in a sagittal plane. The obtained results can offer instructive reference for photographing and analyzing the movements of human bodies, diagnosing some diseases, and establishing in the future appropriate mathematical models for the human motion.

  4. New method for assessment of gait variability based on wearable ground reaction force sensor.

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    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new quantitative method of analyzing gait variability using a developed wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system is presented. The design of the sensor system is based on the use of five small 3-axial sensors distributed on the underside of a shoe, so that in human dynamics analysis this system can continuously measure vertical pressure force and bio-directional friction forces referring to anterior-posterior friction force and mediolateral friction force. Compared to existing spatio-temporal evaluation methods using traditional force plates or instrumented treadmills, the new method was developed based on measurements of ambulatory or wearable force sensor which can continuously measure ground reaction force in various environments not limited to the laboratory environment. The area of the center of pressure (CoP) distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the 3-axial GRF, which correlate strongly with the distribution of CoP, are suggested parameters for quantifying gait variability. To certify the effectiveness of these parameters, we conducted an experimental study on a group of volunteer subjects who walked under a designed experimental protocol. PMID:19163171

  5. Ground reaction force estimation using an insole-type pressure mat and joint kinematics during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yihwan; Jung, Moonki; Lee, Kunwoo; Koo, Seungbum

    2014-08-22

    Kinetic analysis of walking requires joint kinematics and ground reaction force (GRF) measurement, which are typically obtained from a force plate. GRF is difficult to measure in certain cases such as slope walking, stair climbing, and track running. Nevertheless, estimating GRF continues to be of great interest for simulating human walking. The purpose of the study was to develop reaction force models placed on the sole of the foot to estimate full GRF when only joint kinematics are provided (Type-I), and to estimate ground contact shear forces when both joint kinematics and foot pressure are provided (Type-II and Type-II-val). The GRF estimation models were attached to a commercial full body skeletal model using the AnyBody Modeling System, which has an inverse dynamics-based optimization solver. The anterior-posterior shear force and medial-lateral shear force could be estimated with approximate accuracies of 6% BW and 2% BW in all three methods, respectively. Vertical force could be estimated in the Type-I model with an accuracy of 13.75% BW. The accuracy of the force estimation was the highest during the mid-single-stance period with an average RMS for errors of 3.10% BW, 1.48% BW, and 7.48% BW for anterior-posterior force, medial-lateral force, and vertical force, respectively. The proposed GRF estimation models could predict full and partial GRF with high accuracy. The design of the contact elements of the proposed model should make it applicable to various activities where installation of a force measurement system is difficult, including track running and treadmill walking. PMID:24917473

  6. Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2014-03-27

    A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ?(2) = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ?(2)= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing. PMID:25031674

  7. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago B., Muniz; Renato, Moraes; Rinaldo R. J., Guirro.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy y [...] oung adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities.

  8. Bilateral ground reaction forces and joint moments for lateral sidestepping and crossover stepping tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, William I.; Gregor Kuntze; Mansfield, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS) and crossover stepping (XS) movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of thes...

  9. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna; Angelica Castilho Alonso; Guilherme Carlos Brech; Luis Mochizuki; Eduardo Yoshio Nakano; Júlia Maria d'Andrea Greve

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5) years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26), a long-distance runner group (n = 23), and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platfor...

  10. Peripheral Arterial Disease Affects the Frequency Response of Ground Reaction Forces During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Denise; Judkins, Timothy N.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Johanning, Jason M.; Myers, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Walking is problematic for patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency domain of the ground reaction forces during walking to further elucidate the ambulatory impairment of these patients. Methods Nineteen bilateral peripheral arterial disease patients and nineteen controls were included in this study. Subjects were matched for age and gait speed. Participants walked over a force plate sampling at 600Hz. PAD patients were tested before (pain-free condition) after the onset of claudication symptoms (pain). We calculated median frequency, frequency bandwidth, and frequency containing 99.5% of the signal for the vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces. Findings Our results showed reduced median frequency in the vertical and anterior-posterior components of the ground reaction forces between the control group and both peripheral arterial disease conditions. We found reduced frequency bandwidth in the anterior-posterior direction between controls and the peripheral arterial disease pain-free condition. There were no differences in median frequency or bandwidth between peripheral arterial disease pain-free and pain conditions, but an increase in the frequency content for 99.5% of the signal was observed in the pain condition. Interpretation Reduced frequency phenomena during gait in peripheral arterial disease patients compared to velocity-matched controls suggests more sluggish activity within the neuromotor system. Increased frequency phenomena due to pain in these patients suggests a more erratic application of propulsive forces when walking. Frequency domain analysis thus offers new insights into the gait impairments associated with this patient population. PMID:22967739

  11. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  12. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Natália Mariana Silva; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Mochizuki, Luis; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and non-athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5) years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n?=?26), a long-distance runner group (n?=?23), and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180°/s) was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60°/s) was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners. PMID:23018298

  13. GROUND REACTION FORCES AND LOADING RATES ASSOCIATED WITH PARKOUR AND TRADITIONAL DROP LANDING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien L. Puddle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the relative infancy of Parkour there is currently a lack of empirical evidence on which to base specific technique instruction upon. The purpose of this study was to compare the ground reaction forces and loading rates involved in two Parkour landing techniques encouraged by local Parkour instructors and a traditional landing technique recommended in the literature. Ten male participants performed three different drop landing techniques (Parkour precision, Parkour roll, and traditional onto a force plate. Compared to the traditional technique the Parkour precision technique demonstrated significantly less maximal vertical landing force (38%, p < 0.01, ES = 1.76 and landing loading rate (54%, p < 0.01, ES = 1.22. Similarly, less maximal vertical landing force (43%, p < 0.01, ES = 2.04 and landing loading rate (63%, p < 0.01, ES = 1.54 were observed in the Parkour roll technique compared to the traditional technique. It is unclear whether or not the Parkour precision technique produced lower landing forces and loading rates than the Parkour roll technique as no significant differences were found. The landing techniques encouraged by local Parkour instructors such as the precision and roll appear to be more appropriate for Parkour practitioners to perform than a traditional landing technique due to the lower landing forces and loading rates experienced

  14. A comparison of golf shoe designs highlights greater ground reaction forces with shorter irons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsfold, Paul; Smith, Neal A; Dyson, Rosemary J

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction) when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight) and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used. Key pointsDuring the golf swing ground reaction forces at the golf shoe to natural grass turf interface were greater with irons than with the longer driver.In the golf swing maximal vertical forces were greater at the front (left) foot in the than at the back foot for a right handed golfer.Similar maximum vertical ground reaction forces were recorded with each club when a 8 mm metal spike golf shoe or an alternative spike golf shoe were worn.Force generation and coefficients of friction were similar for the alternative spike design and traditional metal seven spike golf shoe on natural grass turf.Data collection possible due to application of technical developments to golf from work on other natural turf based sports. PMID:24149482

  15. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  16. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by?t? test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to the control group. Vertical ground reaction force variables are also altered. Conclusion: Significant changes ( P value < .05 in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces show that gait pattern is not normalized after THR and weight-bearing is not equally shared by both hips. Patient walks with residual antalgic gait even after surgery, which results in abnormal loading around hip joints and the integrity of the prosthesis fixation could be compromised.

  17. Ground reaction force adaptations during cross-slope walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Dixon, Philippe C; Pearsall, David J

    2012-02-01

    Though transversely inclined (cross-sloped) surfaces are prevalent, our understanding of the biomechanical adaptations required for cross-slope locomotion is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine ground reaction forces (GRF) in cross-sloped and level walking and running. Nine young adult males walked and ran barefoot along an inclinable walkway in both level (0°) and cross-slope (10°) configurations. The magnitude and time of occurrence of selected features of the GRF were extracted from the force plate data. GRF data were collected in level walking and running (LW and LR), inclined walking and running up-slope (IWU and IRU), and down-slope (IWD and IRD), respectively. The GRF data were then analyzed using repeated measures MANOVA. In the anteroposterior direction, the timing of the peak force values differed across conditions during walking (p=.041), while the magnitude of forces were modified across conditions for running (p=.047). Most significant differences were observed in the mediolateral direction, where generally force values were up to 390% and 530% (p<.001) larger during the cross-slope conditions compared to level for walking and running, respectively. The maximum force peak during running occurred earlier at IRU compared to the other conditions (p?.031). For the normal axis a significant difference was observed in the first maximum force peak during walking (p=.049). The findings of this study showed that compared to level surfaces, functional adaptations are required to maintain forward progression and dynamic stability in stance during cross-slope walking and running. PMID:21840076

  18. A COMPARISON OF GROUND REACTION FORCES DETERMINED BY PORTABLE FORCE-PLATE AND PRESSURE-INSOLE SYSTEMS IN ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakazato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI systems and portable force plate (FP systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1 to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2 to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier's level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique "Carving in Short Radii" as High Dynamic Skiing mode and "Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii" as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 ° and the flat (15 ° slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01. Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01 in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001. We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing, but also is affected by the skier's level, the skiing mode performed and pitch.

  19. Gender Differences among Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematic and Ground Reaction Force Characteristics during a Rapid Sprint and Cut Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-01-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…

  20. Habituation of healthy dogs to treadmill trotting: repeatability assessment of vertical ground reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchon, Laurent; Grandjean, Dominique

    2009-08-01

    To assess the repeatability of kinetic gait analysis with a treadmill, 28 sound adult dogs were made to trot on an instrumented system. Vertical ground reaction force variables (Peak PFz and Impulse IFz) were collected by 10-s recordings, once a week, 4 weeks in succession. Data were analysed using a repeated-measures two-way ANOVA to investigate habituation to treadmill locomotion. Recorded data were stabilized from the end of the first and second sessions for IFz and PFz, respectively. The percentages of variance attributable to dogs, weeks, minutes and repetitions were, respectively, 72%, 10%, 7%, and 11% for PFz and 84%, 7%, 3%, and 6% for IFz. Habituation occurred after a single training session. Good repeatability was determined by a low coefficient of variation (3.4-4.7%). Adding a treadmill to kinetic gait analysis deserves consideration: reliable data are easily recorded using appropriate habituation and statistical model. PMID:19121530

  1. Ground reaction forces and frictional demands during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2002-04-01

    Stair descent is an inherently risky and demanding task that older adults often encounter in everyday life. It is believed that slip between the foot or shoe sole and the stair surface may play a role in stair related falls, however, there are no reports on slip resistance requirements for stair descent. The aim of this study was to determine the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) necessary for safe stair descent in 12 young and 12 older adults, under varied illuminance conditions. The RCOF during stair descent was found to be comparable in magnitude and time to that for overground walking, and thus, with adequate footwear and dry stair surfaces, friction does not appear to be a major determinant of stair safety. Illuminance level had little effect on the dependent variables quantified in this study. However, the older participants demonstrated safer strategies than the young during stair descent, as reflected by differences in the ground reaction forces and lower RCOF. PMID:11869909

  2. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  3. Analysis of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Variables during a Sit to Stand Task in Participants Recovering from a Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jeff; Kneiss, Janet; Bukata, Susan V.; Puzas, J. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Background A sit to stand task following a hip fracture may be achieved through compensations (e.g. bilateral arms and uninvolved lower extremity), not restoration of movement strategies of the involved lower extremity. The primary purpose was to compare upper and lower extremity movement strategies using the vertical ground reaction force during a sit to stand task in participants recovering from a hip fracture to control participants. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the correlation between vertical ground reaction force variables and validated functional measures. Methods Twenty eight community dwelling older adults, 14 who had a hip fracture and 14 control participants completed the Sit to Stand task on an instrumented chair designed to measure vertical ground reaction force, performance based tests (Timed up and go, Berg Balance Scale and gait speed) and a self report Lower Extremity Measure. A MANOVA was used to compare functional scales and vertical ground reaction force variables between groups. Bivariate correlations were assessed using Pearson Product Moment correlations. Findings The vertical ground reaction force variables showed significantly higher bilateral arm force, higher uninvolved side peak force and asymmetry between the involved and uninvolved sides for the participants recovering from a hip fracture (Wilks’ Lambda = 3.16, p = 0.019). Significant correlations existed between the vertical ground reaction force variables and validated functional measures. Interpretation Participants recovering from a hip fracture compensated using their arms and the uninvolved side to perform a Sit to Stand. Lower extremity movement strategies captured during a Sit to Stand task were correlated to scales used to assess function, balance and falls risk. PMID:21196069

  4. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic(®) insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions. PMID:26674403

  5. Normalization of ground reaction forces, joint moments, and free moments in human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2012-12-01

    Authors who report ground reaction force (GRF), free moment (FM), and resultant joint moments usually normalize these variables by division normalization. Normalization parameters include body weight (BW), body weight x height (BWH), and body weight x leg length (BWL). The purpose of this study was to explore the appropriateness of division normalization, power curve normalization, and offset normalization on peak GRF, FM, and resultant joint moments. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 98 subjects who walked at 1.2 and 1.8 m/s and ran at 3.4 and 4.0 m/s. Linear curves were best fit to the data, and regression analyses performed to test the significance of the correlations. It was found that the relationship between peak force and BW, as well as joint moments and BW, BWH, and BWL, were not always linear. After division normalization, significant correlations were still found. Power curve and offset normalization, however, were effective at normalizing all variables; therefore, when attempting to normalize GRF and joint moments, perhaps nonlinear or offset methods should be implemented. PMID:23348130

  6. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to exercise for 5 min at treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  7. A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments

  8. The measurement of ground reaction force in dogs trotting on a treadmill: an investigation of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchon, L; Valette, J-P; Sanaa, M; Grandjean, D

    2006-01-01

    We studied the time necessary to obtain reliable kinetic data from healthy dogs trotting on a treadmill. Ten adult male Malinois Belgian Shepherd dogs were made to trot on an instrumented treadmill to record the ground reaction force for the entire body and to determine the vertical force variables (peak [PFz], impulse [IFz], stride time [Str], peak time [Tz] and contact time [Ct]). Data were collected from each dog, during three sequences per day, on three consecutive days. In order to determine the contribution of the sequence, day of measurement, and dog factors and the percentage of variance attributable to dogs, data were analyzed with a linear mixed model. The curve shapes were similar to those obtained with a floor-mounted force platform. Intra-dog coefficients of variation were between 1.57 and 3.46%. Inter-dog coefficients of variation were between 4.18 and 7.82%. A sequence effect was not noted. Each day had a significant effect on all of the data. All variables differed significantly from the first day compared to the other days. However there was not any difference between days 2 and 3. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs ranged from 37 to 88%. The coefficients of variation were lower than those obtained with common protocols. The treadmill locomotion remained consistent during a single session. Even if interday variation needs to be accounted for, reliable data can still be obtained after a single training session. The majority of the variation was attributable to the dog. An instrumented treadmill may be used for kinetic analysis. PMID:16810349

  9. Effects of slip-induced changes in ankle movement on muscle activity and ground reaction forces during running acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Shahin; Kersting, Uwe G.

    Ground contact in running is always linked to a minimum amount of slipping, e.g., during the early contact phase when horizontal forces are high compared to vertical forces. Studies have shown altered muscular activation when expecting slips [2-4]. It is not known what the mechanical effect of su...... slip episodes are on joint loading or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of changes in ankle movement on ankle joint loading, muscle activity, and ground reaction forces during linear acceleration....

  10. Sensors' Ground Reaction Force behavior for both Normal and Parkinson subjects - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, R; Corbier, C; El Badaoui, M; Moslem, B; Diab, M O

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of normal and abnormal Gait has been a major research field for decades, whether in fall prevention, sports biomechanics or even disease indication. In this paper, we assess time domain statistical properties of the Vertical Ground Reaction Force (VGRF) during moderate-pace walking, aiming eventually to create a reliable mathematical model of VGRF for normal and abnormal cases. For that endeavor, first order statistical analysis was performed upon signal segmentation in order to determine the degree of stationarity and base the model upon it. Furthermore, we performed curve fitting of the VGRF time series between present and past values, which led us to model the waveform with linear regression via Autoregressive Model for both Normal Walking Signals and Parkinson diseased patients' walking signals. However this is done only for one chosen sensor. However, it would be crucial to take the advantage of the array of sensors. Evaluating the cross-covariance between multi-sensor data of a given subject at different time lags capture the most important information. The seasonality in the values give a quite important indications of the behavior of data. The objective behind this analysis is to recommend a preliminary basis to create reliable mathematical model of normal walking signals versus pathological walking signals, that we will emphasize in a complementary work, in the simplest way available and creating fall prevention indicators for old patients. PMID:26737217

  11. Estimating Youth Locomotion Ground Reaction Forces Using an Accelerometer-Based Activity Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M.; Hawkins, David A.; Beckett, Laurel

    2012-01-01

    To address a variety of questions pertaining to the interactions between physical activity, musculoskeletal loading and musculoskeletal health/injury/adaptation, simple methods are needed to quantify, outside a laboratory setting, the forces acting on the human body during daily activities. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistically based model to estimate peak vertical ground reaction force (pVGRF) during youth gait. 20 girls (10.9±0.9 years) and 15 boys (12.5±0.6 years) wore a Biotrainer AM over their right hip. Six walking and six running trials were completed after a standard warm-up. Average AM intensity (g) and pVGRF (N) during stance were determined. Repeated measures mixed effects regression models to estimate pVGRF from Biotrainer activity monitor acceleration in youth (girls 10–12, boys 12–14 years) while walking and running were developed. Log transformed pVGRF had a statistically significant relationship with activity monitor acceleration, centered mass, sex (girl), type of locomotion (run), and locomotion type-acceleration interaction controlling for subject as a random effect. A generalized regression model without subject specific random effects was also developed. The average absolute differences between the actual and predicted pVGRF were 5.2% (1.6% standard deviation) and 9% (4.2% standard deviation) using the mixed and generalized models, respectively. The results of this study support the use of estimating pVGRF from hip acceleration using a mixed model regression equation. PMID:23133564

  12. Ground reaction force and 3D biomechanical characteristics of walking in short-leg walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songning; Clowers, Kurt G; Powell, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Short-leg walking boots offer several advantages over traditional casts. However, their effects on ground reaction forces (GRF) and three-dimensional (3D) biomechanics are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to examine 3D lower extremity kinematics and joint dynamics during walking in two different short-leg walking boots. Eleven (five females and six males) healthy subjects performed five level walking trials in each of three conditions: two testing boot conditions, Gait Walker (DeRoyal Industries, Inc.) and Equalizer (Royce Medical Co.), and one pair of laboratory shoes (Noveto, Adidas). A force platform and a 6-camera Vicon motion analysis system were used to collect GRFs and 3D kinematic data during the testing session. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate selected kinematic, GRF, and joint kinetic variables (p<0.05). The results revealed that both short-leg walking boots were effective in minimizing ankle eversion and hip adduction. Neither walker increased the bimodal vertical GRF peaks typically observed in normal walking. However, they did impose a small initial peak (<1BW) earlier in the stance phase. The Gait Walker also exhibited a slightly increased vertical GRF during midstance. These characteristics may be related to the sole materials/design, the restriction of ankle movements, and/or the elevated heel heights of the tested walkers. Both walkers appeared to increase the demand on the knee extensors while they decreased the demand of the knee and hip abductors based on the joint kinetic results. PMID:16414263

  13. Squat Ground Reaction Force on a Horizontal Squat Device, Free Weights, and Smith Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Caldwell, Erin; DeWitt, John K.; Peters, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is an analog to spaceflight and advancement of exercise countermeasures is dependent on the development of exercise equipment that closely mimic actual upright exercise. The Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) was developed to allow a supine exerciser to perform squats that mimic upright squat exercise. PURPOSE: To compare vertical ground reaction force (GRFv) on the HSD with Free Weight (FW) or Smith Machine (SM) during squat exercise. METHODS: Subjects (3F, 3M) performed sets of squat exercise with increasing loads up to 1-repetition (rep) maximum. GRF data were collected and compared with previous GRF data for squat exercise performed with FW & SM. Loads on the HSD were adjusted to magnitudes comparable with FW & SM by subtracting the subject s body weight (BW). Peak GRFv for 45-, 55-, 64-, & 73-kg loads above BW were calculated. Percent (%) difference between HSD and the two upright conditions were computed. Effect size was calculated for the 45-kg load. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg on the HSD; however, 1 subject completed all loads. Anecdotal evidence suggested that most subjects shoulders or back failed before their legs. The mean % difference are shown. In the 45-kg condition, effect sizes were 0.37 & 0.83 (p>0.05) for HSD vs. FW and HSD vs. SM, respectively, indicating no differences between exercise modes. CONCLUSION: When BW was added to the target load, results indicated that vertical forces were similar to those in FW and SM exercise. The exercise prescription for the HSD should include a total external resistance equivalent to goal load plus subject BW. The HSD may be used as an analog to upright exercise in bed rest studies, but because most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg, it may be necessary to prescribe higher reps and lower loads to better target the leg musculature

  14. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  15. Effects of backpack weight on posture, gait patterns and ground reaction forces of male children with obesity during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qipeng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Mao, Dewei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of backpack weight on posture, gait pattern, and ground reaction forces for children with obesity in an attempt to define a safe backpack weight limit for them. A total of 16 obese (11.19 ± 0.66 years of age) and 21 normal body weight (11.13 ± 0.69 years of age) schoolboys were recruited. Two force plates and two video cameras were used. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures was employed. Obese children showed increased trunk and head forward inclination angle, gait cycle duration and stance phase, decreased swing phase, and increased ground reaction force in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions when compared with male children with a normal body weight. The changes were observed even with an empty backpack in comparison with normal body weight children and a 15% increase in backpack weight led to further instability and damage on their already strained bodies. PMID:24650337

  16. A COMPARISON OF GOLF SHOE DESIGNS HIGHLIGHTS GREATER GROUND REACTION FORCES WITH SHORTER IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used

  17. NUMBER OF TRIALS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE PERFORMANCE STABILITY OF SELECTED GROUND REACTION FORCE VARIABLES DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roger James

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to determine the number of trials necessary to achieve performance stability of selected ground reaction force (GRF variables during landing and to compare two methods of determining stability. Ten subjects divided into two groups each completed a minimum of 20 drop or step-off landings from 0.60 or 0.61 m onto a force platform (1000 Hz. Five vertical GRF variables (first and second peaks, average loading rates to these peaks, and impulse were quantified during the initial 100 ms post-contact period. Test-retest reliability (stability was determined using two methods: (1 intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC analysis, and (2 sequential averaging analysis. Results of the ICC analysis indicated that an average of four trials (mean 3.8 ± 2.7 Group 1; 3.6 ± 1.7 Group 2 were necessary to achieve maximum ICC values. Maximum ICC values ranged from 0.55 to 0.99 and all were significantly (p < 0. 05 different from zero. Results of the sequential averaging analysis revealed that an average of 12 trials (mean 11.7 ± 3.1 Group 1; 11.5 ± 4.5 Group 2 were necessary to achieve performance stability using criteria previously reported in the literature. Using 10 reference trials, the sequential averaging technique required standard deviation criterion values of 0.60 and 0.49 for Groups 1 and 2, respectively, in order to approximate the ICC results. The results of the study suggest that the ICC might be a less conservative, but more objective method for determining stability, especially when compared to previous applications of the sequential averaging technique. Moreover, criteria for implementing the sequential averaging technique can be adjusted so that results closely approximate the results from ICC. In conclusion, subjects in landing experiments should perform a minimum of four and possibly as many as eight trials to achieve performance stability of selected GRF variables. Researchers should use this information to plan future studies and to report the stability of GRF data in landing experiments

  18. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  19. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue; Tao Liu(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany)

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural...

  20. The effects of changes in the sagittal plane alignment of running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, Shuichi; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Usui, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of sagittal plane alignment changes in running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces (GRFs). [Subjects and Methods] Eight transtibial amputees who used running-specific prostheses during sprinting participated. The sprint movements were recorded using a Vicon-MX system and GRF measuring devices. The experiment levels were set as regularly recommended alignment (REG; the normal alignment for the subjects) and dorsiflexion or pl...

  1. Effects of perturbation training on ground reaction force and function in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Kazemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury is common in sports competition and training. Following ACL rupture, neuromuscular system performance is disrupted. Perturbation training can improve the function of patients with ACL reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of perturbation training on ground reaction force and functional status of these patients .   Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with ACL reconstruction were randomly assigned into intervention (mean age: 24/2 ±3/4 years and control (mean age: 27/1 ± 2/5 years groups. The intervention group performed ten sessions perturbation training with rocker board, wobble board and Bosu. Peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF and time to peak vertical GRF were recorded by KISTLER force plate during single leg landing from a 30cm height step. In addition, cross hop test also was evaluated as a functional test.   Results: Before perturbation training, both GRF and time to peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee had not significant difference between two groups (P>0/05. In addition, functional test score had not significant difference between the groups (P=0/62. Following perturbation training, peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee was greater than that in control groups (P<0/003.Although time to peak vertical GRF in reconstructed knee increased, there was not statistically significant difference between two groups (P=0/50. Furthermore, functional test score was statistically greater in intervention group (P=0/03.   Conclusion: This s tudy showed that perturbation training can improve functional status in patients with ACL reconstruction. In addition, force plate findings indicated that the patients tolerated more forces at longer time in single leg landing.   Key words: Perturbation training, Ground reaction force, ACL reconstruction, Function

  2. An investigation into the vertical ground reaction force status in the coper and non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects during walking on level ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Soltani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: An immaculate review of the literature reveals some changes on the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF in ACL deficient knee subjects. However, the details are not clear yet. The current study aimed to study these changes in the ACL-deficient and apparently healthy knees of the coper and non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects in comparison with the normal knees. Materials and Methods: Sixteen unilateral ACL-torn subjects included 8 copers and 8 non-copers were recruited in this quasi-experimental study and were compared with 16 normal knee subjects (8 subjects matched to each coper and non-coper groups. All subjects walked barefoot and with their preferred speed in a 6-meter walkway and placed their wanted foot on the platform of a Zebris pedobarograph tool. The patients were asked to place their injured and healthy feet separately on the platform. The control group placed their foot matched to the ACL-deficient legs on the platform. The testes were repeated so much to have five acceptable trials. The outcome measures included the peak F1Z, F2Z, F3Z of the vertical ground reaction force values and the times to reach these peak values as well as total stance time of the tested feet. Results: The results showed only a significant lower F1Z value in the non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects (p=0.008. No significant changes were shown in the F2Z, F3Z or the times reach to F1Z, F2Z and F3Z values (p>0.05. The stance time of the coper ACL-deficient knee subjects increased significantly in the non-coper ACL-deficeint knee subjects when compared to the coper and healthy knees (p=0.005. Conclusion: The reduced F1Z of the vertical ground reaction force at initial contact as well as increased total stance time seen only in non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects reveals inadequate compensatory mechanism in these patients as a counter force stress at initial contact and weight bearing. However, the coper ACL-deficient knee subjects compensated these forces with good strategies and walked very similar to the control group. Keywords: Vercial ground reaction force (VGRF, Time to peak vertical ground reaction force components, Coper & non-coper ACL-deficient knee subjects, Pedobarography.

  3. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in silico development and testing of hip prostheses.

  4. Quantitative metrics of spinal cord injury recovery in the rat using motion capture, electromyography and ground reaction force measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Will L; Jindrich, Devin L; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2012-04-30

    Toward improving the quantitative tools available for evaluation of locomotion after a spinal cord injury, we characterized selected biomechanical and physiological parameters that could be used to assess the level of recovery of locomotion after a mid-thoracic spinal cord lateral hemisection. Specifically we defined quantitative measures of muscle activation and coordination, body weight support, propulsive force, and pre-toe contact activation. Generation of this ensemble of recovery measures was based on kinematics, ground reaction forces, and EMG in rats from the hindlimb ipsilateral to the hemisection during quadrupedal running on a trackway. We derived muscle activation levels using inverse dynamics and static optimization applied to a model of the hindlimb musculoskeletal system. Rats exhibited a phased recovery pattern: progressive recovery of general muscle activity beginning within 2-3 days post-injury, followed by recovery of propulsive force and intralimb coordination of antagonistic muscles 12-13 days post-injury. Even at 12-13 days post-injury however, body weight support and the normal pre-paw contact EMG burst were significantly impaired. These data are consistent with a differential rate of recovery of general motor pool recruitment, and coordination among motor pools. The results demonstrate the discriminative potential of these physiologically based measures in quantifying the progressive recovery of gait performance after a lateral spinal cord hemisection. PMID:22361571

  5. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara Tobalina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

  6. Predicting Complete Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait With Insole Plantar Pressure Information Using a Wavelet Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Kwon, Hyunbin; Oh, Seung Eel; Joo, Su-Bin; Choi, Ahnryul; Heo, Hyun Mu; Kim, Kisun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-09-01

    In general, three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) and ground reaction moments (GRMs) that occur during human gait are measured using a force plate, which are expensive and have spatial limitations. Therefore, we proposed a prediction model for GRFs and GRMs, which only uses plantar pressure information measured from insole pressure sensors with a wavelet neural network (WNN) and principal component analysis-mutual information (PCA-MI). For this, the prediction model estimated GRFs and GRMs with three different gait speeds (slow, normal, and fast groups) and healthy/pathological gait patterns (healthy and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) groups). Model performance was validated using correlation coefficients (r) and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE%) and was compared to the prediction accuracy of the previous methods using the same dataset. As a result, the performance of the GRF and GRM prediction model proposed in this study (slow group: r?=?0.840-0.989 and NRMSE%?=?10.693-15.894%; normal group: r?=?0.847-0.988 and NRMSE% =?10.920-19.216%; fast group: r?=?0.823-0.953 and NRMSE%?=?12.009-20.182%; healthy group: r?=?0.836-0.976 and NRMSE%?=?12.920-18.088%; and AIS group: r?=?0.917-0.993 and NRMSE%?=?7.914-15.671%) was better than that of the prediction models suggested in previous studies for every group and component (p?

  7. Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rafajlovi?

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

  8. The Influence of Pain Distribution on Walking Velocity and Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Maureen J.; Lee, C. Ellen; Etnyre, Bruce R.; Morris, G. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The primary purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of pain distribution on gait characteristics in subjects with low back problems (LBP) during walking at preferred and fastest speeds. Design. Cross-sectional, observational study. Setting. Gait analysis laboratory in a health professions university. Participants. A convenience age- and gender-matched sample of 20 subjects with back pain only (BPO), 20 with referred leg pain due to back problems (LGP), and 20 pain-free individuals (CON). Methods and Measures. Subjects completed standardized self-reports on pain and disability and were videotaped as they walked at their preferred and fastest speeds along a walkway embedded with a force plate. Temporal and spatial gait characteristics were measured at the midsection of the walkway, and peak medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior components of horizontal ground reaction forces (hGRFs) were measured during the stance phase. Results. Patients with leg pain had higher levels of pain intensity and affect compared to those with back pain only (t = 4.91, P < .001 and t = 5.80, P < 0.001, resp.) and walking had an analgesic effect in the BPO group. Gait velocity was highest in the control group followed by the BPO and LGP group and differed between groups at both walking speeds (F2.57 = 13.62, P < .001 and F2.57 = 9.09, P < .001, for preferred and fastest speed condition, resp.). When normalized against gait velocity, the LGP group generated significantly less lateral force at the fastest walking speed (P = .005) and significantly less posterior force at both walking speeds (P ? .01) compared to the control group. Conclusions. Pain intensity and distribution differentially influence gait velocity and hGRFs during gait. Those with referred leg pain tend to utilize significantly altered gait strategies that are more apparent at faster walking speeds. PMID:22550576

  9. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05. As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05.

  10. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Voigt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction force information. Features were derived from measurements made using two parallel 3-dimensional force plates. The approach presented is based on clustering of Centre of Pressure (COP) trace points ov...

  11. The Effect of pPoron Layered Insole on Ground Reaction Force in Comparison with Common Insole on Subjects with Flexible Flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khanmohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexible flat foot is a congenital common deformity in lower extremity associated with ligamentus laxity. This deformity may cause hammer toe, heel spur, inflammation of achille tendon, early muscle fatigue during sport, foot imbalance and pain in leg, knee and hip. The use of insole with medial arch support considered as one of the common treatments for patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a composite insole, Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA with Poron layer on ground reaction force on subjects with flexible flat foot in comparison with common EVA insole. Materials and Methods: Fifty two subjects (14 Male and 38 female between 18-40 years of age with flexible flat foot participated in this study. Twenty six subjects received Poron insole (EVA with Poron layer and 26 subjects received common EVA insole. After assessment each subject asked to walk with normal speed across two force plate in two conditions, walking with insole and shoe and walking without insole. Then each subject asked to use insole for forty hours during two weeks. Vertical ground reaction force in the first session and after two weeks was assessed.Results: Impact force and first peak of vertical ground reaction force (F1 with Poron insole in comparison with shoe significantly increased in second session (P<0.05. The second peak (F3 with common insole in comparison with shoe significantly increased in second session (P<0.05. Significant reduction was noted in first peak (F1 with common insole in second session in comparison with first session (P<0.05. There was no observable significant difference in two groups before and after intervention.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study show that both insoles change vertical ground reaction force in comparison with shoe alone. But using a composite Poron Layer on EVA insole has not demonstrated a significant difference with common arch support insoles. Therefore appli

  12. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOTION, MUSCLE ACTIVITY, AND GROUND REACTION FORCES IN MEN AND WOMEN DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Women tear their Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL 2-8 times more frequently than men. Frontal plane knee motion can produce a pathological load in the ACL. During a state of fatigue the muscles surrounding the knee joint may lose the ability to protect the joint during sudden deceleration while landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and gender on frontal plane knee motion, EMG amplitudes, and GRF magnitudes during drop- jump landing. Pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. Twenty-six volunteers (14 women; 12 Men; Mean ± standard deviation age = 24.5 ± 2.7 yrs; height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m; mass = 74.3 ± 11.8 kg participated in the study. Knee frontal plane ranges of motion and positions, ground reaction force peak magnitudes, and surface EMG RMS amplitudes from five lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring, and lateral gastrocnemius were obtained during the landing phase of a drop-jump. MANOVA and ANOVA indicated that peak GRF significantly (p < 0.05; 2.50 ± 0.75 BW vs. 2.06 ± 0.93 BW decreased during fatigued landings. No other variables exhibited a fatigue main effect, although there was a significant (p < 0.05 fatigue by gender interaction for the frontal plane range of motion from initial contact to max knee flexion variable. Follow-up analyses failed to reveal significant gender differences at the different levels of fatigue for this variable. Additionally, no variables exhibited a significant gender main effect. Single subject analysis indicated that fatigue significantly altered frontal plane knee motion, peak GRF, and EMG in some subjects and the direction of differences varied by individual. Fatigue altered some aspects of landing performance in both men and women, but there were no gender differences. Additionally, both group and single subject analyses provided valuable but different information about factors representing neuromuscular control during drop-jump landing

  13. Short communication: Changes in gait symmetry in healthy and lame dairy cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction force curves following claw trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, V M; do Nascimento, O F; Skjøth, F; Voigt, M; Rasmussen, M D; Bennedsgaard, T W; Ingvartsen, K L

    2014-12-01

    Lameness is a frequent health problem in dairy cows. This preliminary study aimed to detect gait differences between healthy and lame walking cows using 3-dimensional force plates. We examined left-right leg symmetry changes of healthy and lame Holstein dairy cows following claw trimming. Gait scoring (GS) was performed on d -5, 0, 1, and 7 relative to claw trimming. Before the experiment, 5 cows walked normally (initial GS=1) and 4 cows limped moderately on a hind leg (initial GS=3). Gait was measured on d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 7 relative to trimming by obtaining ground reaction forces as cows walked repeatedly across 2 parallel 3-dimensional force plates. From the ground reaction forces, stance phase data were derived using computerized procedures. Left-right leg symmetries of entire curves in the 3 force directions were calculated. Effects of lameness and trimming were analyzed in a mixed model, using a low lameness threshold (GS>1). One week after claw trimming, only one cow was mildly lame. In addition, the symmetries of all 3 dimensions were significantly improved shortly after trimming. Importantly, lameness significantly worsened vertical symmetry. Lame cows walked significantly more slowly than healthy cows. In conclusion, all force symmetries seemed capable of detecting gait responses to claw trimming. Although our results are based on a small number of animals, vertical leg symmetry was affected by lameness. PMID:25306278

  14. Predição da força de reação do solo durante a corrida na água Prediction of ground reaction force during water immersion running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Haupenthal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou desenvolver um modelo para a predição da força de reação do solo na corrida subaquática. Participaram 20 sujeitos (9 homens e 11 mulheres, que realizaram corrida subaquática em dois níveis de imersão e três velocidades. Para cada sujeito foram coletadas seis passagens válidas em cada condição, com a utilização de uma plataforma subaquática de força. O modelo para predição da força foi construído por regressão linear múltipla. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes a componente vertical e a componente ântero-posterior da força de reação do solo. As variáveis imersão, sexo, velocidade, massa corporal, densidade corporal e percentual de gordura foram consideradas independentes. Permaneceu no modelo final de regressão para a componente vertical a velocidade (pThis study aimed at developing a model to predict ground reaction force during deep-water running. A total of 20 subjects ((9 men, 11 women ran in water at two immersion levels and three different speeds. Each subject performed six valid trials in each condition, data being captured by an underwater force plate. The force prediction model was build by multiple linear regression. Dependent variables were the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force; independent variables were runners' immersion, sex, speed, body mass, body density, and percentage of fat. At the final regression model for the vertical component, only speed remained (p<0.001, while for the anteroposterior component, speed, immersion, and body mass were maintained (all at p<0.001. The obtained model for the anteroposterior component of ground reaction force may be found satisfactory, as adjusted determination coefficient was 0.79. However, the prediction model for the vertical component cannot be recommended for prediction during deep-water running, since that coefficient was 0.18. It must be noted that the proposed prediction model applies to subjects provided that they have similar characteristics to those who took part in this study.

  15. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akashi Paula MH

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2. EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait.

  16. Ground Reaction Forces and Gait Parameters during Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Walking and Runing on the International Space Station Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Norcross, Jason; DeWitt, John; Lee, Stuart M.; McCleary, Frank; Edwards, W. Brent

    2006-01-01

    Both motorized (T-M) and non-motorized (T-NM) treadmill locomotion are used on the International Space Station (ISS) as countermeasures to the deleterious effects of prolonged weightlessness. However, the ground reaction forces (GRF) and gait parameters of these exercise modes have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in GRF and gait parameters exist while walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on T-M and T-NM. Dissimilar GRF and gait parameters suggest that T-M and T-NM locomotion may elicit different physiologic effects. T-NM may result in a reduced stimulus to bone formation due to a lower LR, but an increased energy cost as a result of shorter, more frequent strides. Therefore, the usage of each mode should depend upon the desired training stimulus.

  17. The Relationship Between Landing Sound, Vertical Ground Reaction Force, and Kinematics of the Lower Limb During Drop Landings in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Kevin; Ng, Leo; Phan, Xuan; Davey, Paul; Grisbrook, Tiffany

    2016-03-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Soft-landing instruction, which is advocated in several injury prevention programs, is thought to have a qualitative relationship with decreased vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) and increased lower-limb joint excursions. Objective To quantify the relationships among landing sound, vGRFs, and lower-limb kinematics during a drop-landing task. Methods Twenty-six asymptomatic men aged 18 to 35 years were asked to perform 15 single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm height. Five trials were collected under 3 sound conditions: normal, quiet, and loud. The vGRF, lower-limb kinematics (sagittal plane), and impact sound were recorded during the deceleration phase. Results A simple linear regression revealed a significant relationship between landing sound and vGRF (R(2) = 0.42, Pdoi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6041. PMID:26813751

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND TEMPORAL FACTORS IN THE LANDING PHASE OF A COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rojano Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2 in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively and the length of the impact absorption phase (T. Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05 and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05 were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05. T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster.

  19. Força de reação do solo como subsídio para prescrição de exercícios aquáticos: estudo de caso / Ground reaction force as a subsidy for prescribing aquatic exercises: case study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro, Haupenthal; Caroline, Ruschel; Marcel, Hubert; Heiliane de Brito, Fontana; Helio, Roesler.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a componente vertical da força de reação do solo nos exercícios de caminhada, corrida com deslocamento, corrida estacionária e salto vertical, realizados em ambiente aquático em diferentes níveis de imersão. MÉTODO: Participou deste estudo de caso um sujeito do sexo masculino (27 [...] anos, 1,80 m e 84,3 kg). Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados uma plataforma subaquática de força posicionada no fundo de uma piscina térmica. O sujeito realizou 30 tentativas válidas de cada exercício, imerso nos níveis do processo xifoide e do quadril. Os dados foram analisados com a utilização da estatística descritiva, teste "t" de Student para amostras pareadas e ANOVA, para medidas repetidas (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the vertical component of the ground reaction force in the exercises of walking, running, stationary running and vertical jump in the water, performed in different levels of immersion. METHODS: This case study was conducted with one subject (male, 27 years, 1,80 m and 84,3 kg). [...] An underwater force plate was used for data collection, placed at the bottom of a thermal swimming pool. The subject performed 30 valid passages for each exercise in two immersion levels: xiphoid process and hip. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, Student's "t" test for paired samples and ANOVA for repeated measures (p

  20. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SkjØth, F; Thorup, Vivi MØrkØre

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction force information. Features were derived from measurements made using two parallel 3-dimensional force plates. The approach presented is based on clustering of Centre of Pressure (COP) trace points over space and time, combined with logical sequencing of stance phases based on the dynamics of quadrupedal walking. The clusters were identified as full or truncated (incomplete) stance phases furthermore the stance phases were classified as originating from a front or hind foot. Data from 370 walking trials made by 9 cows on 5 experiment days were used to test the method. Four cows were moderately lame at experimental onset. On average 5.1 stance phases per cow per trial were obtained of which 3.2 were classified as full stance phases and therefore appropriate for further gait analysis (the latter not being the scope of this study). Of the 2617 identified clusters 1844 were classified as stance phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high number of stance phases obtained per trial. It is thus a combination which has the potential to enable unsupervised gait analysis based on data collected automatically on-farm

  1. Force approach to radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  2. Reversal of radiation reaction force and instability of the ground state of an atom located above the surface of an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spontaneous emission of an excited atom is suppressed, and electromagnetic instability of the ground state is possible, if an atom is located in the vicinity of an active medium which amplifies the propagating radiation. The effect is due to a modified and phase-shifted near field of an oscillating atomic dipole, which prevails over the usual radiation reaction field related to the wave zone. The necessary conditions for the reversal of the total electromagnetic back reaction are found, and possible experimental realizations are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots REPRODUCIBILIDAD DE LAS VARIABLES ESPACIO-TEMPORALES Y DE LAS COMPONENTES DE LA FUERZA DE REACCIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA MARCHA CON BOTAS DE BOMBERO [Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gavilanes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la reproducibilidad de las variables espacio-temporales y de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS durante la marcha con botas de bombero y compararla con la mostrada durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña. Se registraron las variables espacio-temporales de 39 personas así como las variables que definen las tres componentes de la FRS con dos tipos de calzado diferente. Se utilizó la prueba T para contrastar la hipótesis referida a la diferencia del coeficiente de variación (CV entre los dos tipos de calzado. El CV de las variables espacio-temporales (p. ej. velocidad (V, condición I = 2,01%; condición II = 1,81%, así como de las que definen la componente vertical (p. ej. fuerza de apoyo (FZA del pie izquierdo, condición I = 2,54%; condición II = 2,73% y antero-posterior (p. ej. fuerza máxima (FXMAX del pie izquierdo, condición I = 4,47%; condición II = 4,59% de la FRS fue inferior a 12,5%, sugiriendo que estas variables pueden ser utilizadas para analizar la influencia de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. La baja reproducibilidad mostrada por las variables que definen la componente medio-lateral desaconseja la utilización de las mismas para evaluar el efecto de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. A excepción del tiempo de apoyo bipodal, el resto de variables durante la marcha con botas de bombero no mostró una variabilidad diferente a la obtenida durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña.Palabras clave: biomecánica, calzado, variabilidad. AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions.Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

  4. Estudo da variabilidade das forças de reação do solo na aquisição do andar independente em bebês / A study of ground reaction forces variability during acquisition of independent gait in toddlers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovana, Levada; Paula Hentschel Lobo da, Costa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o comportamento das forças de reação do solo (FRS) nos primeiros meses do andar independente, a fim de identificar mudanças na capacidade infantil de propulsionar e equilibrar o corpo em condição dinâmica. Foram avaliadas no período de três meses dez crianças com idade de 13 mese [...] s na primeira avaliação. As crianças caminharam em uma passarela de cinco metros de comprimento com duas plataformas de força embutidas. Foram estudadas magnitudes máximas e mínimas das FRS e as respectivas variabilidades. As avaliações foram comparadas através do teste não-paramétrico ANOVA de Friedman (p Abstract in english This study aimed to describe ground reaction forces' profiles during toddler's gait at the first months of the acquisition phase of independent walking, in order to identify whether there are changes in the ability to propel and balance the body in this dynamic condition. Ten thirteen-month old todd [...] lers volunteered to the study and were evaluated three times in a three-month interval. The toddlers walked over a 5 m long walkway with two force plates fixed at ground level. Vertical and horizontal peak reaction forces and variability coefficients were selected for analysis. To compare the results of the three evaluations ANOVA Friedman's tests were used at 5% level of significance. The walking experience achieved by the toddlers month after month was not sufficient to significantly change the biomechanical selected variables and statistically significant differences were not found for the selected variables along three months. However, a reduction in the variability coefficient for the vertical reaction forces suggests development towards an increasingly mature gait pattern.

  5. Estudo da variabilidade das forças de reação do solo na aquisição do andar independente em bebês A study of ground reaction forces variability during acquisition of independent gait in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Levada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o comportamento das forças de reação do solo (FRS nos primeiros meses do andar independente, a fim de identificar mudanças na capacidade infantil de propulsionar e equilibrar o corpo em condição dinâmica. Foram avaliadas no período de três meses dez crianças com idade de 13 meses na primeira avaliação. As crianças caminharam em uma passarela de cinco metros de comprimento com duas plataformas de força embutidas. Foram estudadas magnitudes máximas e mínimas das FRS e as respectivas variabilidades. As avaliações foram comparadas através do teste não-paramétrico ANOVA de Friedman (pThis study aimed to describe ground reaction forces' profiles during toddler's gait at the first months of the acquisition phase of independent walking, in order to identify whether there are changes in the ability to propel and balance the body in this dynamic condition. Ten thirteen-month old toddlers volunteered to the study and were evaluated three times in a three-month interval. The toddlers walked over a 5 m long walkway with two force plates fixed at ground level. Vertical and horizontal peak reaction forces and variability coefficients were selected for analysis. To compare the results of the three evaluations ANOVA Friedman's tests were used at 5% level of significance. The walking experience achieved by the toddlers month after month was not sufficient to significantly change the biomechanical selected variables and statistically significant differences were not found for the selected variables along three months. However, a reduction in the variability coefficient for the vertical reaction forces suggests development towards an increasingly mature gait pattern.

  6. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  7. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Alena M.; McGowan, Craig P.; McDermott, William J.; Beale, Matthew T.; Kram, Rodger; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSP) emulate the spring-like behaviour of biological limbs during human running, but little research has examined the mechanical means by which amputees achieve top speeds. To better understand the biomechanical effects of RSP during sprinting, we measured ground reaction forces (GRF) and stride kinematics of elite unilateral trans-tibial amputee sprinters across a range of speeds including top speed. Unilateral amputees are ideal subjects because each amputee's a...

  8. Resonantly Forced Inhomogeneous Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, C. J.; Kapral, R.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of spatiotemporal patterns in oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems subject to periodic forcing with a spatially random forcing amplitude field are investigated. Quenched disorder is studied using the resonantly forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in the 3:1 resonance regime. Front roughening and spontaneous nucleation of target patterns are observed and characterized. Time dependent spatially varying forcing fields are studied in the 3:1 forced FitzHugh-Na...

  9. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention???24?weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150?minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75?minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ?0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to???0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28?g’s, 1632 participants, g?=?0.288, 95% CI?=?0.102, 0.474, p?=?0.002, Q?=?90.5, p?I2?=?70.1%, NNT?=?6 and LS (28?g’s, 1504 participants, g?=?0.179, 95% CI?=??0.003, 0.361, p?=?0.05, Q?=?77.7, p?I2?=?65.3%, NNT?=?6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed-effects ANOVA analyses were statistically significant. Statistically significant, or a trend for statistically significant, associations were observed for changes in FN and LS BMD and 20 different predictors. Conclusions The overall findings suggest that exercise may result in clinically relevant benefits to FN and LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Several of the observed associations appear worthy of further investigation in well-designed randomized controlled trials.

  10. A influência do uso acumulado de calçados de corrida sobre a força de reação do solo e as respostas de pressão plantar The influence of running shoes cumulative usage on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressure responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bianco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a eficiência do calçado seja afetada pelo uso prolongado, mas as alterações biomecânicas ainda não estão bem compreendidas. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a influência do uso de calçados de corrida na força de reação do solo e os parâmetros de pressão plantar. Três corredores do sexo masculino receberam quatro calçados de corrida para usarem em suas sessões de treinamento. O Sistema Gaitway e o Sistema de F-scan foram usados para registrar a força de reação do solo e parâmetros pressão plantar em diferentes regiões do pé. As coletas ocorreram em quatro momentos: novo e 100, 200 e 300 km de uso. O primeiro pico diminuiu da condição novo para os 300 km de uso (p The prolonged use of a running shoe is thought to affect the efficiency of its impact attenuation properties. However, its effect over biomechanical variables has yet not been well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of running shoe usage on ground reaction force and plantar pressure parameters. Three male runners received four running shoes each to use at their training sessions. The Gaitway System was used to register the vertical component of the ground reaction force, whereas the contact area and peak plantar pressure at different regions of the foot were assessed via the the F-scan System. Data collection occurred at baseline (when the shoes were new - New and after 100, 200 and 300km of use. The first peak decreased significantly from New to 300km (p < 0.01 and the loading rate showed a significant decrease at 200km in relation to the New condition (p < 0.01. Total area increased significantly from New to 100km (p < 0.01 of use and maintained a similar value when compared with the other conditions. There was a continuous and significant decrease (p < 0.01 on forefoot peak pressure as the mileage increased from New to 300km. The hallux peak pressure values were significantly smaller (p < 0.01 at 300km when compared with the New condition. Considering that the first peak, loading rate and plantar peak pressure values did not increase and that the plantar total contact area increased, it can be concluded that the running shoe did not suffer consistent alterations in ground reaction force and in plantar pressure after 300km of use.

  11. Ground reaction force and electromyographic activity of transfemoral amputee gait: a case series http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Amadio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground reaction forces (GRF and electromyographic activity form a part of the descriptive data that characterise the biomechanics of gait. The research of these parameters is important in establishing gait training and understanding the impact of amputation and prosthetic components on movement during the act of walking. Therefore, this case series describes the GRF and electromyographic activity in the gait of transfemoral amputees. A force plate was used to measure GRF, and an electromyographic system monitored the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the non-amputated leg. The average vertical and anteroposterior GRF time-curves, average electromyographic activity, and descriptor variables were then analysed. We observed decreases in vertical and anteroposterior GRF magnitudes as well as in anteroposterior GRF descriptor variables during the propulsive phase in the amputated leg. There were increases in phasic muscle activity and co-activation in the non-amputated leg. We concluded that, during walking, the unilateral transfemoral amputees (who were analysed in this case series developed lower GRF in the amputated limb and a longer period of electromyographic activity in the non-amputated limb.

  12. Self-force approach for radiation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    1999-01-01

    We overview the recently proposed mode-sum regularization prescription (MSRP) for the calculation of the local radiation-reaction forces, which are crucial for the orbital evolution of binaries. We then describe some new results which were obtained using MSRP, and discuss their importance for gravitational-wave astronomy.

  13. Ground reaction force and electromyographic activity of transfemoral amputee gait: a case series / Força de Reação do Solo e atividade eletromiográfica da marcha de amputados transfemorais: uma série de casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex Sandra Oliveira de, Cerqueira; Edward Yuji, Yamaguti; Luis, Mochizuki; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Júlio Cerca, Serrão.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento da Força de Reação do Solo (FRS) e a atividade eletromiográfica formam uma parte dos dados que caracterizam a biomecânica da marcha. O estudo destes parâmetros é importante para a recuperação da locomoção e para compreensão do impacto da amputação e dos componentes protéticos nos mov [...] imentos desenvolvidos no andar. Portanto, esta série de casos tem como objetivo descrever a atividade eletromiográfica e a FRS de amputados transfemorais. Para mensurar a FRS, foi utilizada uma plataforma de força e um sistema de eletromiografia monitorou os músculos vasto lateral, bíceps femoral, tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio lateral da perna não-amputada. As médias das componentes vertical e ânteroposterior da FRS, a atividade eletromiográfica e variáveis descritivas foram analisadas. Foi observado uma diminuição da magnitude da FRS vertical e ânteroposterior e das variáveis descritivas da componente ânteroposterior da FRS durante a fase de propulsão na perna amputada. Houve aumento na atividade fásica muscular e co-ativação na perna não-amputada. Pode-se concluir que os amputados transfemorais unilaterais analisados nesta série de casos desenvolveram menor FRS na perna amputada e longos períodos de atividade eletromiográfica na perna não amputada durante a marcha. Abstract in english Ground reaction forces (GRF) and electromyographic activity form a part of the descriptive data that characterise the biomechanics of gait. The research of these parameters is important in establishing gait training and understanding the impact of amputation and prosthetic components on movement dur [...] ing the act of walking. Therefore, this case series describes the GRF and electromyographic activity in the gait of transfemoral amputees. A force plate was used to measure GRF, and an electromyographic system monitored the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the non-amputated leg. The average vertical and anteroposterior GRF time-curves, average electromyographic activity, and descriptor variables were then analysed. We observed decreases in vertical and anteroposterior GRF magnitudes as well as in anteroposterior GRF descriptor variables during the propulsive phase in the amputated leg. There were increases in phasic muscle activity and co-activation in the non-amputated leg. We concluded that, during walking, the unilateral transfemoral amputees (who were analysed in this case series) developed lower GRF in the amputated limb and a longer period of electromyographic activity in the non-amputated limb.

  14. Ground reaction force in basketball cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and taping / Análise da força de reação do solo durante o cutting no basquetebol com e sem o uso de implementos no tornozelo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel de Camargo Neves, Sacco; Henrique Yuji, Takahasi; Eneida Yuri, Suda; Linamara Rizzo, Battistella; Cristianne Akie, Kavamoto; José Augusto Fernandes, Lopes; Jeane Cintra Peixoto de, Vasconcelos.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A lesão mais comum no basquetebol é a entorse de tornozelo. Assim, os atletas freqüentemente utilizam suportes externos como medidas profiláticas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as respostas da força de reação do solo (FRS) durante a execução do movimento de cutting do basque [...] tebol com e sem acessórios de tornozelo. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo comparativo. Delineamento experimental de grupo único com medidas repetidas; Divisão de Medicina de Reabilitação, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas as forças vertical (Fy) e médio-lateral (Fz) em três condições (bandagem, Aircast e calçado esportivo) e analisados os picos de força e de propulsão no contato com o solo (Fymax1, Fzmax1, Fymax2 e Fzmax2), o gradiente de crescimento (pico/tempo) (GC Fymax1, GC Fzmax1, GC Fymax2 e GC Fzmax2) e o impulso após o contato. RESULTADOS: Os acessórios reduziram significativamente Fymax2 e GC Fymax2. GC FZmax1 foi maior na situação com tênis quando comparado com bandagem. No momento do impacto, a bandagem aumentou a Fy em relação ao calçado, mas em um intervalo de tempo maior, não aumentando a carga articular. Fz atingiu um pico em menor tempo, podendo gerar maior carga eversora/inversora. O Aircast exerceu um melhor efeito de absorção de impacto, pois gera menor Fy em um maior intervalo de tempo. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do uso freqüente deste tipo de recurso pelos atletas, seu mecanismo de ação ainda é confuso. Mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer seus efeitos nas atividades esportivas a longo prazo. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In basketball, the most common injuries are ankle sprains. For this reason, players frequently use external ankle devices or taping as prophylactic and rehabilitation measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ground reaction force (GRF) responses in basketball player [...] s while performing typical cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and ankle taping. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparative study with experimental design of single-group repeated measurements, at Medical Rehabilitation Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Vertical (Fy) and medial-lateral (Fz) GRF measurements were made under three conditions (taping, Aircast-type orthosis and basketball shoes alone), with analysis of peak forces at foot contact (Fymax1, Fzmax1, Fymax2 and Fzmax2), growth gradient (peak/time) (GG Fymax1, GG Fzmax1, GG Fymax2 and GG Fzmax2) and impulse after foot contact. RESULTS: Bracing significantly reduced Fymax2 and GG Fymax2. GG Fzmax1 was significantly higher for the sport shoe condition than for the taping condition. Taping increased Fy in relation to the sport shoe at foot contact, but over a longer time interval, without increasing excessive ankle loading. Fz reached a peak in less time, which might generate greater inversion/eversion loading on a player's foot. The Aircast exerted better shock-absorbing effect than did the other two conditions, since it generated less vertical force over longer time intervals and smaller medial-lateral forces in relation to taping. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle bracing and ankle taping action mechanisms are still unclear and therefore should be carefully prescribed. More studies are needed to clarify taping and bracing effects on sporting activities.

  15. A COMPARISON OF UPPER-EXTREMITY REACTION FORCES BETWEEN THE YURCHENKO VAULT AND FLOOR EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kirk Seeley

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05 during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38 than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15. Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise.

  16. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due to...... grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  17. Tensor Forces and the Ground-State Structure of Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of nuclei with mass number A (le) 8, using accurate variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of 'np' pairs is found to be much larger than that of 'pp' pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300--600) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. This large difference, more than an order of magnitude, is seen in all nuclei considered, and has a universal character originating from the tensor components present in any realistic nucleon-nucleon potential. The correlations induced by the tensor force strongly influence the structure of 'np' pairs, which are known to be predominantly in deuteron-like states, while they are ineffective for 'pp' pairs, which are mostly in 1S0 states. These features should be easily observable in two-nucleon knock-out processes, for example in A(e,e(prime) np) and A(e,e(prime) pp) reactions

  18. Ground state octupole correlation energies with effective forces

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the l...

  19. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  20. Evaluating competing forces constraining glacial grounding-line stability (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Stability of grounding lines of marine-terminating glaciers and ice sheets is of concern due to their importance in governing rates of ice mass loss and consequent sea level rise during global warming. Although processes are similar at tidewater and floating grounding zones their relative magnitudes in terms of their influence on grounding-line stability vary between these two end members. Processes considered Important for this discussion are ice dynamics, ice surface melting and crevassing, ocean dynamics, subglacial sediment and water dynamics, and subglacial bed geometries. Models have continued to improve in their representation of these complex interactions but reliable field measurements and data continue to be hard earned and too few to properly constrain the range of boundary conditions in this complicated system. Some data will be presented covering a range of regimes from Alaska, Svalbard and Antarctica. Certainly more data are required on subglacial sediment/water dynamics and fluxes to fully represent the spectrum of glacial regimes and to assess the significance of grounding-zone sediment systems in counteracting the other processes to force grounding-line stability. Especially important here is constraining the duration of the stability that could be maintained by sediment flux - present data appear to show that it is likely to be a limited period.

  1. Ground-state photoneutron reactions in 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoneutron angular distributions were measured by time-of-flight techniques for the reaction 15N(#betta#,n0) 14N over the region of excitation energy from 15 to 25 MeV. Ground state cross sections were obtained by stepping the bremsstrahlung end point over the energy region of interest in 2 MeV intervals. By fitting the spectral data to a series of Legendre polynomials, angular distribution coefficients were extracted and interpreted on the basis of a simple single particle model. It appears that a large fraction of the photoabsorption strength leading to decays via the ground state channel is due to the formation of J/sup ?/ = (3/2)+, T = (1/2) states in 15N which decay by d-wave neutron emission. The data support an approximation of purely electric dipole absorption in the region measured. Some small amount of s-wave neutron emission interfering with the dominant p/sub 1/2/?d/sub 3/2/ transition is consistent with an observed value for the a2/a0 coefficient of -0.7 +- 0.2. The (#betta#,n0) cross section integrated between threshold and 30 MeV is estimated to represent about one-third of the total strength in the neutron channel. A state identified at 17.3 MeV is consistent in energy and composition with a theoretical prediction based on a shell model calculation using a residual interaction with a Soper mixture of exchange forces

  2. Ground state octupole correlation energy with effective forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, L. M.

    2015-05-01

    The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the latter on theoretical binding energies indicates that octupole correlations do not affect in a significant way the trend and systematic of binding energies and therefore can not improve the performance of theoretical models in this respect. In particular, the too-large ‘shell gaps’ predicted by self-consistent mean field models and relevant in astrophysics scenarios are not altered by the octupole correlations.

  3. Generalization of the Force Approach to Radiation Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Gustavo V

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the force approach to radiation reaction is given, taken into consideration an arbitrary motion of the charged particle . The expression obtained brings about the expression already given for the linear an the circular acceleration cases.

  4. Forced vibration tests of a model foundation on rock ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the dynamic soil-structure interaction was investigated experimentally by forced vibration tests of a model foundation resting on rock surface. The experiment was carried out in 1985 at Tomari nuclear power plant site, Hokkaido, Japan. The model foundation was made of reinforced concrete of 14m*14m in plan and 5m thick and the total weight was 2352 ton. The ground was made of two layers whose interface was inclined by certain degree from north-west to south-east. The forced vibration tests were carried out mainly by an exciter of maximum 4 ton force. Micro-tremor and micro-earthquake were also observed. In this experiment such special attention was paid for obtaining good traction data beneath the foundation as accurate calibration of pressure gauges at the site and the use of auxiliary exciter with larger capacity. Simulations are carried out by wave propagation theory and FEM. Simulated results can reasonably explain the experimental results and the dynamic soil-structure interaction effects in various aspects. Resultant forces and moments evaluated by experimentally obtained tractions with approximated polynomial distribution are in good agreement with those evaluated by displacements

  5. Relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e pé e a magnitude da força vertical de reação do solo Relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Vianna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e do pé, e o pico da força vertical de reação do solo, considerada como porcentagem do peso corporal, gerada durante a fase de apoio da marcha. MÉTODOS: foram estudados pés normais do lado direito e esquerdo de 15 homens com 22,1±2,7 anos (19-28 e 15 mulheres 24,20±5,24 anos (19-34. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: deformidades nos pés, doenças ou traumas, que pudessem acometer o sistema musculoesquelético e a marcha. A mobilidade do tornozelo e dos pés foi obtida através da goniometria da flexão plantar, dorsiflexão, extensão do hálux e extensão dos dedos, o pico da força vertical de reação do solo FRS, foi obtido pela baropodometria computadorizada do sistema FSCAN R. A correlação entre ambas foi feita pelo teste estatístico de Spearman. RESULTADOS: os indivíduos do grupo masculino apresentaram menores valores de mobilidade, e maiores valores do pico da força vertical de reação do solo, quando comparados com o grupo feminino. Não houve diferença entre os pés direito e esquerdo. No sexo feminino foi encontrada correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da flexão plantar e a força vertical, e entre os valores da extensão dos dedos e a foça vertical. No sexo masculino, houve correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da dorsiflexão e a força vertical. Entre os demais valores não foi encontrada correlação significante. CONCLUSÃO: Há relação entre a mobilidade e a força vertical gerada durante a marcha.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the peak of the vertical ground reaction force, as a percentage of body weight, generated during the gait stance phase. METHOD: Fifteen men with mean age of 22.1 ± 2.7 years (range: 19-28 and fifteen women with mean age of 24.20 ± 5.24 years (range: 19-34 with normal feet were studied. The exclusion criteria were foot deformities or a history of trauma or diseases that might have harmed both the musculoskeletal system and gait pattern. The ankle and foot mobility was obtained by means of goniometry on the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, hallux extension and toe extension. The peak of the vertical ground reaction force was obtained by baropodometry using the FSCAN TM system. The Spearman statistical test was used to identify correlations. RESULTS: Males presented lower mobility values and higher peak values for the vertical ground reaction force, in comparison with females. There was no difference between the right and left foot. For females, there were statistically significant negative correlations between the values for plantar flexion and vertical force, and between the values for toe extension and vertical force. For males, there were statistically significant negative correlations between the values for dorsiflexion and vertical force. Among the remaining values, no significant correlation was found. CONCLUSION: There was a relationship between mobility and the vertical force generated during gait.

  6. Tensor Forces and the Ground-State Structure of Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of nuclei with mass number A?8, using variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of np pairs is found to be much larger than that of pp pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300-600) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. This order of magnitude difference is seen in all nuclei considered and has a universal character originating from the tensor components present in any realistic nucleon-nucleon potential. The correlations induced by the tensor force strongly influence the structure of np pairs, which are predominantly in deuteronlike states, while they are ineffective for pp pairs, which are mostly in 1S0 states. These features should be easily observable in two-nucleon knockout processes, such as A(e,e'np) and A(e,e'pp)

  7. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

  8. The reaction force: Three key points along an intrinsic reaction coordinate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Politzer; Alejandro Toro-Labbé; Soledad Gutiérrez-Oliva; Bárbara herrera; Pablo Jaque; Monica C Concha; Jane S Murray

    2005-09-01

    The concept of the reaction force is presented and discussed in detail. For typical processes with energy barriers, it has a universal form which defines three key points along an intrinsic reaction coordinate: the force minimum, zero and maximum. We suggest that the resulting four zones be interpreted as involving preparation of reactants in the first, transition to products in the second and third, and relaxation in the fourth. This general picture is supported by the distinctive patterns of the variations in relevant electronic properties. Two important points that are brought out by the reaction force are that (a) the traditional activation energy comprises two separate contributions, and (b) the transition state corresponds to a balance between the driving and the retarding forces.

  9. Quantum Vacuum and Inertial Reaction Force in Nonrelativistic QED

    CERN Document Server

    Sunahata, Hiroki; Haisch, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The possible connection between the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) and the inertia reaction force was first pointed out by Haisch, Rueda, and Puthoff (Phys. Rev. A, 49, 678, 1994), and then by Rueda and Haisch following a totally different and more satisfactory approach (Found. Phys., 28, 1057, 1998; Phys. Letters A, 240, 115, 1998; Annalen der Physik, 10 (5), 393, 2001). In the present paper, the approach taken by Rueda and Haisch will be followed, but the analysis will be done within a formulation that uses nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics with the creation and annihilation operators rather than the approach of Rueda and Haisch using stochastic electrodynamics. We analyze the interaction between the zero-point field and an object under hyperbolic motion (constant proper acceleration), and find that there arises a reaction force which is proportional in magnitude, and opposite in direction, to the acceleration. This is suggestive of what we know as inertia. We also point out that the equivalen...

  10. Forced thermal cycling of catalytic reactions: experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Hansen, Ole; Quaade, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of catalytic reactions subjected to fast forced temperature oscillations have revealed a rate enhancement increasing with temperature oscillation frequency. We present detailed studies of the rate enhancement up to frequencies of 2.5 Hz. A maximum in the rate enhancement is observed at about 1 Hz. A model for the rate enhancement that includes the surface kinetics and the dynamic partial pressure variations in the reactor is introduced. The model predicts a levelling off of the ra...

  11. Identification of excitation and reaction forces spectra for offshore platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafey, A.A. [Minufiya Univ., Shebin Elkom (Egypt). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Haddara, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Marzouk, H. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-01-15

    Offshore platforms subjected to random waves are typically modelled as multi-degree of freedom systems. This paper presented a method of predicting damping and natural frequencies for fixed offshore platform subjected to random wind-generated waves. The method predicted the reaction forces and bending moment at the foundation of the platform. A random decrement signature was used to identify the parameters in the equation of motion. The free decay motion was derived from the stationary random response. The RD was used to describe the free decay response of the system. A simple beam was used to discuss the relationship between the natural frequency of the system and the range of the frequencies of the spectrum of the excitation. Results of the analysis indicated that the RD technique is best applied to lightly damp, linear systems with natural frequencies within the frequency range of the excitation spectrum. The methods can be used to predict the wave exciting force and its location on an offshore structure, as well as to predict reaction forces at the foundation of an offshore structure, and to estimate the total virtual mass of the structure in waves. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  12. The meson-theory ground for the effective force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective force was considered based on the meson theory of nuclear forces. For the NN-interaction, nucleon-nucleon potentials of the one-boson-exchange model were used. Using the Hartree-Fock expression for nuclear energy density obtained with the effective force in the sudden approximation, the nucleus-nucleus potential can be analytically expressed by nuclei densities and xk, yk (the coefficients xk and tk are determined by masses and coupling constants of the exchange mesons). Using the expression for nuclear energy density, the nuclear matter binding energy can easily be obtained. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 3 figs., 10 refs

  13. The solar forcing on the ground 7 Be concentration variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 Be, natural radionuclide, is produced by the interaction of cosmic radiation with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 7 Be production in atmosphere depends on the intensity of cosmic radiation which is influenced by the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetosphere shape depends on solar activity. This paper presents the influence of sunspots number (11 years period) on the ground 7 Be concentration variability. (authors)

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  15. Tethered satellite system control using electromagnetic forces and reaction wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandi Hallaj, Mohammad Amin; Assadian, Nima

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel non-rotating space tethered configuration is introduced which its relative positions controlled using electromagnetic forces. The attitude dynamics is controlled by three reaction wheels in the body axes. The nonlinear coupled orbital dynamics of a dumbbell tethered satellite formation flight are derived through a constrained Lagrangian approach. These equations are presented in the leader satellite orbital frame. The tether is assumed to be mass-less and straight, and the J2 perturbation is included to the analysis. The forces and the moments of the electromagnetic coils are modeled based on the far-filed model of the magnetic dipoles. A guidance scheme for generating the desired positions as a function of time in Cartesian form is presented. The satellite tethered formation with variable length is controlled utilizing a linear controller. This approach is applied to a specified scenario and it is shown that the nonlinear guidance method and the linear controller can control the nonlinear system of the tethered formation and the results are compared with optimal control approach.

  16. Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal f...

  17. A Comparison of Upper-Extremity Reaction Forces between the Yurchenko Vault and Floor Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Matthew K; Bressel, Eadric

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise. Key PointsDespite high difficulty and increased risk, a dearth of information exists concerning reaction forces transmitted to upper-extremities of high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault.Reaction forces experienced by high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault are relatively high; aforementioned forces are comparable to forces transmitted to lower-extremities during various activities and may be responsible for upper-extremity injury.Reaction forces observed during this study will serve as a baseline in the evaluation of methods purporting to reduce forces transmitted to upper-extremities during the Yurchenko vault. PMID:24431965

  18. Resolution of Forces and Strain Measurements from an Acoustic Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald; Waldon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Conservatism in Typical Vibration Tests was Demonstrated: Vibration test at component level produced conservative force reactions by approximately a factor of 4 (approx.12 dB) as compared to the integrated acoustic test in 2 out of 3 axes. Reaction Forces Estimated at the Base of Equipment Using a Finite Element Based Method were Validated: FEM based estimate of interface forces may be adequate to guide development of vibration test criteria with less conservatism. Element Forces Estimated in Secondary Structure Struts were Validated: Finite element approach provided best estimate of axial strut forces in frequency range below 200 Hz where a rigid lumped mass assumption for the entire electronics box was valid. Models with enough fidelity to represent diminishing apparent mass of equipment are better suited for estimating force reactions across the frequency range. Forward Work: Demonstrate the reduction in conservatism provided by; Current force limited approach and an FEM guided approach. Validate proposed CMS approach to estimate coupled response from uncoupled system characteristics for vibroacoustics.

  19. Decrease of reaction force of metal gaskets just after initial tightening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of reaction force of some metal gaskets inserted into the test flange at room temperature, 120 C(real cask temperature) and 200 C(accelerated condition) are measured. The reaction forces of metal gaskets in the room temperature have been almost not changed. The reaction force of 120 C and 200 C metal gaskets has decreased according to the temperature increase. After the temperature became stable, the decrease of the reaction force gradually proceeded, this decrease have been as same as previous studies. The bolts of transport and storage casks are usually tightened just after the loading of spent fuels, and then the temperature of metal gaskets at that time is almost the room temperature. The reaction forces of the metal gasket tightened at this condition would be decreased after the temperature increase due to the decay heat of spent fuels. It is confirmed that the loosening of the bolts might be happened if the tightening torque of bolts is not appropriate. It is easy to evaluate that the reaction forces of the metal gasket in storage condition according to Larson-Miller parameter or relaxation of the gasket material, but the decrease of the reaction forces of the metal gasket just after the loading is not able to evaluate by these method. It is necessary to evaluate the reaction forces according to plastic deformation property of the metal gaskets so as to fasten the gaskets safety

  20. Decrease of reaction force of metal gaskets just after initial tightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, H.; Shimojo, J.; Mantani, K.; Morikawa, K. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Taniuchi, H.; Yokoe, D. [Transnuclear, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The decrease of reaction force of some metal gaskets inserted into the test flange at room temperature, 120 C(real cask temperature) and 200 C(accelerated condition) are measured. The reaction forces of metal gaskets in the room temperature have been almost not changed. The reaction force of 120 C and 200 C metal gaskets has decreased according to the temperature increase. After the temperature became stable, the decrease of the reaction force gradually proceeded, this decrease have been as same as previous studies. The bolts of transport and storage casks are usually tightened just after the loading of spent fuels, and then the temperature of metal gaskets at that time is almost the room temperature. The reaction forces of the metal gasket tightened at this condition would be decreased after the temperature increase due to the decay heat of spent fuels. It is confirmed that the loosening of the bolts might be happened if the tightening torque of bolts is not appropriate. It is easy to evaluate that the reaction forces of the metal gasket in storage condition according to Larson-Miller parameter or relaxation of the gasket material, but the decrease of the reaction forces of the metal gasket just after the loading is not able to evaluate by these method. It is necessary to evaluate the reaction forces according to plastic deformation property of the metal gaskets so as to fasten the gaskets safety.

  1. Handgrip force of maltreating mothers in reaction to infant signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Reijman, Sophie; Werner, Claudia D; Maras, Athanasios; Rijnberk, Corine; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-02-01

    Handgrip force responses to infant signals were examined in a sample of 43 maltreating and 40 non-maltreating mothers. During a standardized handgrip paradigm, mothers were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half of their maximal handgrip strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds. Maltreating mothers used excessive force more often while listening to infant crying and laughter than non-maltreating mothers. Of the maltreating mothers, only neglectful mothers (n=20) tended to use excessive force more often during crying than non-maltreating mothers. Participants did not rate the sounds differently, indicating that maltreating mothers cannot be differentiated from non-maltreating mothers based on their perception of infant signals, but show different behavioral responses to the signals. Results imply that, in response to infant signals (i.e., crying or laughing), maltreating mothers may be insufficiently able to regulate the exertion of physical force. PMID:24717144

  2. Influence of joint models on lower-limb musculo-tendon forces and threedimensional joint reaction forces during gait

    OpenAIRE

    DUMAS, Raphaël; MOISSENET, Florent; GASPARUTTO, Xavier; CHEZE, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) lower-limb musculo-skeletal models have been developed for gait analysis and different hip, knee and ankle joint models have been considered in the literature. Conversely to the influence of the musculotendon geometry, the influence of the joint models - i.e. number of degrees of freedom and passive joint moments - on the estimated musculo-tendon forces and 3D joint reaction forces has not been extensively examined. In this paper musculo-tendon forces and 3D joi...

  3. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  4. Separable Forces for $(d,p)$ Reactions in Momentum Space

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, L; Eremenko, V; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J; Arbanas, G; Escher, J

    2015-01-01

    Treating $(d,p)$ reactions in a Faddeev-AGS framework requires the interactions in the sub-systems as input. We derived separable representations for the neutron- and proton-nucleus interactions from phenomenological global optical potentials. In order to take into account excitations of the nucleus, excitations need to be included explicity, leading to a coupled-channel separable representation of the optical potential.

  5. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased

  6. Thinking anew causality problems for the radiation reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyze a Lagrangian formalism recently proposed to approach the issue of the Abraham-Lorentz force. Instead of involving only position and velocity, as usual in Classical Mechanics, this Lagrangian involves the acceleration of the charge. We find the conserved momentum of the charge in the absence of any field and show that it contains an acceleration term. This enables us to re-visit the well-known pre-acceleration problem and show that, contrary to what has been widely believed, it is not related to any violation of causality.

  7. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  9. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits

  10. An effective 3He-nucleon force for the (3He,t) charge exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and limitations of a DWBA approach to the (3He, t) reaction formulated as a direct reaction in terms of an effective 3He-nucleon force is investigated. While the central V? and the tensor component VT? can well be determined, the spin-orbit force VLS? cannot be used without a spin dependent normalization. Analysis of the analyzing power of the 'free' process 3He(n vector, p,)t indicates the need of an imaginary LS?-component but does not solve the normalization problem. The evidence on energy dependence of the efective force component is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  11. Radiation Reaction as a Non-conservative Force

    CERN Document Server

    Aashish, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    We study a system of a finite-size charged particle and electromagnetic field by exploiting the Hamilton's principle for classical non-conservative systems introduced recently by Galley[1] and obtain the equation of motion of the charged particle which turns out to be the same as obtained by Jackson[2]. We show that radiation reaction stems from the non-conservative potential of the effective Lagrangian. We derive the Abraham-Lorentz equation using the effective non-conservative Lagrangian for a point charge. We establish a correspondence between a charge interacting with its own electromagnetic field and that of a particle interacting with infinite bath oscillators which in turn affords a way to justify the non-conservative nature of the former system.

  12. Ground-state van der Waals forces in planar multilayer magnetodielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, S Y; Welsch, D G; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Kampf, Thomas; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Within the frame of lowest-order perturbation theory, the van der Waals potential of a ground-state atom placed within an arbitrary dispersing and absorbing magnetodielectric multilayer system is given. Examples of an atom situated in front of a magnetodielectric plate or between two such plates are studied in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the competing attractive and repulsive force components associated with the electric and magnetic matter properties, respectively, and conditions for the formation of repulsive potential walls are given. Both numerical and analytical results are presented.

  13. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  14. Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; De Pablo, F.; Rivas-Soriano, L.; Leite, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36-44° N, 10° W-5° E) is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr). Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs), first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash). This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales) and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures) over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1) orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2) tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3) near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

  15. Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36–44° N, 10° W–5° E is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr. Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs, first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash. This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1 orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2 tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3 near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

  16. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003–2009 (7 yr. Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May–September period (71%, with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC. In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  17. Evaluation of Dust Absorption and Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite and Ground Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous spaceborne and ground based measurements of the scattered solar radiation, create a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption. Absorption of solar radiation is a key component in understanding dust impact on radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, on the temperature profile and on cloud formation. We use Landsat spaceborne measurements at seven spectral channels in the range of 0.47 to 2.2 microns over Senegal with corresponding measurements of the aerosol spectral optical thickness by ground based sunphotometers, to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than measured in situ and represented in models. Though dust was found to absorb in the blue (single scattering albedo wo = 0.88), almost no absorption, wo = 0.98, was found for 1 greater than 0.6 microns. The results are in agreement with dust radiative measurements reported in the literature, and explain some previously reported but unexplained dust radiative properties. Therefore, the new finding should be of general relevance. The new finding increases by 50% recently estimated solar radiative forcing by dust at the top of the atmosphere and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere due to absorption of solar radiation. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption for wavelengths under 1 @im, that can be explained by the presence of black carbon from urban/industrial pollution associated with the submicron size mode.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  19. Quasi in situ scanning force microscope with an automatic operated reaction chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Markus; Olszowka, Violetta; Fischer, Franz; Krejtschi, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    We describe the design and performance of a quasi in situ scanning force microscope with an automatic operated reaction chamber. The design provides a repetitive hermetically sealed sample environment for successive processing. The reaction chamber is based on a combination of a flexure-guided cover, a piezo-positioning system and a force applicator system. An axial force seals the cover against the reactor enabling flow-through applications at low pressure, ambient pressure, or elevated pressure. The position stability of the sample relative to the probe is characterized and a full automated operation of the instrument is explored by the alignment of an ABC terblock copolymer thin film undergoing solvent vapor annealing in the presence of a high electric field. Due to the high electric field strength and the sharp scanning force microscope tip it is impossible to perform in situ scanning in the presence of the electric field. PMID:22128986

  20. Measurement of muscle actions and foot reaction forces from crew members during entire working days on the International Space Station (ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present pilot work in preparation for ISS Experiment 318, which will investigate changes in lower limb daily mechanical loading and muscular activity profiles that have been implicated in bone mineral loss and muscle atrophy during spaceflight. Prototype equipment for the musculo-skeletal rack of the Human Research Facility (HRF) was used in conjunction with the Ambulatory Data Acquisition System to record and store data. Right foot ground reaction force profiles, right leg EMG activity profiles from the tibialis anterior and vastus medialis, and joint angular excursion profiles from the right knee and ankle were collected during five minutes each of forward and backward running in 1g as well as over a twelve hour period of activities during daily living. Ground reaction force profiles were analyzed to provide an estimate of 1g daily mechanical load stimulus, while EMG and joint angle profiles characterized the role of individual muscles in generating and absorbing energy

  1. Forced expiratory volume is associated with cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Douglas; Bibbey, Adam; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C; Ginty, Annie T.; Rooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress reflect a dysregulation of the neural system that supports motivation. We examined the association between forced expiratory volume in one second, an effort, hence motivation, dependent measure of lung function measured by spirometry, and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a battery of standard psychological stress tasks (Stroop, mirror-tracing, speech), assessed seven years later among ...

  2. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff. (paper)

  3. BALANCE : a computer program for calculating mass transfer for geochemical reactions in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Thorstenson, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    BALANCE is a Fortran computer designed to define and quantify chemical reactions between ground water and minerals. Using (1) the chemical compositions of two waters along a flow path and (2) a set of mineral phases hypothesized to be the reactive constituents in the system, the program calculates the mass transfer (amounts of the phases entering or leaving the aqueous phase) necessary to account for the observed changes in composition between the two waters. Additional constraints can be included in the problem formulation to account for mixing of two end-member waters, redox reactions, and, in a simplified form, isotopic composition. The computer code and a description of the input necessary to run the program are presented. Three examples typical of ground-water systems are described. (USGS)

  4. A test on reactive force fields for the study of silica dimerization reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqadam, Mahmoud; Riccardi, Enrico; Trinh, Thuat T.; Åstrand, Per-Olof; van Erp, Titus S.

    2015-11-01

    We studied silica dimerization reactions in the gas and aqueous phase by density functional theory (DFT) and reactive force fields based on two parameterizations of ReaxFF. For each method (both ReaxFF force fields and DFT), we performed constrained geometry optimizations, which were subsequently evaluated in single point energy calculations using the other two methods. Standard fitting procedures typically compare the force field energies and geometries with those from quantum mechanical data after a geometry optimization. The initial configurations for the force field optimization are usually the minimum energy structures of the ab initio database. Hence, the ab initio method dictates which structures are being examined and force field parameters are being adjusted in order to minimize the differences with the ab initio data. As a result, this approach will not exclude the possibility that the force field predicts stable geometries or low transition states which are realistically very high in energy and, therefore, never considered by the ab initio method. Our analysis reveals the existence of such unphysical geometries even at unreactive conditions where the distance between the reactants is large. To test the effect of these discrepancies, we launched molecular dynamics simulations using DFT and ReaxFF and observed spurious reactions for both ReaxFF force fields. Our results suggest that the standard procedures for parameter fitting need to be improved by a mutual comparative method.

  5. ND elastic scattering, breakup reactions and the search for three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experimental situation in the nd scattering system is reviewed for the elastic scattering and for the breakup reaction channel. Faddeev calculations show the need of precise two-nucleon input in higher partial waves, especially p-waves for the description of spin-dependent observables. The experimental effort in the nd breakup reaction studies is to be guided by reliable Faddeev predictions. The sensitivity of specific kinematical situations has to be studied carefully. The inclusion of three-body forces in these calculations should be combined with a careful check of Coulomb correction methods. The pd breakup reaction could yield more information than the experimentally more difficult nd studies. (orig.)

  6. Optimal control of the initiation of a pericyclic reaction in the electronic ground state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Timm Bredtmann; Jörn Manz

    2012-01-01

    Pericyclic reactions in the electronic ground state may be initiated by down-chirped pump-dump sub-pulses of an optimal laser pulse, in the ultraviolet (UV) frequency and sub-10 femtosecond (fs) time domain. This is demonstrated by means of a quantum dynamics model simulation of the Cope rearrangement of Semibullvalene. The laser pulse is designed by means of optimal control theory, with detailed analysis of the mechanism. The theoretical results support the recent experimental initiation of a pericyclic reaction. The present approach provides an important step towards monitoring asynchronous electronic fluxes during synchronous nuclear pericyclic reaction dynamics, with femto-to-attosecond time resolution, as motivated by the recent prediction of our group.

  7. Analysis of ground-water data for selected wells near Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1950-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water-level, ground-water-withdrawal, and ground- water-quality data were evaluated for trends. Holloman Air Force Base is located in the west-central part of Otero County, New Mexico. Ground-water-data analyses include assembly and inspection of U.S. Geological Survey and Holloman Air Force Base data, including ground-water-level data for public-supply and observation wells and withdrawal and water-quality data for public-supply wells in the area. Well Douglas 4 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels for 1972-86 and a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1986-90. Water levels in wells San Andres 5 and San Andres 6 show statistically significant decreasing trends for 1972-93 and 1981-89, respectively. A mixture of statistically significant increasing trends, statistically significant decreasing trends, and lack of statistically significant trends over periods ranging from the early 1970's to the early 1990's are indicated for the Boles wells and wells near the Boles wells. Well Boles 5 shows a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1981-90. Well Boles 5 and well 17S.09E.25.343 show no statistically significant trends in water levels for 1990-93 and 1988-93, respectively. For 1986-93, well Frenchy 1 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from San Andres Canyon for 1963-87. For 1951-57 and 1960-86, ground-water withdrawal from the Boles wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Mule, Arrow, and Lead Canyons. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells and from the Boles wells nearly equaled estimated ground- water recharge for 1989-93 and 1986-93, respectively. For 1987- 93, ground-water withdrawal from the Escondido well regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from Escondido Canyon, and ground-water withdrawal from the Frenchy wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Dog and Deadman Canyons. Water-quality samples were collected from selected Douglas, San Andres, and Boles public-supply wells from December 1994 to February 1995. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate show the most consistent increases between current and historical data. Current concentrations of dissolved nitrate are greater than historical concentrations in 7 of 10 wells.

  8. Single-drop reactive extraction/extractive reaction with forced convective diffusion and interphase mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Leonid S.; Reed, X. B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the forced convective diffusion-reaction problem for convection inside and outside a droplet by a recirculating flow field hydrodynamically coupled at the droplet interface with an external flow field that at infinity becomes a uniform streaming flow. The concentration field inside the droplet is likewise coupled with that outside by boundary conditions at the interface. A chemical reaction can take place either inside or outside the droplet or reactions can take place in both phases. The algorithm has been implemented and results are shown here for the case of no reaction and for the case of an external first order reaction, both for unsteady behavior. For pure interphase mass transfer, concentration isocontours, local and average Sherwood numbers, and average droplet concentrations have been obtained as a function of the physical properties and external flow field. For mass transfer enhanced by an external reaction, in addition to the above forms of results, we present the enhancement factor, with the results now also depending upon the (dimensionless) rate of reaction.

  9. Effects of brain polarization on reaction times and pinch force in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraux Pascal

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that anodal transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere (M1affected hemisphere after subcortical stroke transiently improves performance of complex tasks that mimic activities of daily living (ADL. It is not known if relatively simpler motor tasks are similarly affected. Here we tested the effects of tDCS on pinch force (PF and simple reaction time (RT tasks in patients with chronic stroke in a double-blind cross-over Sham-controlled experimental design. Results Anodal tDCS shortened reaction times and improved pinch force in the paretic hand relative to Sham stimulation, an effect present in patients with higher impairment. Conclusion tDCS of M1affected hemisphere can modulate performance of motor tasks simpler than those previously studied, a finding that could potentially benefit patients with relatively higher impairment levels.

  10. Impact of walking speed and slope of the ground on axial force of poles in Nordic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pšurný

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nordic walking (NW, due to its attractiveness and convenience of equipment, is becoming more popular and utilised in the areas of sports, recreation and physiotherapy. Some of its impacts on load to the body have not yet been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of walking speed and slope of the ground on the magnitude of axial forces, transferred to the poles by upper extremities during NW. METHODS: The study was participated in by 17 healthy subjects, aged 25.9?±?3.6 years, who went through 12 independent measurements on a treadmill in various speeds (6.0; 6.6; 7.2 and 7.8?km?•?h–1 and slopes (0; 5 and 7.5%. These measurements provided us with values of basic spatiotemporal variables, characterizing NW performance and force variables, acting on the poles. RESULTS: Increased walking speed led to increase in cycle frequency (p?force and average poling force (p?ground had no significant impact on the magnitude of time and dynamic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Increased walking speed during NW increases the force, generated by the upper extremities on the poles. During NW it is possible to prefer walking speed rather than to change the slope of the ground for those patients, who are indicated to strengthen upper extremities.

  11. A method of hydraulic reaction force computation due to fluid jet at a steamline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of hydraulic jet reaction force computation is presented at a 100% steamline break. The steamline break analysis is performed by the use of NOTRUMP code. Formation of supersonic flow at the converging-diverging flow restrictor is computed with a homogeneous equilibrium model. However, consideration is given on the slip ratio of the liquid and steam phases, thermal non-equilibrium effects, and normal and oblique shocks

  12. A method of computing hydraulic reaction force due to a fluid jet at a steamline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of computing hydraulic jet reaction force at a 100% steamline break is presented. The steamline break analysis is performed by the use of the NOTRUMP code. Formation of supersonic flow at the converging-diverging flow restrictor is computed with a homogeneous equilibrium model. Consideration is given, however, to the slip ratio of the liquid and steam phases, thermal nonequilibrium effects, and normal and oblique shocks

  13. Experimental study of pipe reaction force and jet impingement load at the pipe break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of a light-water reactor nuclear power plant, the extreme loads which are caused as the result of hypothetical pipe break accident have recently become the most severe factors for the structure and equipment design of the plant. In this paper, we describe the results of experiments about reaction forces and jet impingement loads in the pipe break accident conditions. Experiments were carried out for the kinds of jets, that is steam jet and subcooled water jet. (orig.)

  14. Description of the ground-state pionic double charge exchange reaction on 128,130Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pionic double charge exchange reactions 128,130Te(?+, ?-)128,130Xe are investigated within the proton-neutron random-phase approximation. The approach is found to give a satisfactory agreement of the calculated differential cross sections and angular distributions with recent data. A strong dependence of the calculated quantities on the strength gpp of the particle-particle force is observed. This behaviour is similar to that reported for the ?+ decay in neutron-deficient nuclei and the double beta decay. The role of the DCX for the interpretation of the ratio of the double beta decay half-lives of the tellurium isotopes is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 microg/L to about 200 microg/L. TCE is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally TCE and dichloroethylene (DCE) has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 3,290 microg/L of TCE and 1,480 microg/L of DCE. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells were identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area has shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water-table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. In general, concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of TCE have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of TCE has decreased from 1,000 microg/L in 1980 to 50 microg/L in 1984. Water from Van Etten Lake near the termination of the plume had only a trace of TCE at one site. Benzene detected in water from well AF2 seems to originate near the former site of buried fuel tanks west of the operational apron. During periods of normal purge pumping along Arrow Street, contaminants are drawn toward water-supply wells AF2, AF4, and AF5. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Forced mouth opening reaction: a primitive reflex released from cortical inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Riina; Saito, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Takehiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Nagaishi, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who showed 'forced mouth opening reaction' during the course of acute encephalopathy due to adrenal crisis. When an object was moved towards her mouth, or when the corner of her mouth was stroked with a tongue depressor, she would immediately open her mouth fully and hold it open. This reaction appeared transiently during the course of her illness in association with other frontal release signs including the rooting, groping and palmomental reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral widespread lesions involving the gray and white matters in the frontal lobes, and less severe lesions in the temporal and parietal areas. We propose that this unique reaction is a sign of a release phenomenon, and represents the emergence of primitive reflexes in the absence of cortical inhibition in some types of encephalopathies. PMID:16368214

  17. The gravitational radiation reaction force of a continuous medium. I. Perturbation of a quasi-newtonian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine, within the general theory of relativity, the equations of motion in the slow approximation of a continuous medium in which the forces from material stresses do not play a leading part with respect to the gravitational forces. The gravitational radiation reaction force appears as a disturbing force in the post-post-newtonian equations of motion. Then, we deduce the formula for the variation of the energy of the system due to the gravitational radiation

  18. Trends in Ground-State Entropies for Transition Metal Based Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Elizabeth A.; Manner, Virginia W.; Markle, Todd F.; Wu, Adam; Franz, James A.; Mayer, James M.

    2009-03-10

    Reported herein are thermochemical studies of hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions involving transition metal H-atom donors MIILH and oxyl radicals. [FeII(H2bip)3]2+, [FeII(H2bim)3]2+, [CoII(H2bim)3]2+ and RuII(acac)2(py-imH) [H2bip = 2,2’-bi-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro¬pyrimidine, H2bim = 2,2’-bi-imidazoline, acac = 2,4-pentandionato, py-imH = 2-(2’-pyridyl)¬imidazole)] each react with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl) or tBu3PhO• (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) to give the deprotonated, oxidized metal complex MIIIL, and TEMPOH or tBu3PhOH. Solution equilibrium measurements for the reactions of Co and Fe complexes with TEMPO show a large, negative ground-state entropy for hydrogen atom transfer: ?SºHAT = -30 ± 2 cal mol-1 K-1 for the two iron complexes and -41 ± 2 cal mol-1 K-1 for [CoII(H2bim)3]2+. The ?SºHAT for TEMPO + RuII(acac)2(py-imH) is much closer to zero, 4.9 ± 1.1 cal mol-1 K-1. Calorimetric measurements quantitatively confirm the enthalpy of reaction for [FeII(H2bip)3]2+ + TEMPO, thus also confirming ?SºHAT. Calorimetry on TEMPOH + tBu3PhO• gives ?HºHAT = 11.2 ± 0.5 kcal mol-1 which matches the enthalpy predicted from the difference in literature solution BDEs. An evaluation of the literature BDEs of both TEMPOH and tBu3PhOH is briefly presented and new estimates are included on the relative enthalpy of solvation for tBu3PhO• vs. tBu3PhOH. The primary contributor to the large magnitude of the ground-state entropy |?SºHAT| for the metal complexes is vibrational entropy, ?Sºvib. The common assumption that ?SºHAT ? 0 for HAT reactions, developed for organic and small gas phase molecules, does not hold for transition metal based HAT reactions. The trend in magnitude of |?SºHAT| for reactions with TEMPO, RuII(acac)2(py-imH) << [FeII(H2bip)3]2+ = [FeII(H2bim)3]2+ < [CoII(H2bim)3]2+, is surprisingly well predicted by the trends for electron transfer half-reaction entropies, ?SºET, in aprotic solvents. ?SºET and ?SºHAT are both affected by ?Sºvib and vary significantly with the metal center involved. The close connection between ?SºHAT and ?SºET provides an important link between these two fields and provides a starting point from which to predict which HAT systems will have important ground-state entropy effects. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Biomechanics of gecko locomotion: the patterns of reaction forces on inverted, vertical and horizontal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excellent locomotion ability of geckos on various rough and/or inclined substrates has attracted scientists’ attention for centuries. However, the moving ability of gecko-mimicking robots on various inclined surfaces still lags far behind that of geckos, mainly because our understanding of how geckos govern their locomotion is still very poor. To reveal the fundamental mechanism of gecko locomotion and also to facilitate the design of gecko-mimicking robots, we have measured the reaction forces (RFs) acting on each individual foot of moving geckos on inverted, vertical and horizontal substrates (i.e. ceiling, wall and floor), have associated the RFs with locomotion behaviors by using high-speed camera, and have presented the relationships of the force components with patterns of reaction forces (PRFs). Geckos generate different PRF on ceiling, wall and floor, that is, the PRF is determined by the angles between the direction of gravity and the substrate on which geckos move. On the ceiling, geckos produce reversed shear forces acting on the front and hind feet, which pull away from the body in both lateral and fore-aft directions. They use a very large supporting angle from 21° to 24° to reduce the forces acting on their legs and feet. On the floor, geckos lift their bodies using a supporting angle from 76° to 78°, which not only decreases the RFs but also improves their locomotion ability. On the wall, geckos generate a reliable self-locking attachment by using a supporting angle of 14.8°, which is only about half of the critical angle of detachment. (paper)

  20. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  1. Radiation-Reaction Force on a Small Charged Body to Second Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Eanna

    2015-04-01

    In classical electrodynamics, an accelerating charge emits radiation and experiences a corresponding radiation reaction force, or self force. We extend to greater precision (higher order in perturbation theory) a previous rigorous derivation of the electromagnetic self force in flat spacetime by Gralla, Harte, and Wald. The method introduced by Gralla, Harte, and Wald computes the self-force from the Maxwell field equations and conservation of stress-energy, and does not require regularization of a singular point charge, as has been necessary in prior computations. For our higher order compuation, it becomes necessary to adopt an adjusted definition of the mass of the body to avoid including self-energy from the electromagnetic field sourced during the history of the body. We derive the evolution equations for the mass, spin, and center of mass position of an extended body through second order using our adjusted formalism. The final equations give an acceleration dependent evolution of the spin (self-torque), as well as a mixing between the extended body effects and the acceleration dependent effects on the overall body motion.

  2. Low-energy neutron-deuteron reactions with N{sup 3}LO chiral forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golak, J.; Skibinski, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Witala, H. [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Kamada, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kitakyushu (Japan); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Bernard, V. [CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Maris, P.; Vary, J. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, Iowa (United States); Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Langhammer, J.; Roth, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hebeler, K. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Nogga, A. [Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Liebig, S.; Minossi, D. [Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Emphasis is put on A{sub y} puzzle in elastic scattering and cross sections in symmetric-space-star and neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering breakup configurations, for which large discrepancies between data and theory have been reported. (orig.)

  3. Low-energy neutron-deuteron reactions with N3LO chiral forces

    CERN Document Server

    Golak, J; Topolnicki, K; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Krebs, H; Kamada, H; Meissner, Ulf-G; Bernard, V; Maris, P; Vary, J; Binder, S; Calci, A; Hebeler, K; Langhammer, J; Roth, R; Nogga, A; Liebig, S; Minossi, D

    2014-01-01

    We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Emphasis is put on Ay puzzle in elastic scattering and cross sections in symmetric-space-star and neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering breakup configurations, for which large discrepancies between data and theory have been reported.

  4. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  5. Constructing a Mass-Current Radiation-Reaction Force For Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, L; Asada, H; Baumgarte, T W; Shapiro, S L

    1999-01-01

    We present a new set of 3.5 Post-Newtonian equations in which Newtonian hydrodynamics is coupled to the nonconservative effects of gravitational radiation emission. Our formalism differs in two significant ways from a similar 3.5 Post-Newtonian approach proposed by Blanchet (1993, 1997). Firstly we concentrate only on the radiation-reaction effects produced by a time-varying mass-current quadrupole $S_{ij}$. Secondly, we adopt a gauge in which the radiation-reaction force densities depend on the fourth time derivative of $S_{ij}$, rather than on the fifth, as in Blanchet's approach. This difference makes our formalism particularly well-suited to numerical implementation and could prove useful in performing fully numerical simulations of the recently discovered $r$-mode instability for rotating neutron stars subject to axial perturbations.

  6. Force-balance and differential equation for the ground-state electron density in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas and March (1995) established a force-balance equation from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. Here, the authors propose this as a basis for the construction of a (usually approximate) differential equation for the ground-state electron density. By way of example they present the simple case of two-electron systems with different external potentials but with weak electron-electron Coulomb repulsion ?e2/r12. In this case first-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory of the ground-state wave function is known to lead to a compact expression for the first-order density matrix ?(r,rprime) in terms of its diagonal density ?(r) and the density corresponding to ? = 0. This result allows the force-balance equation to be written as a third-order linear, differential homogeneous equation for the ground-state electron density ?(r). The example of the two-electron Hookean atom is treated: For this case one can also transcend the first-order RS perturbation theory and get exact results for discrete choices of force constants (external potential)

  7. Intervertebral reaction force prediction using an enhanced assembly of OpenSim models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-04-01

    OpenSim offers a valuable approach to investigating otherwise difficult to assess yet important biomechanical parameters such as joint reaction forces. Although the range of available models in the public repository is continually increasing, there currently exists no OpenSim model for the computation of intervertebral joint reactions during flexion and lifting tasks. The current work combines and improves elements of existing models to develop an enhanced model of the upper body and lumbar spine. Models of the upper body with extremities, neck and head were combined with an improved version of a lumbar spine from the model repository. Translational motion was enabled for each lumbar vertebrae with six controllable degrees of freedom. Motion segment stiffness was implemented at lumbar levels and mass properties were assigned throughout the model. Moreover, body coordinate frames of the spine were modified to allow straightforward variation of sagittal alignment and to simplify interpretation of results. Evaluation of model predictions for level L1-L2, L3-L4 and L4-L5 in various postures of forward flexion and moderate lifting (8 kg) revealed an agreement within 10% to experimental studies and model-based computational analyses. However, in an extended posture or during lifting of heavier loads (20 kg), computed joint reactions differed substantially from reported in vivo measures using instrumented implants. We conclude that agreement between the model and available experimental data was good in view of limitations of both the model and the validation datasets. The presented model is useful in that it permits computation of realistic lumbar spine joint reaction forces during flexion and moderate lifting tasks. The model and corresponding documentation are now available in the online OpenSim repository. PMID:26031341

  8. Atomic force microscopy of hot spot reaction sites in impacted RDX and laser heated AP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, J.; Coffey, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Ramaswamy, A.L.; Armstrong, R.W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to reveal residual sub-micron sized decomposition sites in drop weight impacted RDX and laser irradiated AP crystals. In impacted RDX, the small and early reaction sites observed are hemispherical craters, ranging in size from 20--300 nm. The smallest reaction site encompassed about 10,000 molecules with an expected energy evolution of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} J. On a somewhat larger scale hillocks of 200--800 nm were observed, their shape giving evidence of internal reaction and hot spot melting. Dislocation densities as high as 5 {times} 10{sup 12} per cm{sup 2} were observed in sub-ignited RDX. High resolution AFM images of the RDX lattice structure indicate molecular rotation as well as displacements at dislocation sites. In AP, after nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation, reaction sites were trumpet shaped with a smallest size of approximately 50 nm. Most sites contained a crystallographically oriented central square lid formed above the surrounding crystal surface, probably relating to the orthorhombic to cubic phase transition documented in micron scale cracking patterns observed at the laser heated sites.

  9. Referral of tactile stimuli to action points in virtual reality with reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moizumi, Shunjiro; Yamamoto, Shinya; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    When we touch something with a tool, we feel the touch at the tip of the tool rather than at the hand. Yamamoto and Kitazawa [Yamamoto, S., Kitazawa, S., 2001b. Sensation at the tips of invisible tools. Nat. Neurosci. 4, 979-980] previously showed that the judgment of the temporal order of two successive stimuli, delivered to the tips of sticks held in each hand, was dramatically altered by crossing the sticks without changing the positions of the hands. This provided evidence for the referral of tactile signals to the tip of a tool in hand. In this study, we examined importance of force feedback from the tool in the referral by manipulating the direction of force feedback in a virtual reality. The virtual tool consisted of a spherical action point that was moved with a stylus in hand. Subjects held two styli, one in each hand, put each action point on each of two buttons in the virtual reality, and were required to judge the order of successive taps, delivered to the two styli. We manipulated the direction of reaction force from each button so that it was congruent or incongruent to the visual configuration of the button. When the arms were uncrossed, judgment primarily depended on whether the action points were crossed or not in the visual space. But when the arms were crossed, judgment critically depended on the direction of force feedback. The results show that tactile signals can be referred to the action point in the virtual reality and that the force feedback becomes a critical factor when the arms are crossed. PMID:17617482

  10. Ground-state widths of 5He and 5Li determined in the 3H(d,?)5He and the 3He(d,?)5Li reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the widths of the 3/2- ground states of 5He and 5Li using the 3H(d,?)5He and the 3He(d,?)5Li reactions at Ed=8.6 MeV. The ?-ray spectra were fitted with a convolution of the NaI line-shape response function, as measured with the 3H(p,?)4He reaction, and a Breit-Wigner single-level expression. The widths extracted from the spectra were found to be ?n=1.36±0.19 MeV for 5He, and ?p=2.44±0.21 MeV for 5Li. These values, significantly different from previously quoted measurements, lead to reduced widths which are equal to within error, a result which is consistent with the charge-symmetry property of the nuclear force

  11. Reactions of Ground State Nitrogen Atoms N(4S) with Astrochemically-Relevant Molecules on Interstellar Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Lahouari; Nourry, Sendres

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, ambitious programs were launched to probe the interstellar medium always more accurately. One of the major challenges of these missions remains the detection of prebiotic compounds and the understanding of reaction pathways leading to their formation. These complex heterogeneous reactions mainly occur on icy dust grains, and their studies require the coupling of laboratory experiments mimicking the extreme conditions of extreme cold and dilute media. For that purpose, we have developed an original experimental approach that combine the study of heterogeneous reactions (by exposing neutral molecules adsorbed on ice to non-energetic radicals H, OH, N...) and a neon matrix isolation study at very low temperatures, which is of paramount importance to isolate and characterize highly reactive reaction intermediates. Such experimental approach has already provided answers to many questions raised about some astrochemically-relevant reactions occurring in the ground state on the surface of dust grain ices in dense molecular clouds. The aim of this new present work is to show the implication of ground state atomic nitrogen on hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from some astrochemically-relevant species, at very low temperatures (3K-20K), without providing any external energy. Under cryogenic temperatures and with high barrier heights, such reactions involving N(4S) nitrogen atoms should not occur spontaneously and require an initiating energy. However, the detection of some radicals species as byproducts, in our solid samples left in the dark for hours at 10K, proves that hydrogen abstraction reactions involving ground state N(4S) nitrogen atoms may occur in solid phase at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show the efficiency of radical species formation stemming from non-energetic N-atoms and astrochemically-relevant molecules. We will then discuss how such reactions, involving nitrogen atoms in their ground states, might be the first key step towards complex organic molecules production in the interstellar medium.

  12. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J.A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; S. M. Leite; Correia, S; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003–2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large numbe...

  13. Ab initio nuclear structure and reactions with chiral three-body forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Calci, Angelo [Institut fuer Kernphysik - Theoriezentrum, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Navratil, Petr [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    One major ambition of ab initio nuclear theory is the description of nuclear-structure and reaction observables on equal footing. This is accomplished by combining the no-core shell model (NCSM) with the resonating-group method (RGM) to a unified ab initio approach to bound and continuum states, which is developed further to the no-core shell model with continuum (NCSMC). We present the formal developments to include three-nucleon interactions in both the NCSM/RGM and NCSMC formalism. This provides the possibility to assess the predictive power of chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in the variety of scattering observables. We study three-nucleon force effects on phase-shifts, cross sections and analyzing powers in first ab-initio studies of nucleon-{sup 4}He scattering with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces. Finally, we focus on heavier target nuclei using the NCSMC, e.g., in neutron-{sup 8}Be scattering and study the impact of the continuum on the spectrum of {sup 9}Be.

  14. Ground Reaction Force Differences in the Countermovement Jump in Girls with Different Levels of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the biomechanical differences between better and poorer performers of the vertical jump in a homogeneous group of children. Method: Twenty-four girls were divided into low-scoring (LOW; M [subscript age] = 6.3 ± 0.8 years) and high-scoring (HIGH; M [subscript age] = 6.6 ± 0.8 years) groups based on…

  15. Influence of walking speed in backpacker's gait : ground reaction forces and plantar pressure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Maria Cristina Pinto Leite Braamcamp

    2011-01-01

    O modo como nos deslocamos influencia os parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha, alterando-os, podendo vir a originar lesões a curto ou longo prazo. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer, em primeiro lugar, uma revisão sistemática da literatura acerca do que consiste a influência da velocidade nos parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha e, depois, estudar o efeito que a velocidade tem nas forças de reacção ao solo e na pressão plantar durante a marcha quando se transporta, ou não, uma carga. Assim, um do...

  16. Effect of tensor force and one-nucleon exchange in the quasielastic (6Li, 6He) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the tensor force and one-nucleon exchange is studied by applying the antisymmetrized DWBA method to the 48Ca(6Li,6He)48Sc (?fsub(7/2)?fsu6(7/2)-1)sub(J) reaction. The exchange effect increases the cross sections but does not change the angular shapes. In contrast to the tensor force with Gaussian shape, the TWOPEP tensor contribution is larger than that of the central force and dominates the reaction for large L-transfer. (Auth.)

  17. Numerical simulation study of ground vibrations using forces from wheels of a running high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Yoshioka, Osamu; Sanada, Yoshinori; Miyoshi, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    A 3-D viscoelastic finite difference method (FDM) was adopted to study the mechanism of ground vibrations induced by a high-speed train. Time-series data of the forces acting on the railroad were observed from the wheels of a running Shinkansen train in Japan and were used to develop a realistic source function as an input to numerical simulations for a single wheel. This is because the measured forces include suitable frequency components. A 3-D numerical model of the embankment of the railroad was designed to mimic a test field site for which borehole logging data were available. Simple analytical discussions concluded that a rail length of 120 m and a grid spacing of 0.25 m were acceptable for stable FDM simulations without numerical dispersion, and a model with about 32 million grid points was adopted for this study. A staggered-grid FDM with fourth-order accuracy in space was used for the numerical simulations. Finally, the simulated ground vibration was compared with the observed vibrations at the test site. The simulated ground vibrations closely resembled the observed ones. At the test site, the quality factor ( Q) was not observed experimentally; however, the best match with field data was realized by assuming Q=5-50.

  18. A theoretical investigation of ground effects on USB configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A formulation predicts the variation of circulation forces and jet reaction forces in ground proximity as a function of ground height. The predicted results agree well with available experimental data. It is shown that the wing-alone theory is not capable of predicting the ground effect for USB configurations.

  19. Study of the ground-state wave function of 6He via the 6He(p, t)? transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the 6He(p,t)? transfer reaction in inverse kinematics at 25 MeV/nucleon. The data were compared to DWBA calculations in order to extract the spectroscopic amplitudes for ?+2n and t+t configurations in the ground state of 6He. (orig.)

  20. Using Anomalous Along-Track Forces for Topex/Poseidon Ground Track Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B.; Bhat, R.; Frauenholz, R.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPES/POSEIDON satellite is maintained in a nearly circular, frozen orbit at an altitude of =1336 km. and an inclination of i = 66.4, which provides an exact repeat ground track every 127 revolutions and overflies two altimetry verifications sites.

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  2. Nuclear ground-state properties and ion-ion potentials in semiclassical calculations with the Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-state properties of magic nuclei have been studied by means of the Gogny force within the Hartree-Fock Scheme using the Slater approximation for the exchange part. A similar analysis has been carried out within the semiclassical framework by considering the extended Thomas-Fermi approach for the kinetic energy density. Comparisons with the complete Hartree-Fock results are made. The ion-ion potential for two colliding nuclei has been obtained in the energy density functional and the double-folded model approaches by using self-consistent semiclassical densities calculated with the Gogny force. These potentials have been applied in the study of 40Ca-40Ca elastic scattering. (author)

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  4. Grounding the Lexical Semantics of Verbs in Visual Perception using Force Dynamics and Event Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Siskind, J M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an implemented system for recognizing the occurrence of events described by simple spatial-motion verbs in short image sequences. The semantics of these verbs is specified with event-logic expressions that describe changes in the state of force-dynamic relations between the participants of the event. An efficient finite representation is introduced for the infinite sets of intervals that occur when describing liquid and semi-liquid events. Additionally, an efficient procedure using this representation is presented for inferring occurrences of compound events, described with event-logic expressions, from occurrences of primitive events. Using force dynamics and event logic to specify the lexical semantics of events allows the system to be more robust than prior systems based on motion profile.

  5. The 4- and 5-nucleon system, a testing ground for nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is tried to demonstrate that the 4- and 5-nucleon systems are well suited to study the spin-dependent nucleon-nucleon forces acting in few nucleon systems. Observables can be found which depend on one or at least two components of the spin-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction only. Within the three-nucleon system it does not seem to be possible to select such quantities. Generally many phases, which are almost unsplitted in respect to J, contribute to an observable. The interpretation of parts of the very accurate data is therefore complicated and doubtful. It is shown that the 4- and 5-nucleon systems offer information on the spin depending nucleon-nucleon forces, acting there, in a more simple way

  6. Grounding the Lexical Semantics of Verbs in Visual Perception using Force Dynamics and Event Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Siskind, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an implemented system for recognizing the occurrence of events described by simple spatial-motion verbs in short image sequences. The semantics of these verbs is specified with event-logic expressions that describe changes in the state of force-dynamic relations between the participants of the event. An efficient finite representation is introduced for the infinite sets of intervals that occur when describing liquid and semi-liquid events. Additionally, an efficient proced...

  7. Ground State Reactions of nC60 with Free Chlorine in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiewei; Benoit, Denise; Lee, Seung Soo; Li, Wenlu; Fortner, John D

    2016-01-19

    Facile, photoenhanced transformations of water-stable C60 aggregates (nC60) to oxidized, soluble fullerene derivatives, have been described as key processes in understanding the ultimate environmental fate of fullerene based materials. In contrast, fewer studies have evaluated the aqueous reactivity of nC60 during ground-state conditions (i.e., dark conditions). Herein, this study identifies and characterizes the physicochemical transformations of C60 (as nC60 suspensions) in the presence of free chlorine, a globally used chemical oxidant, in the absence of light under environmentally relevant conditions. Results show that nC60 undergoes significant oxidation in the presence of free chlorine and the oxidation reaction rates increase with free chlorine concentration while being inversely related to solution pH. Product characterization by FTIR, XPS, Raman Spectroscopy, TEM, XRD, TOC, collectively demonstrates that oxidized C60 derivatives are readily formed in the presence of free chlorine with extensive covalent oxygen and even chlorine additions, and behave as soft (or loose) clusters in solution. Aggregation kinetics, as a function of pH and ionic strength/type, show a significant increase in product stabilities for all cases evaluated, even at pH values approaching 1. As expected with increased (surface) oxidation, classic Kow partitioning studies indicate that product clusters are relatively more hydrophilic than parent (reactant) nC60. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of understanding nanomaterial reactivity and the identification of corresponding stable daughter products, which are likely to differ significantly from parent material properties and behaviors. PMID:26651395

  8. Criteria for Side-Force Control in Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Robert I.; McNeill, Walter E.; Bunnell, John W.

    1982-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well with equivalent time constant of the initial response and with system bandwidth. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through level 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  9. Intra-Articular Knee Contact Force Estimation During Walking Using Force-Reaction Elements and Subject-Specific Joint Model2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yihwan; Phan, Cong-Bo; Koo, Seungbum

    2016-02-01

    Joint contact forces measured with instrumented knee implants have not only revealed general patterns of joint loading but also showed individual variations that could be due to differences in anatomy and joint kinematics. Musculoskeletal human models for dynamic simulation have been utilized to understand body kinetics including joint moments, muscle tension, and knee contact forces. The objectives of this study were to develop a knee contact model which can predict knee contact forces using an inverse dynamics-based optimization solver and to investigate the effect of joint constraints on knee contact force prediction. A knee contact model was developed to include 32 reaction force elements on the surface of a tibial insert of a total knee replacement (TKR), which was embedded in a full-body musculoskeletal model. Various external measurements including motion data and external force data during walking trials of a subject with an instrumented knee implant were provided from the Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in vivo Knee Loads. Knee contact forces in the medial and lateral portions of the instrumented knee implant were also provided for the same walking trials. A knee contact model with a hinge joint and normal alignment could predict knee contact forces with root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 165?N and 288?N for the medial and lateral portions of the knee, respectively, and coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.70 and -0.63. When the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) of the knee and locations of leg markers were adjusted to account for the valgus lower-limb alignment of the subject, RMSE values improved to 144?N and 179?N, and R2 values improved to 0.77 and 0.37, respectively. The proposed knee contact model with subject-specific joint model could predict in vivo knee contact forces with reasonable accuracy. This model may contribute to the development and improvement of knee arthroplasty. PMID:26720762

  10. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  11. Kinesiological Study of Push-up Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Floor Reaction on a Force Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa,Harutomo; Tokuhiro,Akihiro

    1995-01-01

    To find an effective way to handle wheelchairs, 3-dimensional floor reactions of the hand and angular deviation of the elbow and wrist joints during push-up motion were studied in 10 healthy men. The push-up was carried out using 3 hand positions (fist, finger and palm) and a push-up device. In all hand positions, anteroposterior force (Fx) and the mediolateral force (Fy) appeared after the vertical force (Fz). The end point of Fx and Fy was observed before that of Fz. Among the 4 different h...

  12. The (p,n) reaction on cadmium isotopes leading to the ground- and excited-state analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (p,n) reactions to ground- and excited-state analogs on 110,114,116Cd have been studied at a bombarding energy of 25 MeV. Angular distributions of emitted neutrons leading to ground-state analogs, and 2+, 3- and 4+ excited-state analogs were obtained for each target. Angular distributions of differential cross sections to the ground-state analog agree with the predictions obtained from macroscopic DWBA calculations in which a Lane potential is employed. Coupled-channel calculations indicate the importance of two-step processes in the (p,n) transition to an excited-state analog. Further, the calculation using a larger value for the deformation parameter of the isovector part than of the isoscalar one fairly well describes the 2+ excited-state analog. (orig.)

  13. Numerical verification of B-WIM system using reaction force signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges are ones of fundamental facilities for roads which become social overhead capital facilities and they are designed to get safety in their life cycles. However as time passes, bridge can be damaged by changes of external force and traffic environments. Therefore, a bridge should be repaired and maintained for extending its life cycle. The working load on a bridge is one of the most important factors for safety, it should be calculated accurately. The most important load among working loads is live load by a vehicle. Thus, the travel characteristics and weight of vehicle can be useful for bridge maintenance if they were estimated with high reliability. In this study, a B-WIM system in which the bridge is used for a scale have been developed for measuring the vehicle loads without the vehicle stop. The vehicle loads can be estimated by the developed B-WIM system with the reaction responses from the supporting points. The algorithm of developed B-WIM system have been verified by numerical analysis

  14. Use of aquifer testing to complete ground water remedial design, shallow aquifer Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a US Army Corps of Engineers-directed remedial action, a ground water treatment system is being installed at Site 27, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. Twenty-three extraction wells were installed in the center and on the leading edge of a jet fuel plume of free and dissolved product in the uppermost (nonpotable) aquifer. The purpose of the extraction well system is to contain and remediate the plume, and to recover free product, which is over 10 feet thick in one well. Aquifer testing, including step and constant discharge tests, was conducted during well installation in order to (1) assist in location of subsequent wells, (2) obtain dynamic product thickness data for selection of wells in which skimmer pumps will be installed, (3) determine initial pumping rates, (4) determine aquifer parameters for modeling and optimization, and (5) provide baseline data on well performance to evaluate possible future biofouling

  15. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with carbonyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The rate parameters for the reaction of O(3P) with carbonyl sulfide, O(3P) + OCS yields CO + SO, have been determined directly by monitoring O(3P) using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The value for reaction rate was measured over a temperature range of 263-502 K and the data were fitted to an Arrhenius expression with good linearity. A comparison of the present results with those from previous studies of this reaction is also presented.

  16. Reaction Force/Torque Sensing in a Master-Slave Robot System without Mechanical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In human-robot cooperative control systems, force feedback is often necessary in order to achieve high precision and high stability. Usually, traditional robot assistant systems implement force feedback using force/torque sensors. However, it is difficult to directly mount a mechanical force sensor on some working terminals, such as in applications of minimally invasive robotic surgery, micromanipulation, or in working environments exposed to radiation or high temperature. We propose a novel force sensing mechanism for implementing force feedback in a master-slave robot system with no mechanical sensors. The system consists of two identical electro-motors with the master motor powering the slave motor to interact with the environment. A bimanual coordinated training platform using the new force sensing mechanism was developed and the system was verified in experiments. Results confirm that the proposed mechanism is capable of achieving bilateral force sensing and mirror-image movements of two terminals in two reverse control directions.

  17. Reaction Force/Torque Sensing in a Master-Slave Robot System without Mechanical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue; Chunguang Li; Tao Liu(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany)

    2010-01-01

    In human-robot cooperative control systems, force feedback is often necessary in order to achieve high precision and high stability. Usually, traditional robot assistant systems implement force feedback using force/torque sensors. However, it is difficult to directly mount a mechanical force sensor on some working terminals, such as in applications of minimally invasive robotic surgery, micromanipulation, or in working environments exposed to radiation or high temperature. We propose a novel ...

  18. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  19. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with dimethyl sulfide and episulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Timmons, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that the investigated reaction of oxygen with dimethyl sulfide may play an important role in photochemical smog formation and in the chemical evolution of dense interstellar clouds. Kinetic data were obtained with the aid of the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence method. The photodecomposition of molecular oxygen provided the oxygen atoms for the experiments. The decay of atomic oxygen was studied on the basis of resonance fluorescence observations. Both reactions investigated were found to be fast processes. A negative temperature dependence of the rate constants for reactions with dimethyl sulfide was observed.

  20. Collisional and photoinitiated reaction dynamics in the ground electronic state of Ca-HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca+HCl(?,j) reactive collisions were studied for different rovibrational states of the HCl reactant using wave-packet calculations in reactant Jacobi coordinates. A recently proposed potential-energy surface was used with a barrier of ?0.4 eV followed by a deep well. The possibility of an insertion mechanism due to this last well has been analyzed and it was found that once the wave packet passes over the barrier most of it goes directly to CaCl+H products, which shows that the reaction dynamics is essentially direct. It was also found that there is no significant change in the reaction efficiency as a function of the initial HCl rovibrational state, because CaHCl at the barrier has an only little elongated HCl bond. Near the threshold for reaction with HCl(?=0), however, the reaction shows significant steric effects for j>0. In a complementary study, the infrared excitation from the Ca-HCl van der Waals well was simulated. The spectrum thus obtained shows several series of resonances which correspond to quasibound states correlating to excited HCl(?) vibrations. The Ca-HCl binding energies of these quasibound states increase dramatically with ?, from 75 to 650 cm-1, because the wave function spreads increasingly over larger HCl bond lengths. Thus it explores the region of the barrier saddle point and the deep insertion well. Although also the charge-transfer contribution increases with ?, the reaction probability for resonances of the ?=2 manifold, which are well above the reaction threshold, is still negligible. This explains the relatively long lifetimes of these ?=2 resonances. The reaction probability becomes significant at ?=3. Our simulations have shown that an experimental study of this type will allow a gradual spectroscopic probing of the barrier for the reaction

  1. Does foot pitch at ground contact affect parachute landing technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark; Munro, Bridget J

    2009-08-01

    The Australian Defence Force Parachute Training School instructs trainees to make initial ground contact using a flat foot whereas United States paratroopers are taught to contact the ground with the ball of the foot first. This study aimed to determine whether differences in foot pitch affected parachute landing technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were analyzed for 28 parachutists who performed parachute landings (vertical descent velocity = 3.4 m x s(-1)) from a monorail apparatus. Independent t-tests were used to determine significant (p < 0.05) differences between variables characterizing foot pitch. Subjects who landed flat-footed displayed less knee and ankle flexion, sustained higher peak ground reaction forces, and took less time to reach peak force than those who landed on the balls of their feet. Although forefoot landings lowered ground reaction forces compared to landing flat-footed, further research is required to confirm whether this is a safer parachute landing strategy. PMID:19743739

  2. Assessment of concentrations of trace elements in ground water and soil at the Small-Arms Firing Range, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from four shallow water-table aquifer observation wells beneath the Small-Arms Firing Range study area at Shaw Air Force Base. Water-chemistry analyses indicated that total lead concentrations in shallow ground water beneath the study area do not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level established for lead in drinking water (0.05 milligrams per liter). All other trace element total concentrations in ground water beneath the study area were at or below the detection limit of the analytical methodology.

  3. Tensor force in single-nucleon knock-on exchange in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion form factors for single-nucleon knock-on exchange are calculated with a two-body force comprising both central and tensor components. Central forces were found to greatly influence the cross section magnitude while tensor components seem to be negligible. (orig.)

  4. 3D FEM Numerical Simulation of Seismic Pile-supported Bridge Structure Reaction in Liquefying Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling XianZhang, Tang Liang and Xu Pengju

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the establishment of liquefied ground pile-soil-bridge seismic interaction analysis of three-dimensional finite element analysis method for the simulation of liquefied ground shaking table test of pile-soil seismic interaction analysis, undertake OpenSees finite element based numerical simulation platform, for the shaking table test based on two-phase saturated porous media, Comparative numerical and experimental results, detailed test pile dynamic response of bridge structure and dynamic properties, especially liquefaction pore pressure, liquefaction of pile foundation and the dynamic response of the free field. Finite element method can reasonably predict the site of pore pressure, dynamic response; despite the conventional beam element simulation of pile, pile dynamic response can still accurately simulated.

  5. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  6. Gamow-Teller strength function for 90Zr: Effects of spin and isospin exchange forces, and ground-state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell-model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength function for 90Zr have been performed utilizing a realistic finite-range two-body interaction in a model space consisting of the 2p and 1g shells. The effects of admixtures of two-particle two-hole excitations in 90Nb, mostly due to the spin and isospin exchange components of the nucleon-nucleon force, are discussed. Ground state correlations in 90Zr are also added via seniority-zero two-proton excitations from the 2p shell into the 1g/sub 9/2/ shell. With the correlations the Gamow-Teller strength function is in good agreement with the experimental results and accounts for essentially all of the observed dispersion of strength. The inclusion of these correlations does not, however, produce either a displacement of Gamow-Teller strength to higher excitation energies, or a significant change in the total strength. Thus, they cannot account for the observed Gamow-Teller quenching. The quenching factor derived by a comparison of our calculated results with experiment is 0.52

  7. Reassessment of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force Distributed Common Ground System operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lillian; Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Goodman, Tanya; Cowper, Sara; Thompson, William

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess for the main sources of occupational stress, as well as self-reported symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among U.S. Air Force (USAF) Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) intelligence exploitation and support personnel. DCGS intelligence operators (n=1091) and nonintelligence personnel (n = 447) assigned to a USAF Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Wing responded to the web-based survey. The overall survey response rate was 31%. Study results revealed the most problematic stressors among DCGS intelligence personnel included high workload, low manning, as well as organizational leadership and shift work issues. Results also revealed 14.35% of DCGS intelligence operators' self-reported high levels of psychological distress (twice the rate of DCGS nonintelligence support personnel). Furthermore, 2.0% to 2.5% self-reported high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, with no significant difference between groups. The implications of these findings are discussed along with recommendations for USAF medical and mental health providers, as well as operational leadership. PMID:25747649

  8. The brute-force polarization of 23Na and the 23N vectora(n vector,?)24Na reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Na target has been polarized by brute force to 22% and the ?-radiation produced by polarized thermal neutron capture has been investigated. The Jsup(?)=2+ channel spin contribution has been determined model-independently and unambiguously for 22 primary transitions. The average Jsup(?)=2+ channel contribution is 5.8(5)%. The data resulted in one spin assignment and two spin restrictions. The energies and lifetimes of positive-parity levels as well as branching ratios and the magnetic moment of the ground state are in agreement with a shell-model calculation in the complete sd shell. (orig.)

  9. Quadrupedal locomotion in squirrel monkeys (Cebidae: Saimiri sciureus): a cineradiographic study of limb kinematics and related substrate reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2005-10-01

    Quadrupedal locomotion of squirrel monkeys on small-diameter support was analyzed kinematically and kinetically to specify the timing between limb movements and substrate reaction forces. Limb kinematics was studied cineradiographically, and substrate reaction forces were synchronously recorded. Squirrel monkeys resemble most other quadrupedal primates in that they utilize a diagonal sequence/diagonal couplets gait when walking on small branches. This gait pattern and the ratio between limb length and trunk length influence limb kinematics. Proximal pivots of forelimbs and hindlimbs are on the same horizontal plane, thus giving both limbs the same functional length. However, the hindlimbs are anatomically longer than the forelimbs. Therefore, hindlimb joints must be more strongly flexed during the step cycle compared to the forelimb joints. Because the timing of ipsilateral limb movements prevents an increasing amount of forelimb retraction, the forelimb must be more protracted during the initial stance phase. At this posture, gravity acts with long moment arms at proximal forelimb joints. Squirrel monkeys support most of their weight on their hindlimbs. The timing of limb movements and substrate reaction forces shows that the shift of support to the hindlimbs is mainly done to reduce the compressive load on the forelimb. The hypothesis of the posterior weight shift as a dynamic strategy to reduce load on forelimbs, proposed by Reynolds ([1985]) Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 67:335-349; [1985] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 67:351-362), is supported by the high correlation of ratios between forelimb and hindlimb peak vertical forces and the range of motion of shoulder joint and scapula in primates. PMID:15838834

  10. From the self-force problem to the radiation reaction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent theoretical progress in the so-called self-force problem of a general relativistic two-body system. Although a two-body system in Newtonian gravity is a very simple problem, some fundamental issues are involved in relativistic gravity. Besides, because of recent projects for gravitational wave detection, it has become possible to see those phenomena directly via gravitational waves, and the self-force problem becomes one of urgent and highly-motivated problems in general relativity. Roughly speaking, there are two approaches to investigate this problem; the so-called post-Newtonian approximation, and a black-hole perturbation. In this paper, we review theoretical progress in the self-force problem using a black-hole perturbation. Although the self-force problem seems to be just a problem to calculate a self-force, we discuss that the real problem is to define a gauge-invariant concept of a motion in a gauge-dependent metric perturbation

  11. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

  12. Measurement of the rates of reaction of the ground and metastable excited states of 02+, N0+ and 0+ with atmospheric gases at thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal-energy reaction rate coefficients and product ion distributions have been measured for reactions of both the ground state and metastable electronic states of 02+, N0+ and 0+ with several neutral species, using a selected-ion flow tube. In general the excited-ion reaction rates are fast, frequently approaching the Langevin limit. Collisional quenching occurs for the reactions of N0+sup(star) with N2,02 and H2 and the quenching rates have been determined. The ion source also provided a substantial yield of doubly charged 02 permitting some measurements of reaction rates of 022+. (author)

  13. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  14. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Joseph, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted T1/2 values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases T1/2 value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM.

  15. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted T1/2 values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases T1/2 value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM. (author)

  16. Cluster emission in superdeformed Sr isotopes in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Cluster decay of superdeformed 76,78,80Sr isotopes in their ground state are studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interacting barrier for the post-scission region. The predicted $T_{1/2}$ values are found to be in close agreement with those values reported by the preformed cluster model (PCM). Our calculation shows that these nuclei are stable against both light and heavy cluster emissions. We studied the decay of these nuclei produced as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reaction. It is found that inclusion of excitation energy increases the decay rate (decreases $T_{1/2}$ value) considerably and these nuclei become unstable against decay. These findings support earlier observation of Gupta et al based on PCM.

  17. Trichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene concentrations in ground water after temporary shutdown of the reclamation well field at Air Force Plant 44, Tucson, Arizona, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D.D.; Allen, T.J.; Barackman, M.L.; DiGuiseppi, W.H.; Wallace, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial activities beginning in the early 1940s resulted in extensive contamination of ground water near the Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona, including an area around Air Force Plant 44, an industrial facility located on land owned by the U.S. Air Force and operated by a defense contractor. Principal ground-water contaminants are volatile organic compounds, primarily trichloroethylene (also called trichloroethene) and 1,1-dichloroethylene (also called 1,1-dichloroethene). A ground- water reclamation system was put into operation in 1987 to extract and treat contaminated ground water at Air Force Plant 44 and the downgradient area that is south of Los Reales Road. The ground- water reclamation system consists of 25 extraction wells, 22 recharge wells, and a water-treatment facility. Soil-vapor extraction techniques are being used to remove volatile organic compounds from the unsaturated zone. More than 120,000 pounds of volatile organic compounds have been removed from the regional aquifer and overlying unsaturated zone at Air Force Plant 44 and adjacent downgradient areas south of Los Reales Road. Air Force Plant 44 and adjacent areas being remediated by the ground-water reclamation system are about 7 square miles. To assess ground-water cleanup progress at Air Force Plant 44 and surrounding areas south of Los Reales Road, and possibly to identify areas that are resistant to cleanup attempts, ground-water samples were collected and analyzed after water levels had returned to near-equilibrium conditions following a 3-week shutdown of extraction and recharge wells. Modifications of the standard ground-water sampling procedures used at the site also were tested. The modifications included tests of a reduced-flow purging and sampling method in six monitoring wells and vertical- profile sampling in five extraction wells at the reclamation well field. The water treatment facility and all extraction and recharge wells at the reclamation well field were shut down on April 15, 1999, and water levels were allowed to recover for about 3 weeks before samples of ground water were obtained from 102 wells at Air Force Plant 44 and surrounding areas. Concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene were determined for samples obtained during the sitewide sampling effort. Data for 101 wells sampled in February 1999 before shutdown were compared with data obtained for wells sampled in May 1999 after shutdown. Concentrations of trichloroethylene increased in 36 wells, remained the same in 32 wells, and decreased in 33 wells. Increases in concentrations of trichloroethylene of as much as 1,476 micrograms per liter and decreases of as much as 2,292 micrograms per liter were reported after shutdown. Concentrations of trichloroethylene remained the same for the two sampling periods in wells that had concentrations that were at, or close to, the lower reporting limit (0.5 micrograms per liter) before shutdown. Net change in concentrations of trichloroethylene after shutdown on a percentage basis ranged from an increase of 1,300 percent to a decrease of 100 percent. Increases in concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene after shutdown of the reclamation well field of as much as 66 micrograms per liter and decreases of as much as 411.6 micro- grams per liter were reported. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene remained the same for the two sampling periods in wells that had concentrations that were at, or close to, the lower reporting limit (0.5 micrograms per liter) before shutdown. Net change in concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene after shutdown on a percentage basis ranged from an increase of 660 percent to a decrease of 100 percent. Data obtained from the water samples indicate

  18. Control of chemical reaction pathways by femtosecond ponderomotive forces: Time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopic study of OCIO photodissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femtosecond time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopy is applied to the study of the photodissociation of OClO. The observed ratio of O2+/ClO+ signal increases 12-fold with a 3-fold increase of the pump laser intensity. They are attributed to the change in the branching ratio between the two independent reaction channels leading to Cl+O2 and ClO+O, respectively. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of laser controlled chemical reactions by femtosecond ponderomotive forces. At low pump power, the photodissociation dynamics at 386 nm is shown to be a two-step process, with the OClO slowly approaching (time constant 4.6 ps) a transition state that falls apart rapidly (time constant 250 fs). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Control of chemical reaction pathways by femtosecond ponderomotive forces: Time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopic study of OCIO photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, M.; Ludowise, P.; Chen, Y.

    1997-07-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopy is applied to the study of the photodissociation of OClO. The observed ratio of O2+/ClO+ signal increases 12-fold with a 3-fold increase of the pump laser intensity. They are attributed to the change in the branching ratio between the two independent reaction channels leading to Cl+O2 and ClO+O, respectively. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of laser controlled chemical reactions by femtosecond ponderomotive forces. At low pump power, the photodissociation dynamics at 386 nm is shown to be a two-step process, with the OClO slowly approaching (time constant 4.6 ps) a transition state that falls apart rapidly (time constant 250 fs).

  20. EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force Meeting on 'Quark Matter in Compact Star'

    CERN Document Server

    Buballa, Michael; Drago, Alessandro; Fraga, Eduardo; Haensel, Pawel; Mishustin, Igor; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Schramm, Stefan; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    The recent measurement of two solar mass pulsars has initiated an intense discussion on its impact on our understanding of the high-density matter in the cores of neutron stars. A task force meeting was held from October 7-10, 2013 at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies to address the presence of quark matter in these massive stars. During this meeting, the recent oservational astrophysical data and heavy-ion data was reviewed. The possibility of pure quark stars, hybrid stars and the nature of the QCD phase transition were discussed and their observational signals delineated.

  1. EMMI rapid reaction task force meeting on quark matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buballa, Michael; Dexheimer, Veronica; Drago, Alessandro; Fraga, Eduardo; Haensel, Pawel; Mishustin, Igor; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Schramm, Stefan; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2014-12-01

    The recent measurement of two solar mass pulsars has initiated an intense discussion on its impact on our understanding of the high-density matter in the cores of neutron stars. A task force meeting was held from 7-10 October 2013 at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies to address the presence of quark matter in these massive stars. During this meeting, the recent observational astrophysical data and heavy-ion data was reviewed. The possibility of pure quark stars, hybrid stars and the nature of the QCD phase transition were discussed and their observational signals delineated.

  2. Assessment of Clear Sky Radiative Forcing in the Caribbean Region Using an Aerosol Dispersion Model and Ground Radiometry During Puerto Rico Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Qi, Qiang; Westpthal, Douglas; Reid, Jeffery; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the surface and top of the atmosphere solar radiative forcing by long-range transport of Saharan dust. The calculations of radiative forcing are based on measurements collected in the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) carried out during July, 2000. The purpose of the experiment was the characterization of the Saharan dust plume, which frequently reaches the Caribbean region during the summer. The experiment involved the use of three approaches to study the plume: space and ground based remote sensing, airborne and ground based in-situ measurements and aerosol dispersion modeling. The diversity of measuring platforms provides an excellent opportunity for determination of the direct effect of dust on the clear sky radiative forcing. Specifically, comparisons of heating rates, surface and TOA fluxes derived from the Navy global aerosol dispersion model NAAPS (NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) and actual measurements of fluxes from ground and space based platforms are shown. In addition, the direct effect of dust on the clear sky radiative forcing is modeled. The extent and time of evolution of the radiative properties of the plume are computed with the aerosol concentrations modeled by NAAPS. Standard aerosol parameterizations, as well as in-situ composition and size distributions measured during PRIDE, are utilized to compute the aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. Radiative transfer computations are done with an in-house modified spectral radiative transfer code (Fu-Liou). The code includes gas absorption and cloud particles (ice and liquid phase) and it allows the input of meteorological data. The code was modified to include modules for the aerosols contribution to the calculated fluxes. This comparison study helps to narrow the current uncertainty in the dust direct radiative forcing, as recently reported in the 2001 IPCC assessment.

  3. Role of spin-orbit interaction and Skyrme forces in Ni-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction in the semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach, under frozen density approximation is used. The nuclear potential is obtained as a sum of the spin-orbit density-dependent VJ part and spin-orbit density-independent VP part of the Skyrme Hamiltonian density. Within the ETF approach, it is of interest to study the variation of spin-orbit part with increase in N/Z ratio of the compound systems. In the following, this study of the role of spin-orbit density part of interaction potential on nine even-mass compound nuclei (CN) 156-172Yb* formed in 56-72Ni+100Mo reactions where both spherical and deformed nuclei are involved

  4. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  5. Annual to Decadal Scale Evolution of the Pine Island and Thwaites Grounding Lines in Response to Ocean Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous observations have revealed strong thinning and speedup on glaciers along the Amundsen Coast. Recent work indicates that current thinning marks the early stages of a potentially irreversible marine ice sheet collapse. While it may take centuries to reach late stage collapse, the pattern of thinning and retreat on these glaciers is evolving rapidly. Models and observation indicate that the increased ice discharge causing these losses is driven by a complex ice-ocean interaction in response to increased transport of circum-polar deep water beneath ice shelf cavities. Glacier speedups tend to occur as a series of stepwise increases, in some cases separated by a few decades or more. Between such speedups, the spatial pattern of thinning evolves considerably. The spatio-temporal variation of the thinning is important because it determines the rate of grounding-line retreat. For example, if thinning remains concentrated at the coast, grounding-line retreat will occur more rapidly. By contrast, if thinning rapidly diffuses inland, then grounding lines can maintain fixed positions for longer intervals. We applied a shallow-shelf ice flow model to examine the annual- to decadal-scale variation of thinning in response to varying degrees of ocean melting. The results show that the pattern of thinning evolves at annual time scales. Ungrounding initially produces strong speedups near the grounding line accompanied by stretching that concentrates thinning at the coast. This thinning, however, quickly influences flow farther inland. As a consequence, thinning diffuses inland, causing near grounding-line thinning to decline sharply. The rate of ocean melting plays an important role in this evolution. The model results agree well with observations of thinning. In addition to improving our understanding of grounding line dynamics, such models are important for providing the context in which to interpret the relatively short (~20 year) observational record.

  6. Comparative Finite Element Analysis of the Effects of Tillage Tool Geometry on Soil Disturbance and Reaction Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Elbashir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study a comparative finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of tillage tool geometry on soil disturbance and reaction forces. A nonlinear three dimensional finite element model, using ANSYS software, was developed to study the soil cutting process by trapezoidal (T1 and rectangular (T2 flat tools that inclined to the horizontal at three rake angles (R1 = 30°, R2 = 60° and R3 = 90°, therefore a total of six treatments were considered in this analysis. The soil media was assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material with Drucker-Prager’s model. Results of this study revealed that the maximum vertical soil displaced by T1 is greater than that of T2; hence T1 disturbed the soil better than T2 . Results also showed that a significant reduction in draft force was noticed when cutting the soil with T1 in comparison to T2 . Designing the tool in the form of T1 significantly reduces the surface area of the tool; thus conserving the engineering material.

  7. Wave packet and statistical quantum calculations for the He + NeH{sup +} ? HeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on the ground electronic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH{sup +} (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.

  8. The effect of basketball footwear on the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of drop jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes\\u00FAs C\\u00E1mara Tobalina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la etiología de las lesiones por sobreuso es multifactorial, los impactos repetidos y la amortiguación insuficiente, han sido propuestos como dos de las principales causas de lesión. Los impactos son caracterizados por la fuerza de reacción vertical del suelo en dos picos. El primero de ellos, se corresponde con el aterrizaje de la parte delantera del pie (F1 y el segundo (F2, esta mas asociado a la producción de lesiones. El calzado de baloncesto, debido a su diseño y materiales, también podría ayudar a amortiguar el impacto del pie con la tierra. Sin embargo, no ha sido averiguado aún, si este calzado reduce dicho impacto. Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio, fue determinar que el efecto del calzado de baloncesto sobre la fuerza de reacción de la tierra en la componente vertical durante el aterrizaje. Treinta estudiantes de la Universidad del País Vasco (Edad = 21.54 ± 1.12 años; masa corporal = 71.83 ± 8.15 kg; Altura = 177 ± 7 cm tomaron parte en este estudio. Todos ellos, realizaron 3 aterrizajes, después de ejecutar un salto drop (DL desde 30 cm (DL30 y desde 60 cm (DL60 de altura, en 2 condiciones diferentes: con calzado de baloncesto o con calzado de running. El periodo de descanso entre saltos fue de entre 60 a 90 sg. Se presentan datos desde 30 cm de altura, 2.27 ± 1.07, v (m. s–1 con calzado de baloncesto y de 2.49 ± 1.23 v (m • s–1 con calzado de running. Respecto a F2, el análisis concluyó que en ambas alturas desde 30 cm y desde 60 cm, se presentaron diferencias entre las botas de baloncesto y el calzado de running (6.20 ± 1.93 vs. 5.72 ± 1.79 Bw; 9.34 ± 2.16 vs. 8.27 ± 2.07 Bw. Los valores de F2 registrados con calzado de running fueron más bajos que los registrados con los de baloncesto (DL30: 11.13% DL60: 11.46%. Los impactos de la parte delantera y de reverso, son más altos cuando se ejecutan los saltos desde 60 cm con ambos calzados. El parámetro F2, fue el único estadísticamente distinto entre ambos calzados, desde ambas alturas de salto, con valores más bajos para el calzado de running.

  9. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  10. Study of the Reactions Controlling the Mobility of Uranium in Ground and Surface Water Systems in Contact with Apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M

    2004-04-22

    The objective of this project was to define the mechanisms, equilibria, kinetics, and extent of sorption of aqueous uranium onto hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH)) for a range of pH, ionic strength, aqueous uranium concentration, dissolved carbon/air CO{sub 2}, and mineral surface area. We conducted chemical modeling, batch and flow-through experiments, chemical analysis, x-ray absorption and diffraction measurement, and electron microscopy. Our motivation was the need to immobilize U in water and soil to prevent it's entry into water supplies and ultimately, biological systems. Applying hydroxyapatite to in-situ treatment of uranium-bearing ground water could be an effective, low cost technology. We found that hydroxyapatite quickly, effectively, and reversibly sorbed uranium at a high capacity by inner-sphere complexation over a wide range of conditions. Our results indicate that at aqueous uranium concentrations below 10-20 ppb: (1) equilibrium sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite occurs in hours, regardless of pH; (2) in ambient and CO{sub 2}-free atmospheres, over 98% of initial uranium is sorbed to hydroxyapatite, (3) in waters in equilibrium with higher air CO{sub 2} concentrations, sorption removed over 97% of aqueous uranium, except above pH 9, where aqueous uranium concentrations were reduced by less than 40%, and (4) at near-neutral pH, bicarbonate alkalinities in excess of 500 slightly retarded sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite, relative to lower alkalinities. Uranium sorption and precipitation are reversible and are not appreciably affected by ionic strength. The reversibility of these reactions requires that in situ treatment be carefully monitored to avoid breakthrough and de-sorption of uranium unto ground water. At typical surface conditions, sorption is the only mode of uranium sequestration below 20-50 ppb U - above this range, precipitation of uranium phosphate minerals begins to dominate sequestration processes. We verified that one m{sup 2} of hydroxyapatite can sorb over 7.53 X 10{sup -6} moles or 1.8 mg of uranium in agreement with calculations based on phosphate and calcium oxide sites on the unit cell. Our work is significant because small masses of hydroxyapatite can sorb appreciable masses of uranium quickly over a wide range of chemistries. Preliminary work with ground water containing 260 ppb of uranium and cow bone char indicates that its sorptive capacity is appreciable less than pure hydroxyapatite. Pure crystalline hydroxyapatite sequestered 2.9 mg of uranium per m{sup 2} as opposed to 0.083 mg of uranium sequestered per m{sup 2} of cow bone char, or 27% versus 3.5% by surface area, respectively. Extended x-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy defined mono- and bidentate sorption of uranium to phosphate and calcium oxide groups on the hydroxyapatite surface. The EXAFS data indicate that up to several thousand parts U per million parts hydroxyapatite, surface complexation, and not precipitation, is the predominant process. Above this uranium: hydroxyapatite mass ratio, precipitation of meta-autunite (H{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})2(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 10H{sub 2}0) dominates the sequestration process.

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow and application to the design of a contaminant removal system, Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fractured-bedrock aquifer underlying the former Fire Training Area at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, has been contaminated with petroleum products as a result of fire training activities. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system near the Fire Training Area was developed to provide information for the design and operation of a contaminant removal system. The goals of the simulation modeling were to (1) determine the maximum pumping rate that could be sustained, giventhe constraint that water levels not rise above a specified altitude, and (2) determine the effect of seasonal variation in recharge on the ability of a transient pumping scenario to capture contaminants. A steady-state simulation model of ground-water flow was used to determine the optimal pumping rate at the site. The optimal pumping rate was 8,570 ft3/d (44 gal/min). Monthly recharge rates wereestimated for use in a transient simulation model. During a typical year, most recharge probably occurs during two periods-one during snowmelt in early spring and another, possibly less significant period, during the late fall. The transient response of the water table to 8.5 inches of recharge in April, 2 inches of recharge in October, and 0.25 inches of recharge per month for each remaining month wassimulated. Fluctuations in ground-water levels caused by simulated seasonal variation of recharge would have minimal effect on the operation of thecontaminant removal system because the system is not pumped when recharge is lowest, ground-water velocities are lowest, and ground-water flow past the trench is minimal.

  12. Ground-water investigation for U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility O-O, Griggs County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, G.L.; Downey, Joe S.

    1975-01-01

    U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility 0-0 is located about 3.6 miles (5.6 kilometres) north of Cooperstown, Griggs County, North Dakota.  Test drilling indicates that a glacial-drift aquifer located within about 0.2 mile (0.3 kilometre) of the site will supply 2 to 3 gallons per minute (0.13 to 0.19 litre per second) of acceptable quality water for the facility.

  13. The physics of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new edition of the author's 'Nuclear Reactions' gives a general account of the interactions between nuclei and is intended for use by students in the second or third year of honours course. The chapters are headed; introduction, particle accelerators, kinematics, reactions of light nuclei, wave-mechanical theory of scattering, resonant scattering and reactions, reaction mechanisms, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear reactions, nuclear forces, and nuclear spin. A number of problems are set on each section and answers given. In an appendix the main properties of known types of nuclei in their ground states are summarized. (UK)

  14. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  15. Ground-water investigations at U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility E-0, Ramsey County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    U.S. Air Force Launch Control Facility E-0 is located in Ramsey County, North Dakota. Geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the fractured Pierre Shale is the only aquifer in the vicinity of the facility that will supply acceptable water at the required rate of 5 gallons per minute (0.32 liters per second}. The chemical quality of the water is generally considered marginally satisfactory for the intended use due to the presence of high concentrations of dissolved solids, and chloride or sulfate.

  16. Depletion kinetics of the ground state CrO generated from the reaction of unsaturated Cr(CO)x with O2 and N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated Cr(CO)x(1?x?5) molecules were generated in the gas phase from photolysis of Cr(CO)6 vapor in He using an unfocussed weak UV laser pulse and their reactions with O2 and N2O have been studied. The formation and disappearance of the ground state CrO molecules were identified by monitoring laser-induced fluorescence(LIF)intensities vs delay time between the photolysis and probe pulses. The photolysis laser power dependence as well as the delay time dependence of LIF intensities from the CrO orange system showed different behavior as those from ground state Cr atoms, suggesting that the ground state CrO molecules were generated from the reaction between O2/N2O and photo- fragments of Cr(CO)6 by one photon absorption. The depletion rate constants for the ground state CrO by O2 and N2O are 5.4±0.2x10-11 and 6.5±0.4x10-12 cm3 molecule-1s-1, respectively

  17. Influence of Coulomb and nuclear forces on the pattern of the double differential cross section d2sigma/d theta dE for deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tremendous change in the pattern of the Wilczynski curves for deep inelastic reactions with the product Z1Z2 is interpreted within a model including both dissipation and statistical fluctuations. The competition between Coulomb and nuclear forces seems to account for this effect

  18. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in samples that contained methyl tert-butyl ether.

  19. A comparison of ground-based and space flight data: Atomic oxygen reactions with boron nitride and silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.; Koontz, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed the materials coated over thin (approx 250 Angstrom) silver films whose electrical resistance was measured in situ to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the in-flight and ground-based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the in-flight or ground-based experiments. The ground-based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground-based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results.

  20. Internal radiation exposure of Ground Self-Defense Force members involved in the management of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Akira; Kyoto, Yukishige; Kunishima, Naoaki; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    When the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) was dispatched nationally to Northeast area in Japan. The highly trained GSDF members were simultaneously assigned to various missions for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants disaster. The missions of GSDF terminated on August 31, 2011. Special medical examinations were conducted for the members as they returned to each military unit. GSDF members who were assigned to the nuclear power plant were at risk of radiation exposure; therefore, pocket dosimeters were used to assess external radiation exposure. A few months after the mission was terminated, measurements of internal radiation exposure were performed. This is the first report of the internal exposure of GSDF members who worked in the restricted radiation contamination area. Here, we report the amounts of internal and external exposure of and the equipment used by the GSDF members. PMID:24352931

  1. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and source areas, and (6) determine whether intrinsic biodegradation is occurring at these sites.The water-quality data indicate that intrinsic biodegradation is occurring at all three sites. The strongest indication of intrinsic biodegradation is the detection of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene breakdown products within and down-gradient of the source areas. The patterns of electron acceptors and metabolic by-products indicate that contaminant biodegradation has changed the prevailing geochemistry of the surficial aquifer, creating the strongly reducing conditions necessary for chlorinated solvent bio-degradation. Geochemical changes include depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated ferrous iron and methane levels relative to concentrations in uncontaminated zones of the surficial aquifer. At Fire Training Area Three and the Rubble Area Landfill sites, natural attenuation appears to be adequate for controlling the migration of the contaminant plumes. At the third site, the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills, the plume is larger and the uncertainty about the effectiveness of natural attenuation in reducing contaminant concentrations and controlling plume migration is greater. Ground-water data indicate, however, that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels were not exceeded in any point-of-compliance wells located along the Base boundary.The information presented in this report led to the development of improved conceptual models for these sites, and to the recognition of four issues that are currently unclear and may need further study. These issues include delineating the areal and vertical extent of the contaminant plumes in greater detail, determining the extent of intrinsic biodegradation downgradient of the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills, deter-mining the fate of contaminants in the ground-water discharge areas, and determining the effect of temporal variability in source concentrations and ground-water

  2. Vertical force calibration of smart force platform using artificial neural networks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo André, Toso; Herbert Martins, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The human body may interact with the structures and these interactions are developed through the application of contact forces, for instance due to walking movement. A structure may undergo changes in the dynamic behaviour when subjected to loads and human bodies. The aim of this paper [...] is to propose a methodology using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to calibrate a force platform in order to reduce uncertainties in the vertical Ground Reaction Force measurements and positioning of the applied force for the human gait. METHODS: Force platforms have been used to evaluate the pattern of applied human forces and to fit models for the interaction between pedestrians and structures. The designed force platform consists in two force plates placed side by side in the direction of walking. The reference voltages applied to the Wheatstone bridge were used for calibration as the input data to the ANN, while the output data were the estimated values of the standard weights applied to the force platform. RESULTS: It was presented a framework to enhance traditional calibration methods for force platforms (vertical component) using an ANN. The use of ANN shows significant improvements for the measured variables, leading to better results with lower uncertain values that are smaller than those using a simple traditional calibration. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the calibration with the ANN method may be useful in obtaining more accurate vertical Ground Reaction Forces and positioning measurements in a force platform for human gait analysis.

  3. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  4. Solar energy assessment in the Alpine area: satellite data and ground instruments integration for studying the radiative forcing of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M.; Petitta, M.; Emili, E.

    2012-04-01

    The primary objective of this work is to purpose an approach for estimating the effect of aerosols on surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) in the Alpine region, which is based on the integration of different instruments: we develop a GIS model, whose output is corrected by monthly atmospheric coefficients, and then we progressively add details by daily updated atmospheric information. The assessment of solar energy availability at the earth's surface over a specific geographic area is crucial for planning photovoltaic panels installation. When modeling SIS with GIS instruments or retrieving it from satellites measurements, we have to account for terrain shadowing and atmospheric extinction, both of which are difficult to describe in the Alpine area, because of the topographic complexity and the local atmospheric circulation influence on the atmospheric composition. While advanced methods were developed to carefully describe the effect of topography, the atmospheric attenuation was considered so far only through monthly turbidity values, and the question remains whether it be possible to develop a time-effective routine to model the atmospheric effect on SIS at daily scale. As a first step we produced a WebGIS for the town of Bressanone, Italy, showing a classification of the roofs of the buildings according to the yearly amount of global irradiance. Furthermore we provide the annual electricity production based on the efficiency of the most common PV technologies. At this stage clear sky irradiance was computed with a GIS based model, and afterwards monthly correction coefficients were applied to add real sky conditions to the merely geometrical computations, which were obtained from 20 years of measurement collected by the pyranometer in the closest meteorological station. As a second step we investigate the influence of aerosol optical properties on SIS by running the radiative transfer model libRadtran by using as input the aerosol model defined for the measurement site of Bolzano, where we installed an AERONET sun-photometer for measuring aerosol optical properties and column water-vapor amount. The impact of aerosols on the surface irradiance was already demonstrated, in fact the literature shows that the daily aerosol direct forcing on the surface radiation in the Italian Po valley amounts on average to -12.2 Wm-2, with extremes values beyond -70 Wm-2. In particular here we examine the role in the radiation budget of the Alpine valleys of aerosol microphysical characteristics, such as size distribution, and optical properties, such as phase function, derived from the inversion of spectrally resolved sky radiances. After provided evidence of the radiative impact of atmospheric aerosols on solar energy availability in the Alpine area, the final step will be the enhancement of the most advanced existent algorithm for retrieving SIS in the Alpine area from satellite data, developed by MeteoSwiss in the framework of CM-SAF, which thoroughly considers the effect of topography and clouds, while can still be improved in terms of atmospheric input data.

  5. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface over land (DSSF, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of regional applications of the method is attainable by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite instrument which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and radiative transfer computations.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments: an urban site near Paris and a continental background site located South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6 in magnitude. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 W m?2 (5% in relative in 70% of the situations, and within 40 W m?2 in 90% of the situations, for the two case studies considered here.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 W m?2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous aerosol radiative impact at the ground level over land with METEOSAT-7 visible channel.

  6. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface (DSSF over land, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of global applications of the method is fulfilled by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and DSSF computed with a radiative transfer code.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments, i.e. an urban site near Paris and a continental background site in South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 Wm?2 (5% in relative in 70% of the cases, and within 40 Wm?2 in 90% of the cases.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently the ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 Wm?2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we therefore prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous aerosol radiative impact at the ground level over land with METEOSAT-7 visible channel.

  7. Ground states of molecules. XLIX. MINDO/3 study of the retro-diels-alder reaction of cyclohexene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retro-Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene to form ethylene and butadiene has been studied, using MINDO/3. The transition state is predicted to be very unsymmetric, corresponding to weakening of one of the two breaking CC bonds. The calculated entropy of activation agrees well with experiment and the calculated secondary isotope effects for 4,4-dideuteriocyclohexene and 4,4,5,5-tetradeuteriocyclohexene are similar to those measured for an analogous reaction by Taagepera and Thornton. Discrepancies between the conclusions reached here and those from recent ab-initio calculations are discussed. 4 tables, 3 figures, 53 references

  8. Quantum mechanical calculations of the S(1D)+HD reaction dynamics on the ground electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present reaction probabilities and branching ratios for the title reaction calculated employing the real wavepacket approach as implemented in the DIFFREALWAVE code. Calculations for zero total angular momentum (J = 0) and also for some non-zero values, J = 10, 30 and 40 have been carried out including all Coriolis couplings. These preliminary results predict a branching ratio greater than unity for energies above 0.5 eV total energy while more partial waves are needed to predict the ratio for energies below 0.5 eV.

  9. Ground states of molecules. XLIX. MINDO/3 study of the retro-diels-alder reaction of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, M.J.S.; Olivella, S.; Rzepa, H.S.

    1978-08-30

    The retro-Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene to form ethylene and butadiene has been studied, using MINDO/3. The transition state is predicted to be very unsymmetric, corresponding to weakening of one of the two breaking CC bonds. The calculated entropy of activation agrees well with experiment and the calculated secondary isotope effects for 4,4-dideuteriocyclohexene and 4,4,5,5-tetradeuteriocyclohexene are similar to those measured for an analogous reaction by Taagepera and Thornton. Discrepancies between the conclusions reached here and those from recent ab-initio calculations are discussed. 4 tables, 3 figures, 53 references.

  10. Tensor Force Manifestations in ab Initio Study of the 2H(d, γ)4He, 2H(d, p)3H, and 2H(d, n)3He Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2H(d, γ)4He capture reaction and the 2H(d, p)3H and 2H(d, n)3He transfer reactions at very low energies are studied in an extended microscopic cluster model with a realistic nucleon–nucleon force. Our results show that the tensor force in realistic interactions plays an essential and indispensable role to reproduce the very low-energy astrophysical S factor of these reactions. (author)

  11. Ground effects on USB configurations. [Upper Surface Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Recent investigations of ground effects on aerodynamic characteristics have been stimulated by the interest in powered-lift STOL airplanes. The ground effects on upper-surface-blowing (USB) configurations may involve change in both the circulation forces and the jet reaction forces. In this note, a theoretical method is proposed for predicting these effects. It is shown that the predicted results agree well with available experimental data. In particular, the wing-alone method is shown to be incapable of predicting the ground effects of USB configurations.

  12. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects for S/sub N/2 bromine exchange reactions of alkyl bromides: development of transition-state force field for calculation of NPE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transition-state force field for S/sub N/2 bromine-exchange reactions with a series of alkyl bromides has been developed and checked by calculation of 14C primary and (mostly) 2H secondary hydrogen isotope effects for these reactions in reasonable agreement with experimental values for related reactions

  13. Quantum calculations for the S(1D)+H2 reaction employing the ground adiabatic electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present exact quantum differential and total cross sections for the title reaction. We employ a time-dependent wavepacket method as implemented in the DIFFREALWAVE code including all Coriolis coupling and a new potential energy surface, the double many-body expansion/complete basis set (DMBE/CBS) surface. Our results show that the DMBE/CBS surface gives smaller cross section when compared to previous results employing the Ho surface.

  14. Ground-state correlations in 12C and the mechanism of the (e,e'p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the results of an investigation into two aspects of the mechanism of the quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reaction: the interaction between the incident electron and the bound proton and the residual nucleus (final-state interaction (FSI)), are presented and used in the extraction of nuclear-structure information from (e,e'p) measurements on 12C. The experiments were carried out at NIKHEF-K with a high-resolution spectrometer. Two kinds of experiments have been performed on 12C. The first was aimed at obtaining accurate momentum distributions for various final states in 11B. Some special measurements were carried out in order to vary the parameters influencing the FSI. The role of coupled-channels effects in the 12C(e,e'p)11Be reaction is discussed. It is discussed whether some of the weak transitions observed in this reaction, can be associated with knockout from normally unoccupied shell-model orbitals. The second experiment on 12C was devoted to the e-p coupling. These measurements were supplemented with data taken on 6Li. The latter measurement allowed for measuring simultaneously knockout from the relatively dense 4He core and the relatively dilute deuteron. In this way the density dependence of the e-p coupling in the nucleus could be studied. The results of these experiments have been compared to various models that take into account the effect of the nuclear medium upon the e-p coupling. The possible role of charge-exchange and meson-exchange currents in the interpretation of these experiments is also considered. A brief survey of the formalism of the quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reaction is also presented. (author). 196 refs.; 53 figs.; 21 tabs

  15. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site

  16. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  17. The gravitational radiation reaction force of a continuous medium. II. Perturbation of a quasi-minkowskian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine, within the framework of the first approximation of general relativity, the equations of motion of a continuous medium in which the forces from material stresses play a leading part with respect to the gravitational forces. In the slow approximation, we deduce the formula for the variation of the energy of the system due to the gravitational radiation. We obtain the surprising result that it has exactly the same form that one determined in the preceding paper (not only when averaged over a quasi-periodic motion)

  18. Gait asymmetries in patients with idiopathic scoliosis using vertical forces measurement only

    OpenAIRE

    Schizas, C. G.; Kramers-de Quervain, I. A.; Stüssi, E; Grob, D

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying measurable asymmetries during gait and relating them to the spinal deformity in subjects with idiopathic scoliosis. We investigated 21 patients aged between 10 and 26 years for gait asymmetries using force plates. All subjects completed five walking cycles over two force plates measuring vertical ground reaction forces. Among the parameters measured were contact time and magnitude of the two peaks of the vertical forces as well as the rate of application of tho...

  19. Application of catalyst-free click reactions in attaching affinity molecules to tips of atomic force microscopy for detection of protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Subhadip; Manna, Saikat; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming

    2013-11-26

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been extensively used in studies of biological interactions. Particularly, AFM based force spectroscopy and recognition imaging can sense biomolecules on a single molecule level, having great potential to become a tool for molecular diagnostics in clinics. These techniques, however, require affinity molecules to be attached to AFM tips in order to specifically detect their targets. The attachment chemistry currently used on silicon tips involves multiple steps of reactions and moisture sensitive chemicals, such as (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, making the process difficult to operate in aqueous solutions. In the present study, we have developed a user-friendly protocol to functionalize the AFM tips with affinity molecules. A key feature of it is that all reactions are carried out in aqueous solutions. In summary, we first synthesized a molecular anchor composed of cyclooctyne and silatrane for introduction of a chemically reactive function to AFM tips and a bifunctional polyethylene glycol linker that harnesses two orthogonal click reactions, copper free alkyne-azide cycloaddition and thiol-vinylsulfone Michael addition, for attaching affinity molecules to AFM tips. The attachment chemistry was then validated by attaching antithrombin DNA aptamers and cyclo-RGD peptides to silicon nitride (SiN) tips, respectively, and measuring forces of unbinding these affinity molecules from their protein cognates human ?-thrombin and human ?5?1-integrin immobilized on mica surfaces. In turn, we used the same attachment chemistry to functionalize silicon tips with the same affinity molecules for AFM based recognition imaging, showing that the disease-relevant biomarkers such as ?-thrombin and ?5?1-integrin can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity by the single molecule technique. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of our attachment chemistry for the use in functionalization of AFM tips with affinity molecules. PMID:24180289

  20. Electron-transfer reactions involving two harmonic potentials with a different force constant: The Zusman approach versus the spin-boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches: (a generalized spin-boson model with a nonlinear spin-boson coupling and the Zusman's stochastic Liouville formalism) are employed to analyze the electron-transfer reactions involving two harmonic potentials with a different force constant. An analytical rate formula, expressed as a convoluted integral of the individual rate kernel for each mode, is derived with full consideration of quantum tunneling effects. For a dominant solvent mode at low frequency, the formula can be reduced to the results of the Zusman's theory, showing asymmetry of the Marcus rate plot between the normal and the inverted regions

  1. Ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination: A new type of charge and proton transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel ?-diketone 1-(4-(9-carbazol)phenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (CDBM) has been synthesized. When excited at 380 nm, this molecule shows single fluorescence. However, when excited at 338 nm, it shows dual fluorescence. A Al3+ complex Al(CDBM)3 has been synthesized to investigate the dual fluorescence of CDBM. It is found that this complex shows single fluorescence under all excitation. This result indicated that the dual fluorescence of CDBM may relate to the intramolecular proton transfer reaction. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies of CDBM, N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (CBN) and Al(CDBM)3, a 'ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination' mechanism is proposed to explain the unusual excitation-dependent dual fluorescence of CDBM

  2. Ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination: A new type of charge and proton transfer reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Daobo; Bian, Zuqiang; Yu, Anchi; Chen, Zhuqi; Liu, Zhiwei; Huang, Chunhui

    2008-06-01

    A novel ?-diketone 1-(4-(9-carbazol)phenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (CDBM) has been synthesized. When excited at 380 nm, this molecule shows single fluorescence. However, when excited at 338 nm, it shows dual fluorescence. A Al 3+ complex Al(CDBM) 3 has been synthesized to investigate the dual fluorescence of CDBM. It is found that this complex shows single fluorescence under all excitation. This result indicated that the dual fluorescence of CDBM may relate to the intramolecular proton transfer reaction. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies of CDBM, N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (CBN) and Al(CDBM) 3, a "ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination" mechanism is proposed to explain the unusual excitation-dependent dual fluorescence of CDBM.

  3. The HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction: pre-industrial-to-present trends in atmospheric species and radiative forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. A. Isaksen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent laboratory measurements have shown the existence of a HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction. This reaction is the main source of atmospheric O3, through the subsequent photolysis of NO2, as well as being a major source of OH. The branching of the reaction to HNO3 reduces the formation of these species significantly, affecting O3 abundances, climate and the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. The Oslo CTM2, a three-dimensional chemistry transport model, is used to calculate atmospheric composition and trends with and without the new reaction branch. Results for the present day atmosphere, when both temperature and pressure effects on the branching ratio are accounted for, show an increase of the global, annual mean methane lifetime by 10.9 %, resulting from a 14.1 % reduction in the global, annual mean OH concentration. Comparisons with measurements show that including the new branch improves the modelled O3, but that it is not possible to conclude whether the NOy distribution improves. We model an approximately 11 % reduction in the tropical tropospheric O3 increase since pre-industrial times, as well as an 8 % decrease in the trend of OH concentration, when the new branch is accounted for. The radiative forcing due to changes in O3 over the industrial era was calculated as 0.33 W m?2, reducing to 0.26 W m?2 with the new reaction branch. These results are significant, and it is important that this reaction branching is confirmed by other laboratory groups.

  4. Diffusion and reactivity of ground-state nitrogen atoms N(4S) between 3 and 15 K: application to the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane under non-energetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourry, Sendres; Krim, Lahouari

    2015-07-01

    We have characterized the CH4 + N(4S) reaction in solid phase, at very low temperature, under non-energetic conditions and where the CH4 and N reactants are in their ground states. A microwave-driven atomic source has been used to generate ground-state nitrogen atoms N(4S), and experiments have been carried out at temperatures as low as 3 K to reduce the mobility of the trapped species in solid phase and hence to freeze the first step of the CH4 + N reaction pathway. Leaving the formed solid sample in the dark for a while allows all trapped reactants to relax to the ground state, specifically radicals and excited species streaming from the plasma discharge. Such a method could be the only possibility of proving that the CH4 + N reaction occurs between CH4 and N reactants in their ground states without any additional energy to initiate the chemical process. The appearance of the CH3 reaction product, just by inducing the mobility of N atoms between 3 and 11 K, translates that a hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane, under non-energetic conditions, will start occurring at very low temperature. The formation of methyl radical, under these experimental conditions, is due to recombination processes N(4S)-N(4S) of ground-state nitrogen atoms without any contribution of cosmic ray particles or high-energy photons.

  5. Guideline on the investigation and management of acute transfusion reactions. Prepared by the BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinegate, Hazel; Birchall, Janet; Gray, Alexandra; Haggas, Richard; Massey, Edwin; Norfolk, Derek; Pinchon, Deborah; Sewell, Carrock; Wells, Angus; Allard, Shubha

    2012-10-01

    Although acute non-haemolytic febrile or allergic reactions (ATRs) are a common complication of transfusion and often result in little or no morbidity, prompt recognition and management are essential. The serious hazards of transfusion haemovigilance organisation (SHOT) receives 30-40 reports of anaphylactic reactions each year. Other serious complications of transfusion, such as acute haemolysis, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) may present with similar clinical features to ATR. This guideline describes the approach to a patient developing adverse symptoms and signs related to transfusion, including initial recognition, establishing a likely cause, treatment, investigations, planning future transfusion and reporting within the hospital and to haemovigilance organisations. Key recommendations are that adrenaline should be used as first line treatment of anaphylaxis, and that transfusions should only be carried out where patients can be directly observed and where staff are trained in manging complications of transfusion, particularly anaphylaxis. Management of ATRs is not dependent on classification but should be guided by symptoms and signs. Patients who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be discussed with an allergist or immunologist, in keeping with UK resuscitation council guidelines. PMID:22928769

  6. The brute-force polarization of 23Na and the 23Na(n,?)24Na reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Na target has been polarized by brute force to 22% and the ? radiation produced by polarized thermal neutron capture has been investigated. The 2+ channel spin contribution has been determined model independently and unambiguously for 22 primary transitions. The average 2+ channel contribution is 5.8(5)%. Spins of final levels are in agreement with previous assignments. For three levels spin restrictions have been made. The energies of positive parity levels are in agreement with a shell model calculation in the complete sd shell. (Auth.)

  7. A global ab initio potential energy surface for the X{sup ?2}A{sup ?} ground state of the Si + OH ? SiO + H reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayou, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.dayou@obspm.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique (UMR 8112 du CNRS), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Duflot, Denis; Rivero-Santamaría, Alejandro; Monnerville, Maurice [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules (UMR 8523 du CNRS), Université Lille I Sciences et Technologies, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-11-28

    We report the first global potential energy surface (PES) for the X{sup ?2}A{sup ?} ground electronic state of the Si({sup 3}P) + OH(X{sup 2}?) ? SiO(X{sup 1}?{sub g}{sup +}) + H({sup 2}S) reaction. The PES is based on a large number of ab initio energies obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations plus Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. Corrections were applied to the ab initio energies in the reactant channel allowing a proper description of long-range interactions between Si({sup 3}P) and OH(X{sup 2}?). An analytical representation of the global PES has been developed by means of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The reaction is found barrierless. Two minima, corresponding to the SiOH and HSiO isomers, and six saddle points, among which the isomerization transition state, have been characterized on the PES. The vibrational spectra of the SiOH/HSiO radicals have been computed from second-order perturbation theory and quantum dynamics methods. The structural, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of the two isomers are in good agreement with experimental data and previous high quality calculations.

  8. Odd oxygen formation in the laser irradiation of O2 at 248 nm - Evidence for reactions of O2 in the Herzberg states with ground state O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jichun; Barker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Two O3 formation processes (initiation and autocatalytic) are studied in pure O2 and in O2+N2 and O2+Ar mixtures at pressures between 200 and 1600 torr and at temperatures between 298 and 370 K. Evidence is presented that the initiation process produces O3 through chemical reactions between ground state O2 and excited O2 in the Herzberg states, which are produced by the photoabsorption of O2 at 248 nm. For the autocatalytic process, the results are consistent with the proposal that the O3 formation is accelerated by photodissociating vibrationally excited O2(nu), produced in the photolysis of O3 following its initial formation. It is argued that the O2 Herzberg states and O2(nu) may play important roles in the odd oxygen chemistry in the middle atmosphere. It is estimated that the O2(A3Sigma-u(+))+O2 reaction may yield up to about 6 percent of the total odd oxygen production rate near 50 km.

  9. Handling of impact forces in inverse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseling, Rob W; Hof, At L

    2006-01-01

    In the standard inverse dynamic method, joint moments are assessed from ground reaction force data and position data, where segmental accelerations are calculated by numerical differentiation of position data after low-pass filtering. This method falls short in analyzing the impact phase, e.g. landing after a jump, by underestimating the contribution of the segmental accelerations to the joint moment assessment. This study tried to improve the inverse dynamics method for the assessment of knee moment by evaluating different cutoff frequencies in low-pass filtering of position data on the calculation of knee moment. Next to this, the effect of an inclusion of direct measurement of segmental acceleration using accelerometers to the inverse dynamics was evaluated. Evidence was obtained that during impact, the contribution of the ground reaction force to the sagittal knee moment was neutralized by the moments generated by very high segmental accelerations. Because the accelerometer-based method did not result in the expected improvement of the knee moment assessment during activities with high impacts, it is proposed to filter the ground reaction force with the same cutoff frequency as the calculated accelerations. When this precaution is not taken, the impact peaks in the moments can be considered as artifacts. On the basis of these findings, we recommend in the search to biomechanical explanations of chronic overuse injuries, like jumper's knee, not to consider the relation with impact peak force and impact peak moment. PMID:16209869

  10. Testing the cosmic censorship conjecture with point particles: The effect of radiation reaction and the self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical thought-experiment to destroy black holes was envisaged by Wald in 1974: it consists of throwing particles with large angular momentum into an extremal black hole, checking whether their capture can overspin the black hole past the extremal limit and create a naked singularity. Wald showed that in the test-particle limit, particles that would be otherwise capable of producing naked singularities are simply scattered. Recently, Jacobson and Sotiriou showed that if one considers instead a black hole that is almost, but not exactly extremal, then in the absence of backreaction effects particle capture could indeed overspin the spacetime above the Kerr limit. Here we analyze backreaction effects and show that for some of the trajectories giving rise to naked singularities, radiative effects can be neglected. However, for these orbits the conservative self-force is important, and seems to have the right sign to prevent the formation of naked singularities.

  11. Lesiones de los sargentos alumnos del Ejército de Tierra y factores de riesgo lesional / Injuries of the Ground Forces Student Sergeants and injury risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.A., Valero Capilla; L., Franco Bonafonte; F.J., Rubio Pérez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: los cursos de entrenamiento militar requieren un alto nivel de exigencia física y provocan un número importante de lesiones osteomusculares. Es de interés conocer el tipo de lesiones que se observan en estos cursos y los factores de riesgo lesional asociados, para poder implantar poste [...] riormente medidas preventivas adecuadas y correctas gestiones de los recursos que se disponen. Objetivo: presentar el tipo de lesiones observadas durante la fase común del primer curso de formación de los sargentos alumnos del Ejército de Tierra (ET) y analizar la frecuencia lesional y factores de riesgo relacionados. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal de 15 semanas de duración, en el que se incluyeron 579 sargentos alumnos (49 mujeres), edad media de 25,9 años (Rango 18-31). Al inicio del curso, se obtuvieron los parámetros antropométricos de los alumnos y se midió su condición física mediante las marcas obtenidas en carrera de 6000, 1000 y 50 m, y pruebas de salto vertical y flexo extensiones en suelo. Durante el curso, se registraron las lesiones observadas, sus causas, localización y tiempo de recuperación. Al final del curso, se comparó la frecuencia lesional observada y sus causas entre hombres y mujeres, y en el grupo de hombres, se compararon las marcas obtenidas y los parámetros antropométricos entre los lesionados y no lesionados. Resultados: la edad media del grupo de mujeres vs hombres fue de 27,1 (3,18) vs 25,7 (3,03) años p Abstract in english Background: military training courses are very physically demanding and they cause a significant number of musculoskeletal injuries. It is of interest to know the type of injuries observed in these courses and the associated injury risk factors in order to subsequently implant appropriate preventive [...] measures and manage available resources. Objective: to present the type of injuries observed during the common phase of the first training course of the Ground Forces Student Sergeants and to analyze the frequency of injuries and related risk factors. Material and Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional, 15 week duration study, which included 579 student sergeants (49 women), average age of 25.9 years (range 18-31). At the beginning of the course, the anthropometric parameters of students were obtained and their physical condition was measured through the marks obtained in 6000, 1000 and 50 m career, and through vertical jump and flexion/extension tests on the ground. During the course, observed injuries, their causes, location and recovery time were recorded. At the end of the course, the observed frequency of injuries and their causes were compared between men and women, and in the male group, the obtained marks and the anthropometric parameters were compared between the injured and not injured. Results: the average age of the women vs men´s group was 27.1 (3.18) vs. 25.7 (3.03) years p

  12. Prediction of forces and moments for flight vehicle control effectors. Part 2: An analysis of delta wing aerodynamic control effectiveness in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Ozoroski, L.; Ozoroski, T.; Straussfogel, D.

    1990-01-01

    Many types of hypersonic aircraft configurations are currently being studied for feasibility of future development. Since the control of the hypersonic configurations throughout the speed range has a major impact on acceptable designs, it must be considered in the conceptual design stage. Here, an investigation of the aerodynamic control effectiveness of highly swept delta planforms operating in ground effect is presented. A vortex-lattice computer program incorporating a free wake is developed as a tool to calculate aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. Data generated using this program are compared to experimental data and to data from other vortex-lattice programs. Results show that an elevon deflection produces greater increments in C sub L and C sub M in ground effect than the same deflection produces out of ground effect and that the free wake is indeed necessary for good predictions near the ground.

  13. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-05-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Hydroelastic response of pontoon type very large offshore structure. 4th report. Estimation method of slowly varying wave drift force and fender reaction force; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu dansei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 4 hendoha hyoryuryoku no santei to keiryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikoma, T.; Maeda, H.; Rheem, C. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)] Masuda, K. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    As regard to the present studies on estimation of fluid force of very large floating structures, highly accurate hydroelastic response analysis becomes possible. In this paper, a method calculating varying wave drift force that works on very large shallow draft floating structures having elastic deformation, is proposed. The proposed method is a calculation method applicable enough for the cases to which the shallow draft theory is applied. The following conclusions are obtained from several numerical calculations. The characteristics of the varying wave drift force in longitudinal waves are quite different depending on the combinations of the wave frequencies. As for the characteristics of the varying wave drift force in oblique waves, the difference caused by the combinations of the frequencies is small to the surge direction, but the steady element is remarkable to the sway direction. In irregular waves, elastic floating structure shows smaller fender reaction force in comparison with a rigid body. Therefore, it is favorable to consider the elastic response while estimating the maximum value of the fender reaction force. In the case of dolphin mooring, the distribution characteristics of the maximum value of the fender reaction force is similar to the Weibull distribution. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Zero Horizontal Reaction Force Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Inventor); Nick, Andrew J. (Inventor); Schuler, Jason M. (Inventor); Smith, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An excavator includes a mobile chassis with a first bucket drum and a second bucket drum coupled thereto. The first bucket drum and second bucket drum are coupled to the chassis for positioning thereof on the surface at opposing ends of the chassis. Each first scoop on the first bucket drum is a mirror image of one second scoop on the second bucket drum when (i) the first bucket drum and second bucket drum are on the surface adjacent opposing ends of the chassis, and (ii) the first bucket drum is rotated in one direction and the second bucket drum is simultaneously rotated in an opposing direction.

  16. Significance of mat and shoe softness during prolonged work in upright position: based on measurements of low back muscle EMG, foot volume changes, discomfort and ground force reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L; Winkel, J; Jørgensen, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the significance of mat and shoe softness during prolonged work in an upright position based on some physiological, biomechanical and comfort measurements related to the lower extremities and the low back. Eight healthy female volunteers performed 2 h of simulated standing and 2 h of standing/walking work tasks in the laboratory using four combinations of soft shoes, clogs, soft mat and concrete. Thus, each subject performed a total of eight 2 h work tests. The following parameters were measured pre-experimentally and one or more times during 2 h: total foot volume, vascular volume and interstitial volume of the left foot, EMG from the lumbar paraspinals, movement of centre of gravity (only during standing), biomechanical heel impact (only during standing/walking), perceived discomfort in lumbar back, legs and feet, whole body oxygen uptake, arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Using soft shoes rather than clogs during standing/walking work implies approximately a halving of the foot oedema formation and the heel impact. The effects due to the introduction of the soft mat are negligible. The local circulatory responses in the feet and the EMG-signs of paravertebral muscle fatigue are larger during standing compared to standing/walking work. The two investigated work types in this study differ regarding exposures as well as responses. Thus, it is recommended to shift between these postures and seated work during the working hours to improve job exposures. PMID:9676339

  17. Large atmospheric shortwave radiative forcing by Mediterranean aerosols derived from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne observations and dependence on the aerosol type and single scattering albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Biagio, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties and shortwave irradiance measurements at the island of Lampedusa (central Mediterranean) during 2004-2007 are combined with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System observations of the outgoing shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The measurements are used to estimate the surface (FES), the top of the atmosphere (FETOA), and the atmospheric (FEATM) shortwave aerosol forcing efficiencies for solar zenith angle (?) between 15° and 55° for desert dust (DD), urban/industrial-biomass burning aerosols (UI-BB), and mixed aerosols (MA). The forcing efficiency at the different atmospheric levels is derived by applying the direct method, that is, as the derivative of the shortwave net flux versus the aerosol optical depth at fixed ?. The diurnal average forcing efficiency at the surface/TOA at the equinox is (-68.9 ± 4.0)/(-45.5 ± 5.4) W m-2 for DD, (-59.0 ± 4.3)/(-19.2 ± 3.3) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (-94.9 ± 5.1)/(-36.2 ± 1.7) W m-2 for MA. The diurnal average atmospheric radiative forcing at the equinox is (+7.3 ± 2.5) W m-2 for DD, (+8.4 ± 1.9) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (+8.2 ± 1.9) W m-2 for MA, suggesting that the mean atmospheric forcing is almost independent of the aerosol type. The largest values of the atmospheric forcing may reach +35 W m-2 for DD, +23 W m-2 for UI-BB, and +34 W m-2 for MA. FETOA is calculated for MA and 25° ? ? ? 35° for three classes of single scattering albedo (0.7 ? ? < 0.8, 0.8 ? ? < 0.9, and 0.9 ? ? ? 1) at 415.6 and 868.7 nm: FETOA increases, in absolute value, for increasing ?. A 0.1 increment in ? determines an increase in FETOA by 10-20 W m-2.

  18. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  19. Three-body forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-body forces are defined and their properties discussed. Evidence for such forces in the trinucleon bound states and scattering reactions is reviewed. The binding energy defects of the trinucleon bound states, the 3He charge density, the Phillips line for doublet n-d scattering lengths, and three-nucleon breakup reactions are discussed, together with the possible influence of three-body forces on these observables

  20. NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

  1. Calibration of CR-39 with atomic force microscope for the measurement of short range tracks from proton-induced target fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the track response of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) for low (<6 MeV/n) and high (>100 MeV/n) energy heavy ions using the atomic force microscope (AFM). CR-39 PNTD was exposed to several heavy ion beams of different energy at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba). For AFM measurement, the amount of bulk etch was controlled to be ?2 ?m in order to avoid etching away of short range tracks. The response data obtained by AFM for ?2 ?m bulk etch was in good agreement with data obtained by the conventional optical microscope analysis for larger bulk etch. The response data from low energy beams (stopping near the surface) was also consistent with the data from high energy beams (penetrating the detector) as a function of REL (restricted energy loss) with the ?-ray cut off energy of ?0 = 200 eV. We experimentally verified that REL (?0 = 200 eV) gives a universal function for wide energy range in CR-39 PNTD. This work has been done as part of a basic study in the measurement of secondary short range tracks produced by target fragmentation reactions in proton cancer therapy fields. - Highlights: ? Track response of CR-39 for low and high energy heavy ions was studied. ? Track measurement was carried out with AFM. ? Amount of bulk etch was controlled to be shallowly ?2 ?m ? REL model with the 200 eV ?-ray cut-off energy gives a universal function for wide energy range

  2. Theoretical researches on ?-transfer rates of ground states in medium and heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?-transfer rates of ground states in medium and heavy nuclei are obtained analytically in a two-level pairing force model of j-j scheme. It is concluded that, like the pair-transfer, there is a blocking effect in ?-transfer reactions because of the single and unpaired nucleon. This is in accordance with the experimental facts

  3. Quenching of spin-M1 transition matrix elements and tensor force effect in the ground state in N=Z and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching of spin-M1 transition matrix elements from even-even and N=Z nuclei across the sd shell region was studied by using high resolution (p, p') measurements at forward scattering angles including 0deg. The nuclear matrix elements corresponding to each excited state were deduced by using the differential cross section at 0deg estimated from unit cross section after sorting 1+ nuclear transition derived from the distinct form of angular distribution of differential scattering cross section measured. It was experimentally found from the comparison of the matrix elements calculated for the respective target nuclei with the shell-model calculation that the quenching was observed in the component of isovector, but not in the corresponding one of isoscalar. The difference between these isospins for M1 quenching is presumed to be resulted from the difference of tensor forces in the respective isospin transitions. (author)

  4. [Observation study on aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using the ground-based and satellite remote sensing at background station during the regional pollution episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Xia, Xiang-Ao; Che, Hui-Zheng; Tang, Jie; Tang, Yi-Xi; Meng, Wei; Dong, Fan

    2014-07-01

    The significant effect of anthropogenic pollutants transportation on the physical and optical properties of regional background atmospheric aerosol was studied by using ground-based and satellite remote sensing data obtained at the atmospheric background station (Shangdianzi, Beijing) of North China during October 1 to 15 in 2011. The aerosol mass concentration and reactive gases concentration increased obviously during periods of October 4-5, October 7-9, and October 11-12. Comparing with the background period of October 1-3, volume concentration increased by a factor of 3-6 for reactive gases such as NO(x), and CO, and a factor of 10-20 for SO2. Mass concentration of PM2.5 was about 200 microg x m(-3) on October 9. During haze period, the AOD at 500 nm varied between 0.60 to 1.00. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was lower than 0.88. And the black carbon concentration increased 4-8 times, which suggested the aerosol absorption was very strong during this pollution episode. The absorption of aerosol particles could cause 100-400 W x m(-2) increase of atmospheric radiation. The surface radiation decreased by about 100-300 W x m(-2) due to the aerosol scattering and absorption. This could cause higher stability of atmosphere, which will significantly affect the cloud and precipitation, and thus the regional weather and climate. PMID:25247232

  5. Análise da força articular resultante entre diferentes movimentos do ombro com e sem carga: estudo preliminar / Analysis of the joint reaction forces during different shoulder movements with and without external load: a preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss; Joelly Mahnic de, Toledo; Marcelo Peduzzi de, Castro; Fábia Milman, Krumholz; Felipe de Osório, Marques.

    Full Text Available Os modelos de segmentos rígidos são extremamente úteis para auxiliar a compreensão do tipo de sobrecarga que as articulações estão expostas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a força articular resultante e momento proximal durante atividades sem e com carga externa, em um estudo preliminar. Um [...] indivíduo realizou flexão, extensão, abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo (sem e com carga). Dados cinemáticos foram obtidos por videogrametria (freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/s). Um modelo de segmentos rígidos foi utilizado para obtenção dos dados cinéticos. O modelo é regido pelas equações de movimento de Newton-Euler. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram aumentos não proporcionais na força e momento resultante. A força resultante longitudinal foi a única que apresentou aumento proporcional frente à carga externa. As componentes da força de cisalhamento e momento proximal apresentaram aumentos aleatórios. O aumento da carga externa promoveu aumentos da força e momento proximal, porém não de forma proporcional. As componentes de força e momento resultante sofrem influência da carga externa de maneira independente. Isto evidencia a necessidade de um controle rígido sobre os exercícios prescritos para diferentes disfunções do membro superior. Abstract in english Link segment models are extremely useful for increasing the comprehension of joint overload. The aim of the present study was to analyze proximal joint reaction forces and moments during different movements performed with and without external load. One subject performed shoulder flexion, extension a [...] nd abduction, and elbow flexion movements (with and without external load) Kinematic data were obtained by videogrammetry (frequency sample 50 fields/s). One link segment model was used to obtain kinetic data. The model is governed by Newton/Euler movement equations. The results suggested a not proportional increasing of proximal joint reaction forces and moments. The proximal joint reaction force longitudinal component was the only one that increased proportionally to the external load. Proximal joint reaction force shearing components and proximal moments presented increasing values of different magnitudes. The use of external load promoted increased magnitudes of proximal joint reaction force and moment, although it was not proportional. Proximal joint reaction force and moment are influenced in different ways by the external load. This suggests the need of a strict control of the prescribed exercises for different shoulder dysfunctions.

  6. Quantum, Statistical, and Quasiclassical Trajectory Studies For the Ne + HeH(+) ? NeH(+) + He Reaction on the Ground Electronic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N

    2015-12-17

    Real wave packet, statistical quantum, and quasiclassical trajectory methods were employed to study the dynamics of Ne + HeH(+)(v0,j0) ? He + NeH(+) reaction on an ab initio potential energy surface [J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 13070-13078]. Quantum and statistical quantum calculations were performed within the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation as well as including the Coriolis coupling (CC). Dense oscillatory structures of the quantum reaction probabilities and fair agreement between quantum and statistical cross sections suggest a complex forming mechanism for the reaction. No significant differences between cross sections obtained within the CS and CC approaches are observed. Quasiclassical trajectory results give an excellent average description of the quantum CC results. At low collision energies, there is a substantial decrease in reactivity for the reaction upon rovibrational excitation. Initial state selected rate constants for the title reaction are calculated between 20 and 1000 K, and the calculated value at 300 K agrees quite well with the available experimental result. Reaction cross sections and rate constants are also compared with those calculated via the Langevin capture model for exothermic reactions. PMID:26172109

  7. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  8. On ground model definability

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, Victoria; Johnstone, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Laver, and Woodin independently, showed that models of ${\\rm ZFC}$ are uniformly definable in their set-forcing extensions, using a ground model parameter. We investigate ground model definability for models of fragments of ${\\rm ZFC}$, particularly of ${\\rm ZF}+{\\rm DC}_\\delta$ and of ${\\rm ZFC}^-$, and we obtain both positive and negative results. Generalizing the results of Laver and Woodin, we show that models of ${\\rm ZF}+{\\rm DC}_\\delta$ are uniformly definable in thei...

  9. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) ? OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) ? OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment

  10. Investigating the relationship between pressure force and acoustic waveform in footstep sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Serafin, Stefania; Götzen, Amalia De; Overholt, Daniel; Topel, Spencer

    In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair o...

  11. Ab initio study of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions and the tensor force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D. [Division of General Education, Nagaoka National College of Technology, 888 Nishikatakai, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-8532 (Japan); Center for Academic Information Service, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P.229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Quantique, CP165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions at low energies are studied with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in an ab initio approach. The obtained astrophysical S-factors are all in very good agreement with experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  12. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites, respectively. The ARF readings at the top of the atmosphere were approximately -30W/sq m in rural and -40-60W/sq m in urban areas.

  13. Tensor Force Manifestations in Ab Initio Study of the 2H(d,?)4He, 2H(d,p)3H, and 2H(d,n)3He Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2H(d,p)3H, 2H(d,n)3He, and 2H(d,?)4He reactions are studied at low energies in a multichannel ab initio model that takes into account the distortions of the nuclei. The internal wave functions of these nuclei are given by the stochastic variational method with the AV8' realistic interaction and a phenomenological three-body force included to reproduce the two-body thresholds. The obtained astrophysical S factors are all in very good agreement with the experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are identified by comparing to calculations with an effective central force. They are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  14. Diatomics-in-molecules (DIM) formalism for the reaction AH+ +A'?A+A'H+: A ground state potential energy surface for collinear He2H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valence-bond diatomics-in-molecules (DIM) formalism is applied to the study of proton rare-gas reactions of the type AH++A'?A +A'H+. The method is used to generate potential energy surfaces for the He2H+ system. The DIM potential surface for this system is in good quantitative agreement with an LCAO--SCF--MO surface for the collinear arrangement, He--H--He+

  15. Análisis cuantitativo de la evolución post-quirúrgica de la rotura de ligamento cruzado anterior mediante el uso de la plataforma de fuerza - Quantitative analysis of the evolution of post-surgical anterior cruciate ligament rupture using force platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilar, JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl analisis cinético mediante plataforma de fuerza es un método objetivo de cuantificar el apoyo de los miembros en los animales domésticos.SummaryKinetic análisis by jeans of force platforms is an objetive method to measure weight - bearing or ground reaction force (GRF.

  16. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted to assess differences between three water-sampling methods - collecting samples from the well by pumping a packer-isolated zone using a submersible pump, by using a grab sampler, and by using a passive diffusion sampler. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloropropane were greatest for samples collected using the submersible pump in the packed-isolated interval, suggesting that the straddle packer yielded the least dilute sample.

  17. Resonance-like structure observed in 22Ne(p?)23Na reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied ?-disintegration of a resonance-like structure observed in 22Ne(p?)23Na reaction within Ep 0.8-2.5 MeV energy range of accelerated protons. One identified M1 resonance in the ground and the excited states (E* = 440 and 2982 keV) of 23Na nucleus. M1 resonance position in the ground state is explained with regard to pairing forces

  18. Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H2+?ArH++H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (12A?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (12A?) of the Ar+H2+?ArH++H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03–1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

  19. Exact integral constraint requiring only the ground-state electron density as input on the exchange-correlation force - partial differential(V)(xc)(r)/partial differential(r) for spherical atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, N H; Nagy, A

    2008-11-21

    Following some studies of integral(n)(r)inverted DeltaV(r)dr by earlier workers for the density functional theory (DFT) one-body potential V(r) generating the exact ground-state density, we consider here the special case of spherical atoms. The starting point is the differential virial theorem, which is used, as well as the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg [Phys. Rev. A 18, 2399 (1978)] identity to show that the scalar quantity paralleling the above vector integral, namely, integral(n)(r) partial differential(V)(r)/partial differential(r)dr, is determined solely by the electron density n(0) at the nucleus for the s-like atoms He and Be. The force - partial differential(V)/ partial differential(r) is then related to the derivative of the exchange-correlation potential V(xc)(r) by terms involving only the external potential in addition to n(r). The resulting integral constraint should allow some test of the quality of currently used forms of V(xc)(r). The article concludes with results from the differential virial theorem and the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity for the exact many-electron theory of spherical atoms, as well as for the DFT for atoms such as Ne with a closed p shell. PMID:19026052

  20. Effects of vascular infusion with a solution of saccharides; sodium chloride; phosphates; and vitamins C, E, or both on carcass traits, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of steaks and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Addist, P B; Katsanidis, E; Pullen, M

    2002-07-01

    Three groups of 12 high percentage Charolais steers were slaughtered on three dates. Steers (n = 27) were infused immediately after exsanguination at 10% of BW with a solution containing saccharides, NaCl, and phosphates (MPSC solution; MPSC, Inc., St. Paul, MN) plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E), or 500 ppm vitamin C plus 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E). Noninfused controls (CON) were 9 steers. The longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris muscles were removed at 48-h postmortem, vacuum-packaged, and aged until 14-d postmortem. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the LT and ST. The quadriceps was utilized for ground-beef production. Infused steers had higher dressing percentages and heavier heart and liver weights (P infusion with vitamins C, E, or C plus E had no effect (P > 0.05) on USDA yield and quality-grade traits, LT and ST Warner-Bratzler shear force, descriptive-attribute traits, and freshly cooked steak flavor-profile traits. Vascular infusion had little effect on the flavor-profile traits of warmed-over steaks. Therefore, the results of our study indicate that vascular infusion with vitamins C, E, or C plus E can increase dressing percentage and organ weights, but have minimal effects on descriptive-attribute and flavor-profile sensory panel ratings. PMID:12162658

  1. ?-decay of resonance-like structure observed in 30Si(p,?)31P reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-Decay of a resonance-like structure observed in the reaction 30Si (p, ?)31P in the energy region Ep = 1.4 - 2.7 MeV of accelerated protons is studied. The M1 resonance built on the ground state of 31P is identified. The position of the M1 resonance is explained taking into account pairing forces

  2. Toe-Out Gait Decreases the Second Peak of the Medial Knee Contact Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaya, Shinya; Naito, Hisashi; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Toe-out angle alternation is a potential tactic for decreasing the knee adduction moment during walking. Published reports have not examined the medial knee contact force during the toe-out gait, although it is a factor affecting knee articular cartilage damage. This study investigated the effects of increased toe-out angle on the medial knee contact force, using musculoskeletal simulation analysis. For normal and toe-out gaits in 18 healthy subjects, the muscle tension forces were simulated based on the joint moments and ground reaction forces with optimization process. The medial knee contact force during stance phase was determined using the sum of the muscle force and joint reaction force components. The first and second peaks of the medial knee contact force were compared between the gaits. The toe-out gait showed a significant decrease in the medial knee contact force at the second peak, compared with the normal gait. In contrast, the medial knee contact forces at the first peak were not significantly different between the gaits. These results suggest that the toe-out gait is beneficial for decreasing the second peak of the medial knee contact force. PMID:25880695

  3. Charge exchange study with the 40Ca(7Li, 7Be)40K reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions have been measured for the (4-, 3-) and (2-, 5-) doublets at approximately 0.0 and 0.85 MeV excitation in 40K with the reaction 40Ca(7Li, 7Be) for 7Be in both its ground and first excited states at Esub(7Li) = 35 MeV. Microscopic distorted wave approximation calculations including only a central force do not reproduce the cross sections. Inclusion of a tensor force may resolve this disagreement. (Auth.)

  4. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  5. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  6. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition. PMID:17705682

  7. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two such...... professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  8. Half-Lives of ground states in Pm and Eu nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions at 25 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, N. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Simon, A.; Gell, K.

    2014-09-01

    The primary experiment was designed to study low/medium spin states in Sm nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions where x = d or t. During the experiment the Sm target was irradiated by a 25 MeV proton beam, provided by the K150 Cyclotron at Texas A&M University, with an average beam current of ~1 nA for about one week. Following the experiment, residual radioactivity in the target was measured in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Richmond using a 25% efficiency coaxial Ge detector enclosed in a 6-inch thick Pb shield. The gamma ray spectra were internally calibrated using a 152Eu source and the energies of known gamma-rays from the target decays and from long lived environmental radioactivity. The decays of three long lived (~1 month or more) mass A ~ 150 nuclei were identified (148Sm, 148Eu, and 147Eu), and half lives for their beta-decay were (re)measured. Work is still in progress and preliminary results will be presented at the APS conference.

  9. Calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements for ground and excited state electron transfer reactions: Comparison of the generalized Mulliken-Hush and block diagonalization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Robert J.; Newton, Marshall D.

    1997-06-01

    Two independent methods are presented for the nonperturbative calculation of the electronic coupling matrix element (Hab) for electron transfer reactions using ab initio electronic structure theory. The first is based on the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) model, a multistate generalization of the Mulliken Hush formalism for the electronic coupling. The second is based on the block diagonalization (BD) approach of Cederbaum, Domcke, and co-workers. Detailed quantitative comparisons of the two methods are carried out based on results for (a) several states of the system Zn2OH2+ and (b) the low-lying states of the benzene-Cl atom complex and its contact ion pair. Generally good agreement between the two methods is obtained over a range of geometries. Either method can be applied at an arbitrary nuclear geometry and, as a result, may be used to test the validity of the Condon approximation. Examples of nonmonotonic behavior of the electronic coupling as a function of nuclear coordinates are observed for Zn2OH2+. Both methods also yield a natural definition of the effective distance (rDA) between donor (D) and acceptor (A) sites, in contrast to earlier approaches which required independent estimates of rDA, generally based on molecular structure data.

  10. Unloading Reaction during Sudden Ankle Inversion in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Tarang Kumar; Wauneka, Clayton; Liu, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the dynamics of early human response from sudden ankle inversion (30° tilt). Changes in vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) following trapdoor release in a group of healthy subjects were compared to those from the similar experiments using a chair with two U shaped steel legs and matched weights of the human subjects. The experiments with the chair were further repeated with additional foam paddings at their bases to introduce visco-elast...

  11. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

  12. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  13. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  14. Deuteration effect on the NH/ND stretch band of the jet-cooled 7-azaindole and its tautomeric dimers: Relation between the vibrational relaxation and the ground-state double proton-transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Deuteration effect on IR spectra of 7-azaindole tautomeric dimers is investigated. • The NH/ND stretch levels are found to relax basically within the monomer unit. • Only the NH stretch of the tautomeric dimer exhibits a drastic deuteration effect. • The deuteration effect is related to the double proton-transfer reaction. - Abstract: Infrared spectra of NH and ND stretch bands of the 7-azaindole (7-AI) dimer and its tautomeric dimer are observed to investigate a deuteration effect on the spectra and also a ground-state double proton-transfer (DPT) reaction. We examined the three isotopic species for each dimers; undeuterated one (NH–NH) and one or two hydrogen atom(s) of the NH groups is deuterated ones (NH–ND and ND–ND, respectively). It is found that the ND stretch band profiles of the NH–ND and ND–ND tautomeric dimers are very similar with each other. This result is very distinct from the result of the comparison of the NH stretch band profiles of the NH–NH and NH–ND dimers in our previous paper. For a further discussion, we examined the deuteration effect in the case of the 7-AI dimer. It is found that band profiles of the NH stretch of the NH–NH and the NH–ND dimers and also the ND stretch of the NH–ND and the ND–ND dimers exhibit similar patterns, respectively. These facts indicates that the vibrational relaxation from the NH/ND stretch level of the dimer basically proceed within a monomer unit. The large deuteration effect of the NH stretch band profile observed previously is found to be characteristic of the tautomeric dimer. This behavior is related to a large anharmonicity of the potential energy surface originating from an existence of the double-proton transfer reaction barrier

  15. Some applications of the virial theorem to molecular force fields: the zero virial reaction coordinate and diatomic potentials from the normalized kinetic field functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a fixed-angle potential energy surface (PES), W(Q), following the zero virial path (ZVP), on which ?/sub ?//sup N/Q/sub ?/ . del /sub ?/W(Q) = 0, provides an efficient way for locating the transition state and generating a good approximation to the minimum-energy reaction path; vector Q = (Q1, ..., Q/sub N/ stands for nuclear coordinates. An algorithm which employs the ZVP following is proposed for exploring PESs when starting from the reactant (or product) region. It seems that this approach allows one to avoid some discontinuities in the reaction coordinate, which often result from the bottom-following procedures. The implications of the integral forms of the virial theorem are examined and a new way of constructing potential energy functions W(R) for diatomic molecules is proposed. It starts with the normalization of the kinetic component T(R) of the potential: integral0/sup infinity/[T(R) - T(infinity)]dR = Z/sub A/Z/sub B/, where Z/sub A/ and Z/sub B/ are the nuclear charges and R is the internuclear distance. The modified potentials are derived for four different analytical representations of T(R), T/sub X(R)(X = M, R, RM, and HH) by the Morse, Rydberg, Rosen--Morse, and Hulbert--Hirschfelder functions, respectively. The three-parameter modified potentials (X = M, R, and RM) are tested against known spectroscopic data for H2+ and H2.The modified potentials require one less experimental constant to fit the potential parameters than do their original analogs. It follows that the Morse and Rydberg functions constitute satisfactory representations of the kinetic component T(R), and that enforcing its normalization improves predictions of spectroscopic constants and relations between them. 46 references

  16. Nuclear forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

  17. Motion synthesis and force distribution analysis for a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnacki, Maciej T; Zieli?ska, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of generating biped robot motion using recorded human gait is presented. The recorded data were modified taking into account the velocity available for robot drives. Data includes only selected joint angles, therefore the missing values were obtained considering the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which means obtaining an adequate motion trajectory of the so-called Zero Moment Point (ZMT). Also, the method of determining the ground reaction forces' distribution during the biped robot's dynamic stable walk is described. The method was developed by the authors. Following the description of equations characterizing the dynamics of robot's motion, the values of the components of ground reaction forces were symbolically determined as well as the coordinates of the points of robot's feet contact with the ground. The theoretical considerations have been supported by computer simulation and animation of the robot's motion. This was done using Matlab/Simulink package and Simulink 3D Animation Toolbox, and it has proved the proposed method. PMID:21761810

  18. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation

  19. Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

    2012-08-21

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be ?-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). PMID:22839691

  20. Accurate Hellman-Feynman force method for the study of the first and second derivatives of potential energy hypersurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the method of calculating a reliable H-F-force, starting from the underlying theorem, and examine the accuracy of calculated H-F force. The authors then show some recent applications of the method to geometry optimizations of the molecules in ground and excited states and of the transition state of a chemical reaction. Further, when the H-F theorum is used, an analytic expression of the second derivative becomes much simpler than a straightforward second derivative of the energy. The authors report calculations of force constants by this method and explain the electronic origins of the second derivatives

  1. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  2. Ground Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Marlene

    1998-01-01

    Many public school districts have adopted a policy of zero tolerance toward drug use, weapon possession, and sexual harassment on school grounds. Although a study by the National Center for Education Statistics reported no evidence that zero tolerance policies have lowered school crime rates, prominent education groups favor them. (JOW)

  3. Coaxial atomic force microscope tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. A.; Aguilar, J. A.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force versus applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers can perform three-dimensional assembly by picking up a specified silica microsphere, imaging with the microsphere at the end of the tip, and placing it at a target destination.

  4. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  5. Modelo dinâmico de simulação e otimização da força normal de reação do solo para um mecanismo de corte basal Dynamic model of simulation and optimization of the normal force of soil reaction for a mechanism of base cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. S. Volpato

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo físico foi baseado no método de Newton-Euler, sendo o mesmo desenvolvido utilizando o programa computacional científico Mathematica®. Realizaram-se várias simulações, nas quais se procurou obter a força normal de reação do solo variando velocidades de avanço (0,69; 1,12; 1,48; 1,82 e 2,12 m s-1; perfis de solo (senoidal, rampa ascendente e descendente e altura do camalhão (0,025 e 0,05 m. Após as simulações iniciais, o mecanismo foi otimizado utilizando o programa computacional científico Matlab®, tendo como critério (função-objetivo a minimização da força normal de reação do perfil (F N e como variáveis de projeto os comprimentos das barras (L1y, L2, l3 e L4, altura da operação (L7, o comprimento inicial da mola (Lmo e a constante elástica da mola (k t. A falta de robustez do mecanismo em relação à variável altura de operação foi contornada por meio do uso de mola com baixa rigidez e grande comprimento. Os resultados demonstraram que o mecanismo otimizado obteve desempenho de flutuação muito bom, em relação ao mecanismo inicial.The physical model was based on the method of Newton-Euler. The model was developed by using the scientific computer program Mathematica®. Several simulations where tried varying the progress speeds (0.69; 1.12; 1.48; 1.82 and 2.12 m s-1; soil profiles (sinoidal, ascending and descending ramp and height of the profile (0.025 and 0.05 m to obtain the normal force of soil reaction. After the initial simulations, the mechanism was optimized using the scientific computer program Matlab® having as criterion (function-objective the minimization of the normal force of reaction of the profile (FN. The project variables were the lengths of the bars (L1y, L2, l3 and L4, height of the operation (L7, the initial length of the spring (Lmo and the elastic constant of the spring (k t. The lack of robustness of the mechanism in relation to the variable height of the operation was outlined by using a spring with low rigidity and large length. The results demonstrated that the mechanism optimized showed better flotation performance in relation to the initial mechanism.

  6. Modelo dinâmico de simulação e otimização da força normal de reação do solo para um mecanismo de corte basal / Dynamic model of simulation and optimization of the normal force of soil reaction for a mechanism of base cutter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E. S., Volpato; Oscar A., Braunbeck; Carlos A. A. de, Oliveira.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo físico foi baseado no método de Newton-Euler, sendo o mesmo desenvolvido utilizando o programa computacional científico Mathematica®. Realizaram-se várias simulações, nas quais se procurou obter a força normal de reação do solo variando velocidades de avanço (0,69; 1,12; 1,48; 1,82 e 2,12 m [...] s-1); perfis de solo (senoidal, rampa ascendente e descendente) e altura do camalhão (0,025 e 0,05 m). Após as simulações iniciais, o mecanismo foi otimizado utilizando o programa computacional científico Matlab®, tendo como critério (função-objetivo) a minimização da força normal de reação do perfil (F N) e como variáveis de projeto os comprimentos das barras (L1y, L2, l3 e L4), altura da operação (L7), o comprimento inicial da mola (Lmo) e a constante elástica da mola (k t). A falta de robustez do mecanismo em relação à variável altura de operação foi contornada por meio do uso de mola com baixa rigidez e grande comprimento. Os resultados demonstraram que o mecanismo otimizado obteve desempenho de flutuação muito bom, em relação ao mecanismo inicial. Abstract in english The physical model was based on the method of Newton-Euler. The model was developed by using the scientific computer program Mathematica®. Several simulations where tried varying the progress speeds (0.69; 1.12; 1.48; 1.82 and 2.12 m s-1); soil profiles (sinoidal, ascending and descending ramp) and [...] height of the profile (0.025 and 0.05 m) to obtain the normal force of soil reaction. After the initial simulations, the mechanism was optimized using the scientific computer program Matlab® having as criterion (function-objective) the minimization of the normal force of reaction of the profile (FN). The project variables were the lengths of the bars (L1y, L2, l3 and L4), height of the operation (L7), the initial length of the spring (Lmo) and the elastic constant of the spring (k t). The lack of robustness of the mechanism in relation to the variable height of the operation was outlined by using a spring with low rigidity and large length. The results demonstrated that the mechanism optimized showed better flotation performance in relation to the initial mechanism.

  7. Modelo 3D para quantificação das forças articulares e momentos proximais resultantes para o membro superior / 3D model for analysis of resultant proximal reaction forces and moments for the upper limb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss.

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo implementar um modelo biomecânico, de segmentos articulados, associado à dinâmica inversa que permita a análise em três dimensões das forças de reação proximais e momentos proximais resultantes para diferentes gestos do membro superior. Método: Os gestos ava [...] liados foram: flexão, extensão e abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo, os quais foram realizados por um indivíduo do sexo masculino. O modelo implementado é composto por cinco segmentos rígidos (mão, antebraço, braço, escápula e tronco) conectados. As equações de movimento de Newton-Euler foram utilizadas para quantificação das forças e momentos proximais resultantes. Para registro cinemático foram utilizadas cinco câmeras digitais, com freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/seg. A precisão estimada do sistema de videogrametria foi, em média, de 1,7 mm. Foi monitorada a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos deltóide (anterior, médio e posterior), bíceps braquial, tríceps braquial e peitoral maior. O modelo foi avaliado através da comparação qualitativa dos resultados de momento proximal resultante, com a atividade eletromiográfica. Resultados: Os resultados sugerem que o modelo apresenta resultados coerentes. O sinal eletromiográfico e o momento proximal apresentam sincronismo temporal. Conclusão: O modelo foi capaz de estimar as forças de reacção e momentos proximais resultantes nos diferentes gestos. Abstract in english Objectives: The aim of this study was to implement a biomechanical model, with linked segments associated with inverse dynamics, to analyze proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities. Methods: one male subject performed flexion, extension and abduction of the shoulder a [...] nd flexion of the elbow. The model is composed of five connected rigid segments (hand, forearm, arm, scapula and trunk). The Newton-Euler motion equations were used to quantify proximal net reaction forces and moments. For kinematics recording, five cameras with a frequency sample of 50 fps were used. Videogrammetry accuracy was, on average, 1,7mm. The following muscles had their activities monitored: deltoid (anterior, medial, posterior), biceps brachialis, triceps brachialis, pectoralis major. The model was evaluated by qualitative comparison of proximal net moments with electromyographic signal of agonist muscles. Results: The results showed a temporal synchronism between the proximal net moments and agonist EMG activity. Conclusions: The model was able to estimate proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities.

  8. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  9. Strong Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  10. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements. The...

  11. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  12. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  13. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Eisner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of overlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bond of some simple molecules and the connection between the forces acting upon atoms and the rules derived from conservation of orbital symmetry in concerted reaction. The results show good agreement with the experimental evidence and the known symmetry rules

  14. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico, Eisner; María del Carmen, González; Jorge Ricardo, Letelier D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of ov [...] erlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bond of some simple molecules and the connection between the forces acting upon atoms and the rules derived from conservation of orbital symmetry in concerted reaction. The results show good agreement with the experimental evidence and the known symmetry rules

  15. EXTENDED HÜCKEL ORBITAL FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Eisner; María del Carmen González; Jorge Ricardo Letelier D

    2003-01-01

    The forces acting on individual atoms in a molecule, arising from the distorting effect on the molecular framework of the electrons in the different populated molecular orbitals, are calculated within a simple Extended Hückel formalism. The method, which is strongly dependent on the properties of overlap integrals, is applied to the study of several processes and reactions of chemical interest, such as conformational stability of molecules, torsional stability for rotations around a single bo...

  16. Elastic response of a grounded ice sheet coupled to a floating ice shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayag, Roiy; Worster, M Grae

    2011-09-01

    An ice sheet that spreads into an ocean is forced to bend owing to its buoyancy and detaches from the bedrock to form a floating ice shelf. The location of the transition between the grounded sheet and the floating shelf, defined as the grounding line, behaves as a free boundary. We develop a model of an elastic grounded sheet resting on a deformable elastic bed and coupled to an elastic floating shelf. We find that the grounding-line position is determined by the geometry of the bed and the bending-buoyancy length scale of the system. These two contributions depend on the reaction modulus of the bed in opposite ways. We show that the structure of the floating shelf depends on the bending-buoyancy length scale only, allowing us to calculate the bending stiffness of the elastic sheet independently of the properties of the bed. Relations between the structure of the floating shelf and the grounding-line position are also developed. Our theoretical predictions agree with laboratory experiments made using thick elastic sheets and a dense salt solution. Our findings may provide new insights into the dynamics near grounding lines, as well as methods to infer the bending stiffness of ice sheets and the grounding-line position from satellite altimetery that can be applied to elastic sheets in general. PMID:22060460

  17. Multiparticle transfer and frictional forces in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the frictional forces in a low-energy heavy ion collision by solving the independent particle transfer between two potentials moving on prescribed trajectories. We conclude that, although one may extract both a tangential and a radial frictional force for the initial stage of the collision, they will be different in the final stage of the reaction and they depend on the shell structure. The strong coherence of the transfer process shows up in the probability of remaining in the initial ground state, which is strongly enhanced over the result obtained from incoherent transfer. This indicates that a measurement of the absorption in the entrance channel is a sensitive measure of the effect of two-body collisions and other relaxation mechanisms. (orig.)

  18. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants ...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements. The...... article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  19. Assessment of Knee Cartilage Stress Distribution and Deformation Using Motion Capture System and Wearable Sensors for Force Ratio Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijailovic, N.; Vulovic, R.; Milankovic, I.; Radakovic, R.; Filipovic, N.; Peulic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the knee cartilage deformation ratio as well as the knee cartilage stress distribution is of particular importance in clinical studies due to the fact that these represent some of the basic indicators of cartilage state and that they also provide information about joint cartilage wear so medical doctors can predict when it is necessary to perform surgery on a patient. In this research, we apply various kinds of sensors such as a system of infrared cameras and reflective markers, three-axis accelerometer, and force plate. The fluorescent marker and accelerometers are placed on the patient's hip, knee, and ankle, respectively. During a normal walk we are recording the space position of markers, acceleration, and ground reaction force by force plate. Measured data are included in the biomechanical model of the knee joint. Geometry for this model is defined from CT images. This model includes the impact of ground reaction forces, contact force between femur and tibia, patient body weight, ligaments, and muscle forces. The boundary conditions are created for the finite element method in order to noninvasively determine the cartilage stress distribution. PMID:26417382

  20. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-09-29

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman's ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  1. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  2. Effect of increased pushoff during gait on hip joint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara L; Garibay, Erin J

    2015-01-01

    Anterior acetabular labral tears and anterior hip pain may result from high anteriorly directed forces from the femur on the acetabulum. While providing more pushoff is known to decrease sagittal plane hip moments, it is unknown if this gait modification also decreases hip joint forces. The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing pushoff decreases hip joint forces. Nine healthy subjects walked on an instrumented force treadmill at 1.25 m/s under two walking conditions. For the natural condition, subjects were instructed to walk as they normally would. For the increased pushoff condition, subjects were instructed to "push more with your foot when you walk". We collected motion data of markers placed on the subjects' trunk and lower extremities to capture trunk and leg kinematics and ground reaction force data to determine joint moments. Data were processed in Visual3D to produce the inverse kinematics and model scaling files. In OpenSim, the generic gait model (Gait2392) was scaled to the subject, and hip joint forces were calculated for the femur on the acetabulum after computing the muscle activations necessary to reproduce the experimental data. The instruction to "push more with your foot when you walk" reduced the maximum hip flexion and extension moment compared to the natural condition. The average reduction in the hip joint forces were 12.5%, 3.2% and 9.6% in the anterior, superior and medial directions respectively and 2.3% for the net resultant force. Increasing pushoff may be an effective gait modification for people with anterior hip pain. PMID:25468661

  3. Common muscle synergies for control of center of mass and force in nonstepping and stepping postural behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Chvatal, Stacie A.; Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Safavynia, Seyed A.; Ting, Lena H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated muscle activity, ground reaction forces, and center of mass (CoM) acceleration in two different postural behaviors for standing balance control in humans to determine whether common neural mechanisms are used in different postural tasks. We compared nonstepping responses, where the base of support is stationary and balance is recovered by returning CoM back to its initial position, with stepping responses, where the base of support is enlarged and balance is recovered by pushi...

  4. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the textbook overviews nuclear reactions discussing the reaction mechanisms and the types of nuclear reactions, e.g. those induced by neutrons, by protons, by alpha particles and gamma photons, and finally, deuteron and thermonuclear reactions

  5. Vacuum force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  6. Comparative analysis of the ground reaction forces, during the support phase, in a group of pregnant women on their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in a group of not pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rubim; Gil, Belandina; Marques, Alda; Vilas Boas, João; Silva, José

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: caracterizar e comparar as forças de reação do solo (FRS), durante a fase de apoio num ciclo de marcha da mulher grávida do 3º trimestre e na não grávida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 20 mulheres, 10 grávidas e dez não grávidas, participaram voluntariamente neste estudo. Os valores relativos às forças de reação do solo (FRS) foram medidos (1000 Hz) usando uma plataforma de força (BERTEC 4060-15), ligada a um amplificador (BERTEC AM 6300) e a um conversor analógico-digital de 16 Bits (Bio...

  7. Hexagonal walking vehicle with force sensing capability

    OpenAIRE

    Schmucker, U; Schneider, A; Ihme, T.

    1996-01-01

    New results on the development of an adaptive six-legged hexagonal walking robot and its control system are presented. The major part of the paper considers control of foot force distribution and control of body motion based on the information about force foot reactions and the information about the main force vector acting on the robot's body. Inserting and drilling operations based on the force control are considered.

  8. Forcing isomorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, J T; Shelah, S; Baldwin, John T.; Laskowski, Michael C.; Shelah, Saharon

    1993-01-01

    A forcing extension may create new isomorphisms between two models of a first order theory. Certain model theoretic constraints on the theory and other constraints on the forcing can prevent this pathology. A countable first order theory is classifiable if it is superstable and does not have either the dimensional order property or the omitting types order property. Shelah [Sh:c] showed that if a theory T is classifiable then each model of cardinality lambda is described by a sentence of L_{infty, lambda}. In fact this sentence can be chosen in the L^*_{lambda}. (L^*_{lambda} is the result of enriching the language L_{infty, beth^+} by adding for each mu < lambda a quantifier saying the dimension of a dependence structure is greater than mu .) The truth of such sentences will be preserved by any forcing that does not collapse cardinals <= lambda and that adds no new countable subsets of lambda. Hence, if two models of a classifiable theory of power lambda are non-isomorphic, they are non-isomorphic afte...

  9. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may recommend over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines. For a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), check the ... reaction is getting worse. The person has a history of severe allergic reactions (check for a medical ...

  10. Level locomotion in wood ants: evidence for grounded running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In order to better understand the strategies of locomotion in small insects, we have studied continuous level locomotion of the wood ant species Formica polyctena. We determined the three-dimensional centre of mass kinematics during the gait cycle and recorded the ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping frequency. The centre of mass energetics indicated a bouncing gait, in which horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy fluctuated in close phase. We determined a high degree of compliance especially in the front legs, as the effective leg length was nearly halved during the contact phase. This leads to only small vertical oscillations of the body, which are important in maintaining ground contact. Bouncing gaits without aerial phases seem to be a common strategy in small runners and can be sufficiently described by the bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model. Thus, with our results, we provide evidence that wood ants perform 'grounded running'. PMID:24744414

  11. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  12. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  13. A new bi-axial cantilever beam design for biomechanics force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huai-Ti; Trimmer, Barry A

    2012-08-31

    The demand for measuring forces exerted by animals during locomotion has increased dramatically as biomechanists strive to understand and implement biomechanical control strategies. In particular, multi-axial force transducers are often required to capture animal limb coordination patterns. Most existing force transducers employ strain gages arranged in a Wheatstone bridge on a cantilever beam. Bi-axial measurements require duplicating this arrangement in the transverse direction. In this paper, we reveal a method to embed a Wheatstone bridge inside another to allow bi-axial measurements without additional strain gages or additional second beams. This hybrid configuration resolves two force components from a single bridge circuit and simplifies fabrication for the simultaneous assessment of normal and transverse loads. This design can be implemented with two-dimensional fabrication techniques and can even be used to modify a common full bridge cantilever force transducer. As a demonstration of the new design, we built a simple beam which achieved bi-axial sensing capability that outperformed a conventional half-bridge-per-axis bi-axial strain gage design. We have used this design to measure the ground reaction forces of a crawling caterpillar and a caterpillar-mimicking soft robot. The simplicity and increased sensitivity of this method could facilitate bi-axial force measurements for experimental biologists. PMID:22776687

  14. Transition States from Empirical Force Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of the use of empirical force fields in the study of reaction mechanisms. EVB-type methods (including RFF and MCMM) produce full reaction surfaces by mixing, in the simplest case, known force fields describing reactants and products. The SEAM method instead locates approximate...... transition structures by energy minimization along the intersection of the component force fields. The TSFF approach (including Q2MM) designs a new force field mimicking the transition structure as an energy minimum. The scope and applicability of the various methods are compared....

  15. Estimation of joint forces and moments for the in-run and take-off in ski jumping based on measurements with wearable inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers' body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill. PMID:25985167

  16. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Logar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers’ body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  17. Design Optimization of Ground Clearance of Domestic Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Mitra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag and lift forces plays a vital role in the performance and stability of vehicles. Less drag means less fuel consumption and hence less vehicular pollution. Also, lower lift force means higher chance of adhesion of the car body with the ground causing less overturning of the vehicle, which improves the vehicle performance. Both drag and lift forces can be manipulated by varying the ground clearance of the cars. The present study concentrates on studying the effect of ground clearance on these aerodynamic forces experimentally. Wind tunnel studies with a notch-back car model revealed increase in drag and decrease in lift with increase in ground clearance. Therefore, optimization is required for designing the best ground clearance and a preferable value of the same is thus obtained.

  18. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory env...

  19. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette

    country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article, a...... number of different partnerships are explored along with the motivation for the different partners for engaging. Finally, the role of a central partnership broker is examined and the author suggests that this has been instrumental in ensuring the emergence of the relatively high number of partnerships in...

  20. The Introduction of Fields in Relation to Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of force at age 14-16 years is considered, starting with elementary student experiments using magnetic force fields. The meaningless use of terms such as "action" and "reaction", or "agent" and "receiver" is discussed. (Contains 6 figures.)

  1. Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Tanks Subjected to Six Correlated Ground Motion Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalani Sarokolayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, rotational components of ground motion acceleration were defined according toimproved method from the corresponding available translational components based on transversely isotropicelastic wave propagation in the soil. With such improvement, it becomes possible to consider frequencydependent wave velocities on rotational components of ground motion. For this purpose, three translationalcomponents of El Centro earthquake (24 January 1951 were adopted to generate their relative rotationalcomponents based on SV and SH wave incidence by Fast Fourier transform with 4096 discrete frequencies.The translational and computed rotational motions were then applied to the concrete elevated water storagetanks with different structural characteristics and water elevations. The finite element method is used for thenonlinear analysis of water storage tanks considering the fluid-structure interaction using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach and the concrete material nonlinearities have been taken into account through William-Warnke model. The nonlinear response of these structures considering the six components of ground motionshowed that the rotational components of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum displacementand reaction force of the structure. These variations are depending on the frequency of structure andpredominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.

  2. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  3. New experimental approach to modern three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin observables in proton deuteron breakup reactions at low energies offer a rich testing ground for the modern theory of nuclear forces, the chiral effective field theory (EFT). In the three-nucleon continuum the experimental data and the theoretical predictions are today at variance. At the PAX facility at COSY we plan to make an extensive study of analyzing powers and spin correlation parameters in pd breakup reactions at low energies between 30 and 50 MeV, an energy range where previous measurements are scarce and limited while three-nucleon effects are expected to be significant. Furthermore it is an ideal energy for the predictive power of chiral EFT to be tested. The longstanding physics question of the nature of three-nucleon forces will be studied with large coverage provided by an optimized silicon detector barrel, and flexibility utilizing the sampling method, a technique for direct comparison between experiment and theory developed specifically for the complex analysis of three-particle final states. The proposed experiment will yield an independent determination of the low-energy constants D and E and enable tests of appearing three-nucleon interactions in chiral EFT, with possible implications also for the spectra of light nuclei.

  4. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  5. Ground state correlations and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of random phase ground state correlations on charge densities and elastic electron scattering cross sections is studied for 208Pb and 40Ca. Modifications of the charge densities relative to densities obtained by Hartree-Fock calculations with a density dependent force are studied using different RPA wave functions. The differences with respect to the HF charge distributions are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Rhythmic performance during a whole body movement: dynamic analysis of force-time curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Boudolos, Konstantinos D

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rhythmic performance during two-legged hopping in place. In particular, it was tested whether (a) timing control is independent of force control, (b) a dynamic timer model explains rhythmic performance, and (c) it is a force related parameter that carries the timing information. Eleven participants performed two-legged hopping at their preferred hopping frequency (PHF) and at two hopping frequencies set by an external rhythmic stimulus as lower (LHF) and higher (HHF) than their PHF, respectively. A force plate was used to record the ground reaction force (GRF) time curves during two-legged hopping. The primary temporal and force related parameters determined from the GRF-time curves were the durations of the cycle of movement (t(cycle)), of the contact phase (t(contact)), of the flight phase (t(flight)), the magnitude of peak force (Fz(peak)) and the rate of peak force development (RFD). Control of t(cycle) was independent of force control as shown by the non-significant correlations between t(cycle) and the force parameters of the GRF-time curve. Lag 1 autocorrelations of t(cycle) were not significant in any of the HF, thereby a dynamic timer model is considered to explain the timing of t(cycle) during two-legged hopping. RFD varied more than any other GRF-time curve parameter, exhibited consistent significant strong correlations with the GRF-time curve parameters and significant negative lag 1 autocorrelations in PHF, thus, it was highlighted as the potent timing control parameter. Finally, we provide a practical application for the optimization of rhythmic performance. PMID:16563538

  7. gamma-decay of resonance-like structure observed in sup 3 sup 0 Si(p,gamma) sup 3 sup 1 P reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Kachan, A S; Korda, L P; Mishchenko, V M; Korda, V Y

    2002-01-01

    gamma-Decay of a resonance-like structure observed in the reaction sup 3 sup 0 Si (p, gamma) sup 3 sup 1 P in the energy region E sub p = 1.4 - 2.7 MeV of accelerated protons is studied. The M1 resonance built on the ground state of sup 3 sup 1 P is identified. The position of the M1 resonance is explained taking into account pairing forces.

  8. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  9. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ? 20 cm ground reaction force ? 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  10. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators to...

  11. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  12. Activation of C-O and C-C bonds and formation of novel HAlOH-ether complexes: an EPR study of the reaction of ground-state Al atoms with methylethyl ether and diethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, François D; Feola, Julie C; Joly, Helen A

    2012-03-15

    Reaction mixtures, containing Al atoms and methylethyl ether (MEE) or diethyl ether (DEE) in an adamantane matrix, were prepared with the aid of a metal-atom reactor known as a rotating cryostat. The EPR spectra of the resulting products were recorded from 77-260 K, at 10 K intervals. Al atoms were found to insert into methyl-O, ethyl-O, and C-C bonds to form CH(3)AlOCH(2)CH(3), CH(3)OAlCH(2)CH(3), and CH(3)OCH(2)AlCH(3), respectively, in the case of MEE while DEE produced CH(3)CH(2)AlOCH(2)CH(3) and CH(3)AlCH(2)OCH(2)CH(3), respectively. From the intensity of the transition lines attributed to the Al atom C-O insertion products of MEE, insertion into the methyl-O bond is preferred. The Al hyperfine interaction (hfi) extracted from the EPR spectra of the C-O insertion products was greater than that of the C-C insertion products, that is, 5.4% greater for the DEE system and 7% greater for the MEE system. The increase in Al hfi is thought to arise from the increased electron-withdrawing ability of the substituents bonded to Al. Besides HAlOH, resulting from the reaction of Al atoms with adventitious water, novel mixed HAlOH:MEE and HAlOH:DEE complexes were identified with the aid of isotopic studies involving H(2)(17)O and D(2)O. The Al and H hfi of HAlOH were found to decrease upon complex formation. These findings are consistent with the nuclear hfi calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) method with close agreement between theory and experiment occurring at the B3LYP level using a 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set. PMID:22299675

  13. An improved model for tidally modulated grounding-line migration

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Victor C.; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Understanding grounding-line dynamics is necessary for predictions of long-term ice-sheet stability. However, despite growing observations of the tidal influence on grounding-line migration, this short-timescale migration is poorly understood, with most modeling attempts assuming beam theory to calculate displacements. Here we present an improved model of tidal grounding-line migration that treats migration as an elastic fracture problem, forced by the additional ocean water press...

  14. The reaction of Xenopus laevis daudin (South African Toad) to linear accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, J.; Schatz, A.; Bromeis, B.; Briegleb, W.

    1994-08-01

    Preparing the German Spacelab Mission D-2 project ``Gravity Perception and Neuronal Plasticity'' - STATEX II - ground based experiments have been performed with larvae of the amphibian vertebrate Xenopus laevis Daud. to study the reactions to different levels of acceleration forces and profiles. The larvae have been exposed to accelerations of up to 5 g for different time periods using a modified laboratory centrifuge and the NIZEMI (Niedergeschwindigeits-Zentrifugen-Mikroskop) which allows direct observation and video documentation. The results will be discussed and compared with those of the D1-Mission, parabolic flights, and simulated weightlessness.

  15. Naval Flanking in Ground Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Raz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea, Israel’s only open border, also borders Israel’s enemies to the north and the Gaza Strip to the south, thereby linking it to enemy states. Thus, Israel’s control of this naval arena would enable it to project military strength from the sea, and afford it the capability to embark on landing operations of various types. “The shores of the State of Israel, the naval interface with each of our enemies, require us to expand our naval strength to the point of being able to land forces from the sea. David Ben-Gurion even said that we are bound to view the sea as Israel’s extended western territory.” The naval arena is the Achilles’ heel of Israel’s enemies and therefore also an opportunity for the IDF.However, even if Israel enjoys superiority in the naval arena, it is clear that the battle cannot be decided at sea. In fact, the IDF has aerial and naval superiority, two essential components for the existence of a naval ?anking option. In constructing a larger amphibious force, the IDF would be able to translate its naval superiority into a signi?cant contribution for attaining decisions in ground battles. The essay below examines the components of the landing process and offers some recommendations on construction of this type of force.

  16. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  17. Inflight Performance of Cassini Reaction Wheel Bearing Drag in 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2013-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended missions through September 2017. Cassini is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. It uses reaction wheels to achieve high level of spacecraft pointing stability that is needed during imaging operations of several science instruments. The Cassini flight software makes in-flight estimates of reaction wheel bearing drag torque and made them available to the mission operations team. These telemetry data are being trended for the purpose of monitoring the long-term health of the reaction wheel bearings. Anomalous drag torque signatures observed over the past 15 years are described in this paper. One of these anomalous drag conditions is bearing cage instability that appeared (and disappeared) spontaneously and unpredictably. Cage instability is an uncontrolled vibratory motion of the bearing cage that can produce high-impact forces internal to the bearing that will cause intermittent and erratic torque transients. Characteristics of the observed cage instabilities and other drag torque "spikes" are described in this paper. In day-to-day operations, the reaction wheels' rates must be neither too high nor too low. To protect against operating the wheels in any undesirable conditions (such as prolonged low spin rate operations), a ground software tool named Reaction Wheel Bias Optimization Tool (RBOT) was developed for the management of the wheels. Disciplined and long-term use of this ground software has led to significant reduction in the daily consumption rate of the wheels' low spin rate dwell time. Flight experience on the use of this ground software tool as well as other lessons learned on the management of Cassini reaction wheels is given in this paper.

  18. 75 FR 76444 - Department of the Air Force and U.S. Army; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...by 150 NM wide; 0 feet above ground level [AGL]--flight level...deliver supplies and equipment to ground forces. JPADS is not currently...must currently travel to Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona to conduct this training....

  19. Electronic transitions and intermolecular forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes two different subjects - electronic transitions and intermolecular forces - that are related mainly by the following observation: The wavenumber at which an electronic transition in an atom or molecule occurs, depends on the environment of that atom or molecule. This implies, for instance, that when a molecule becomes solvated its absorption spectrum may be shifted either to the blue or to the red side of the original gasphase spectrum. In part I attention is paid to the experimental aspects of VUV spectroscopy, both in the gasphase and in the condensed phase. In part II a series of papers are presented, dealing with the calculation of intermolecular forces (and some related topics) both for the ground state and for the excited state interactions, using different non-empirical methods. The calculations provide, among other results, a semiquantitative interpretation of the spectral blue shifts encountered in our experiments. (Auth.)

  20. Dispersive forces on bodies and atoms: a unified approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, Christian; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    A unified approach to the calculation of dispersive forces on ground-state bodies and atoms is given. It is based on the ground-state Lorentz force density acting on the charge and current densities attributed to the polarization and magnetization in linearly, locally, and causally responding media. The theory is applied to dielectric macro- and micro-objects, including single atoms. Existing formulas valid for weakly polarizable matter are generalized to allow also for stro...

  1. A semimicroscopic model of nuclear vibrations with separable forces and the giant dipole resonsance of 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the generalized ph basis generated for the realistic nuclear ground state, the nuclear hamiltonian is approximated by an expression containing the separable effective forces and terms which can be estimated from the spectroscopic data. The model hamiltonian obtained is used to describe normal nuclear vibrations. The application of this approach in the shell-model theory of nuclear reactions is discussed. The S-matrix for nucleon-nucleus scattering is calculated explicitly. The 12C photodisintegration calculation is made as a test example. (orig.)

  2. Calculating deformation of buildings on mining ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderman, F.; Fedorowicz, L.; Fedorowicz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a method for optimizing design of apartment buildings constructed in areas influenced by underground coal mining with caving and stowing. Effects of underground mining on ground subsidence and deformation are analyzed. Interaction of ground being deformed and building foundations and factors which influence this interaction are investigated. Behavior of construction elements (walls and partition walls, floors etc.) and forces which influence various elements are analyzed. Computer programs for calculating building deformation are characterized. Examples of calculating effects of underground coal mining on the W-70/SG apartment buildings constructed in Upper Silesia are analyzed. Recommendations for building construction in mining areas are made. 13 refs.

  3. Current status on design ground motion for buildings in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper firstly describes the design seismic force and design ground motion currently used in Japan. In the past, the static force representing the effect of earthquake motion on the structures was used directly for design. When computer technology advanced, and a precise analytical modelling became possible, analysis using time-dependent ground motion data became more common for seismic design analysis. The design static force is given considering some uncertainties due to variations of the ground motion properties, whereas the ground motion time history is regarded as a sample data picked up from the whole data set representing the average properties of design ground motions. In general, the design seismic force should be evaluated based on the ground motions corresponding to the site conditions and the specified occurrence rate of motion. However, the consideration of such characteristics has not been possible until recently, since the earthquake data was not sufficient and the simulation technique was not fully established either. These were made possible with many experiences of structural damage, accumulation of strong motion records with the recent advances in computing technology. Here, current evaluation practice of design ground motion is introduced and some problems to be solved in near future will be added. (author)

  4. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  5. Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Hoogkamer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, several different approaches have been applied to explain the metabolic cost of uphill human running. Most of these approaches result in unrealistically high values for the efficiency of performing vertical work during running uphill, or are only valid for running up steep inclines. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the metabolic cost of uphill running, based upon our understanding of level running energetics and ground reaction forces during uphill running. In contrast to the vertical efficiency approach, we propose that during incline running at a certain velocity, the forces (and hence metabolic energy required for braking and propelling the body mass parallel to the running surface are less than during level running. Based on this idea, we propose that the metabolic rate during uphill running can be predicted by a model, which posits that (1 the metabolic cost of perpendicular bouncing remains the same as during level running, (2 the metabolic cost of running parallel to the running surface decreases with incline, (3 the delta efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the COM vertically is constant, independent of incline and running velocity, and (4 the costs of leg and arm swing do not change with incline. To test this approach, we collected ground reaction force (GRF data for eight runners who ran thirty 30-second trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–9°. We also measured the metabolic rates of eight different runners for 17, 7-minute trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–8°. During uphill running, parallel braking GRF approached zero for the 9° incline trials. Thus, we modeled the metabolic cost of parallel running as exponentially decreasing with incline. With that assumption, best-fit parameters for the metabolic rate data indicate that the efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the center of mass vertically was independent of incline and running velocity, with a value of ?29%. The metabolic cost of uphill running is not simply equal to the sum of the cost of level running and the cost of performing work to lift the body mass against gravity. Rather, it reflects a constant cost of perpendicular bouncing, decreased costs of parallel braking and propulsion and of course the cost of lifting body mass against gravity.

  6. Greater lower limb flexion in gymnastic landings is associated with reduced landing force: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Allana; Campbell, Amity; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2015-03-01

    High impact forces during gymnastic landings are thought to contribute to the high rate of injuries. Lower limb joint flexion is currently limited within gymnastic rules, yet might be an avenue for reduced force absorption. This study investigated whether lower limb flexion during three gymnastic landings was related to force. Differences between landings were also explored. Twenty-one elite women's artistic gymnasts performed three common gymnastic techniques: drop landing (DL), front and back somersaults. Ankle, knee, and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction force [(vGRF) magnitude and time to peak], were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis and force platform. The DL had significantly smaller peak vGRF, greater time to peak vGRF and larger lower limb flexion ranges than landing from either somersault. Peak vGRF and time to peak vGRF were inversely related. Peak vGRF was significantly reduced in gymnasts who landed with greater hip flexion, and time to peak was significantly increased with increasing ankle, knee, and hip flexion. Increased range of lower limb flexion should be encouraged during gymnastic landings to increase time to peak vGRF and reduce high impact force. For this purpose, judging criteria limitations on lower limb flexion should be reconsidered. PMID:25895434

  7. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel mechanical noise is one of the largest sources of disturbance forcing on space-based observatories. Such noise arises from mass imbalance, bearing...

  8. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  9. A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Dulin, David; Cnossen, Jelmer; Köber, Mariana; van Oene, Maarten M.; Ordu, Orkide; Berghuis, Bojk A.; Hensgens, Toivo; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-12-01

    To study the behavior of biological macromolecules and enzymatic reactions under force, advances in single-molecule force spectroscopy have proven instrumental. Magnetic tweezers form one of the most powerful of these techniques, due to their overall simplicity, non-invasive character, potential for high throughput measurements, and large force range. Drawbacks of magnetic tweezers, however, are that accurate determination of the applied forces can be challenging for short biomolecules at high forces and very time-consuming for long tethers at low forces below ˜1 piconewton. Here, we address these drawbacks by presenting a calibration standard for magnetic tweezers consisting of measured forces for four magnet configurations. Each such configuration is calibrated for two commonly employed commercially available magnetic microspheres. We calculate forces in both time and spectral domains by analyzing bead fluctuations. The resulting calibration curves, validated through the use of different algorithms that yield close agreement in their determination of the applied forces, span a range from 100 piconewtons down to tens of femtonewtons. These generalized force calibrations will serve as a convenient resource for magnetic tweezers users and diminish variations between different experimental configurations or laboratories.

  10. Transforming School Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities and benefits of transforming school grounds into natural spaces for learning as well as for playing. A brief history of campaigns to utilize school grounds from the 1850s to the 1940s school Victory Gardens to present-day efforts is also included. Concludes by describing the calming effect on students and the economic…

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  12. Modifying landing mat material properties may decrease peak contact forces but increase forefoot forces in gymnastics landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Yeadon, Maurice R; Pain, Matthew T G

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated how changes in the material properties of a landing mat could minimise ground reaction forces (GRF) and internal loading on a gymnast during landing. A multi-layer model of a gymnastics competition landing mat and a subject-specific seven-link wobbling mass model of a gymnast were developed to address this aim. Landing mat properties (stiffness and damping) were optimised using a Simplex algorithm to minimise GRF and internal loading. The optimisation of the landing mat parameters was characterised by minimal changes to the mat's stiffness (<0.5%) but increased damping (272%) compared to the competition landing mat. Changes to the landing mat resulted in reduced peak vertical and horizontal GRF and reduced bone bending moments in the shank and thigh compared to a matching simulation. Peak bone bending moments within the thigh and shank were reduced by 6% from 321.5 Nm to 302.5Nm and GRF by 12% from 8626 N to 7552 N when compared to a matching simulation. The reduction in these forces may help to reduce the risk of bone fracture injury associated with a single landing and reduce the risk of a chronic injury such as a stress fracture. PMID:21162361

  13. Repulsive Casimir forces

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth, O.; Klich, I.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss repulsive Casimir forces between dielectric materials with non trivial magnetic susceptibility. It is shown that considerations based on naive pair-wise summation of Van der Waals and Casimir Polder forces may not only give an incorrect estimate of the magnitude of the total Casimir force, but even the wrong sign of the force when materials with high dielectric and magnetic response are involved. Indeed repulsive Casimir forces may be found in a large range of parameters, and we su...

  14. Centrifugal force: an appreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Kern E. Kenyon

    2011-01-01

    The centrifugal force is used to increase the physical understanding of five examples taken from fluid dynamics, geophysics and the solar system, as well as four hypothetical orbital problems. Each example involves a balance of forces between the centrifugal force and one or two other forces, such as a pressure gradient and a component of the force of gravity. Among the examples chosen for examination are: the orbital motion of fluid particles in surface grav-ity waves, the boundary layer cha...

  15. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Modern airports are centers of transportation that service a large number of aircraft and passengers every day. To facilitate this large volume of transportation, airports are subject to many logistical and decision problems that must continuously be solved to make sure each flight and passenger travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators to increase cost effectiveness and deliver fast and reliable service. This thesis presents models and algorithms for general optimization and decision problems arising within ground handling. The thesis contains an introductory part which provide an overview of the ground handling environment and reviews a series of optimization problems from the specific perspective of airport ground handling. In addition, the thesis contains five scientific papers, which consider specific optimization problems within ground handling in detail. The considered problems range from generalized approaches to workforce planning, to highly detailed scheduling problems arising in the highly dynamic environment of airports.

  16. Viscoelastic modelling of grounding line migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sebastian; Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Plate, Carolin; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika

    2015-04-01

    Tides play an important role by moving ice shelves and modulating the flow of ice streams even far upstream the grounding line. The grounding line as the boundary between the shelf and the ice sheet plays a crucial role in the mass balance and general stability of an ice sheet. It has been observed to migrate in response to tidal forcing, but the exact mechanisms and consequences are not yet understood in detail. On short timescales, as present in tidal forcing, we need to account for the viscoelastic character of glacier ice and choose a Maxwell model as an appropriate rheological representation. A viscoelastic full stokes ice flow model was implemented in the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. We investigate the influence of tides on the dynamics of ice sheet--ice shelf systems and grounding line migration by means of numerical modelling. In our model we are able to identify two processes, which control ice flow variations with tides. Uplifting of the ice shelf leads to retreat of the grounding line and therefore less area of the ice base is in contact with the bedrock. This leads to smaller basal shear stress, resulting in an increase in flow velocity. Additionally high tide causes increased normal stress at the ice -- water boundary, which slows the ice flow. When forced with the S2 (12 h) and M2 (12.42 h) tidal constituents, we observe a non-linear interaction, which leads to a perturbation of the horizontal flow velocity close to the M_sf (14.76 d) constituent. By not including tides and viscoelasticity into ice models we commit significant errors for the estimation of the flux across the grounding line and the resulting mass balance. For our experimental setup this error depends on the elastic parameter and we obtain a maximal error of 3.75%. We also observe a general retreat of the grounding line due to tidal forcing. This implies that tides possibly lead to a different equilibrium of the grounding line position.

  17. Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The paper includes a discussion of presently used calculational techniques, experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces in trinucleon ground states, future directions in theoretical research and future experimental research

  18. Force Measurement on the GLAST Delta II Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kaufman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the interface force measurement at spacecraft separation of GLAST Delta II. The contents include: 1) Flight Force Measurement (FFM) Background; 2) Team Members; 3) GLAST Mission Overview; 4) Methodology Development; 5) Ground Test Validation; 6) Flight Data; 7) Coupled Loads Simulation (VCLA & Reconstruction); 8) Basedrive Simulation; 9) Findings; and 10) Summary and Conclusions.

  19. Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed

  20. Convection in Drying and Freezing Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the drying of a soil composed of particles, water and solute impurities, and study the occurrence of convective instabilities during evaporation. We find that the main driving force for instability is the formation of a concentration gradient at the soil surface due to the evaporation of water. A similar phenomenon may occur during the thawing of frozen ground in Arctic regions.

  1. Convection in drying and freezing ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir; Peppin, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we analyse the drying of a soil composed of particles, water and solute impurities, and study the occurrence of convective instabilities during evaporation. We find that the main driving force for instability is the formation of a concentration gradient at the soil surface due to the evaporation of water. A similar phenomenon may occur during the thawing of frozen ground in Arctic regions.

  2. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  3. Simple Assessment of Post-Grounding Loads and Strength of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by the ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of grounded ship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding- induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage...... due to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to the residual strength assessment of a double-hull tanker of 38.400 dwt damaged due to grounding....

  4. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. PMID:23831138

  5. Ground Source Heat Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Lale Valizade

    2013-01-01

    A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP) is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is ...

  6. Surface plasmon polariton assisted optical pulling force

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, M I; Bogdanov, A A; Shalin, A S; Dogariu, A

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate both analytically and numerically the existence of optical pulling forces acting on particles located near plasmonic interfaces. Two main factors contribute to the appearance of this negative reaction force. The interference between the incident and reflected waves induces a rotating dipole with an asymmetric scattering pattern while the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) enhances the linear momentum of scattered light. The strongly asymmetric SPP excitation is determined by spin-orbit coupling of the rotating dipole and surface plasmon polariton. As a result of the total momentum conservation, the force acting on the particle points in a direction opposite to the incident wave propagation. We derive analytical expressions for the force acting on a dipolar particles placed in the proximity of plasmonic surfaces. Analytical expressions for this pulling force are derived within the dipole approximation and are in excellent agreement with results of electromagnetic numerica...

  7. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54,56,57,58Fe($p, n$) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damewan Suchiang; J Joseph Jeremiah; B M Jyrwa

    2014-10-01

    The cross-sections for the formation of 54,56,57,58Co in the 54,56,57,58Fe($p, n$) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV protons have been theoretically calculated using the TALYS-1.4 nuclear model code, whereby we have studied major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, preequilibrium and compound nuclear reaction. Subsequently, the level density and shell damping parameters have been adjusted and at the same time, the odd–even effects are well comprehended. The excitation functions have been compared with experimental nuclear data. It is observed that the theoretical cross-sections match fairly well. Proton-induced reaction cross-sections provide clues to understand the nuclear structure and offers a good testing ground for ideas about nuclear forces. In addition, complete information in this field is very much required for application in accelerator-driven subcritical system.

  8. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  9. Forces in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-07-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  10. Ground potential rise monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  11. Active Experiments from Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of recent results obtained primarily through the use of ground based active experiments is presented. Results illustrate the key role of controlled experiments in studying a wide range of magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena

  12. Ground State Spin Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James; Faccin, Mauro; Biamonte, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  13. Teaching Visual Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The paper is based on personal 20-years experience of teaching methodology of grounded theory and qualitative methods. In the following paper I would like to show the usefulness of visual analysis in teaching methodology of grounded theory. A very important tool is to use pictures and a sequencing of pictures, which give a comparative insight into empirical data and teaches the comparative method that is so important to generate theory (Glaser 1965; Glaser, Straus...

  14. Ground Metric Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cuturi, Marco; Avis, David

    2011-01-01

    Transportation distances have been used for more than a decade now in machine learning to compare histograms of features. They have one parameter: the ground metric, which can be any metric between the features themselves. As is the case for all parameterized distances, transportation distances can only prove useful in practice when this parameter is carefully chosen. To date, the only option available to practitioners to set the ground metric parameter was to rely on a prio...

  15. Force modeling for incision surgery into tissue with haptic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel force modeling for an incision surgery into tissue and its haptic application for a surgeon. During the robot-assisted incision surgery, it is highly urgent to develop the haptic system for realizing sense of touch in the surgical area because surgeons cannot sense sensations. To achieve this goal, the force modeling related to reaction force of biological tissue is proposed in the perspective on energy. The force model describes reaction force focused on the elastic feature of tissue during the incision surgery. Furthermore, the force is realized using calculated information from the model by haptic device using magnetorheological fluid (MRF). The performance of realized force that is controlled by PID controller with open loop control is evaluated.

  16. Three-Nucleon Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Sauer, Peter U

    2014-01-01

    The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian; they represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the decription of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces.

  17. Gamov-Teller transitions from 14N ground to 14C ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Gamov-Teller transitions from the $^{14}$N ground state to the $^{14}$C ground and excited states were investigated, based on the model of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The calculated strengths for the allowed transitions to the $0^+$, $1^+$, and $2^+$ states of $^{14}$C were compared with the experimental data measured by high-resolution charge-exchange reactions. The calculated GT transition to the $2^+_1$ state is strong while those to the $0^+_{2,3}$ and $2^+_{2,3}$ states having dominant $2\\hbar\\omega$ excited configurations are relatively weak. The present calculation can not describe the anonymously long life time of $^{14}$C, though the strength of the $^{14}$C ground state is somewhat suppressed because of the cluster (many-body) correlation in the ground states of $^{14}$C and $^{14}$N.

  18. Macroscopic QED in linearly responding media and a Lorentz-Force approach to dispersion forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, a very general quantization scheme for the macroscopic electromagnetic field in arbitrary linearly responding media is presented. It offers a unified approach to QED in such media. Applying the quantization scheme, a theory of the dispersion forces on the basis of the Lorentz force is developed. By regarding the dispersion force as the (ground-state or thermal-state) expectation value of the Lorentz force that acts on appropriately defined charge and current densities, Casimir, Casimir-Polder, and van der Waals forces are united in a very natural way that makes transparent their common physical basis. Application of the theory to planar structures yields generalizations of well-known Lifschitz and Casimir-type formulas. (orig.)

  19. Macroscopic QED in linearly responding media and a Lorentz-Force approach to dispersion forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Christian

    2008-07-08

    In this thesis, a very general quantization scheme for the macroscopic electromagnetic field in arbitrary linearly responding media is presented. It offers a unified approach to QED in such media. Applying the quantization scheme, a theory of the dispersion forces on the basis of the Lorentz force is developed. By regarding the dispersion force as the (ground-state or thermal-state) expectation value of the Lorentz force that acts on appropriately defined charge and current densities, Casimir, Casimir-Polder, and van der Waals forces are united in a very natural way that makes transparent their common physical basis. Application of the theory to planar structures yields generalizations of well-known Lifschitz and Casimir-type formulas. (orig.)

  20. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Seligman, T.H.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bou...

  1. Trois familles, quatre forces

    CERN Multimedia

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

  2. The quantum dynamics of chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1983-03-01

    In this project, we developed accurate and approximate methods for calculating cross sections of elementary reactions. These methods were applied to systems of importance for the fundamental aspects of chemical dynamics and for advanced technologies of interest to the United States Air Force. The application included calculations of three-atom exchange reactions, break-up and three-body recombination collisions and vibrational quenching by reaction. These calculations improved our understanding of such processes and permitted an assessment of some approximate methods.

  3. On the entropy of radiation reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, David A

    2013-01-01

    The inexorable development of ever more powerful laser systems has re-ignited interest in electromagnetic radiation reaction and its significance for the collective behaviour of charged matter interacting with intense electromagnetic fields. The classical radiation reaction force on a point electron is non-conservative, and this has led some authors to question the validity of methods used to model ultra-intense laser-matter interactions including radiation reaction. We explain why such concern is unwarranted.

  4. On the entropy of radiation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, David; Noble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The inexorable development of ever more powerful laser systems has re-ignited interest in electromagnetic radiation reaction and its significance for the collective behaviour of charged matter interacting with intense electromagnetic fields. The classical radiation reaction force on a point electron is non-conservative, and this has led some authors to question the validity of methods used to model ultra-intense laser-matter interactions including radiation reaction. We expl...

  5. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  6. Discussion about grounding of OVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of Grounding of OVATION platform applied in Digital Control System of SANMEN Nuclear Station are introduced and explained the detail functions for each type of grounding. Also, grounding principles and points for attention in engineering are given. (author)

  7. Surveillance and reconnaissance ground system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devambez, Francois

    2001-12-01

    Modern conflicts induces various modes of deployment, due to the type of conflict, the type of mission, and phase of conflict. It is then impossible to define fixed architecture systems for surveillance ground segments. Thales has developed a structure for a ground segment based on the operational functions required, and on the definition of modules and networks. Theses modules are software and hardware modules, including communications and networks. This ground segment is called MGS (Modular Ground Segment), and is intended for use in airborne reconnaissance systems, surveillance systems, and U.A.V. systems. Main parameters for the definition of a modular ground image exploitation system are : Compliance with various operational configurations, Easy adaptation to the evolution of theses configurations, Interoperability with NATO and multinational forces, Security, Multi-sensors, multi-platforms capabilities, Technical modularity, Evolutivity Reduction of life cycle cost The general performances of the MGS are presented : type of sensors, acquisition process, exploitation of images, report generation, data base management, dissemination, interface with C4I. The MGS is then described as a set of hardware and software modules, and their organization to build numerous operational configurations. Architectures are from minimal configuration intended for a mono-sensor image exploitation system, to a full image intelligence center, for a multilevel exploitation of multi-sensor.

  8. Isospin violation in the 12C(6Li,?)14N(2.31 MeV) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isospin violating reaction 12C(6Li,?)14N(2.31 MeV) was investigated in the range of beam energies from 9.0 to 14.0 MeV. Excitation functions were measured for the ground state, 2.31-MeV state and 3.95-MeV state of 14N at 150, 200, 600, and 1600. Excitation functions were taken at 400 for the ground state and 3.95-MeV states. Angular distributions were obtained at 10.5-, 11.25-, 12.5-, 13.75-, and 20.0-MeV beam energies. The cross section for the isospin forbidden reaction to the 2.31-MeV state is 0.4 to 1.8% of that to the allowed ground state and 3.95-MeV state in the beam energy range 9 to 14 MeV. At 20.0 MeV the ground state and 3.95-MeV state in the beam energy range 9 to 14 MeV. At 20.0 MeV the yield to the forbidden state is only 0.02% of the allowed yield. Isospin mixing by the Coulomb force is believed responsible for the forbidden yield observed between 9 - 14 MeV

  9. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  10. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  11. Noncontact atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Seizo; Meyer, Ernst; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in noncontact atomic force microscopy. It deals with the following outstanding functions and applications that have been obtained with atomic resolution after the publication of volume 2: (1) Pauli repulsive force imaging of molecular structure, (2) Applications of force spectroscopy and force mapping with atomic resolution, (3) Applications of tuning forks, (4) Applications of atomic/molecular manipulation, (5) Applications of magnetic exchange force microscopy, (6) Applications of atomic and molecular imaging in liquids, (7) Applications of combine

  12. Snow and Ground Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. N.; Davis, M. G.; Bartlett, M. G.; Chapman, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions has been developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on the mean annual ground temperature. The model is parameterized in terms of three snow event parameters: onset time of the annual snow event, duration of the event, and maximum depth of snow during the event. These parameters are commonly available from meteorological and remotely sensed data making the model broadly applicable. The model is validated using surface air temperature (SAT), surface ground temperature (SGT), and snow depth data from observations at Emigrant Pass climate observatory (EPO) in northwestern Utah and National Weather Service data from sites across North America. Measured subsurface temperature-time series compare well with changes predicted by the model. We define a "snow effect" as the difference in mean annual ground temperatures with and without a snow event and explore how the snow effect might change with a warming climate. During the period 1950-2002, the mean North American snow event onset (December 15) and duration (81 days) has remained relatively constant although interannual variation as much as 18 days (onset) and 15 days (duration) are present. Across all North American stations with snow cover during this period, the trend in mean annual SGT-SAT offset is about \\- 0.02 K/decade. One unanticipated finding is that snow can either raise or lower the mean annual ground temperature depending principally on the timing of the snow event.

  13. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force".

  14. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

  15. Orthodontic Force Induces Systemic Inflammatory Monocyte Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Zhang, J; Yan, Y; Liu, F; He, D; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were colocalized with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that orthodontic force could upregulate the expression of pivotal monocyte chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in periodontal tissues or cultured periodontal ligament cells, which may contribute to monocyte recruitment to regional sites. These data suggest that orthodontic force induces systemic immune responses related to inflammatory monocytes and that systemic inflammatory monocytes can be recruited to periodontal tissues by orthodontic force stimulus. PMID:26130260

  16. Staying Open: The use of theoretical codes in grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD; with the assistance of Judith A. Holton

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical codes (TCs) are abstract models that emerge during the sorting and memoing stages of grounded theory (GT) analysis. They conceptualize the integration of substantive codes as hypotheses of a theory. In this article, I explore the importance of their emergence in the development of a grounded theory and I discuss the challenge of the researcher in staying open to their emergence and earned relevance rather than their preconceived forcing on the theory under development. I emphasize...

  17. Spallation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from ? 0.1 to ? 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author)

  18. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

  19. On gravity as an entropic force

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichian, Masud; Oksanen, Markku; Tureanu, Anca

    2011-01-01

    We consider E. Verlinde's proposal that gravity is an entropic force -- we shall call this theory entropic gravity (EG) -- and reanalyze a recent claim that this theory is in contradiction with the observation of the gravitationally-bound ground state of neutrons in the GRANIT experiment. We find that EG does not necessarily contradict the existence of gravitationally-bound quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field, since EG is equivalent to Newtonian gravity in this case....

  20. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  1. Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Valizade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is a big difference. The cost of equipment, material and installation can be expensive, depending on the type of heat pump installation planned.

  2. Anti-gravity treadmills are effective in reducing knee forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Bugbee, William D; Goldberg, Timothy; Colwell, Clifford W; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2013-05-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills permit significant unweighting of patients and have the potential to enhance recovery following lower limb surgery. We determined the efficacy of an LBPP treadmill in reducing knee forces in vivo. Subjects, implanted with custom electronic tibial prostheses to measure forces in the knee, were tested on a treadmill housed within a LBPP chamber. Tibiofemoral forces were monitored at treadmill speeds from 1.5?mph (0.67?m/s) to 4.5?mph (2.01?m/s), treadmill incline from -10° to +10°, and four treadmill chamber pressure settings adjusted to decrease net treadmill reaction force from 100% to 25% of the subject's body weight (BW). The peak axial tibiofemoral force ranged from 5.1 times BW at a treadmill speed of 4.5?mph (2.01?m/s) and a pressure setting of 100% BW to 0.8 times BW at 1.5?mph (0.67?m/s) and a pressure setting of 25% BW. Peak knee forces were significantly correlated with walking speed and treadmill reaction force (R(2) ?=?0.77, p?=?0.04). The LBPP treadmill might be an effective tool in the rehabilitation of patients following lower-extremity surgery. The strong correlation between tibiofemoral force and walking speed and treadmill reaction forces allows for more precisely achieving the target knee forces desired during early rehabilitation. PMID:23239580

  3. Measurement of T20(90 degree) in the 1H(d searrow,?)3He reaction below deuteron breakup threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensor analyzing powers of the 1H(d searrow,?)3He reaction are sensitive to the tensor component of the nucleon-nucleon force, which mixes the L=2 D state into the 3He ground state wave function. Modern Faddeev calculations of this reaction allow a quantitative comparison to the parametrization of the tensor force in the trinucleon system. The T20 analyzing power was measured at an incident beam energy of 5.25 MeV and a laboratory angle of 90 degree (?c.m.=92.9 degree), where the comparison to theory is especially rigorous. The measured value of T20(90labdegree) is -0.035±0.004, which differs by ?3? from a recent Faddeev calculation which uses the separable expansion of the Paris potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  5. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups involved in binding of cellulase to lignin. Results Trichoderma reesei, ATCC 26921, a commercial cellulase system, was immobilized onto silicon wafers and used as a substrate to measure forces involved in cellulase non-productive binding to lignin. Attraction forces between cellulase and lignin, and between cellulase and cellulose were compared using kraft lignin- and hydroxypropyl cellulose-coated tips with the immobilized cellulase substrate. The measured adhesion forces between kraft lignin and cellulase were on average 45% higher than forces between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase. Specialized AFM tips with hydrophobic, -OH, and -COOH chemical characteristics were used with immobilized cellulase to represent hydrophobic, H-bonding, and charge-charge interactions, respectively. Forces between hydrophobic tips and cellulase were on average 43% and 13% higher than forces between cellulase with tips exhibiting OH and COOH groups, respectively. A strong attractive force during the AFM tip approach to the immobilized cellulase was observed with the hydrophobic tip. Conclusions This work shows that there is a greater overall attraction between kraft lignin and cellulase than between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase, which may have implications during the enzymatic reaction process. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions appear to be the dominating attraction force in cellulase binding to lignin, while a number of other interactions may establish the irreversible binding. PMID:24742184

  6. Reinventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground and discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory’s popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed—‘theory,’ ‘ground’ and ‘discovery’—which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory, these notions—embodied in continuing reinventions of grounded theory—constrain and distort qualitative inquiry, and that what is contrived is not in f...

  7. Gamov-Teller transitions from 14N ground to 14C ground and excited states

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Suhara, Tadahiro

    2014-01-01

    Gamov-Teller transitions from the $^{14}$N ground state to the $^{14}$C ground and excited states were investigated, based on the model of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The calculated strengths for the allowed transitions to the $0^+$, $1^+$, and $2^+$ states of $^{14}$C were compared with the experimental data measured by high-resolution charge-exchange reactions. The calculated GT transition to the $2^+_1$ state is strong while those to the $0^+_{2,3}$ and $2^+_{2,3}$ states having do...

  8. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkheads and transverse frames, floors and bulkheads. The expressions are derived by use of an energy method or a type of 'upper bound' method which rigorously takes into account the effects of large plastic de...

  9. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  10. Metal support - natural ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosyuk, V.P.; Pron' , V.V.; Filonenko, V.A.; Evdokimova, V.G. (MakNII (USSR))

    1989-09-01

    Describes how metal arch supports may be used as electric grounds for equipment operating in underground mine roadways. The governing regulations are the instructions for use of natural grounds of Minugleprom SSSR dated 1 July 1988. Usually steel pipes or strips inserted into boreholes are used. MakNII performed a study to prove that existing arch supports could perform the same function. The area of an arch in contact with rock is 3120-4800 cm{sup 2}. This gives a range of resistance values of 0.3-64 ohm (av. 10.4). Calculations showed that a minimum of 3 arches needs to be linked by a conductor to provide an equivalent ground to a steel pipe or strip. Tests in mines showed a range of resistance values between adjacent arches of 0.1-24 ohm (av. 4.36). The adjacent arches must be well established and the conducting link between them must be bolted or welded on. Since up to 1000 local grounds are installed annually in coal mines, the savings in using existing arches are considerable.

  11. The nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the parameters obtained in a previous paper for the P11 pion-nucleon state, the ground state potential is determined and the meson probability density is calculated. The results hold for the simplest form of the overlap matrix and are phase-equivalent to an infinite set of nonlocal potentials

  12. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen; Liithi, B.

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width and the...

  13. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will present the development and testing of the VASC concept.

  14. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental methods and tools with basic theoretical knowledge. Emphasis is placed on the importance of spin and orbital angular momentum (leading e.g. to applications in energy research, such as fusion with polarized nuclei), and on the operational definition of observables in nuclear physics. The end-of-chapter problems serve above all to elucidate and detail physical ideas that could not be presented in full detail in the main text. Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and a basic grasp of both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics; the latter in particular is a prerequisite for interpreting nuclear reactions and the connections to particle and high-energy physics.

  15. Forced thermal cycling of catalytic reactions: experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Hansen, Ole; Quaade, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    at about 1 Hz. A model for the rate enhancement that includes the surface kinetics and the dynamic partial pressure variations in the reactor is introduced. The model predicts a levelling off of the rate enhancement with frequency at about 1 Hz. The experimentally observed decrease above 1 Hz is...

  16. Measurements of piping forces in a safety valve discharge line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made of support reactions to transient hydrodynamic forces on the discharge line of a nuclear reactor safety valve test facility. Data is presented for three different test conditions two with upstream loop seals and one with only steam. Sufficient information is provided to permit verification/development of hydrodynamic force predictive models

  17. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  18. Simulation of a force on force exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Security Exercise Evaluation System (SEES) is under development for use in planning Force on Force exercises and as an aid in post-exercise evaluation. This study is part of the development cycle where the simulation results are compared to field data to provide guidance for further development of the model. SEES is an event-driven stochastic computer program simulating individual movement and combat within an urban terrain environment. The simulator models the physics of movement, line of sight, and weapon effects. It relies on the controllers to provide all knowledge of security tactics, which are entered by the controllers during the simulation using interactive color graphic workstations. They are able to develop, modify and implement plans promptly as the simulator maintains real time. This paper reports on how SEES will be used to develop an intrusion plan, test the security response tactics and develop observer logistics. A Force on Force field exercise will then be executed to follow the plan with observations recorded. An analysis is made by first comparing the plan and events of the simulation with the field exercise, modifying the simulation plan to match the actual field exercise, and then running the simulation to develop a distribution of possible outcomes

  19. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  20. Forcing Isomorphism II

    CERN Document Server

    Laskowski, M C; Laskowski, Michael C.; Shelah, Saharon

    1996-01-01

    If T has only countably many complete types, yet has a type of infinite multiplicity then there is a ccc forcing notion Q such that, in any Q --generic extension of the universe, there are non-isomorphic models M_1 and M_2 of T that can be forced isomorphic by a ccc forcing. We give examples showing that the hypothesis on the number of complete types is necessary and what happens if `ccc' is replaced other cardinal-preserving adjectives. We also give an example showing that membership in a pseudo-elementary class can be altered by very simple cardinal-preserving forcings.

  1. Women and forced migration in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki? Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of forced migration on women from the republics of former Yugoslavia in Serbia. It gives some back­ground on refugee movements and continuity and change in women character­istics and needs after two decades of displacement. As one of the vulnerable groups recognized by UNHCR, women and especially elderly women are facing distinct economic and social problems. This research offers insight into gender differences in educational outcomes, the labor market and primary income sources of forced migrants in Serbia. Women who had families, single parent families and widows who are particularly vulnerable are briefly discussed in order to improve assistance and programs servicing the needs of female forced migrants.

  2. The oxidative burst reaction in mammalian cells depends on gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Astrid; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Sromicki, Juri; Brungs, Sonja; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Hock, Bertold; Kolanus, Waldemar; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Gravity has been a constant force throughout the Earth's evolutionary history. Thus, one of the fundamental biological questions is if and how complex cellular and molecular functions of life on Earth require gravity. In this study, we investigated the influence of gravity on the oxidative burst reaction in macrophages, one of the key elements in innate immune response and cellular signaling. An important step is the production of superoxide by the NADPH oxidase, which is rapidly converted to H2O2 by spontaneous and enzymatic dismutation. The phagozytosis-mediated oxidative burst under altered gravity conditions was studied in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages by means of a luminol assay. Ground-based experiments in "functional weightlessness" were performed using a 2 D clinostat combined with a photomultiplier (PMT clinostat). The same technical set-up was used during the 13th DLR and 51st ESA parabolic flight campaign. Furthermore, hypergravity conditions were provided by using the Multi-Sample Incubation Centrifuge (MuSIC) and the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC). The results demonstrate that release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the oxidative burst reaction depends greatly on gravity conditions. ROS release is 1.) reduced in microgravity, 2.) enhanced in hypergravity and 3.) responds rapidly and reversible to altered gravity within seconds. We substantiated the effect of altered gravity on oxidative burst reaction in two independent experimental systems, parabolic flights and 2D clinostat / centrifuge experiments. Furthermore, the results obtained in simulated microgravity (2D clinorotation experiments) were proven by experiments in real microgravity as in both cases a pronounced reduction in ROS was observed. Our experiments indicate that gravity-sensitive steps are located both in the initial activation pathways and in the final oxidative burst reaction itself, which could be explained by the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in the assembly and function of the NADPH oxidase complex. PMID:24359439

  3. Effects of vertical ground motion on seismic performance verification system of RC underground structures. Discussion on response of RC structures embedded in horizontally layered ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is how to estimate vertical ground motion on the seismic performance verification method for crucial civil engineering structures in nuclear power plants. This paper presents the numerical study about the effects of vertical ground motion on underground RC structures. Several soil-structure interaction models embedded in horizontally layered ground were prepared, and the nonlinear earthquake response of the models were discussed under observed earthquake ground motion. Based on the numerical results, the findings are summarized as follows: Horizontal component of earthquake load is hardly affected by vertical ground motion, then the deformation angle, section force (bending moment and shear force) and curvature in RC member cause by global shear deformation on structure almost coincide with them developed by horizontal ground motion. On the other hand, the vertical ground motion brings a slight increase of axial force on upward columns, however that has little effect on limit deformation angle and shear strength of RC member which are affected by axial force fluctuation. And response and limit state values on structure are almost stable regardless of time instant difference of the peak acceleration between horizontal and vertical ground motions. (author)

  4. Reactions of carbanions with triplet and singlet molecular oxygen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bierbaum, V. M.; Schmitt, R. J.; DePuy, C H

    1980-01-01

    The gas phase reactions of carbanions with molecular oxygen in both its ground state (X3 sigma g-) and first electronically excited state (a1 delta g) have been studied by the flowing afterglow technique. Reactions include cleavage processes, charge transfer, hydride transfer, formation of hydroxide ion and processes which involve secondary reactions within a long-lived complex. The mechanisms of the reactions are discussed. The usefulness of molecular oxygen as a reagent for the structural d...

  5. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  6. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Seligman, T.H.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P.

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a...

  7. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  8. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AC

    1998-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  9. Enhancement of Aircraft Ground Handling Simulation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A. G.; Yager, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a guide to methods of representing in a flight simulator, the stability and control of an aircraft on the ground. It updates an earlier publication, AGARDograph 285, in the light of simulation technology improvements over a ten year period. Emphasis is placed on the modeling of the vehicle dynamics, and on the modeling of the tire forces generated by the runway surface. Areas are identified where some current simulators are deficient. The different needs of pilot-in-the-loop and non-real-time simulations are discussed, and topics for further research are identified.

  10. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  11. Analysis of Ground Effect on a Symmetrical Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Detailed Study and Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation was conducted to ascertain and highlight the different ways in which ground effect phenomena are present around a symmetrical aerofoil-NACA 0015- when in close proximity to the ground. The trends in force and flow field behaviour were observed at various ground clearances, for different angle of attack. The analysis was carried out by varying the angle of attack from 00 to 100 and ground clearance of the trailing edge from minimum possible value to one chord length. It was found that high values of pressure coefficient are obtained on the lower surface when the airfoil is close to the ground. This region of high pressure extended almost over the entire lower surface for higher angles of attack. As a result, higher values of lift coefficient are obtained when the airfoil is close to the ground. The flow accelerates over the airfoil due to flow diversion from the lower side and higher mean velocity is observed near the suction peak location. The pressure distribution on the upper surface did not change significantly with ground clearance for higher angles of attack. The lift was found to drop at lower angles of attack at some values of ground clearance due to suction effect on the lower surface as the result of formation of a convergent–divergent passage between the airfoil and the ground plate. The values of drag coefficient were also noted for different ground clearance, which is found to be decreasing as the airfoil is approaching to a closer ground clearance. This ground effect is analyzed using FLUENT 5/6 code.

  12. Working Through Preconception: Moving from Forcing to Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Kwok; Antoinette McCallin; Geoff Dickson

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about grounded theory and the processes of theory generation. Less is written about managing the problem of preconception, which has the potential to undermine the openness and emergence that are fundamental to classic grounded theory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of managing preconception, and to draw attention to less well recognised factors that contribute to forcing. The topic interest, tactical innovation in rugby, is introduced. R...

  13. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen; Liithi, B.

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using inte...

  14. Goddard Ground System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  15. Ground State Spin Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, J D; Faccin, M.; J. D. Biamonte

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which prese...

  16. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics. PMID:25489788

  17. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . Wedescribe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase (> 2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  18. Aerodynamic ground effect in fruitfly sized insect takeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling, considering the voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore the possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. The numerical method is based on a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver and a simple flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia, and the leg thrust. Forces, power and displacements are compared for takeoffs with and without ground effect. Natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly, modified takeoffs and hovering are analyzed. The results show that the ground effect during the natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, the ground effect does not produce any significant increase of the vertical force neither. Moreover, the vertical force even drops in most of the cases considered. There is a consistent increase of the horizontal force, and a decrease of the aerodynamic power, if the rate of climb is suff...

  19. A Study of Winglet and Aerodynamic Interferences in 3-D Viscous Flow around a Flying-Boat in Ground Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afshar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow field about a complete flying-boat in ground effect is resolved. The influences of using winglet in ground and out of ground effects are compared and it is shown that ground affects this influence to a large extent. It is also shown that with careful shaping of the body and using a step underneath the body a propulsive force can be produced in vicinity of the ground. However, this causes an increase in drag force in free flight.

  20. Contribution to the models for calculation and analysis of grounding grids and grounding systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this dissertation is improving the existing models and finding new for calculating the conditions in the complex grounding systems and analyzing their performances. For that purpose, firstly, a model network of the grounding system is created, and the ways of modelling the separate elements are studied and elaborated also. Some methods for solving groundings with arbitrary complexity and dimensions are studied and worked out too. Afterwards the TL in models are worked out, with or without protective rope. Appropriate models are detail worked out and formed for the energetic cables, both for isolated and distributive outer shield - type PP, XHP, XHE, IPO, and IPZO. At the same time, the eventual presence of additional groundings like steel tapes and cooper ropes placed into the cable trench together with the cable is considered. Particular attention is dedicated on the cables with steel reinforcement, whose parameters of the 'unit length depends of the current in the shield and in the reinforcement, because they are sources of nonlinearity and also of the problems connected with its modelling and solving. Therefore an approach is made to the modelling of the mutual conductive couplings between the elements of the grounding system (ex. between two and more cables, the parts of one cable, the groundings of one substation and the cables in theirs immediate nearness and so on.). The electromagnetic couplings existing between the phases conductors, under the influence of the fault, like, (protective rope (TL), the metal shields, and the cables with electric protection, are included too. The mutual couplings are estimated over introducing inducted electro motor forces (EMF) in the transversal and/or longitudinal branches of the elements of the grounding system. (depending on what kind of coupling we are talking-conductive or inductive). These inductive EMF later are transformed into equivalent current generators and in that way the system will be harnessed. The number of the current generators that appear in the cycle with the procedure 'replacing of the current generators' are transferred easily into the node of the network where the fault is made previously. Further on, some modem numerical methods and procedures for calculating the grounding system, convenient for the use of the personal computers are studied. Some modem numerical procedures are adopted and worked out for calculating networks (cycles) with radial structure and/or with small number of loops. They are used for solving the condition in the network part of the grounding system, which means that up to now the researches are pointing to the adequacy of the use of the methods for summarizing admittances and summarizing current (MSAC). The next step, after the distribution of the whole system is defined, is passing to the estimation of the safety conditions from high touch and step voltages in the environment of the different groundings. For that purpose, the characteristics of the biggest number of typical groundings of the MV/LV substations, the characteristics of some kind's network groundings of the HV/N4V substation are studied. The tower TL groundings (ring shaped, square shaped, ray shaped) are analyzed in details. At the same time, a data multitude is calculated, necessary for the further analysis, and consisting theirs resistances to ground.(for a given value of a specific resistance of the soil), the maximum and the average values of touch and step potentials, as well as the frequencies of their appearances,. (frequent histograms FH) of the touch and step potential differences) and so on. All these quantities are depending on the geometry of the grounding. The calculating FH of different kinds of groundings is performed with a computer simulation-'simulation Monte Carlo'. In order to obtain them, an appropriate software is produced, which by making the number of experiments (simulations), defines the needed performances of the grounding statistically, and at the same time, accidentally generates the position of the human in the electro energetic

  1. Operational Considerations when Designing New Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith; Barbahenn, George; Crabb, William; Miebach, Manfred; Pataro, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) launched in April of 1991 with a nominal 15-year old mission. Since then, the HST mission life has been extended to 2010. As is true for all NASA missions, HST is being asked to decrease its operational costs for the remainder of its mission life. Various techniques are being incorporated for cost reductions, with one of the core means being the design of a new and more efficient ground system for HST operations. This new ground system, "Vision 2000", will reduce operational and maintenance costs and also provide the HST Project with added flexibility to react to future changes. Vision 2000 began supporting HST Operations in January of 1999 and will support the mission for the remainder of the mission life. Upgrading a satellite's ground system is a popular approach for reducing costs, but it is also inherently risky. Validating a new ground system can be a severe distraction to a flight team while operating a satellite. Mission data collection and health and safety requirements are rarely, if ever, relaxed during this validation period, forcing flight teams to undertake an additional task while operating the satellite. Additionally, flight teams must usually undergo extensive training to effectively utilize the new system. Once again, this training usually occurs as an additional task, in addition to the nominal satellite operations. While operating the spacecraft, the Flight Team typically assists in the design, validation, and verification of a new ground system. This is a distraction and strain on the Flight Team, but the benefit of using the Flight Team in all phases of ground system development far outweigh the negative aspects. Finally, above the cost of the new system, the integration into the facility with the current control center system are resources and costs not normally taken into account in the design phase of the new system. In addition to the standard issues faced by a Project when upgrading its ground system, the HST Project also must continue to support Space Shuttle servicing missions, which occur approximately every two to three years. This paper will address many of the issues common to all missions when re-hosting ground systems, and those faced by the HST Project in particular.

  2. Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid–gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe–sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present. Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM, a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids, KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions. EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.

  3. Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, M Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid-liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid-liquid interface. PMID:25671164

  4. Influence of Whole Body Vibration and Specific Warm-ups on Force during an Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Cazás-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of general and specific warm-up protocols on rate of force development (RFD, relative RFD (rRFD, ground reaction force (GRF and relative ground reaction force (rGRF during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP, after WBV exposure. Methods: Fifteen healthy recreationally trained males  (age: 24.1 ± 2.3 yrs, height: 72.9 ± 7.8 cm; mass: 86.9 ± 8.3 completed five protocols: baseline, isometric vibration (iVib, isometric no vibration (iNV, dynamic vibration (dVib and dynamic no vibration (dNV. The baseline was completed without any warm-up prior to the IMTP. The intervention protocols had the same prescription of 4 sets of 30-second bouts of quarter squats (dynamic [DQS] and isometric [IQS] on the WBV platform with or without vibration. Following a one-minute rest period after each protocol, participants completed three maximal IMTPs. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc demonstrated that RFD in dNV (7657.8 ± 2292.5 N/s was significantly greater than iVib (7156.4 ± 2170.0 N/s. However, the other experimental trials for RFD demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05. There were also no significant differences for rRFD, GRF or rGRF between protocols. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a dynamic warm-up without WBV elicits greater RFD than an isometric warm-up with WBV prior to a maximal isometric exercise. Further research needs to be investigated utilizing dynamic and isometric warm-ups in conjunction with WBV and power output.Keywords: males, recreationally trained, power 

  5. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  6. Notes on forcing axioms

    CERN Document Server

    Todorcevic, Stevo; Feng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the mathematical practice, the Baire category method is a tool for establishing the existence of a rich array of generic structures. However, in mathematics, the Baire category method is also behind a number of fundamental results such as the Open Mapping Theorem or the Banach-Steinhaus Boundedness Principle. This volume brings the Baire category method to another level of sophistication via the internal version of the set-theoretic forcing technique. It is the first systematic account of applications of the higher forcing axioms with the stress on the technique of building forcing notions

  7. The Casimir effect: a force from nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attractive force between two surfaces in a vacuum - first predicted by Hendrik Casimir over 50 years ago - could affect everything from micro machines to unified theories of nature. What happens if you take two mirrors and arrange them so that they are facing each other in empty space? Your first reaction might be 'nothing at all'. In fact, both mirrors are mutually attracted to each other by the simple presence of the vacuum. This startling phenomenon was first predicted in 1948 by the Dutch theoretical physicist Hendrik Casimir while he was working at Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven on - of all things - colloidal solutions (see box). The phenomenon is now dubbed the Casimir effect, while the force between the mirrors is known as the Casimir force. For many years the Casimir effect was little more than a theoretical curiosity. But interest in the phenomenon has blossomed in recent years. Experimental physicists have realized that the Casimir force affects the workings of micro machined devices, while advances in instrumentation have enabled the force to be measured with ever-greater accuracy. The new enthusiasm has also been fired by fundamental physics. Many theorists have predicted the existence of 'large' extra dimensions in 10- and 11-dimensional unified field theories of the fundamental forces. These dimensions, they say, could modify classical Newtonian gravitation at sub-millimetre distances. Measuring the Casimir effect could therefore help physicists to test the validity of such radical ideas. (U.K.)

  8. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has b...

  9. Quantized Casimir force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the Casimir effect between two-dimensional electron systems driven to the quantum Hall regime by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. In the large-separation (d) limit where retardation effects are essential, we find (i) that the Casimir force is quantized in units of 3?c?(2)/8?(2)d(4) and (ii) that the force is repulsive for mirrors with the same type of carrier and attractive for mirrors with opposite types of carrier. The sign of the Casimir force is therefore electrically tunable in ambipolar materials such as graphene. The Casimir force is suppressed when one mirror is a charge-neutral graphene system in a filling factor ?=0 quantum Hall state. PMID:23368242

  10. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  11. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins

  12. Charm production and the confining force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that charm production at SPS energies can be understood simply from O(?2 sub (s)) QCD processes when combined with fragmentation of the colour fields stretched by the final state partons. The tension of the confining force field responsible for particle production is found to pull the charmed particles away from the reaction centre, giving rise to a harder x sub (F)-spectrum than would be expected from the bare QCD matrix elements. (Authors)

  13. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  14. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  15. Sales force turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Suman; Tripathi, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    The insurance sector in India is rising rapidly to bring in growth and employment opportunities. Insurance companies are basically human intensive, and human resources act as an undoubted differentiator. Quality manpower and its retention would act as a litmus test. Turnover of sales force has been high because of low entry and exit barriers. The paper addresses issues of recruitment, retention and turnover of sales force in insurance companies. An attempt is made to integrate them to Maslow?...

  16. New force in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eotvos experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accommodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework. 40 refs

  17. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and...... engineering. In the latest version of ForcePAD an optimization module was added to enable to take advantage of topology optimization in the design process....

  18. Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegelmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundary conditions must be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field vector in the solar photosphere. This approach is currently of large interests, as accurate measurements of the photospheric field become available from ground-based (for example SOLIS and space-born (for example Hinode and SDO instruments. If we can obtain accurate force-free coronal magnetic field models we can calculate the free magnetic energy in the corona, a quantity which is important for the prediction of flares and coronal mass ejections. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma.

  19. A thermal ground cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  20. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...