WorldWideScience
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Ground reaction forces of Olympic and World Championship race walkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Race walking is an Olympic event where no visible loss of contact should occur and the knee must be straightened until midstance. The purpose of this study was to analyse ground reaction forces of world-class race walkers and associate them with key spatiotemporal variables. Nineteen athletes race walked along an indoor track and made contact with two force plates (1000 Hz) while being filmed using high-speed videography (100 Hz). Race walking speed was correlated with flight time (r = .46, p = .049) and flight distance (r = .69, p = .001). The knee's movement from hyperextension to flexion during late stance meant the vertical push-off force that followed midstance was smaller than the earlier loading peak (p stride widths experienced reduced peak braking forces (r = .49, p = .046), peak propulsive forces (r = .54, p = .027), peak medial forces (r = .63, p = .007) and peak vertical push-off forces (r = .60, p = .011). Lower fluctuations in speed during stance were associated with higher stride frequencies (r = .69, p = .001), and highlighted the importance of avoiding too much braking in early stance. The flattened trajectory and consequential decrease in vertical propulsion might help the race walker avoid visible loss of contact (although non-visible flight times were useful in increasing stride length), while a narrow stride width was important in reducing peak forces in all three directions and could improve movement efficiency. PMID:25429613

Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios

2014-11-27

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Ground reaction force adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.  

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To gain insight into the adaptive mechanisms to tripedal locomotion and increase understanding of the biomechanical consequences of limb amputation, this study investigated kinetic and temporal gait parameters in dogs before and after the loss of a hindlimb was simulated. Nine clinically sound Beagle dogs trotted on an instrumented treadmill and the ground reaction forces as well as the footfall patterns were compared between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion. Stride and stance durations decreased significantly in all limbs when the dogs ambulated tripedally, while relative stance duration increased. Both vertical and craniocaudal forces were significantly different in the remaining hindlimb. In the forelimbs, propulsive force increased in the contralateral and decreased in the ipsilateral limb, while the vertical forces were unchanged (except for mean force in the contralateral limb). Bodyweight was shifted to the contralateral and cranial body side so that each limb bore ~33% of the dog's bodyweight. The observed changes in the craniocaudal forces and the vertical impulse ratio between the fore- and hindlimbs suggest that a nose-up pitching moment occurs during the affected limb pair's functional step. To regain pitch balance for a given stride cycle, a nose-down pitching moment is exerted when the intact limb pair supports the body. These kinetic changes indicate a compensatory mechanism in which the unaffected diagonal limb pair is involved. Therefore, the intact support pair of limbs should be monitored closely in canine hindlimb amputees. PMID:24881509

Fuchs, A; Goldner, B; Nolte, I; Schilling, N

2014-09-01

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Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it w [...] ould be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

Ana M. F., Barela; Paulo B. de, Freitas; Melissa L., Celestino; Marcela R., Camargo; José A., Barela.

2014-12-01

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A force plate and display system for studying ground reaction forces in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and implemented a low cost system for measuring ground reaction forces in dogs with normal and abnormal ambulation as they walk or trot over a floor mounted plate that measures vertical and horizontal forces. Orthogonally mounted strain gages measure the forces imposed. A bridge amplifier conditions the signals which are sampled and converted to digital form for display on an operator initiated graphical user interface (GUI) which displays the forces as a function of time on the screen of a Macintosh computer. The system also allows the input of timing of the velocity of approach to the plate and the foot strike can be monitored (via tap reply) on the computer screen to verify the fidelity of the foot strike on the active surface of the plate. The data gathered on a particular strike is stored as a "raw" signal, analyzed and recorded in a spread sheet text format for later analysis. PMID:7948654

Gurevich, L; Bennett, W H; Anderson, M A; Mann, F A; Jiang, B; Hahn, A W

1994-01-01

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A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity  

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Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

1993-01-01

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BILATERAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND JOINT MOMENTS FOR LATERAL SIDESTEPPING AND CROSSOVER STEPPING TASKS  

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Full Text Available Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS and crossover stepping (XS movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work

William I. Sellers

2009-03-01

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Validation of vertical ground reaction forces on individual limbs calculated from kinematics of horse locomotion.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual limb forces could be calculated accurately from kinematics of trotting and walking horses. We collected kinematic data and measured vertical ground reaction forces on the individual limbs of seven Warmblood dressage horses, trotting at 3.4 m s(-1) and walking at 1.6 m s(-1) on a treadmill. First, using a segmental model, we calculated from kinematics the total ground reaction force vector and its moment arm relative to each of the hoofs. Second, for phases in which the body was supported by only two limbs, we calculated the individual reaction forces on these limbs. Third, we assumed that the distal limbs operated as linear springs, and determined their force-length relationships using calculated individual limb forces at trot. Finally, we calculated individual limb force-time histories from distal limb lengths. A good correspondence was obtained between calculated and measured individual limb forces. At trot, the average peak vertical reaction force on the forelimb was calculated to be 11.5+/-0.9 N kg(-1) and measured to be 11.7+/-0.9 N kg(-1), and for the hindlimb these values were 9.8+/-0.7 N kg(-1) and 10.0+/-0.6 N kg(-1), respectively. At walk, the average peak vertical reaction force on the forelimb was calculated to be 6.9+/-0.5 N kg(-1) and measured to be 7.1+/-0.3 N kg(-1), and for the hindlimb these values were 4.8+/-0.5 N kg(-1) and 4.7+/-0.3 N kg(-1), respectively. It was concluded that the proposed method of calculating individual limb reaction forces is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in loading reported in the literature for mild to moderate lameness at trot. PMID:17515415

Bobbert, Maarten F; Gómez Alvarez, Constanza B; van Weeren, P René; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, Michael A

2007-06-01

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Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players  

OpenAIRE

A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to coll...

Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

2014-01-01

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Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ?(2) = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ?(2)= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing. PMID:25031674

Zahradnik, David; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Jandacka, Daniel

2014-03-27

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Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities.  

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The aim of the present study was to compare the peak vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF(peak)) and impulse of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. 15 young women performed 1 session in each environment consisting of 3 water aerobic exercises (stationary running, frontal kick and cross country skiing) performed at 3 cadences (first ventilatory threshold, second ventilatory threshold and maximum effort, as determined during exercise in water) in a randomized order. 2-way and 3-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the impulse and V-GRF(peak), respectively. Significantly lower values of V-GRF(peak) and impulse (pcross country skiing compared to the other exercises (p<0.001). Thus, water exercises are safe for people that need to minimize vertical ground reaction force; however, an important issue to be considered during water aerobics training is the exercise and intensity to be prescribed. PMID:23549690

Alberton, C L; Tartaruga, M P; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

2013-10-01

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Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.  

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Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions. PMID:25311452

Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

2014-11-28

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Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

Natália Mariana Silva Luna

2012-09-01

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GROUND REACTION FORCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUNNING SHOES, RACING FLATS, AND DISTANCE SPIKES IN RUNNERS  

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Full Text Available Various shoes are worn by distance runners throughout a training season. This study measured the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in order to provide information about the potential effects of footwear on injury risk in highly competitive runners. Ten male and ten female intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7 m·s-1 (for males and 5.7 m·s-1 (for females in each of the three types of shoes. To control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who exhibited a heel strike were included in the data analysis. Two repeated-measures ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests (p < 0.05 were used to detect differences in shoe types among males and females. For the males, loading rate, peak vertical impact force and peak braking forces were significantly greater in flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Vertical stiffness in spikes was also significantly greater than in running shoes. Females had significantly shorter stance times and greater maximum propulsion forces in racing flats compared to running shoes. Changing footwear between the shoes used in this study alters the loads placed on the body. Care should be taken as athletes enter different phases of training where different footwear is required. Injury risk may be increased since the body may not be accustomed to the differences in force, stance time, and vertical stiffness

Suzanna Logan

2010-03-01

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An algorithm to decompose ground reaction forces and moments from a single force platform in walking gait.  

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In walking experimental conditions, subjects are sometimes unable to perform two steps on two different forceplates. This leads the authors to develop methods for discerning right and left ground reaction data while they are summed during the double support in walking. The aim of this study is to propose an adaptive transition function that considers the walking speed and ground reaction forces (GRF). A transition function is used to estimate left and right side GRF signals in double support. It includes a shape coefficient adjusted using single support GRF parameters. This shape coefficient is optimized by a non-linear least-square curve-fitting procedure to match the estimated signals with real GRF. A multiple regression is then performed to identify GRF parameters of major importance selected to compute the right and left GRF of the double support. Relative RMSE (RMSER), maximum GRF differences normalized to body mass and differences of center of pressure (CoP) are computed between real and decomposed signals. During double support, RMSER are 6%, 18%, 3.8%, 4.3%, 3%, and 12.3% for anterior force, lateral force, vertical force, frontal moment, sagittal moment and transverse moment, respectively. Maximum GRF differences normalized to body mass are lower than 1N/kg and mean CoP difference is 0.0135 m, when comparing real to decomposed signals during double support. This work shows the accuracy of an adaptive transition function to decompose GRF and moment of right and left sides. This method is especially useful to accurately discern right and left GRF data in single force platform configurations. PMID:25239287

Villeger, David; Costes, Antony; Watier, Bruno; Moretto, Pierre

2014-11-01

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Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans  

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Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

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Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty  

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Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by?t? test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to the control group. Vertical ground reaction force variables are also altered. Conclusion: Significant changes ( P value < .05 in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces show that gait pattern is not normalized after THR and weight-bearing is not equally shared by both hips. Patient walks with residual antalgic gait even after surgery, which results in abnormal loading around hip joints and the integrity of the prosthesis fixation could be compromised.

Bhargava P

2007-01-01

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A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments

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Offensive and defensive agility: a sex comparison of lower body kinematics and ground reaction forces.  

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The aim of this study was to compare biomechanical and perceptual-cognitive variables between sexes during an offensive and defensive agility protocol. Twelve male and female (n = 24) recreational team sport athletes participated in this study, each performing 12 offensive and defensive agility trials (6 left, 6 right) changing direction in response to movements of a human stimulus. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction force (GRF), and impulse data were recorded across plant phase for dominant leg change of direction (COD) movements, while timing gates and high-speed video captured decision time, total running time, and post COD stride velocity. Subjects also performed a unilateral isometric squat to determine lower body strength and limb dominance. Group (sex) by condition (2 × 2) MANOVAs with follow-up ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences between groups (P ? .05). Male athletes demonstrated significantly greater lower body strength, vertical braking force and impulse application, knee and spine flexion, and hip abduction, as well as faster decision time and post COD stride velocity during both agility conditions compared with females. Differences between offensive and defensive movements appear to be attributed to differences in decision time between sexes. This study demonstrates that biomechanical and perceptual-cognitive differences exist between sexes and within offensive and defensive agility movements. PMID:24615296

Spiteri, Tania; Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia

2014-08-01

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The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

2010-01-01

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Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended. PMID:25144436

Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Tartaruga, M P; Kanitz, A C; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

2014-12-01

21

Application of principal component analysis in vertical ground reaction force to discriminate normal and abnormal gait.  

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Discrete parameters from ground reaction force (GRF) are been considered in gait analysis studies. However, principal component analysis (PCA) may provide additional insight into gait analysis for considering the complete pattern of GRF. This study aimed at testing the application of PCA to discriminate the vertical GRF pattern between control group (CG) and patients with lower limb fractures (FG), as well as proposing a score to quantify the abnormality of gait. Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated of CG and 13 subjects in FG, five subjects from FG were also evaluated after physiotherapeutic treatment (FGA). The GRF was measured by an instrumented treadmill. Principal component coefficients (PCCs) were obtained by singular value decomposition using GRF of complete stride. Two, four and six PCCs were used to obtain the standard distance (D). The classification between groups was mainly given by the first PC, which indicated higher loading factors during push off of affected side and heel strike of unaffected side. The classification performance achieved 92.2% accuracy with two PCCs, 94.1% with four PCCs and 96.1% with six PCCs. Four subjects reached normal boundary after treatment, with all FGA subjects presenting decreased D. This study demonstrates that PCA is an adequate method for discriminating normal and abnormal gait and D allows an objective evaluation of the progress and effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment. PMID:18640040

Muniz, A M S; Nadal, J

2009-01-01

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Ground Reaction Forces and Throwing Performance in Elite and Novice Players in Two Types of Handball Shot  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the ground reaction force (GRF) patterns between elite and novice players during two types of handball shots, as well as the relationships between throwing performance and the GRF variables. Ball velocity and throwing accuracy were measured during jump shots and 3-step shots performed by 15 elite and 15 novice players. The GRF pattern was recorded for the vertical and the anterior-posterior GRF components (Kistler forceplate type-928...

Rousanoglou, Elissavet; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Bayios, Ioannis; Boudolos, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

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Transient Decreases in Forelimb Gait and Ground Reaction Forces Following Rotator Cuff Injury and Repair in a Rat Model  

OpenAIRE

Due to inadequate healing, surgical repairs of torn rotator cuff tendons often fail, limiting the recovery of upper extremity function. The rat is frequently used to study rotator cuff healing; however, there are few systems capable of quantifying forelimb function necessary to interpret the clinical significance of tissue level healing. We constructed a device to capture images, ground reaction forces and torques, as animals ambulated in a confined walkway, and used it to evaluate forelimb f...

Sarver, Joseph J.; Dishowitz, Michael I.; Kim, Soung-yon; Soslowsky, Louis J.

2010-01-01

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Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in silico development and testing of hip prostheses.

Wefstaedt Patrick

2009-11-01

25

Ground reaction forces in vertically ascending beetles and corresponding activity of the claw retractor muscle on smooth and rough substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured ground reaction forces in fore-aft and normal directions of single hind and front legs in vertically ascending Sagra femorata beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on a smooth and a rough substrate. Simultaneously, we performed electromyographic recordings (EMGs) of the hind leg claw retractor muscle that partly controls the attachment structures. On both substrates, hind legs produced upward- as well as downward-directed forces during one stance phase. Forces were equivalent in both directions. Front legs generated only upward-directed forces. The main function of hind legs in ascending beetles in the second half of the stance thus probably prevented the animals from tilting away from the substrate. The EMGs of hind legs showed an early spike during stance with large amplitude. It was mostly followed by few additional spikes with large amplitude and in some cases of spikes with smaller amplitude distributed throughout the stance phase. We found significantly more spikes on the rough substrate than on the smooth one. This is probably due to the more important role of pretarsal claws than tarsal hairy attachment pads on the rough substrate or to the reduced adhesive forces on the rough substrate that have to be compensated by additional muscle activity. PMID:24643622

Bußhardt, Philipp; Gorb, Stanislav N

2014-05-01

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Lower Extremity Strength and Hopping and Jumping Ground Reaction forces in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to 1) extend the research findings of decreased muscular force production in grip strength to the lower extremity strength of children with NF1 and 2) to determine if there was a relationship between isometric strength and functional activities in children with NF1. Force production was assessed using a hand held dynamometer (HHD) and a functional task (hopping and jumping) on a force plate. Data from twenty-six children with NF1 were compared to data from 48 typ...

Johnson, Barbara; Macwilliams, Bruce; Carey, John C.; Viskochil, David H.; D’astous, Jacques L.; Stevenson, David A.

2011-01-01

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Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

S. Rafajlovi?

2009-06-01

28

The relationship between bone mechanical properties and ground reaction forces in normal and hypermuscular mice  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the relationship between external load and bone morphology is critical for understanding adaptations to load in extant animals and inferring behavior in extinct forms. Yet the relationship bony anatomy and load is poorly understood, with empirical studies often producing conflicting results. It is widely assumed in many ecological and paleontological studies that bone size and strength reflects the forces experience by the bone in-vivo. This study examines that assumption by pro...

Schmitt, Daniel; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Hamrick, Mark W.

2010-01-01

29

The influence of gait cadence on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures during load carriage of young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomechanical gait parameters-ground reaction forces (GRFs) and plantar pressures-during load carriage of young adults were compared at a low gait cadence and a high gait cadence. Differences between load carriage and normal walking during both gait cadences were also assessed. A force plate and an in-shoe plantar pressure system were used to assess 60 adults while they were walking either normally (unloaded condition) or wearing a backpack (loaded condition) at low (70 steps per minute) and high gait cadences (120 steps per minute). GRF and plantar pressure peaks were scaled to body weight (or body weight plus backpack weight). With medium to high effect sizes we found greater anterior-posterior and vertical GRFs and greater plantar pressure peaks in the rearfoot, forefoot and hallux when the participants walked carrying a backpack at high gait cadences compared to walking at low gait cadences. Differences between loaded and unloaded conditions in both gait cadences were also observed. PMID:25766421

Castro, Marcelo P; Figueiredo, Maria Cristina; Abreu, Sofia; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

2015-07-01

30

Low strength is related to diminished ground reaction forces and walking performance in older women  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to determine how lower-limb strength in older women affected gait speed, supportive forces, spatial, and temporal aspects of walking gait. Twenty-four women between 65 – 80 yr performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions for the knee extensors (KE), knee flexors (KF), ankle plantarflexors (PF) and ankle dorsiflexors (DF) and were separated into low strength and normal strength groups using a KE torque threshold of 1.5 Nm kg?1. They walked at both a stan...

Laroche, Dain P.; Millett, Erica D.; Kralian, Rachel J.

2011-01-01

31

Vertical ground reaction force responses to different head-out aquatic exercises performed in water and on dry land.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The purpose was to analyse the vertical ground reaction forces (Fz) of head-out aquatic exercises [stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), cross-country skiing (CCS), jumping jacks (JJ), adductor hop (ADH) and abductor hop (ABH)] at two cadences in both aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve young women completed two sessions in each environment, each consisting of three exercises performed at two cadences (first and second ventilatory thresholds - C1 and C2, respectively). Two-way and three-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to the statistical analysis. The results showed that the peak Fz and impulse were significantly lower in the aquatic environment, resulting in values from 28.2% to 58.5% and 60.4% to 72.8% from those obtained on dry land, respectively. In the aquatic environment, the peak Fz was lower and the impulse was higher at the C1 than at the C2. Furthermore, it was observed that SR and FK (0.9-1.1 BW) elicited a significantly higher peak Fz values compared to the ADH and JJ exercises (0.5-0.8 BW). It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces the Fz during head-out aquatic exercises. It should be noted that its magnitude is also dependent on the intensity and the identity of the exercise performed. PMID:25356625

Alberton, Cristine Lima; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Antunes, Amanda Haberland; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

2015-01-01

32

Ground reaction forces and throwing performance in elite and novice players in two types of handball shot.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the ground reaction force (GRF) patterns between elite and novice players during two types of handball shots, as well as the relationships between throwing performance and the GRF variables. Ball velocity and throwing accuracy were measured during jump shots and 3-step shots performed by 15 elite and 15 novice players. The GRF pattern was recorded for the vertical and the anterior-posterior GRF components (Kistler forceplate type-9281, 750Hz). One-way ANOVA was used for the group differences and the Pearson coefficient for the correlation between throwing performance and GRF variables (SPSS 21.0, p ? 0.05). The elite players performed better in both types of shot. Both groups developed consistent and similar GRF patterns, except for the novices' inconsistent Fz pattern in the 3-step shot. The GRF variables differed significantly between groups in the 3-step shot (p ? 0.05). Significant correlations were found only for ball velocity and predominantly for the novice players during the 3-step shot (p ? 0.05). The results possibly highlight a shortage in the novice ability to effectively reduce their forward momentum so as to provide a stable base of support for the momentum transfer up the kinetic chain, a situation that may predispose athletes to injury. PMID:25031672

Rousanoglou, Elissavet; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Bayios, Ioannis; Boudolos, Konstantinos

2014-03-27

33

A fuzzy decision tree-based SVM classifier for assessing osteoarthritis severity using ground reaction force measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fuzzy decision tree-based SVM (FDT-SVM) classifier is proposed in this paper, to distinguish between asymptotic (AS) and osteoarthritis (OA) knee gait patterns and to investigate OA severity using 3-D ground reaction force (GRF) measurements. FDT-SVM incorporates effective techniques for feature selection (FS) and class grouping (CG) at each non-leaf nodes of the tree structure, which reduce the overall complexity of DT building and alleviate the overfitting effect. The embedded FS and CG are based on the notion of fuzzy partition vector (FPV) that comprises the fuzzy membership degrees of every pattern in their target classes, serving as a local evaluation metric with respect to patterns. FS is driven by a fuzzy complementary criterion (FuzCoC) which assures that features are iteratively introduced, providing the maximum additional contribution in regard to the information content given by the previously selected features. A novel Wavelet Packet (WP) decomposition based on the FuzCoC principles is also introduced, to distinguish informative and complementary features from GRF data. The quality of our method is validated in terms of statistical metrics drawn by confusion matrices, such as sensitivity, specificity and total classification accuracy. In addition, we investigate the impact of each GRF component. Finally, comparative results with existing techniques are given, demonstrating the efficacy of the suggested approach. PMID:20875766

Moustakidis, S P; Theocharis, J B; Giakas, G

2010-12-01

34

Short communication: Changes in gait symmetry in healthy and lame dairy cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction force curves following claw trimming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lameness is a frequent health problem in dairy cows. This preliminary study aimed to detect gait differences between healthy and lame walking cows using 3-dimensional force plates. We examined left-right leg symmetry changes of healthy and lame Holstein dairy cows following claw trimming. Gait scoring (GS) was performed on d -5, 0, 1, and 7 relative to claw trimming. Before the experiment, 5 cows walked normally (initial GS=1) and 4 cows limped moderately on a hind leg (initial GS=3). Gait was measured on d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 7 relative to trimming by obtaining ground reaction forces as cows walked repeatedly across 2 parallel 3-dimensional force plates. From the ground reaction forces, stance phase data were derived using computerized procedures. Left-right leg symmetries of entire curves in the 3 force directions were calculated. Effects of lameness and trimming were analyzed in a mixed model, using a low lameness threshold (GS>1). One week after claw trimming, only one cow was mildly lame. In addition, the symmetries of all 3 dimensions were significantly improved shortly after trimming. Importantly, lameness significantly worsened vertical symmetry. Lame cows walked significantly more slowly than healthy cows. In conclusion, all force symmetries seemed capable of detecting gait responses to claw trimming. Although our results are based on a small number of animals, vertical leg symmetry was affected by lameness. PMID:25306278

Thorup, V M; do Nascimento, O F; Skjøth, F; Voigt, M; Rasmussen, M D; Bennedsgaard, T W; Ingvartsen, K L

2014-12-01

35

EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOTION, MUSCLE ACTIVITY, AND GROUND REACTION FORCES IN MEN AND WOMEN DURING LANDING  

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Full Text Available Women tear their Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL 2-8 times more frequently than men. Frontal plane knee motion can produce a pathological load in the ACL. During a state of fatigue the muscles surrounding the knee joint may lose the ability to protect the joint during sudden deceleration while landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and gender on frontal plane knee motion, EMG amplitudes, and GRF magnitudes during drop- jump landing. Pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. Twenty-six volunteers (14 women; 12 Men; Mean ± standard deviation age = 24.5 ± 2.7 yrs; height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m; mass = 74.3 ± 11.8 kg participated in the study. Knee frontal plane ranges of motion and positions, ground reaction force peak magnitudes, and surface EMG RMS amplitudes from five lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring, and lateral gastrocnemius were obtained during the landing phase of a drop-jump. MANOVA and ANOVA indicated that peak GRF significantly (p < 0.05; 2.50 ± 0.75 BW vs. 2.06 ± 0.93 BW decreased during fatigued landings. No other variables exhibited a fatigue main effect, although there was a significant (p < 0.05 fatigue by gender interaction for the frontal plane range of motion from initial contact to max knee flexion variable. Follow-up analyses failed to reveal significant gender differences at the different levels of fatigue for this variable. Additionally, no variables exhibited a significant gender main effect. Single subject analysis indicated that fatigue significantly altered frontal plane knee motion, peak GRF, and EMG in some subjects and the direction of differences varied by individual. Fatigue altered some aspects of landing performance in both men and women, but there were no gender differences. Additionally, both group and single subject analyses provided valuable but different information about factors representing neuromuscular control during drop-jump landing

Michael P. Smith

2009-09-01

36

The vertical ground reaction force and the pressure distribution on the claws of dairy cows while walking on a flat substrate  

OpenAIRE

The pressure distribution under the bovine claw while walking was measured to test the hypotheses that the vertical ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some (regions of the) claws more prone to injuries due to overloading than others. Each limb of nine recently trimmed Holstein Friesian cows was measured five times while walking over a Footscan pressure plate firmly embedded on a Kistler force plate. The pressure plate had a spatial resolution of 2.6 sensors/cm2 and was sa...

Tol, P. P. J.; Metz, J. H. M.; Noordhuizen-stassen, E. N.; Back, W.; Braam, C. R.; Weijs, W. A.

2003-01-01

37

Predição da força de reação do solo durante a corrida na água Prediction of ground reaction force during water immersion running  

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Full Text Available Este estudo visou desenvolver um modelo para a predição da força de reação do solo na corrida subaquática. Participaram 20 sujeitos (9 homens e 11 mulheres, que realizaram corrida subaquática em dois níveis de imersão e três velocidades. Para cada sujeito foram coletadas seis passagens válidas em cada condição, com a utilização de uma plataforma subaquática de força. O modelo para predição da força foi construído por regressão linear múltipla. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes a componente vertical e a componente ântero-posterior da força de reação do solo. As variáveis imersão, sexo, velocidade, massa corporal, densidade corporal e percentual de gordura foram consideradas independentes. Permaneceu no modelo final de regressão para a componente vertical a velocidade (pThis study aimed at developing a model to predict ground reaction force during deep-water running. A total of 20 subjects ((9 men, 11 women ran in water at two immersion levels and three different speeds. Each subject performed six valid trials in each condition, data being captured by an underwater force plate. The force prediction model was build by multiple linear regression. Dependent variables were the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force; independent variables were runners' immersion, sex, speed, body mass, body density, and percentage of fat. At the final regression model for the vertical component, only speed remained (p<0.001, while for the anteroposterior component, speed, immersion, and body mass were maintained (all at p<0.001. The obtained model for the anteroposterior component of ground reaction force may be found satisfactory, as adjusted determination coefficient was 0.79. However, the prediction model for the vertical component cannot be recommended for prediction during deep-water running, since that coefficient was 0.18. It must be noted that the proposed prediction model applies to subjects provided that they have similar characteristics to those who took part in this study.

Alessandro Haupenthal

2010-09-01

38

Predição da força de reação do solo durante a corrida na água / Prediction of ground reaction force during water immersion running  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo visou desenvolver um modelo para a predição da força de reação do solo na corrida subaquática. Participaram 20 sujeitos (9 homens e 11 mulheres), que realizaram corrida subaquática em dois níveis de imersão e três velocidades. Para cada sujeito foram coletadas seis passagens válidas em c [...] ada condição, com a utilização de uma plataforma subaquática de força. O modelo para predição da força foi construído por regressão linear múltipla. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes a componente vertical e a componente ântero-posterior da força de reação do solo. As variáveis imersão, sexo, velocidade, massa corporal, densidade corporal e percentual de gordura foram consideradas independentes. Permaneceu no modelo final de regressão para a componente vertical a velocidade (p Abstract in english This study aimed at developing a model to predict ground reaction force during deep-water running. A total of 20 subjects ((9 men, 11 women) ran in water at two immersion levels and three different speeds. Each subject performed six valid trials in each condition, data being captured by an underwate [...] r force plate. The force prediction model was build by multiple linear regression. Dependent variables were the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force; independent variables were runners' immersion, sex, speed, body mass, body density, and percentage of fat. At the final regression model for the vertical component, only speed remained (p

Alessandro, Haupenthal; Heiliane de Brito, Fontana; Caroline, Ruschel; Helio, Roesler; Adriano Ferreti, Borgatto.

2010-09-01

39

A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2. EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait.

Akashi Paula MH

2010-02-01

40

Analysis of the Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Temporal Factors in the Landing Phase of a Countermovement Jump  

OpenAIRE

In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively) and...

Daniel Rojano Ortega; Rodri?guez Bi?es, Elisabeth C.; Berral La Rosa, Francisco J.

2010-01-01

41

A neural network model to predict knee adduction moment during walking based on ground reaction force and anthropometric measurements  

OpenAIRE

The external knee adduction moment (KAM) is a major variable for the evaluation of knee loading during walking, specifically in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, assessment of the KAM is limited to locations where full motion laboratories are available. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a simple method to predict the KAM using only force plate and anthropometric measurements. Three groups of 28 knees (asymptomatic, mild osteoarthritis, and severe osteoarthritis) were...

Favre, Julien; Hayoz, Matthieu; Hledik, Jennifer C. Erhart; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

42

Força de reação do solo como subsídio para prescrição de exercícios aquáticos: estudo de caso / Ground reaction force as a subsidy for prescribing aquatic exercises: case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar a componente vertical da força de reação do solo nos exercícios de caminhada, corrida com deslocamento, corrida estacionária e salto vertical, realizados em ambiente aquático em diferentes níveis de imersão. MÉTODO: Participou deste estudo de caso um sujeito do sexo masculino (27 [...] anos, 1,80 m e 84,3 kg). Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados uma plataforma subaquática de força posicionada no fundo de uma piscina térmica. O sujeito realizou 30 tentativas válidas de cada exercício, imerso nos níveis do processo xifoide e do quadril. Os dados foram analisados com a utilização da estatística descritiva, teste "t" de Student para amostras pareadas e ANOVA, para medidas repetidas (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the vertical component of the ground reaction force in the exercises of walking, running, stationary running and vertical jump in the water, performed in different levels of immersion. METHODS: This case study was conducted with one subject (male, 27 years, 1,80 m and 84,3 kg). [...] An underwater force plate was used for data collection, placed at the bottom of a thermal swimming pool. The subject performed 30 valid passages for each exercise in two immersion levels: xiphoid process and hip. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, Student's "t" test for paired samples and ANOVA for repeated measures (p

Alessandro, Haupenthal; Caroline, Ruschel; Marcel, Hubert; Heiliane de Brito, Fontana; Helio, Roesler.

2010-06-01

43

ANALYSIS OF THE VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND TEMPORAL FACTORS IN THE LANDING PHASE OF A COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP  

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Full Text Available In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2 in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively and the length of the impact absorption phase (T. Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05 and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05 were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05. T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster.

Daniel Rojano Ortega

2010-06-01

44

Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction force information. Features were derived from measurements made using two parallel 3-dimensional force plates. The approach presented is based on clustering of Centre of Pressure (COP) trace points over space and time, combined with logical sequencing of stance phases based on the dynamics of quadrupedal walking. The clusters were identified as full or truncated (incomplete) stance phases furthermore the stance phases were classified as originating from a front or hind foot. Data from 370 walking trials made by 9 cows on 5 experiment days were used to test the method. Four cows were moderately lame at experimental onset. On average 5.1 stance phases per cow per trial were obtained of which 3.2 were classified as full stance phases and therefore appropriate for further gait analysis (the latter not being the scope of this study). Of the 2617 identified clusters 1844 were classified as stance phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high number of stance phases obtained per trial. It is thus a combination which has the potential to enable unsupervised gait analysis based on data collected automatically on-farm

SkjØth, F; Thorup, Vivi MØrkØre

2013-01-01

45

Comparison among probabilistic neural network, support vector machine and logistic regression for evaluating the effect of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson disease on ground reaction force during gait.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) is an approved treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD) patients; however, there is a need to further evaluate its effect on gait. This study compares logistic regression (LR), probabilistic neural network (PNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for discriminating between normal and PD subjects in assessing the effects of DBS-STN on ground reaction force (GRF) with and without medication. Gait analysis of 45 subjects (30 normal and 15 PD subjects who underwent bilateral DBS-STN) was performed. PD subjects were assessed under four test conditions: without treatment (mof-sof), with stimulation alone (mof-son), with medication alone (mon-sof), and with medication and stimulation (mon-son). Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the three components of GRF separately, where six PC scores from vertical, one from anterior-posterior and one from medial-lateral were chosen by the broken stick test. Stepwise LR analysis employed the first two and fifth vertical PC scores as input variables. Using the bootstrap approach to compare model performances for classifying GRF patterns from normal and untreated PD subjects, the first three and the fifth vertical PCs were attained as SVM input variables, while the same ones plus the first anterior-posterior were selected as PNN input variables. PNN performed better than LR and SVM according to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the negative likelihood ratio. When evaluating treatment effects, the classifiers indicated that DBS-STN alone was more effective than medication alone, but the greatest improvements occurred with both treatments together. PMID:19914622

Muniz, A M S; Liu, H; Lyons, K E; Pahwa, R; Liu, W; Nobre, F F; Nadal, J

2010-03-01

46

Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots REPRODUCIBILIDAD DE LAS VARIABLES ESPACIO-TEMPORALES Y DE LAS COMPONENTES DE LA FUERZA DE REACCIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA MARCHA CON BOTAS DE BOMBERO [Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la reproducibilidad de las variables espacio-temporales y de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS durante la marcha con botas de bombero y compararla con la mostrada durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña. Se registraron las variables espacio-temporales de 39 personas así como las variables que definen las tres componentes de la FRS con dos tipos de calzado diferente. Se utilizó la prueba T para contrastar la hipótesis referida a la diferencia del coeficiente de variación (CV entre los dos tipos de calzado. El CV de las variables espacio-temporales (p. ej. velocidad (V, condición I = 2,01%; condición II = 1,81%, así como de las que definen la componente vertical (p. ej. fuerza de apoyo (FZA del pie izquierdo, condición I = 2,54%; condición II = 2,73% y antero-posterior (p. ej. fuerza máxima (FXMAX del pie izquierdo, condición I = 4,47%; condición II = 4,59% de la FRS fue inferior a 12,5%, sugiriendo que estas variables pueden ser utilizadas para analizar la influencia de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. La baja reproducibilidad mostrada por las variables que definen la componente medio-lateral desaconseja la utilización de las mismas para evaluar el efecto de las botas de bombero sobre la marcha. A excepción del tiempo de apoyo bipodal, el resto de variables durante la marcha con botas de bombero no mostró una variabilidad diferente a la obtenida durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña.Palabras clave: biomecánica, calzado, variabilidad. AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions.Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

Begoña Gavilanes

2010-11-01

47

A influência do uso acumulado de calçados de corrida sobre a força de reação do solo e as respostas de pressão plantar The influence of running shoes cumulative usage on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressure responses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acredita-se que a eficiência do calçado seja afetada pelo uso prolongado, mas as alterações biomecânicas ainda não estão bem compreendidas. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a influência do uso de calçados de corrida na força de reação do solo e os parâmetros de pressão plantar. Três corredores do sexo masculino receberam quatro calçados de corrida para usarem em suas sessões de treinamento. O Sistema Gaitway e o Sistema de F-scan foram usados para registrar a força de reação do solo e parâmetros pressão plantar em diferentes regiões do pé. As coletas ocorreram em quatro momentos: novo e 100, 200 e 300 km de uso. O primeiro pico diminuiu da condição novo para os 300 km de uso (p The prolonged use of a running shoe is thought to affect the efficiency of its impact attenuation properties. However, its effect over biomechanical variables has yet not been well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of running shoe usage on ground reaction force and plantar pressure parameters. Three male runners received four running shoes each to use at their training sessions. The Gaitway System was used to register the vertical component of the ground reaction force, whereas the contact area and peak plantar pressure at different regions of the foot were assessed via the the F-scan System. Data collection occurred at baseline (when the shoes were new - New and after 100, 200 and 300km of use. The first peak decreased significantly from New to 300km (p < 0.01 and the loading rate showed a significant decrease at 200km in relation to the New condition (p < 0.01. Total area increased significantly from New to 100km (p < 0.01 of use and maintained a similar value when compared with the other conditions. There was a continuous and significant decrease (p < 0.01 on forefoot peak pressure as the mileage increased from New to 300km. The hallux peak pressure values were significantly smaller (p < 0.01 at 300km when compared with the New condition. Considering that the first peak, loading rate and plantar peak pressure values did not increase and that the plantar total contact area increased, it can be concluded that the running shoe did not suffer consistent alterations in ground reaction force and in plantar pressure after 300km of use.

Roberto Bianco

2011-12-01

48

Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention???24?weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150?minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75?minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ?0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to???0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28?g’s, 1632 participants, g?=?0.288, 95% CI?=?0.102, 0.474, p?=?0.002, Q?=?90.5, p?I2?=?70.1%, NNT?=?6 and LS (28?g’s, 1504 participants, g?=?0.179, 95% CI?=??0.003, 0.361, p?=?0.05, Q?=?77.7, p?I2?=?65.3%, NNT?=?6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed-effects ANOVA analyses were statistically significant. Statistically significant, or a trend for statistically significant, associations were observed for changes in FN and LS BMD and 20 different predictors. Conclusions The overall findings suggest that exercise may result in clinically relevant benefits to FN and LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Several of the observed associations appear worthy of further investigation in well-designed randomized controlled trials.

Kelley George A

2012-09-01

49

Ground reaction force and electromyographic activity of transfemoral amputee gait: a case series http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p16  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ground reaction forces (GRF and electromyographic activity form a part of the descriptive data that characterise the biomechanics of gait. The research of these parameters is important in establishing gait training and understanding the impact of amputation and prosthetic components on movement during the act of walking. Therefore, this case series describes the GRF and electromyographic activity in the gait of transfemoral amputees. A force plate was used to measure GRF, and an electromyographic system monitored the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the non-amputated leg. The average vertical and anteroposterior GRF time-curves, average electromyographic activity, and descriptor variables were then analysed. We observed decreases in vertical and anteroposterior GRF magnitudes as well as in anteroposterior GRF descriptor variables during the propulsive phase in the amputated leg. There were increases in phasic muscle activity and co-activation in the non-amputated leg. We concluded that, during walking, the unilateral transfemoral amputees (who were analysed in this case series developed lower GRF in the amputated limb and a longer period of electromyographic activity in the non-amputated limb.

Alberto Carlos Amadio

2013-01-01

50

Ground reaction force and electromyographic activity of transfemoral amputee gait: a case series / Força de Reação do Solo e atividade eletromiográfica da marcha de amputados transfemorais: uma série de casos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O comportamento da Força de Reação do Solo (FRS) e a atividade eletromiográfica formam uma parte dos dados que caracterizam a biomecânica da marcha. O estudo destes parâmetros é importante para a recuperação da locomoção e para compreensão do impacto da amputação e dos componentes protéticos nos mov [...] imentos desenvolvidos no andar. Portanto, esta série de casos tem como objetivo descrever a atividade eletromiográfica e a FRS de amputados transfemorais. Para mensurar a FRS, foi utilizada uma plataforma de força e um sistema de eletromiografia monitorou os músculos vasto lateral, bíceps femoral, tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio lateral da perna não-amputada. As médias das componentes vertical e ânteroposterior da FRS, a atividade eletromiográfica e variáveis descritivas foram analisadas. Foi observado uma diminuição da magnitude da FRS vertical e ânteroposterior e das variáveis descritivas da componente ânteroposterior da FRS durante a fase de propulsão na perna amputada. Houve aumento na atividade fásica muscular e co-ativação na perna não-amputada. Pode-se concluir que os amputados transfemorais unilaterais analisados nesta série de casos desenvolveram menor FRS na perna amputada e longos períodos de atividade eletromiográfica na perna não amputada durante a marcha. Abstract in english Ground reaction forces (GRF) and electromyographic activity form a part of the descriptive data that characterise the biomechanics of gait. The research of these parameters is important in establishing gait training and understanding the impact of amputation and prosthetic components on movement dur [...] ing the act of walking. Therefore, this case series describes the GRF and electromyographic activity in the gait of transfemoral amputees. A force plate was used to measure GRF, and an electromyographic system monitored the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the non-amputated leg. The average vertical and anteroposterior GRF time-curves, average electromyographic activity, and descriptor variables were then analysed. We observed decreases in vertical and anteroposterior GRF magnitudes as well as in anteroposterior GRF descriptor variables during the propulsive phase in the amputated leg. There were increases in phasic muscle activity and co-activation in the non-amputated leg. We concluded that, during walking, the unilateral transfemoral amputees (who were analysed in this case series) developed lower GRF in the amputated limb and a longer period of electromyographic activity in the non-amputated limb.

Alex Sandra Oliveira de, Cerqueira; Edward Yuji, Yamaguti; Luis, Mochizuki; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Júlio Cerca, Serrão.

2013-02-01

51

A vacuum--generated inertia reaction force  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A clear and succinct covariant approach shows that, in principle, there must be a contribution to the inertia reaction force on an accelerated object by the surrounding vacuum electromagnetic field in which the object is embedded. No details of the vacuum to object electromagnetic interaction need to be specified other than the fact that the object is made of electromagnetically interacting particles. Some interesting consequences of this feature are discussed. This analysis strongly supports the concept that inertia is indeed an opposition of the vacuum fields to any attempt to change the uniform state of motion of material bodies. This also definitely shows that inertia should be viewed as extrinsic to mass and that causing agents and/or mechanisms responsible for the inertia reaction force are neither intrinsic to the notion of mass nor to the entities responsible for the existence of mass in elementary particles (as, e.g., the Higgs field). In other words the mechanism that produces the inertia-reaction-force requires an explicit explanation. This explicit explanation is that inertia is an opposition of the vacuum fields to the accelerated motion of any material entities, i.e., of entities that possess mass. It is briefly commented why the existence of a Higgs field responsible for the generation of mass in elementary particles does not contradict the view presented here. It is also briefly discussed why a strict version of Mach's Principle does really contradict f Mach's Principle does really contradict this view, though a broad sense version of Mach's Principle may be in agreement

52

Tensor Forces and the Ground-State Structure of Nuclei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of nuclei with mass number A {le} 8, using accurate variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of 'np' pairs is found to be much larger than that of 'pp' pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300--600) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. This large difference, more than an order of magnitude, is seen in all nuclei considered, and has a universal character originating from the tensor components present in any realistic nucleon-nucleon potential. The correlations induced by the tensor force strongly influence the structure of 'np' pairs, which are known to be predominantly in deuteron-like states, while they are ineffective for 'pp' pairs, which are mostly in {sup 1}S{sub 0} states. These features should be easily observable in two-nucleon knock-out processes, for example in A(e,e{prime} np) and A(e,e{prime} pp) reactions.

Rocco Schiavilla

2007-03-01

53

Ground state octupole correlation energies with effective forces  

CERN Document Server

The ground state octupole correlations energies obtained with the D1M variant of the Gogny force are analyzed in detail. First we consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by allowing reflection symmetry breaking. Next we consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally we analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. We find that these correlations do not significantly affect the trends of binding energies and systematics near closed shells. In particular, the too-large shell gaps predicted by self-consistent mean field models are not altered by the correlations.

Robledo, Luis M

2014-01-01

54

Soot Reaction Properties (Ground-Based Study)  

Science.gov (United States)

Three major soot reaction processes are needed to predict soot properties in flame environments: soot growth, or the formation of soot on soot nuclei and soot particles; soot oxidation, or the reaction of soot with oxidizing species to yield the combustion products of soot oxidation; and soot nucleation, or the formation of soot nuclei from soot precursors having large molecular weights (generally thought to be large and particularly stable PAH molecules in flame environments, called stabilomers). These processes are addressed in the following, considering soot growth, oxidation and nucleation, in turn, by exploiting the soot and flame structure results for premixed and diffusion flames already discussed in Section 2.

Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

55

Ground reaction curve based upon block theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

56

Development of reaction models for ground-water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods are described for developing geochemical reaction models from the observed chemical compositions of ground water along a hydrologic flow path. The roles of thermodynamic speciation programs, mass balance calculations, and reaction-path simulations in developing and testing reaction models are contrasted. Electron transfer is included in the mass balance equations to properly account for redox reactions in ground water. The mass balance calculations determine net mass transfer models which must be checked against the thermodynamic calculations of speciation and reaction-path programs. Although reaction-path simulations of ground-water chemistry are thermodynamically valid, they must be checked against the net mass transfer defined by the mass balance calculations. An example is given testing multiple reaction hypotheses along a flow path in the Floridan aquifer where several reaction models are eliminated. Use of carbon and sulfur isotopic data with mass balance calculations indicates a net reaction of incongruent dissolution of dolomite (dolomite dissolution with calcite precipitation) driven irreversibly by gypsum dissolution, accompanied by minor sulfate reduction, ferric hydroxide dissolution, and pyrite precipitation in central Florida. Along the flow path, the aquifer appears to be open to CO 2 initially, and open to organic carbon at more distant points down gradient.

Plummer, L. Niel; Parkhurst, David L.; Thorstenson, Donald C.

57

Force as a Useful Variable in Reactions: Unfolding RNA  

OpenAIRE

The effect of force on the thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions is described. The key parameters are the difference in end-to-end distance between reactant and product for thermodynamics, and the distance to the transition state for kinetics. I focus the review on experimental results on force unfolding of RNA. Methods to measure Gibbs free energies and kinetics for reversible and irreversible reactions are described. The use of the worm-like-chain model to calculate the effects of force ...

Tinoco, Ignacio

2004-01-01

58

CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

1987-01-01

59

First metatarsophalangeal joint reaction forces during high-heel gait.  

Science.gov (United States)

First metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint reaction forces were calculated for 11 normal females during the toe-off phase of gait while walking in bare feet and in high heeled shoes. A biomechanical model was used to calculate the forces utilizing kinematic, kinetic, footprint, and radiographic data. The results showed that the MTP joint reaction forces (FJ), the metatarsal-sesamoid forces (FS), and the resultant of these forces (FRES), were twice as large in high heels compared to barefoot walking. The average peak forces for barefoot and high-heeled gait were FJ: 0.8 and 1.58 times body weight, FS: 0.44 and 1.03 times body weight, and FRES: 0.93 and 1.88 times body weight. Also, the kinematics changed when wearing high heels, making angles of application of forces and sesamoidal articulations less favorable. PMID:2037268

McBride, I D; Wyss, U P; Cooke, T D; Murphy, L; Phillips, J; Olney, S J

1991-04-01

60

Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

61

Front explosion in a periodically forced surface reaction  

CERN Document Server

Resonantly-forced oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems can exhibit fronts with complicated interfacial structure separating phase-locked homogeneous states. For values of the forcing amplitude below a critical value the front "explodes" and the width of the interfacial zone grows without bound. Such front explosion phenomena are investigated for a realistic model of catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt(110) surface in the 2:1 and 3:1 resonantly-forced regimes. In the 2:1 regime, the fronts are stationary and the front explosion leads to a defect-mediated turbulent state. In the 3:1 resonantly-forced system, the fronts propagate. The front velocity tends to zero as the front explosion point is reached and the final asymptotic state is a 2:1 resonantly-locked labyrinthine pattern. The front dynamics described here should be observable in experiment since the model has been shown to capture essential features of the CO oxidation reaction.

Davidsen, J; Kapral, R E; Mikhailov, Alexander; Kapral, Raymond

2005-01-01

62

Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL`s Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A.

Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

1997-06-01

63

Deployment Control of Space Inflatable Structures Considering Reaction Forces  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of deployment of an inflatable structure, when the stiffness of the structure increases rapidly, especially at the final moment of deployment, a large reaction force is generated around supporting points with the main body of a spacecraft. It is important to minimize the reaction force when deploying in order to decrease the influence on the satellite attitude and strength of supporting points as much as possible. The purpose of this study is to attain a method of optimal deployment control that minimizes the reaction force generated around supporting part. In order to achieve the goal, feedback control experiments using an electromagnetic valve to adjust the inner pressure was done during deployment of inflatable tube. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed method was also examined when applying it to the structure of the different size. As a result, it is found that the suppression of the reaction force is attained by about 80% compared with the case where this control is not applied, and the effectiveness of the proposed feedback control method of inner pressure was confirmed. Moreover, considering the volume, it is able to apply this control method even with different scale structures.

Nakajima, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

64

A thermodynamic force generated by chemical gradient and adsorption reaction  

CERN Document Server

Biological units such as macromolecules, organelles, and cells are directed to a proper location under gradients of relevant chemicals. By considering a macroscopic element that has binding sites for a chemical adsorption reaction to occur on its surface, we show the existence of a thermodynamic force that is generated by the gradient and exerted on the element. By assuming local equilibrium and adopting the grand potential from thermodynamics, we derive a formula for such a thermodynamic force, which depends on the chemical potential gradient and Langmuir isotherm. The conditions under which the formula can be applied are demonstrated to hold in intracellular reactions. The role of the force in the partitioning of bacterial chromosome/plasmid during cell division is discussed.

Sugawara, Takeshi

2009-01-01

65

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

1991-10-01

66

Generation of periodic force with oscillating chemical reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

It is found that a periodic change of the surface tension is generated at the gas—liquid interface of an aqueous Belousov—Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium. It has been confirmed that the difference of the surface tension of the iron-catalyst between [Fe(phen) 3] 3+ and [Fe(phen) 3] 2+ is the driving force of this rhythmic phenomenon. The rhythmic change of the surface tension is discussed in relation to the known effect of convective flow accompanied by the propagation of a chemical wave in the BZ reaction.

Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kusumi, Toshinori; Ukitsu, Michiyo; Nakata, Satoshi

1993-08-01

67

Soil liquefaction: a competition between buoyancy forces and ground acceleration  

Science.gov (United States)

When seismic waves travel through certain soils, these can lose resistance to shear, and become liquid-like: they display a thixotropic behavior. The buildings and structures lying on them can then subside, or sink partly in the soild, while mud volcanoes are formed around pipes and cracks where the liquefied soil exits. We show how a simple criterium considering the density of the solid part of the soil, the density of the fluid and the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) can render for the main mechanical characteristics of the soil with respect to liquefaction, and categorize this behavior between: (a) solid like behavior, (b) liquefaction, (c) complete convection. Using hybrid numerical simulations, taking into account both the presence of the fluid and a granular behavior for the solid bulk composing the soil, we confirm this simple analytical criterion. We also show it using saturated shaken experiments with a controlled amplitude and frequency, and different type of granular densities and fluid saturation profile. We show that the liquefaction effect is maximum when the top of the water table is close to the surface. We show that these simulations confirm the analytical criterion, to a large extent, apart from small deviations at slow frequencies and large vibration amplitudes, more prone to liquefaction than the high frequency vibrations with a similar PGA.

Toussaint, Renaud; Stojanova, Menka; Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Sanchez, Gustavo; Altshuler, Ernesto; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik

2013-04-01

68

Resolution of Forces and Strain Measurements from an Acoustic Ground Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The Conservatism in Typical Vibration Tests was Demonstrated: Vibration test at component level produced conservative force reactions by approximately a factor of 4 (approx.12 dB) as compared to the integrated acoustic test in 2 out of 3 axes. Reaction Forces Estimated at the Base of Equipment Using a Finite Element Based Method were Validated: FEM based estimate of interface forces may be adequate to guide development of vibration test criteria with less conservatism. Element Forces Estimated in Secondary Structure Struts were Validated: Finite element approach provided best estimate of axial strut forces in frequency range below 200 Hz where a rigid lumped mass assumption for the entire electronics box was valid. Models with enough fidelity to represent diminishing apparent mass of equipment are better suited for estimating force reactions across the frequency range. Forward Work: Demonstrate the reduction in conservatism provided by; Current force limited approach and an FEM guided approach. Validate proposed CMS approach to estimate coupled response from uncoupled system characteristics for vibroacoustics.

Smith, Andrew M.; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald; Waldon, James M.

2013-01-01

69

Exact ground states of few-body nuclei with and without three-body forces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximation-free solutions of the Schroedinger equation are given for the ground states of three- and four-body nuclei, employing spin-independent central two- and three-body forces. Comparison with the results of more approximate few-body methods shows their relative accuracy

70

JF-104 ground testing reaction control system (RCS) jets  

Science.gov (United States)

JF-104A (formerly YF-104A, serial #55-2961) was modified with a hydrogen peroxide reaction control system (RCS). Following a zoom climb to altitudes in the vicinity of 80,000 feet, the RCS gave the jet controllablity in the thin upper atmospher where conventional control surfaces are ineffective.

1961-01-01

71

Chemical reactions of actinides with colloids in ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown by the results of this study that the interaction between the actinoids and the colloids can be explained for a large pH-range by a complexation with humic substances. For verifying this assumption, the distribution of species as a function of pH-value of the ground waters used has been modelled applying thermodynamic data, and the model results have been compared with experimental data. The model results obtained for the species Am3+ and Cm3+ show a good agreement of computed and experimental results up to a pH-value <7.5. At higher pH-values, clearly different values are observed, which are attributed to a sorption of hydrolysed species to colloids. The model-based computation of the distribution of the non-hydrolysing species Np(V) in the pH-range under review has shown good agreement with all experimental data. (orig.)

72

Handgrip force of maltreating mothers in reaction to infant signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Handgrip force responses to infant signals were examined in a sample of 43 maltreating and 40 non-maltreating mothers. During a standardized handgrip paradigm, mothers were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half of their maximal handgrip strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds. Maltreating mothers used excessive force more often while listening to infant crying and laughter than non-maltreating mothers. Of the maltreating mothers, only neglectful mothers (n=20) tended to use excessive force more often during crying than non-maltreating mothers. Participants did not rate the sounds differently, indicating that maltreating mothers cannot be differentiated from non-maltreating mothers based on their perception of infant signals, but show different behavioral responses to the signals. Results imply that, in response to infant signals (i.e., crying or laughing), maltreating mothers may be insufficiently able to regulate the exertion of physical force. PMID:24717144

Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Reijman, Sophie; Werner, Claudia D; Maras, Athanasios; Rijnberk, Corine; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

2015-02-01

73

Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased

74

Resonance tongues and patterns in periodically forced reaction-diffusion systems  

CERN Document Server

Various resonant and near-resonant patterns form in a light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in response to a spatially-homogeneous time-periodic perturbation with light. The regions (tongues) in the forcing frequency and forcing amplitude parameter plane where resonant patterns form are identified through analysis of the temporal response of the patterns. Resonant and near-resonant responses are distinguished. The unforced BZ reaction shows both spatially-uniform oscillations and rotating spiral waves, while the forced system shows patterns such as standing-wave labyrinths and rotating spiral waves. The patterns depend on the amplitude and frequency of the perturbation, and also on whether the system responds to the forcing near the uniform oscillation frequency or the spiral wave frequency. Numerical simulations of a forced FitzHugh-Nagumo reaction-diffusion model show both resonant and near-resonant patterns similar to the BZ chemical system.

Lin, A L; Meron, E; Swinney, H L; Lin, Anna L.; Hagberg, Aric; Meron, Ehud; Swinney, Harry L.

2004-01-01

75

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits

76

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

1992-04-01

77

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

78

Hydrogen-atom transfer reaction from triplet 2-naphthylammonium ion to ground-state aromatic ketones  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser flash photolyses have been carried out on solutions of the 2-naphthylammonium ion (RNH +3-) benzophenone (BP) [or acetophenone (AP)] system. It is found that the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction from 3RNH +3 (produced by triplet sensitization of the ketones) to the ground BP (or AP) occurs effectively to give RNH +3 and > COH.

Shizuka, Haruo; Fukushima, Masaru

1983-11-01

79

Ground state transitions in (d,6Li) reactions on sd-shell nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpha spectroscopic factors for nuclei of the sd shell are investigated in the case of the (d,6Li) reaction at Esub(d) = 80 MeV. The importance of a careful choice of optical potentials and the necessity of employing coupled channel calculations are demonstrated for transitions leading to the ground states. (author)

80

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

1991-10-01

81

Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36–44° N, 10° W–5° E is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr. Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs, first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash. This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1 orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2 tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3 near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

J. A. Santos

2013-07-01

82

33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base...334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force...

2010-07-01

83

Thinking anew causality problems for the radiation reaction force  

CERN Document Server

In this work, we analyze a Lagrangian formalism recently proposed to approach the issue of the Abraham-Lorentz force. Instead of involving only position and velocity, as usual in Classical Mechanics, this Lagrangian involves the acceleration of the charge. We find the conserved momentum of the charge in the absence of any field and show that it contains an acceleration term. This enables us to re-visit the well-known pre-acceleration problem and show that, contrary to what has been widely believed, it is not related to any violation of causality.

Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e

2015-01-01

84

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Thompson, Bill

1991-10-01

85

Measurement of muscle actions and foot reaction forces from crew members during entire working days on the International Space Station (ISS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present pilot work in preparation for ISS Experiment 318, which will investigate changes in lower limb daily mechanical loading and muscular activity profiles that have been implicated in bone mineral loss and muscle atrophy during spaceflight. Prototype equipment for the musculo-skeletal rack of the Human Research Facility (HRF) was used in conjunction with the Ambulatory Data Acquisition System to record and store data. Right foot ground reaction force profiles, right leg EMG activity profiles from the tibialis anterior and vastus medialis, and joint angular excursion profiles from the right knee and ankle were collected during five minutes each of forward and backward running in 1g as well as over a twelve hour period of activities during daily living. Ground reaction force profiles were analyzed to provide an estimate of 1g daily mechanical load stimulus, while EMG and joint angle profiles characterized the role of individual muscles in generating and absorbing energy

86

Population of ground-state rotational bands of superheavy nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the statistical and quantum diffusion approaches, we study the population of ground-state rotational bands of superheavy nuclei produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 208Pb(48Ca,2n)254No, 206Pb(48Ca,2n)252No, and 204Hg(48Ca,2n)250Fm. By describing the relative intensities of E2 transitions between the rotational states, the entry spin distributions of residual nuclei, and the excitation functions for these reactions, the dependence of fission barriers of shell-stabilized nuclei on angular momentum is investigated.

87

Harmonic vs. subharmonic patterns in a spatially forced oscillating chemical reaction  

OpenAIRE

The effects of a spatially periodic forcing on an oscillating chemical reaction as described by the Lengyel-Epstein model are investigated. We find a surprising competition between two oscillating patterns, where one is harmonic and the other subharmonic with respect to the spatially periodic forcing. The occurrence of a subharmonic pattern is remarkable as well as its preference up to rather large values of the modulation amplitude. For small modulation amplitudes we derive...

Hammele, Martin; Zimmermann, Walter

2006-01-01

88

Reactions in elastomeric nanoreactors reveal the role of force on the kinetics of the Huisgen reaction on surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The force dependence of the copper-free Huisgen cycloaddition between an alkyne and a surface-bound azide was examined in elastomeric nanoreactors. These studies revealed that pressure and chain length are critical factors that determine the reaction rate. These experiments demonstrate the central role of pressure and surface structure on interfacial processes that are increasingly important in biology, materials science, and nanotechnology. PMID:25028773

Han, Xu; Bian, Shudan; Liang, Yong; Houk, K N; Braunschweig, Adam B

2014-07-30

89

Forced expiratory volume is associated with cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress  

OpenAIRE

It has been argued that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress reflect a dysregulation of the neural system that supports motivation. We examined the association between forced expiratory volume in one second, an effort, hence motivation, dependent measure of lung function measured by spirometry, and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a battery of standard psychological stress tasks (Stroop, mirror-tracing, speech), assessed seven years later among ...

Carroll, Douglas; Bibbey, Adam; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Ginty, Annie T.; Rooij, Susanne R.

2012-01-01

90

Analysis of Balance, Rapidity, Force and Reaction Times of Soccer Players at Different Levels of Competition  

OpenAIRE

In the present study we analyzed 12 physical parameters, namely force, static and dynamic balance (both quantified by means of 4 parameters each), rapidity, visual reaction times and acoustic reaction times, over 185 subjects. 170 of them played soccer in teams enrolled in all the ten different Italian soccer leagues. Results show that 6 parameters (out of the 12 analyzed) permit to identify and discriminate top-level players, among those showing the same training frequency. The other paramet...

Ricotti, Leonardo; Rigosa, Jacopo; Niosi, Alberto; Menciassi, Arianna

2013-01-01

91

Classical Wigner method with an effective quantum force: application to reaction rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

We construct an effective "quantum force" to be used in the classical molecular dynamics part of the classical Wigner method when determining correlation functions. The quantum force is obtained by estimating the most important short time separation of the Feynman paths that enter into the expression for the correlation function. The evaluation of the force is then as easy as classical potential energy evaluations. The ideas are tested on three reaction rate problems. The resulting transmission coefficients are in much better agreement with accurate results than transmission coefficients from the ordinary classical Wigner method. PMID:19603980

Poulsen, Jens Aage; Li, Huaqing; Nyman, Gunnar

2009-07-14

92

Front bifurcation in a tristable reaction-diffusion system under periodic forcing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A piecewise linear tristable reaction-diffusion equation under external forcing of periodic type is considered. A special feature of the forcing is that the force moves together with the traveling wave. Front velocity equations are obtained analytically using matching procedures for the front solutions. It is noted that there is a restriction in building of null-cline. For each choice of outer branches of null-cline the middle interfacial zone should not exceed some critical value. When this zone is larger the front does not exist. It is found that in the presence of forcing there exists a set of front solutions with different phases (matching point coordinates). The periodic forcing produces a change in the velocity-versus-phase diagram. For a specific choice of wave number, there is a bubble formation which corresponds to additional solutions when the velocity bifurcates to form three fronts. PMID:15089393

Zemskov, E P

2004-03-01

93

Harmonic versus subharmonic patterns in a spatially forced oscillating chemical reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a spatially periodic forcing on an oscillating chemical reaction as described by the Lengyel-Epstein model are investigated. We find a surprising competition between two oscillating patterns, where one is harmonic and the other subharmonic with respect to the spatially periodic forcing. The occurrence of a subharmonic pattern is remarkable as well as its preference up to rather large values of the modulation amplitude. For small modulation amplitudes we derive from the model system a generic equation for the envelope of the oscillating reaction that includes an additional forcing contribution, compared to the amplitude equations known from previous studies in other systems. The analysis of this amplitude equation allows the derivation of analytical expressions even for the forcing corrections to the threshold and to the oscillation frequency, which are in a wide range of parameters in good agreement with the numerical analysis of the complete reaction equations. In the nonlinear regime beyond threshold, the subharmonic solutions exist in a finite range of the control parameter that has been determined by solving the reaction equations numerically for various sets of parameters.

Hammele, Martin; Zimmermann, Walter

2006-06-01

94

Proton-transfer reaction in the ground state of phenol ammonia clusters: an experimental study  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton-transfer reaction in the ground state of phenol-ammonia clusters [PhOH(NH 3) n] has been investigated by single-photon ionization spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and a photoelectron photoion coincidence detection technique. The proton abstraction by the base (PhOH⋯(NH 3) n?PhO -⋯H +(NH 3) n) depends on the proton affinity of ammonia clusters which increases with their size. The present experiment demonstrates that at least six ammonia molecules clustered with phenol are necessary to displace the equilibrium and induce the proton transfer in the ground state. The previous nanosecond and picosecond experiments on proton transfer occurring in the excited state of PhOH(NH 3) n are discussed in the light of these new results.

Martrenchard-Barra, S.; Dedonder-Lardeux, C.; Jouvet, C.; Solgadi, D.; Vervloet, M.; Grégoire, G.; Dimicoli, I.

1999-08-01

95

Modeling chemical reactions by forced limit-cycle oscillator: synchronization phenomena and transition to chaos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lattice limit-cycle (LLC) model is introduced as a minimal mean-field scheme which can model reactive dynamics on lattices (low dimensional supports) producing non-linear limit cycle oscillations. Under the influence of an external periodic force the dynamics of the LLC may be drastically modified. Synchronization phenomena, bifurcations and transitions to chaos are observed as a function of the strength of the force. Taking advantage of the drastic change on the dynamics due to the periodic forcing, it is possible to modify the output/product or the production rate of a chemical reaction at will, simply by applying a periodic force to it, without the need to change the support properties or the experimental conditions

96

Fission and cluster decay of $^{76}$Sr nucleus in the ground-state and formed in heavy-ion reactions  

OpenAIRE

Calculations for fission and cluster decay of $^{76}Sr$ are presented for this nucleus to be in its ground-state or formed as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reactions. The predicted mass distribution, for the dynamical collective mass transfer process assumed for fission of $^{76}Sr$, is clearly asymmetric, favouring $\\alpha $-nuclei. Cluster decay is studied within a preformed cluster model, both for ground-state to ground-state decays and from excited compound sys...

Gupta, R. K.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, S.; Nouicer, R.; Beck, C.

1997-01-01

97

The mechanism of chemisorption of hydrogen atom on graphene: Insights from the reaction force and reaction electronic flux  

Science.gov (United States)

At the PBE-D3/cc-pVDZ level of theory, the hydrogen chemisorption on graphene was analyzed using the reaction force and reaction electronic flux (REF) theories in combination with electron population analysis. It was found that chemisorption energy barrier is mainly dominated by structural work (˜73%) associated to the substrate reconstruction whereas the electronic work is the greatest contribution of the reverse energy barrier (˜67%) in the desorption process. Moreover, REF shows that hydrogen chemisorption is driven by charge transfer processes through four electronic events taking place as H approaches the adsorbent surface: (a) intramolecular charge transfer in the adsorbent surface; (b) surface reconstruction; (c) substrate magnetization and adsorbent carbon atom develops a sp3 hybridization to form the ?C-H bond; and (d) spontaneous intermolecular charge transfer to reach the final chemisorbed state.

Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Gutiérrez-Oliva, Soledad; Herrera, Bárbara; Soto, Karla; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

2014-10-01

98

Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways Using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against MD simulations of the folding of an ? and a ? protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

a Beccara, S.; Fant, L.; Faccioli, P.

2015-03-01

99

Effects of brain polarization on reaction times and pinch force in chronic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that anodal transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere (M1affected hemisphere after subcortical stroke transiently improves performance of complex tasks that mimic activities of daily living (ADL. It is not known if relatively simpler motor tasks are similarly affected. Here we tested the effects of tDCS on pinch force (PF and simple reaction time (RT tasks in patients with chronic stroke in a double-blind cross-over Sham-controlled experimental design. Results Anodal tDCS shortened reaction times and improved pinch force in the paretic hand relative to Sham stimulation, an effect present in patients with higher impairment. Conclusion tDCS of M1affected hemisphere can modulate performance of motor tasks simpler than those previously studied, a finding that could potentially benefit patients with relatively higher impairment levels.

Giraux Pascal

2006-11-01

100

Effects of brain polarization on reaction times and pinch force in chronic stroke  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Previous studies showed that anodal transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere (M1affected hemisphere) after subcortical stroke transiently improves performance of complex tasks that mimic activities of daily living (ADL). It is not known if relatively simpler motor tasks are similarly affected. Here we tested the effects of tDCS on pinch force (PF) and simple reaction time (RT) tasks in patients with chronic stroke in...

Giraux Pascal; Floel Agnes; Celnik Pablo; Voller Bernhard; Hummel Friedhelm C; Gerloff Christian; Cohen Leonardo G

2006-01-01

101

Experimental study of pipe reaction force and jet impingement load at the pipe break  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design of a light-water reactor nuclear power plant, the extreme loads which are caused as the result of hypothetical pipe break accident have recently become the most severe factors for the structure and equipment design of the plant. In this paper, we describe the results of experiments about reaction forces and jet impingement loads in the pipe break accident conditions. Experiments were carried out for the kinds of jets, that is steam jet and subcooled water jet. (orig.)

102

Nanostructuring on WSe2 with the atomic force microscope by a potential controlled electrochemical reaction  

OpenAIRE

We present a method for the controlled fabrication of stable nanostructures under ambient conditions. The surfaces under consideration, WSe2, are imaged by an atomic force microscope. By applying a voltage between the tip and the sample, we can control an etching process at the surface: different voltage thresholds for the creation and the growth of structures of one monolayer (Se W Se) depth are observed. Our measurements on p-doped WSe2 strongly support an electrochemical corrosion reaction...

Bo?hmisch, Mathias; Burmeister, Frank; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

1996-01-01

103

Atomic force microscope based Kelvin probe measurements : application to an electrochemical reaction  

OpenAIRE

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was utilized as a Kelvin probe to determine work functions of several metals and semiconductors quantitarively. Most of the experimental data show excellent agreement with published values measured by photoemission. Variations in work functions as low as 5 mV could be detected with a typical lateral resolution of 20 nm. This method allowed us to analyze and explain the energetics of an electrochemical reaction on the surface of WSe2, which could be in situ ind...

Bo?hmisch, Mathias; Burmeister, Frank; Rettenberger, Armin; Zimmermann, Jo?rg; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

1997-01-01

104

On the wake fields reaction force which acts on electrons in an accelerator cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the wake field reaction force, which acts on electrons in an accelerator cavity, is discussed. The first part of this paper concerns an analysis method of the wake fields. The calculation method of the wake fields is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The application of BEM to this analysis enables us to consider the separation of the electromagnetic fields into two parts, the self-fields of the electrons and the induced fields (wake fields). In the second part of this paper, the reaction force for the electrons, which is caused by the wake fields, is considered using the results of the wake fields analysis. It is found from the analysis that the reaction force strongly depends on the position in the electron bunch. This predicts that wake fields transform the bunch shape drastically. It should be also noted that BEM has a great advantage for wake field analysis compared with FDM or FEM, because it is not necessary to treat singularities of electromagnetic fields around the charged particles. (orig.)

105

Trends in Ground-State Entropies for Transition Metal Based Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reported herein are thermochemical studies of hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions involving transition metal H-atom donors MIILH and oxyl radicals. [FeII(H2bip)3]2+, [FeII(H2bim)3]2+, [CoII(H2bim)3]2+ and RuII(acac)2(py-imH) [H2bip = 2,2’-bi-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro¬pyrimidine, H2bim = 2,2’-bi-imidazoline, acac = 2,4-pentandionato, py-imH = 2-(2’-pyridyl)¬imidazole)] each react with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl) or tBu3PhO• (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) to give the deprotonated, oxidized metal complex MIIIL, and TEMPOH or tBu3PhOH. Solution equilibrium measurements for the reactions of Co and Fe complexes with TEMPO show a large, negative ground-state entropy for hydrogen atom transfer: ?SºHAT = -30 ± 2 cal mol-1 K-1 for the two iron complexes and -41 ± 2 cal mol-1 K-1 for [CoII(H2bim)3]2+. The ?SºHAT for TEMPO + RuII(acac)2(py-imH) is much closer to zero, 4.9 ± 1.1 cal mol-1 K-1. Calorimetric measurements quantitatively confirm the enthalpy of reaction for [FeII(H2bip)3]2+ + TEMPO, thus also confirming ?SºHAT. Calorimetry on TEMPOH + tBu3PhO• gives ?HºHAT = 11.2 ± 0.5 kcal mol-1 which matches the enthalpy predicted from the difference in literature solution BDEs. An evaluation of the literature BDEs of both TEMPOH and tBu3PhOH is briefly presented and new estimates are included on the relative enthalpy of solvation for tBu3PhO• vs. tBu3PhOH. The primary contributor to the large magnitude of the ground-state entropy |?SºHAT| for the metal complexes is vibrational entropy, ?Sºvib. The common assumption that ?SºHAT ? 0 for HAT reactions, developed for organic and small gas phase molecules, does not hold for transition metal based HAT reactions. The trend in magnitude of |?SºHAT| for reactions with TEMPO, RuII(acac)2(py-imH) << [FeII(H2bip)3]2+ = [FeII(H2bim)3]2+ < [CoII(H2bim)3]2+, is surprisingly well predicted by the trends for electron transfer half-reaction entropies, ?SºET, in aprotic solvents. ?SºET and ?SºHAT are both affected by ?Sºvib and vary significantly with the metal center involved. The close connection between ?SºHAT and ?SºET provides an important link between these two fields and provides a starting point from which to predict which HAT systems will have important ground-state entropy effects. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Mader, Elizabeth A.; Manner, Virginia W.; Markle, Todd F.; Wu, Adam; Franz, James A.; Mayer, James M.

2009-03-10

106

The gravitational radiation reaction force of a continuous medium. I. Perturbation of a quasi-newtonian motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determine, within the general theory of relativity, the equations of motion in the slow approximation of a continuous medium in which the forces from material stresses do not play a leading part with respect to the gravitational forces. The gravitational radiation reaction force appears as a disturbing force in the post-post-newtonian equations of motion. Then, we deduce the formula for the variation of the energy of the system due to the gravitational radiation

107

Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly  

Science.gov (United States)

Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

2014-01-01

108

Biomechanics of gecko locomotion: the patterns of reaction forces on inverted, vertical and horizontal substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The excellent locomotion ability of geckos on various rough and/or inclined substrates has attracted scientists' attention for centuries. However, the moving ability of gecko-mimicking robots on various inclined surfaces still lags far behind that of geckos, mainly because our understanding of how geckos govern their locomotion is still very poor. To reveal the fundamental mechanism of gecko locomotion and also to facilitate the design of gecko-mimicking robots, we have measured the reaction forces (RFs) acting on each individual foot of moving geckos on inverted, vertical and horizontal substrates (i.e. ceiling, wall and floor), have associated the RFs with locomotion behaviors by using high-speed camera, and have presented the relationships of the force components with patterns of reaction forces (PRFs). Geckos generate different PRF on ceiling, wall and floor, that is, the PRF is determined by the angles between the direction of gravity and the substrate on which geckos move. On the ceiling, geckos produce reversed shear forces acting on the front and hind feet, which pull away from the body in both lateral and fore-aft directions. They use a very large supporting angle from 21° to 24° to reduce the forces acting on their legs and feet. On the floor, geckos lift their bodies using a supporting angle from 76° to 78°, which not only decreases the RFs but also improves their locomotion ability. On the wall, geckos generate a reliable self-locking attachment by using a supporting angle of 14.8°, which is only about half of the critical angle of detachment. PMID:25650374

Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Ren, Lei; Xing, Qiang; Dai, Liming

2015-01-01

109

Trends in ground-state entropies for transition metal based hydrogen atom transfer reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported herein are thermochemical studies of hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions involving transition metal H-atom donors M(II)LH and oxyl radicals. [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+), [Fe(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), and Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) [H(2)bip = 2,2'-bi-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine, H(2)bim = 2,2'-bi-imidazoline, acac = 2,4-pentandionato, py-imH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole)] each react with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl) or (t)Bu(3)PhO(*) (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) to give the deprotonated, oxidized metal complex M(III)L and TEMPOH or (t)Bu(3)PhOH. Solution equilibrium measurements for the reaction of [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+) with TEMPO show a large, negative ground-state entropy for hydrogen atom transfer, -41 +/- 2 cal mol(-1) K(-1). This is even more negative than the DeltaS(o)(HAT) = -30 +/- 2 cal mol(-1) K(-1) for the two iron complexes and the DeltaS(o)(HAT) for Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) + TEMPO, 4.9 +/- 1.1 cal mol(-1) K(-1), as reported earlier. Calorimetric measurements quantitatively confirm the enthalpy of reaction for [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+) + TEMPO, thus also confirming DeltaS(o)(HAT). Calorimetry on TEMPOH + (t)Bu(3)PhO(*) gives DeltaH(o)(HAT) = -11.2 +/- 0.5 kcal mol(-1) which matches the enthalpy predicted from the difference in literature solution BDEs. A brief evaluation of the literature thermochemistry of TEMPOH and (t)Bu(3)PhOH supports the common assumption that DeltaS(o)(HAT) approximately 0 for HAT reactions of organic and small gas-phase molecules. However, this assumption does not hold for transition metal based HAT reactions. The trend in magnitude of |DeltaS(o)(HAT)| for reactions with TEMPO, Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) < [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+) = [Fe(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+) < [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), is surprisingly well predicted by the trends for electron transfer half-reaction entropies, DeltaS(o)(ET), in aprotic solvents. This is because both DeltaS(o)(ET) and DeltaS(o)(HAT) have substantial contributions from vibrational entropy, which varies significantly with the metal center involved. The close connection between DeltaS(o)(HAT) and DeltaS(o)(ET) provides an important link between these two fields and provides a starting point from which to predict which HAT systems will have important ground-state entropy effects. PMID:19275235

Mader, Elizabeth A; Manner, Virginia W; Markle, Todd F; Wu, Adam; Franz, James A; Mayer, James M

2009-04-01

110

The reaction of benzene with a ground state carbon atom, C(3Pj)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction between benzene and a single ground state carbon atom, C(3Pj), which yields a C7H5 radical without a barrier in the exit channel, has been studied using density functional theory (B3LYP), Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory, and the G2(B3LYP/MP2) and complete basis set (CBS) model chemistries. Comparing the computed reaction energies for the formation of various C7H5 radicals with experimental data suggests that the 1,2-didehydrocycloheptatrienyl radical (15) is observed in crossed-beams experiments at collision energies between 2 and 12 kcal mol-1. The carbon atom attacks the ?-electron density of benzene and forms without entrance barrier a Cs symmetric complex (17T) in which the carbon atom is bound to the edge of benzene. From 17T, the insertion of the C atom into a benzene CC bond to yield triplet cycloheptatrienylidene (9T) is associated with a much lower barrier than the insertion into a CH bond to give triplet phenylcarbene (7T). As both steps are strongly exothermic, high energy vinyl carbene rearrangements on the triplet C7H6 potential energy surface provide pathways between 9T and 7T below the energy of separated reactants. In addition, intersystem crossing in the vicinity of 17T and 9T might give rise to singlet cycloheptatetraene (12S). The monocyclic seven-membered ring compounds 9T or 12S are precursors of the 1,2-didehydrocyclohepe precursors of the 1,2-didehydrocycloheptatrienyl radical: the dissociation of a CH bond ? to the divalent carbon atom proceeds without an exit barrier, in agreement with experiment. In contrast, a direct carbon-hydrogen exchange reaction pathway analogous to the aromatic electrophilic substitution followed by rearrangement of phenylcarbyne (13) to 15 involves high barriers (39 kcal mol-1 with respect to separated reactants) and is thus not viable under the experimental conditions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

111

How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?  

Science.gov (United States)

Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability. PMID:25645733

Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

2015-02-01

112

Optimizing the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian gravitational radiation-reaction force for numerical simulations  

CERN Document Server

The gravitational radiation-reaction force acting on perfect fluids at 3.5 post-Newtonian order is cast into a form which is directly applicable to numerical simulations. Extensive use is made of metric-coefficient changes induced by functional coordinate transformations, of the continuity equation, as well as of the equations of motion. We also present an expression appropriate for numerical simulations of the radiation field causing the worked out reaction force.

Faye, G

2003-01-01

113

Radiation reaction force induced nonlinear mixing of Raman sidebands of an ultra-intense laser pulse in a plasma  

OpenAIRE

Stimulated Raman scattering of an ultra-intense laser pulse in plasmas is studied by perturbatively including the leading order term of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation reaction force in the equation of motion for plasma electrons. In this approximation, radiation reaction force causes phase shift in nonlinear current densities that drive the two Raman sidebands (anti-Stokes and Stokes waves), manifesting itself into the nonlinear mixing of two sidebands. This mixing results in...

Kumar, Naveen; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Keitel, Christoph H.

2013-01-01

114

Nanostructuring on WSe2 with the atomic force microscope by a potential controlled electrochemical reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method for the controlled fabrication of stable nanostructures under ambient conditions. The surfaces under consideration, WSe2, are imaged by an atomic force microscope. By applying a voltage between the tip and the sample, we can control an etching process at the surface: different voltage thresholds for the creation and the growth of structures of one monolayer (Se-W-Se) depth are observed. Our measurements on p-doped WSe2 strongly support an electrochemical corrosion reaction in a physisorbed water film. This method allows the in situ preparation and characterization of individual nanometer-sized structures on WSe2 and other metal dichalcogenides.

Böhmisch, M.; Burmeister, F.; Boneberg, J.; Leiderer, P.

1996-09-01

115

The ground state of medium-heavy nuclei with non central forces  

OpenAIRE

We study microscopically the ground state properties of 16O and 40Ca nuclei within correlated basis function theory. A truncated version of the realistic Urbana v14 (U14) potential, without momentum dependent terms, is adopted with state dependent correlations having spin, isospin and tensor components. Fermi hypernetted chain integral equations and single operator chain approximation are used to evaluate one- and two-body densities and ground state energy. The results are i...

Fabrocini, A.

1997-01-01

116

Development of Velocity Guidance Assistance System by Haptic Accelerator Pedal Reaction Force Control  

Science.gov (United States)

This research proposes a haptic velocity guidance assistance system for realizing eco-driving as well as enhancing traffic capacity by cooperating with ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). The proposed guidance system generates the desired accelerator pedal (abbreviated as pedal) stroke with respect to the desired velocity obtained from ITS considering vehicle dynamics, and provides the desired pedal stroke to the driver via a haptic pedal whose reaction force is controllable and guides the driver in order to trace the desired velocity in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the haptic velocity guidance. A haptic velocity guidance system for research is developed on the Driving Simulator of TUAT (DS), by attaching a low-inertia, low-friction motor to the pedal, which does not change the original characteristics of the original pedal when it is not operated, implementing an algorithm regarding the desired pedal stroke calculation and the reaction force controller. The haptic guidance maneuver is designed based on human pedal stepping experiments. A simple velocity profile with acceleration, deceleration and cruising is synthesized according to naturalistic driving for testing the proposed system. The experiment result of 9 drivers shows that the haptic guidance provides high accuracy and quick response in velocity tracking. These results prove that the haptic guidance is a promising velocity guidance method from the viewpoint of HMI (Human Machine Interface).

Yin, Feilong; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

117

The role of the reaction force to characterize local specific interactions that activate the intramolecular proton transfers in DNA basis  

Science.gov (United States)

MP2/6-311G** and B3LYP/6-311G** studies of the intramolecular proton transfer in adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine has been performed, with the aim of evaluating the role of the reaction force as a global descriptor of the process. It turns out that the reaction force profile is quite an interesting tool to characterize reaction mechanisms. Indeed, in adenine and cytosine the proton transfer is assisted by an increasing electronic delocalization in the adjacent ring, whereas in guanine and thymine the attractive electrostatic interaction with the acceptor oxygen atom is strong enough to promote the transfer.

Herrera, Bárbara; Toro-Labbe, Alejandro

2004-10-01

118

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

1992-04-01

119

Extraction of ground reaction forces for real-time synthesis of walking sounds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A shoe-independent system to synthesize real-time footstep sounds on different materials has been developed. A footstep sound is considered as the result of an interaction between an exciter (the shoe) and a resonator (the floor). To achieve our goal, we propose two different solutions. The first solution is based on contact microphones attached on the exterior part of each shoe, which capture the sound of a footstep. The second approach consists on using microphones placed on the floor. In both situations, the captured sound is analysed and used to control a sound synthesis engine. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches.

Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca

2009-01-01

120

Influence of walking speed in backpacker's gait : ground reaction forces and plantar pressure analysis  

OpenAIRE

O modo como nos deslocamos influencia os parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha, alterando-os, podendo vir a originar lesões a curto ou longo prazo. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer, em primeiro lugar, uma revisão sistemática da literatura acerca do que consiste a influência da velocidade nos parâmetros biomecânicos da marcha e, depois, estudar o efeito que a velocidade tem nas forças de reacção ao solo e na pressão plantar durante a marcha quando se transporta, ou não, uma carga....

Figueiredo, Maria Cristina Pinto Leite Braamcamp

2011-01-01

121

Force  

Science.gov (United States)

Instructions: This is a webquest designed to help students understand force. It is specifically meant to teach the idea that the greater the force applied to an object the greater the change in speed or direction of the object depending on the mass. This is also known as Newton's Second Law of Motion. Lets Learn about Force! For this project your students will understand force. They will use Newton's second law to solve the problem presented. UT Core Curriculum: Science 3rd Grade. Standard 3- Students will understand the relationship between the force applied to an object and resulting motion of the ...

Mrs. Brownie

2010-04-07

122

The ground state of medium-heavy nuclei with non central forces  

CERN Document Server

We study microscopically the ground state properties of 16O and 40Ca nuclei within correlated basis function theory. A truncated version of the realistic Urbana v14 (U14) potential, without momentum dependent terms, is adopted with state dependent correlations having spin, isospin and tensor components. Fermi hypernetted chain integral equations and single operator chain approximation are used to evaluate one- and two-body densities and ground state energy. The results are in good agreement with the available variational MonteCarlo data, providing a first substantial check for the accuracy of the cluster expansion method with state dependent correlations. The finite nuclei treatment of non central interactions and correlations has, at least, the same level of accuracy as in infinite nuclear matter. The binding energy for the full U14+TNI interaction is computed, addressing its small momentum dependent contributions in local density approximation. The nuclei are underbound by about 1 MeV per nucleon. Further e...

Fabrocini, A

1997-01-01

123

Novel and Unique Expression for the Radiation Reaction Force, Relevance of Newton's Third Law and Tunneling  

CERN Document Server

We derive the radiation reaction by taking into account that the acceleration of the charge is caused by the interaction with some heavy source particle. In the non relativistic case this leads, in contrast to the usual approach, immediately to a result which is Galilei invariant. Simple examples show that there can be small regions of extremely low velocity where the energy requirements cannot be fulfilled, and which the charged particle can only cross by quantum mechanical tunneling. The relativistic generalization is rather straight forward and leads to a unique result. The force is a four-vector, but only if the presence of the source is taken into account as well. It contains no third derivatives of the position as the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation, and consequently no run away solutions. All examples considered so far give reasonable results.

Gromes, Dieter

2014-01-01

124

Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991  

Science.gov (United States)

The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

1992-01-01

125

Direct observation of cloud forcing by ground-based thermal imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Instantaneous surface Cloud Radiative Forcing (CRF) in the 7.5-13 ?m region is observed for the first time, using a thermal infrared camera. The sampling of clear sky and cloudy radiances from images of broken cloud fields allows cloud cover, CRF and effective cloud emission to be directly calculated, all within a consistent field of view. Analysis of 1300 images taken over more than two months in Central England shows that surface CRF is a nonlinear function of cloud cover, with daytime forcings larger and less linear than those at night. This nonlinearity is caused both by the increase in cloud optical thickness and the more frequent occurrence of low altitude (warm) cloud as the cloud cover increases. Even for nearly complete cloud cover, effective cloud emission remains significantly less than that of widely assumed homogeneous, optically thick cloud. Possible clear sky sampling errors associated with traditional methods of measuring CRF are also investigated.

Smith, Stephen; Toumi, Ralf

2008-04-01

126

Forced choice reaction time paradigm in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and nonanxious controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive distortions refer to cognitive processes that are biased and therefore yield dysfunctional and maladaptive products (e.g., interpretation bias). Automatic aspects of information processing need to be considered and investigating these aspects requires forms of assessment other than self-report. Studies focussing on the specificity of cognitive biases across different types of anxiety disorders in childhood are rare. Thus, a forced choice reaction time paradigm with picture stimuli was used to assess the interpretation bias in anxious children online. The study investigated disorder-specific interpretation bias in 71 children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), 31 children with social phobia, and 42 children without mental disorders, aged 5-13 years. Results indicated that children with SAD rated ambiguous separation pictures as significantly more unpleasant and more arousing than nonanxious children. However, no support was found that children with SAD and social phobia interpret ambiguous separation or social pictures in a more negative way than nonanxious children. Furthermore, no group differences were found in reaction times to all picture categories. PMID:19733835

In-Albon, Tina; Dubi, Kathrin; Rapee, Ronald M; Schneider, Silvia

2009-12-01

127

Does foot pitch at ground contact affect parachute landing technique?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Australian Defence Force Parachute Training School instructs trainees to make initial ground contact using a flat foot whereas United States paratroopers are taught to contact the ground with the ball of the foot first. This study aimed to determine whether differences in foot pitch affected parachute landing technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were analyzed for 28 parachutists who performed parachute landings (vertical descent velocity = 3.4 m x s(-1)) from a monorail apparatus. Independent t-tests were used to determine significant (p flat-footed displayed less knee and ankle flexion, sustained higher peak ground reaction forces, and took less time to reach peak force than those who landed on the balls of their feet. Although forefoot landings lowered ground reaction forces compared to landing flat-footed, further research is required to confirm whether this is a safer parachute landing strategy. PMID:19743739

Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark; Munro, Bridget J

2009-08-01

128

The CH+N 2 reaction over the ground electronic doublet potential energy surface: a detailed transition state search  

Science.gov (United States)

The CH( 2?)+ N2 reaction over the ground state potential energy surface has been investigated at the G2M level of theory. This reaction is directly relevant to hydrocarbon combustion chemistry, in particular, to `prompt NO' formation. A detailed mechanism via stepwise and concerted pathways to form HNCN, involving chain and cyclic intermediates, is presented. The proposed mechanism for NO formation is more favorable than the commonly assumed spin-forbidden path producing HCN+ N( 4S) . The theoretically predicted heats of formation for NCN and HNCN are in excellent agreement with the recently reported experimental values.

Moskaleva, L. V.; Xia, W. S.; Lin, M. C.

2000-12-01

129

Dynamical Casimir-Polder force between an excited and a ground-state atom  

CERN Document Server

We consider the Casimir-Polder interaction between two atoms, one in the ground state and the other in its excited state. The interaction is time-dependent for this system, because of the dynamical self-dressing and the spontaneous decay of the excited atom. We calculate the dynamical Casimir-Polder potential between the two atoms using an effective Hamiltonian approach. The results obtained and their physical meaning are discussed and compared with previous results based on a time-independent approach which uses a non-normalizable dressed state for the excited atom.

Rizzuto, L; Persico, F

2004-01-01

130

Radiation-Reaction-Force-Induced Nonlinear Mixing of Raman Sidebands of an Ultraintense Laser Pulse in a Plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulated Raman scattering of an ultraintense laser pulse in plasmas is studied by perturbatively including the leading order term of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation reaction force in the equation of motion for plasma electrons. In this approximation, the radiation reaction force causes a phase shift in nonlinear current densities that drive the two Raman sidebands (anti-Stokes and Stokes waves), manifesting itself into the nonlinear mixing of two sidebands. This mixing results in a strong enhancement in the growth of the forward Raman scattering instability.

Kumar, Naveen; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Keitel, Christoph H.

2013-09-01

131

Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

Katz, B.G.

1989-01-01

132

Removing systematic errors in interionic potentials of mean force computed in molecular simulations using reaction-field-based electrostatics  

OpenAIRE

The performance of reaction-field methods to treat electrostatic interactions is tested in simulations of ions solvated in water. The potential of mean force between sodium chloride pair of ions and between side chains of lysine and aspartate are computed using umbrella sampling and molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that in comparison with lattice sum calculations, the charge-group-based approaches to reaction-field treatments produce a large error in the association energy of the i...

Baumketner, Andrij

2009-01-01

133

Kinesiological Study of Push-up Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Floor Reaction on a Force Plate  

OpenAIRE

To find an effective way to handle wheelchairs, 3-dimensional floor reactions of the hand and angular deviation of the elbow and wrist joints during push-up motion were studied in 10 healthy men. The push-up was carried out using 3 hand positions (fist, finger and palm) and a push-up device. In all hand positions, anteroposterior force (Fx) and the mediolateral force (Fy) appeared after the vertical force (Fz). The end point of Fx and Fy was observed before that of Fz. Among the 4 different h...

Ikawa, Harutomo; Tokuhiro, Akihiro

1995-01-01

134

Sudden drop in ground support produces force-related unload response in human overground walking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans maneuver easily over uneven terrain. To maintain smooth and efficient gait the motor system needs to adapt the locomotor output to the walking environment. In the present study we investigate the role of sensory feedback in adjusting the soleus muscle activity during overground walking in 19 healthy volunteers. Subjects walked unrestrained over a hydraulically actuated platform. On random trials the platform was accelerated downward at 0.8 g, unloading the plantar flexor muscles in midstance or late stance. The drop of the platform resulted in a significant depression of the soleus muscle activity of -17.9% (SD 2) and -21.4% (SD 2), with an onset latency of 49 ms (SD 1) and 45 ms (SD 1) in midstance and late stance, respectively. Input to the vestibular apparatus (i.e., the head acceleration) occurred at a latency 10.0 ms (SD 2.4) following the drop and ankle dorsiflexion velocity was decreased starting 22 ms (SD 15) after the drop. To investigate the role of length- and velocity-sensitive afferents onthe depression in soleus muscle activity, the ankle rotation was arrested by using an ankle foot orthotic as the platform was dropped. Preventing the ankle movement did not significantly change the soleus depression in late stance [-18.2% (SD 15)], whereas the depression in midstance was removed [+4.9% (SD 13)]. It is concluded that force feedback from ankle extensors increases the locomotor output through positive feedback in late stance. In midstance the effect of force feedback was not observed, suggesting that spindle afferents may have a more significant effect on the output during this phase of the step cycle.

Af Klint, Richard; Nielsen, Jens Bo

2009-01-01

135

Use of aquifer testing to complete ground water remedial design, shallow aquifer Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a US Army Corps of Engineers-directed remedial action, a ground water treatment system is being installed at Site 27, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. Twenty-three extraction wells were installed in the center and on the leading edge of a jet fuel plume of free and dissolved product in the uppermost (nonpotable) aquifer. The purpose of the extraction well system is to contain and remediate the plume, and to recover free product, which is over 10 feet thick in one well. Aquifer testing, including step and constant discharge tests, was conducted during well installation in order to (1) assist in location of subsequent wells, (2) obtain dynamic product thickness data for selection of wells in which skimmer pumps will be installed, (3) determine initial pumping rates, (4) determine aquifer parameters for modeling and optimization, and (5) provide baseline data on well performance to evaluate possible future biofouling

136

Precision study of ground state capture in the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction  

CERN Document Server

The rate of the hydrogen-burning carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle is controlled by the slowest process, 14N(p,gamma)15O, which proceeds by capture to the ground and several excited states in 15O. Previous extrapolations for the ground state contribution disagreed by a factor 2, corresponding to 15% uncertainty in the total astrophysical S-factor. At the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator placed deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy, a new experiment on ground state capture has been carried out at 317.8, 334.4, and 353.3 keV center-of-mass energy. Systematic corrections have been reduced considerably with respect to previous studies by using a Clover detector and by adopting a relative analysis. The previous discrepancy has been resolved, and ground state capture no longer dominates the uncertainty of the total S-factor.

Marta, M; Gyurky, Gy; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Kunz, R; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A

2008-01-01

137

Barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using Wong formula with Skyrme forces in semiclassical formalism  

CERN Document Server

We obtain the nuclear proximity potential by using semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach in Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF), and use it in the extended $\\ell$-summed Wong formula under frozen density approximation. This method has the advantage of allowing the use of different Skyrme forces, giving different barriers. Thus, for a given reaction, we could choose a Skyrme force with proper barrier characteristics, not-requiring extra ``barrier lowering" or ``barrier narrowing" for a best fit to data. For the $^{64}$Ni+$^{100}$Mo reaction, the $\\ell$-summed Wong formula, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included, fits the fusion-evaporation cross section data exactly for the force GSkI, requiring additional barrier modifications for forces SIII and SV. However, the same for other similar reactions, like $^{58,64}$Ni+$^{58,64}$Ni, fits the data best for SIII force. Hence, the barrier modification effects in $\\ell$-summed Wong expression depends on the choice of Skyrme fo...

Kumar, Raj

2010-01-01

138

Numerical verification of B-WIM system using reaction force signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bridges are ones of fundamental facilities for roads which become social overhead capital facilities and they are designed to get safety in their life cycles. However as time passes, bridge can be damaged by changes of external force and traffic environments. Therefore, a bridge should be repaired and maintained for extending its life cycle. The working load on a bridge is one of the most important factors for safety, it should be calculated accurately. The most important load among working loads is live load by a vehicle. Thus, the travel characteristics and weight of vehicle can be useful for bridge maintenance if they were estimated with high reliability. In this study, a B-WIM system in which the bridge is used for a scale have been developed for measuring the vehicle loads without the vehicle stop. The vehicle loads can be estimated by the developed B-WIM system with the reaction responses from the supporting points. The algorithm of developed B-WIM system have been verified by numerical analysis

139

Reaction Force/Torque Sensing in a Master-Slave Robot System without Mechanical Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In human-robot cooperative control systems, force feedback is often necessary in order to achieve high precision and high stability. Usually, traditional robot assistant systems implement force feedback using force/torque sensors. However, it is difficult to directly mount a mechanical force sensor on some working terminals, such as in applications of minimally invasive robotic surgery, micromanipulation, or in working environments exposed to radiation or high temperature. We propose a novel force sensing mechanism for implementing force feedback in a master-slave robot system with no mechanical sensors. The system consists of two identical electro-motors with the master motor powering the slave motor to interact with the environment. A bimanual coordinated training platform using the new force sensing mechanism was developed and the system was verified in experiments. Results confirm that the proposed mechanism is capable of achieving bilateral force sensing and mirror-image movements of two terminals in two reverse control directions.

Kyoko Shibata

2010-07-01

140

(p,t) reaction on even-mass cadmium nuclei: Test for the admixture of intruder configurations in the ground states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The /sup 106,108,110,112,11/ /sup 4,116/Cd(p,t) reactions have been investigated at E/sub p/ = 26 MeV. Enhancement factors for the ground-state to ground-state transitions have been extracted and compared with predictions for two-nucleon transfer strengths. No evidence for a sizable admixture of the intruder configurations in the ground states is deduced from this experiment

141

Proton occupancies in the even Se ground states via the (d,3He) reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectroscopic factors for the levels of 73As, 75As, 77As, 79As, 81As have been measured in the Se(d,3He)As reactions at 25.2 MeV. The proton occupation numbers deduced for the even Se isotopes show that the striking change in proton configuration, observed for the Ge isotope between N = 42, does persist for the Se isotopes. This change is not reproduced, either by a model calculation using spectral distribution methods or by proton wave functions recently suggested for the Se isotopes to explain the results of the Se(d,6Li)Ge reactions

142

Proton occupancies in the even Se ground states via the (d,3He) reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectroscopic factors for the levels of sup(73,75,77,79,81)As have been measured in the Se(d,3He)As reactions at 25.2 MeV. The proton occupation numbers deduced for the even Se isotopes show that the striking change in proton configuration, observed for the Ge isotopes between N=42, does persist for the Se isotopes. This change is not reproduced, either by a model calculation using spectral distribution methods or by proton wave functions recently suggested for the Se isotopes to explain the results of the Se(d,6Li)Ge reactions. (orig.)

143

Proton occupancies in the even Se ground states via the (d,/sup 3/He) reaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spectroscopic factors for the levels of sup(73,75,77,79,81)As have been measured in the Se(d,/sup 3/He)As reactions at 25.2 MeV. The proton occupation numbers deduced for the even Se isotopes show that the striking change in proton configuration, observed for the Ge isotopes between N<=40 and N>=42, does persist for the Se isotopes. This change is not reproduced, either by a model calculation using spectral distribution methods or by proton wave functions recently suggested for the Se isotopes to explain the results of the Se(d,/sup 6/Li)Ge reactions.

Rotbard, G.; Vergnes, M.; Vernotte, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Kalifa, J.; Tamisier, R. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)

1983-05-30

144

The classical Wigner method with an effective quantum force: application to the collinear H + H2 reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the classical Wigner (CW) model, we recently proposed the classical Wigner model with an effective quantum force (CWEQF). The results of the CWEQF model are more accurate than those of the CW model. Still the simplicity of the CW model is retained. The quantum force was obtained by defining a characteristic distance ?(0) between two Feynman paths that enter the expression for the flux-flux correlation function. ?(0) was considered independent of the position along the reaction path. The CWEQF leads to a lowering of the effective potential barrier. Here we develop the method to use position dependent ?(0) values. The method is also generalized to two dimensions. Applications are carried out on one-dimensional model problems and the two-dimensional H + H(2) collinear reaction. PMID:21615109

Li, Huaqing; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar

2011-06-30

145

Effect of the Reaction Field on Molecular Forces and Torques Revealed by an Image-Charge Solvation Model  

OpenAIRE

We recently developed the Image-Charge Solvation Model (ICSM), which is an explicit/implicit hybrid model to accurately account for long-range electrostatic forces in molecular dynamics simulations [Lin et al., J. Chem. Phys., 131, 154103, 2009]. The ICSM has a productive spherical volume within the simulation cell for which key physical properties of bulk water are reproduced, such as density, radial distribution function, diffusion constants and dielectric properties. Although the reaction ...

Song, Wei; Lin, Yuchun; Baumketner, Andrij; Deng, Shaozhong; Cai, Wei; Jacobs, Donald J.

2012-01-01

146

Measurement of the rates of reaction of the ground and metastable excited states of 02+, N0+ and 0+ with atmospheric gases at thermal energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal-energy reaction rate coefficients and product ion distributions have been measured for reactions of both the ground state and metastable electronic states of 02+, N0+ and 0+ with several neutral species, using a selected-ion flow tube. In general the excited-ion reaction rates are fast, frequently approaching the Langevin limit. Collisional quenching occurs for the reactions of N0+sup(star) with N2,02 and H2 and the quenching rates have been determined. The ion source also provided a substantial yield of doubly charged 02 permitting some measurements of reaction rates of 022+. (author)

147

Fission and cluster decay of the {sup 76}Sr nucleus in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations for fission and cluster decay of {sup 76}Sr are presented for this nucleus to be in its ground state or formed as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reactions. The predicted mass distribution, for the dynamical collective mass transfer process assumed for fission of {sup 76}Sr, is clearly asymmetric, favoring {alpha} nuclei. Cluster decay is studied within a preformed cluster model, both for ground-state to ground-state decays and from excited compound system to the ground state(s) or excited states(s) of the fragments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Gupta, Raj K.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, Sarbjit [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Nouicer, Rachid; Beck, Christian [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, IN2P3/Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

1997-12-01

148

Accurate global potential energy surface and reaction dynamics for the ground state of HgBr2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A global potential energy surface (PES) for the (1)A' ground state of HgBr(2) has been constructed in order to determine the rate constants for atmospherically important reactions involving mercury and bromine. The total energy of HgBr(2) was calculated by the multireference configuration interaction level of theory with series of correlation consistent basis sets up to quadruple-zeta quality with subsequent extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An additive correction for spin-orbit coupling was also included. The global PES was represented piecewise by interpolating three separate parts of the surface with the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method and connecting them smoothly by switch functions. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations carried out on the surface yielded 298 K thermal rate constants of 3.89 x 10(-11) cm(3)/(mol.s) for the abstraction reaction HgBr + Br --> Hg + Br(2), 2.98 x 10(-11) cm(3)/(mol.s) for the recombination reaction Br + HgBr --> HgBr(2), and 3.97 x 10(-11) cm(3)/(mol.s) for the exchange reaction Br + HgBr --> BrHg + Br. The insertion reaction Hg + Br(2) --> HgBr(2) was found to have a high barrier of 27.2 kcal/mol and a very small rate constant of just 2.74 x 10(-31) cm(3)/(mol.s) determined by the microcanonical variational transition state theory method. The implications of the obtained results to the description of the mechanism of recently observed polar tropospheric mercury depletion events are briefly discussed. PMID:16834279

Balabanov, Nikolai B; Shepler, Benjamin C; Peterson, Kirk A

2005-10-01

149

Calculation of reaction forces in the boiler supports using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall.  

Science.gov (United States)

The values of reaction forces in the boiler supports are the basis for the dimensioning of bearing steel structure of steam boiler. In this paper, the application of the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall is proposed for the calculation of reaction forces. The method of equalizing displacement, as the method of homogenization of membrane wall stiffness, was applied. On the example of "Milano" boiler, using the finite element method, the calculation of reactions in the supports for the real geometry discretized by the shell finite element was made. The second calculation was performed with the assumption of ideal stiffness of membrane walls and the third using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall. In the third case, the membrane walls are approximated by the equivalent orthotropic plate. The approximation of membrane wall stiffness is achieved using the elasticity matrix of equivalent orthotropic plate at the level of finite element. The obtained results were compared, and the advantages of using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall for the calculation of reactions in the boiler supports were emphasized. PMID:24959612

Serti?, Josip; Kozak, Dražan; Samardži?, Ivan

2014-01-01

150

Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

Ball, D

2005-04-29

151

Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

Palacios, M.

2012-12-01

152

The ground state mass of 147Gd from single-neutron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin targets of radioactive 148Gd were used to determine a precise value for the mass of 147Gd. The (p,d), (d,t), and 3He,?) reactions were used with high-resolution charged-particle spectrometry to determine Q-values for the 148Gd target relative to several calibration targets having known Q-values. By combining the measured Q-value with the 148Gd mass, the mass defect, ?M(147Gd) = 75356 +- 6 keV, 149 keV less than the value in the 1977 mass tabulation was obtained. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

153

Effect of baffle on slosh reaction forces in rotating liquid helium subjected to a lateral impulse in microgravity  

Science.gov (United States)

Sloshing dynamics within a partially filled rotating Dewar of superfluid He II are investigated in response to a lateral impulse. The study investigates several factors, including how the rotating bubble of superfluid He II reacts to the impulse in microgravity, how the amplitudes of slosh reaction forces act on the Dewar with various rotating speeds, how the frequencies of the sloshing modes excited differ in terms of differences in rotating speeds, and how the sloshing dynamics differ with and without a baffle. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the noninertial frame spacecraft-bound coordinates. Results of the simulations are illustrated.

Hung, R. J.; Long, Y. T.

1995-01-01

154

Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces  

OpenAIRE

New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

Sergey Petrovich Evseev; Oleksandr Vasilievich Dorokhov; Olga Grigorievna Korol

2012-01-01

155

Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences  

OpenAIRE

Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N?=?42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants’ experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessi...

Bakermans-kranenburg, M. J.; Ijzendoorn, M. H.; Riem, M. M. E.; Tops, M.; Alink, L. R. A.

2011-01-01

156

Gamow-Teller strength for the mixed ground state of 35Ar via the (p,n) reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early asymmetry measurements of the mixed ?-decay of the ground state of 35Ar to the ground state of 35Cl showed an anomalous value of GV. This anomalous value surprisingly would infer that unitary symmetry, believed to be spontaneously broken in nature, has been restored in this singular case. From the definition of ?2, this anomalous value also infers a anomalous value for B(GT)/B(F). When the half-life data is used instead without the results of the asymmetry experiment, one obtains a different (normal) value of B(GT)/B(F). The quantity ?2 derived from the early asymmetry experiments is considered suspect. It has recently been shown that the (p,n) reaction at intermediate energies provides a strong interaction probe of the identical B(GT)/B(F) nuclear strength ratio that can be measured in ?-decay. The value of GA/GV has been determined very accurately from the ?-decay of the neutron. Thus, (p,n) can be used to determine via a totally independent measurement the value of B(GT)/B(F). The global proportionality constant EO = 55 ± 0.4 MeV is used to analyze the results of a 160 MeV Polarimeter experiment to distinguish between the normal and anomalous value. The results showed more spin-flip probability than was expected. A 120 MeV cross section experiment was required to check whether there was additional spin-flip probability due to a non-negligible triangle L = 2 component-negligible triangle L = 2 component. The results showed a negligible triangle L = 2 component

157

Kinesiological Study of Push-up Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Floor Reaction on a Force Plate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To find an effective way to handle wheelchairs, 3-dimensional floor reactions of the hand and angular deviation of the elbow and wrist joints during push-up motion were studied in 10 healthy men. The push-up was carried out using 3 hand positions (fist, finger and palm and a push-up device. In all hand positions, anteroposterior force (Fx and the mediolateral force (Fy appeared after the vertical force (Fz. The end point of Fx and Fy was observed before that of Fz. Among the 4 different hand positions, Fx and Fy appeared first in the palm, followed by the finger and fist positions, and lastly in the push-up devices. The results indicate that the more unstable pushing-up the body is, the earlier and longer Fx and Fy are. Thus, Fx and Fy are considered to be good indicators of body balance during the push-up motion. The elbow joint showed a hyperextended position only when using the palm position in the maintenance phase. The wrist joint showed palmar flexion only when using the fist position.

Ikawa,Harutomo

1995-06-01

158

Reaction 6Li(e,e/sup '/d) 4He and the ?-d momentum distribution in the ground state of 6Li  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-d momentum distribution in the ground state of 6Li has been measured in parallel kinematics with the reaction 6Li(e,e'd) 4He in the momentum range 06Li. The results agree well with the predictions of a three-body ?NN model of 6Li

159

A study of the reaction characteristics and mechanism of Kapton in a plasma-type ground-based atomic oxygen effects simulation facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kapton, a commonly used spacecraft material, is studied to investigate the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion effects in a plasma-type ground-based AO effects simulation facility. The samples before and after the experiments are compared in aspect, mass and surface morphology. The reaction characteristics of the material in the facility are obtained. The contribution of AO and ionic oxygen to mass loss in the sample and the reaction mechanism between the different particles and samples are analysed. It is concluded that neutral AO is the major cause of material erosion and mass loss and that the collision of energetic ions may accelerate the oxidation reaction. (author)

160

EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force Meeting on 'Quark Matter in Compact Star'  

CERN Document Server

The recent measurement of two solar mass pulsars has initiated an intense discussion on its impact on our understanding of the high-density matter in the cores of neutron stars. A task force meeting was held from October 7-10, 2013 at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies to address the presence of quark matter in these massive stars. During this meeting, the recent oservational astrophysical data and heavy-ion data was reviewed. The possibility of pure quark stars, hybrid stars and the nature of the QCD phase transition were discussed and their observational signals delineated.

Buballa, Michael; Drago, Alessandro; Fraga, Eduardo; Haensel, Pawel; Mishustin, Igor; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Schramm, Stefan; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

2014-01-01

161

Finite size corrections to the radiation reaction force in classical electrodynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce an effective field theory approach that describes the motion of finite size objects under the influence of electromagnetic fields. We prove that leading order effects due to the finite radius R of a spherically symmetric charge is order R2 rather than order R in any physical model, as widely claimed in the literature. This scaling arises as a consequence of Poincaré and gauge symmetries, which can be shown to exclude linear corrections. We use the formalism to calculate the leading order finite size correction to the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force. PMID:20868166

Galley, Chad R; Leibovich, Adam K; Rothstein, Ira Z

2010-08-27

162

Wave packet and statistical quantum calculations for the He + NeH{sup +} ? HeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on the ground electronic state  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH{sup +} (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.

Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

2014-09-21

163

Wave packet and statistical quantum calculations for the He + NeH+ ? HeH+ + Ne reaction on the ground electronic state  

Science.gov (United States)

A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH+ (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.

Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.

2014-09-01

164

Wave packet and statistical quantum calculations for the He + NeH? ? HeH? + Ne reaction on the ground electronic state.  

Science.gov (United States)

A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH(+) (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile. PMID:25240353

Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N

2014-09-21

165

Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

Parnell, J.M.

1997-01-01

166

Ground-Water Hydrology and Water Quality of the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico, 1994-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic data about the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base in east-central New Mexico since 1994. Under the guidance of the State of New Mexico, ground-water quality of the aquifer has been analyzed as part of annual monitoring at regulated sites at the base. This report provides a summary and interpretation of all available hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for Cannon Air Force Base environmental managers for the regulated sites of Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons between 1994 and 2005. Cannon Air Force Base is in the Southern High Plains physiographic region, and saturated deposits of the Ogallala Formation underlying the base are within the western boundary of the Southern High Plains aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base is from northwest to southeast. In 1962, ground water predominantly flowed northwest to southeast with minimal change in direction. Ground-water altitudes declined from 1962 to 1997, and a pronounced water-level recession (area of receding water level) developed northwest of the base, altering flow direction in this area. The recession northwest of the base and the subsequent change in direction of ground-water flow are indicative of local ground-water withdrawals upgradient from Cannon Air Force Base. Historical water levels in wells within a 3-mile radius of Cannon Air Force Base declined in 52 of 56 wells for various periods of record between 1962 and 2004. Forty-three of the wells indicated strong linear decreases with time, and the largest decline was 91.80 feet, an average annual decline of about 2.13 feet per year. Water levels in monitoring wells at Cannon Air Force Base reflected the regional decline; water levels declined for all wells with periods of record greater than 1 year, and the decreases were strongly linear. From 1994 to 2005, rates of declining water levels at the base ranged from 1.45 to 1.64 feet per year near the Sewage Lagoons and from 2.24 to 4.01 feet per year near Landfill 5. The largest variation in water levels at Cannon Air Force Base was observed in wells C, D, and S, which are located adjacent to Landfill 5 near the southern boundary of the base and near an irrigation well immediately south of the base boundary. Water levels in these wells indicated a pattern of summer water-level decline followed by partial winter water-level recovery, which was likely a result of drawdown and recovery during the irrigation and nonirrigation seasons. Ground-water sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1994 to 2004 at monitoring wells associated with Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons indicated temporal and spatial differences in water quality. At least one anthropogenic compound was detected in each monitoring well, but all concentrations detected were small and less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds detected were either pesticide or industrial compounds. Perchlorate was detected in at least one sample from every well for which perchlorate was analyzed, and the source of perchlorate is likely natural and a result of atmospheric deposition. Trace-element concentrations in raw (pretreatment) ground water at Cannon Air Force Base were generally less than drinking-water standards (applicable to posttreatment samples), but maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded secondary drinking-water standards, and maximum chromium concentrations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard. Spatial and temporal differences of nitrate, major ions, and specific conductance indicated anthropogenic and natural influences on the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base. Larger nitrate concentrations decreased in ground water near the Sewage Lagoons during and following decommissioning of the lagoons, and c

Langman, Jeff B.; Falk, Sarah E.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Blanchard, Paul J.

2006-01-01

167

The physics of nuclear reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new edition of the author's 'Nuclear Reactions' gives a general account of the interactions between nuclei and is intended for use by students in the second or third year of honours course. The chapters are headed; introduction, particle accelerators, kinematics, reactions of light nuclei, wave-mechanical theory of scattering, resonant scattering and reactions, reaction mechanisms, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear reactions, nuclear forces, and nuclear spin. A number of problems are set on each section and answers given. In an appendix the main properties of known types of nuclei in their ground states are summarized. (UK)

168

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

1991-10-01

169

Role of spin-orbit interaction and Skyrme forces in Ni-induced reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction in the semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach, under frozen density approximation is used. The nuclear potential is obtained as a sum of the spin-orbit density-dependent VJ part and spin-orbit density-independent VP part of the Skyrme Hamiltonian density. Within the ETF approach, it is of interest to study the variation of spin-orbit part with increase in N/Z ratio of the compound systems. In the following, this study of the role of spin-orbit density part of interaction potential on nine even-mass compound nuclei (CN) 156-172Yb* formed in 56-72Ni+100Mo reactions where both spherical and deformed nuclei are involved

170

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

1991-10-01

171

Study of the Reactions Controlling the Mobility of Uranium in Ground and Surface Water Systems in Contact with Apatite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to define the mechanisms, equilibria, kinetics, and extent of sorption of aqueous uranium onto hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH)) for a range of pH, ionic strength, aqueous uranium concentration, dissolved carbon/air CO{sub 2}, and mineral surface area. We conducted chemical modeling, batch and flow-through experiments, chemical analysis, x-ray absorption and diffraction measurement, and electron microscopy. Our motivation was the need to immobilize U in water and soil to prevent it's entry into water supplies and ultimately, biological systems. Applying hydroxyapatite to in-situ treatment of uranium-bearing ground water could be an effective, low cost technology. We found that hydroxyapatite quickly, effectively, and reversibly sorbed uranium at a high capacity by inner-sphere complexation over a wide range of conditions. Our results indicate that at aqueous uranium concentrations below 10-20 ppb: (1) equilibrium sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite occurs in hours, regardless of pH; (2) in ambient and CO{sub 2}-free atmospheres, over 98% of initial uranium is sorbed to hydroxyapatite, (3) in waters in equilibrium with higher air CO{sub 2} concentrations, sorption removed over 97% of aqueous uranium, except above pH 9, where aqueous uranium concentrations were reduced by less than 40%, and (4) at near-neutral pH, bicarbonate alkalinities in excess of 500 slightly retarded sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite, relative to lower alkalinities. Uranium sorption and precipitation are reversible and are not appreciably affected by ionic strength. The reversibility of these reactions requires that in situ treatment be carefully monitored to avoid breakthrough and de-sorption of uranium unto ground water. At typical surface conditions, sorption is the only mode of uranium sequestration below 20-50 ppb U - above this range, precipitation of uranium phosphate minerals begins to dominate sequestration processes. We verified that one m{sup 2} of hydroxyapatite can sorb over 7.53 X 10{sup -6} moles or 1.8 mg of uranium in agreement with calculations based on phosphate and calcium oxide sites on the unit cell. Our work is significant because small masses of hydroxyapatite can sorb appreciable masses of uranium quickly over a wide range of chemistries. Preliminary work with ground water containing 260 ppb of uranium and cow bone char indicates that its sorptive capacity is appreciable less than pure hydroxyapatite. Pure crystalline hydroxyapatite sequestered 2.9 mg of uranium per m{sup 2} as opposed to 0.083 mg of uranium sequestered per m{sup 2} of cow bone char, or 27% versus 3.5% by surface area, respectively. Extended x-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy defined mono- and bidentate sorption of uranium to phosphate and calcium oxide groups on the hydroxyapatite surface. The EXAFS data indicate that up to several thousand parts U per million parts hydroxyapatite, surface complexation, and not precipitation, is the predominant process. Above this uranium: hydroxyapatite mass ratio, precipitation of meta-autunite (H{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})2(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 10H{sub 2}0) dominates the sequestration process.

Taffet, M

2004-04-22

172

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats  

OpenAIRE

Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurement...

Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

2011-01-01

173

A Comparison of the vertical ground reaction force during forward and backward walking In athletes with ankle sprain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes has world wide prevalence and it is estimated that up to ten years later, more than 300 million people would suffer from it. The disease has serious secondary complications. Physical activity can decrease the complications by altering the blood profiles. Patients with diabetes are unwilling to do physical exercise. Whole Body Vibration (WBV might be a proper substitution for exercise. The effects of WBV on patients with diabetes have not been studied enough, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on the blood profiles in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with diabetes were assigned using matched assignment either into control (n=10 or intervention (n=10 group. Intervention group received the WBV with frequency of 30 Hz and amplitude of 2.5 mm for six weeks twice a week. The control group did not receive any intervention during this period. Blood profiles were measured in both groups at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: FBS and HbA1C decreased in intervention group in comparison with the control group but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.44.  There were not significant statistical differences in Cholesterol, HDL, LDL and TG before and after the treatment between the two groups.Conclusion: The application of WBV with the above parameters might reduce FBS and HbA1C in patients with diabetes type 2. Increase in the amount of Glucose Transporter protein 4 (GLUT-4 is one of the contributing factors that these changes can be ascribed to.

H Sadeghi

2013-05-01

174

A Radial Basis Function (RBF)-Finite Difference Method for the Simulation of Reaction-Diffusion Equations on Stationary Platelets within the Augmented Forcing Method  

OpenAIRE

We present a computational method for solving the coupled problem of chemical transport in a fluid (blood) with binding/unbinding of the chemical to/from cellular (platelet) surfaces in contact with the fluid, and with transport of the chemical on the cellular surfaces. The overall framework is the Augmented Forcing Point Method (AFM) (\\emph{L. Yao and A.L. Fogelson, Simulations of chemical transport and reaction in a suspension of cells I: An augmented forcing point method ...

Shankar, Varun; Wright, Grady B.; Fogelson, Aaron L.; Kirby, Robert M.

2013-01-01

175

Nonlocal field correlations and dynamical Casimir-Polder forces between one excited- and two ground-state atoms  

CERN Document Server

The problem of nonlocality in the dynamical three-body Casimir-Polder interaction between an initially excited and two ground-state atoms is considered. It is shown that the nonlocal spatial correlations of the field emitted by the excited atom during the initial part of its spontaneous decay may become manifest in the three-body interaction. The observability of this new phenomenon is discussed.

Passante, R; Rizzuto, L

2006-01-01

176

Nonlocal field correlations and dynamical Casimir-Polder forces between one excited- and two ground-state atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of nonlocality in the dynamical three-body Casimir-Polder interaction between an initially excited and two ground-state atoms is considered. It is shown that the nonlocal spatial correlations of the field emitted by the excited atom during the initial part of its spontaneous decay may become manifest in the three-body interaction. The observability of this new phenomenon is discussed

177

Nonlocal field correlations and dynamical Casimir-Polder forces between one excited- and two ground-state atoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of nonlocality in the dynamical three-body Casimir-Polder interaction between an initially excited and two ground-state atoms is considered. It is shown that the nonlocal spatial correlations of the field emitted by the excited atom during the initial part of its spontaneous decay may become manifest in the three-body interaction. The observability of this new phenomenon is discussed.

Passante, R; Persico, F; Rizzuto, L [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell' Universita degli Studi di Palermo and CNISM, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

2007-05-28

178

Low-energy 2H(d,?)4He reaction and the D-state admixture in the 4He ground state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the low-energy 2H(d,?) 4He reaction based on a microscopic description of the nuclear wave functions. Our study reproduces the experimental reaction cross sections at E?3 MeV; it allows for an extrapolation of the data to energies relevant for big-bang nucleosynthesis resulting in a cross section about 35 times higher than given in present compilations. Our results indicate a D-state admixture in the 4He ground state of ?5--7 %

179

Chemical reactions in low-g  

Science.gov (United States)

The Apollo-Soyuz flight experiment, 'Chemical Foams' demonstrated that foams and air/liquid dispersions are much more stable in low-gravity than on the ground. It thus should be possible to conduct unique chemical reactions in space foams. The low-g results and subsequent ground work on the formaldehyde clock reaction indicate that the reaction is strongly influenced by (1) dissociated and undissociated solution species being adsorbed at solid/liquid and gas/liquid surfaces and (2) chemical reaction rates apparently being affected by long-range forces determined by the liquid mass and the extent and nature of all surface interfaces.

Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.

1978-01-01

180

Barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reaction 64Ni+100Mo using Wong formula with Skyrme forces in semiclassical formalism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain the nuclear proximity potential by using semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach in Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF), and use it in the extended l-summed Wong formula under frozen density approximation. This method has the advantage of allowing the use of different Skyrme forces, giving different barriers. Thus, for a given reaction, we could choose a Skyrme force with proper barrier characteristics, not-requiring extra 'barrier lowering' or 'barrier narrowing' for a best fit to data. For the 64Ni+100Mo reaction, the l-summed Wong formula, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included, fits the fusion-evaporation cross section data exactly for the force GSkI, requiring additional barrier modifications for forces SIII and SV. However, the same for other similar reactions, like 58,64Ni+58,64Ni, fit the data best for SIII force. Hence, the barrier modification effects in l-summed Wong expression depend on the choice of Skyrme force in semiclassical ETF method.

181

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

1991-10-01

182

Simulated water-level declines caused by ground-water withdrawals near Holloman Air Force Base, Otero County, New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Holloman Air Force Base, studied the potential change in water levels that could occur as a result of increased groundwater withdrawals from the middle-Tertiary to Holocene age basin-fill and alluvial deposits in the vicinity of the Air Force base in Otero County, New Mexico. Water level changes of 25 ft to as much as 60 ft below their 1982 levels are projected in the well field areas by the year 2001, based on an increased groundwater withdrawal of 10%. The 400-sq-mi area of unconsolidated material is relatively flat except for the alluvial fans adjacent to the mountain front. Perennial streams are not present in the study area. The aquifer has a saturated thickness that ranges from 0 to 3 ft. Intermittent streamflow from the nearby mountains infiltrates the alluvial fans and recharges the aquifer system. Groundwater is discharged from the area by underflow, evapotranspiration, and pumpage withdrawals from wells. (USGS)

Burns, A.W.; Hart, D.L., Jr.

1988-01-01

183

Vertical force calibration of smart force platform using artificial neural networks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The human body may interact with the structures and these interactions are developed through the application of contact forces, for instance due to walking movement. A structure may undergo changes in the dynamic behaviour when subjected to loads and human bodies. The aim of this paper [...] is to propose a methodology using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to calibrate a force platform in order to reduce uncertainties in the vertical Ground Reaction Force measurements and positioning of the applied force for the human gait. METHODS: Force platforms have been used to evaluate the pattern of applied human forces and to fit models for the interaction between pedestrians and structures. The designed force platform consists in two force plates placed side by side in the direction of walking. The reference voltages applied to the Wheatstone bridge were used for calibration as the input data to the ANN, while the output data were the estimated values of the standard weights applied to the force platform. RESULTS: It was presented a framework to enhance traditional calibration methods for force platforms (vertical component) using an ANN. The use of ANN shows significant improvements for the measured variables, leading to better results with lower uncertain values that are smaller than those using a simple traditional calibration. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the calibration with the ANN method may be useful in obtaining more accurate vertical Ground Reaction Forces and positioning measurements in a force platform for human gait analysis.

Marcelo André, Toso; Herbert Martins, Gomes.

2014-12-01

184

An experimental study on advancement of damping performance of foundations in soft ground. Pt.1: Forced vibration tests of a foundation block constructed on improved soil medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose of this study is to enhance attenuation performance of structures that will be constructed in the soft ground area. We conducted material tests to obtain basic properties of the soil cement column. The forced vibration tests then were carried out to acquire dynamic feature of the reinforced concrete block constructed on improved soil mediums. Additional forced vibration tests for various conditions of trenches dug along the block were conducted to obtain fundamental features of damping effect of the side surfaces of the test block. According to results of the material testing, densities of the soil cement columns were 1.45-1.52 g/cm3 and the unconfined compressive strengths were 2.4-4.2 times as large as the specified design strength (1 MPa). In comparison of resonance curves by experiments and simulation analysis, simulation analysis results estimated by the hybrid approach were in good agreement with experiment ones for both the X and Y-directions. From the results of the forced vibration test focusing on various condition of the trenches dug along the test block, it was indicated that response of tamping by the rammer decreased compared with that of treading. (authors)

185

Encouraging Conceptual Change: The Use of Bridging Analogies in the Teaching of Action-Reaction Forces and the "At Rest" Condition in Physics. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The qualitative study described in this paper examined the effectiveness of bridging analogies intended to bring about conceptual change as part of a constructivist approach to teaching about action-reaction forces in the 'at rest' condition in physics. Twenty-one 15-year-old students were involved in the investigation with subgroups previously…

Bryce, Tom; MacMillan, Kenneth

2005-01-01

186

Effects of the tensor force on the ground and first $2^{+}$ states of the magic $^{54}$Ca nucleus  

CERN Document Server

The magic nature of the $^{54}$Ca nucleus is investigated in the light of the recent experimental results. We employ both HFB and HF+BCS methods using Skyrme-type SLy5, SLy5+T and T44 interactions. The evolution of the single-particle spectra is studied for the N=34 isotones: $^{60}$Fe, $^{58}$Cr, $^{56}$Ti and $^{54}$Ca. An increase is obtained in the neutron spin-orbit splittings of $p$ and $f$ states due to the effect of the tensor force which also makes $^{54}$Ca a magic nucleus candidate. QRPA calculations on top of HF+BCS are performed to investigate the first $J^{\\pi}$=$2^{+}$ states of the calcium isotopic chain. A good agreement for excitation energies is obtained when we include the tensor force in the mean-field part of the calculations. The first $2^{+}$ states indicate a subshell closure for both $^{52}$Ca and $^{54}$Ca nuclei. We confirm that the tensor part of the interaction is quite essential in explaining the neutron subshell closure in $^{52}$Ca and $^{54}$Ca nuclei.

Yüksel, E; Khan, E; Bozkurt, K

2014-01-01

187

A comparison of ground-based and space flight data: Atomic oxygen reactions with boron nitride and silicon nitride  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed the materials coated over thin (approx 250 Angstrom) silver films whose electrical resistance was measured in situ to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the in-flight and ground-based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the in-flight or ground-based experiments. The ground-based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground-based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results.

Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.; Koontz, S. L.

1990-01-01

188

Proton spectroscopic factor of the 12C ground state from the 12C (11B,12C) 11B elastic transfer reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The angular distributions of the 12C (11B,11B) 12C and 12C (11B,12C) 11B reactions have been measured at an incident energy of 50 MeV by using the high resolution Q3D magnetic spectrometer of the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The optical potential parameters of the 11B +12C system are determined by fitting the angular distribution of the elastic scattering and then used to predict the cross sections of the elastic transfer reaction leading to the ground state in 12C based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) analysis. Taking into account the interference between the elastic scattering and the elastic transfer processes, the proton spectroscopic factor of the 12C ground state is extracted to be 2.15 ± 0.23 by constraining the geometrical parameters r0 and a using the rms radius of the valence proton in the 12C ground state.

Li, E. T.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Guo, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Pang, D. Y.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Zeng, S.; Gan, L.; Li, Z. C.; Liu, J. C.; Bai, X. X.; Wu, Z. D.; Jin, S. J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Yu, X. Q.; Li, L.; Sun, H. B.; Lian, G.; Fan, Q. W.; Liu, W. P.

2014-12-01

189

Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

2014-10-01

190

Nuclear ground-state properties and nuclear forces in the unitary-model-operator approach: Application to /sup 16/O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A formulation is given to derive an effective interaction in the framework of the unitary-model-operator approach. A unitary transformation is introduced to describe two-body correlations and is determined from the condition that the effective interaction should be decoupled between the low- and high-momentum spaces. A unitary transformation of the Hamiltonian is made and the transformed Hamiltonian is represented in a cluster-expansion form. The effective interaction thus defined is E independent and Hermitian. The contributions of one-, two-, and three-body-cluster terms are taken into consideration. The self-consistent single-particle potential is considered sym- metrically for both occupied (hole) and unoccupied (particle) states. The theory is applied to the calculation of the ground-state properties of /sup 16/O using three potentials, namely, the Paris, Reid soft-core, and supersoft-core potentials. A large gain in the binding energy is obtained. Final results for the gound-state energy and the charge radius are as follows: -119.2 MeV and 2.62 fm for the Paris, -115.1 MeV and 2.60 fm for the Reid soft core, and -121.7 MeV and 2.62 fm for the supersoft core. The single-particle energies of the occupied orbits are also calculated. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental energies is obtained. In particular, a large spin-orbit splitting of the 0p orbits is reproduced with the results 5.6 MeV for the Paris, 5.1 MeV for the Reid soft core, and 5.4 MeV 1 MeV for the Reid soft core, and 5.4 MeV for the supersoft core, which should be compared with the experimental value 6.1 MeV

191

Unravelling below-ground plant distributions: a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for quantifying species proportions in mixed root samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge on below-ground plant distributions is almost lacking to date, despite the fact that such information would be very valuable in understanding below-ground competition and species-specific interactions, processes that are expected to shape community structure. Methods available so far for below-ground species determination have drawbacks that we tried to challenge. Some methods make use of differences in the chemical composition between species, but this is highly variable upon environmental factors. DNA-based techniques - far less dependent on chemical composition - such as polymerase chain reaction on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers can so far only determine presence-absence of a species in a mixed root sample. Here, we present a quantitative DNA-based technique that allows investigation of relative species abundances in experimental mixed root samples. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on species-specific markers obtained from intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) analyses in root samples. This molecular technique is novel in the field of root ecology and its development overcame three challenges: (i) determination of species-specific DNA fragments, (ii) development and optimization of the real time PCR protocol, (iii) designing a data treatment method based on a modified delta-delta-cycle threshold (CT) analysis. The method gained robustness from using relative DNA abundances in species mixtures rather than absolute concentration readings. This requires accurate multispecies reference series as a calibration. Test samples with different known biomass ratios of all species showed proof of concept of this method. The pro's and contra's of this method are discussed in the light of its contribution to advancing ecological research on below-ground plant-plant interactions. PMID:21585938

Mommer, L; Wagemaker, C A M; DE Kroon, H; Ouborg, N J

2008-09-01

192

Dynamics of low-energy nuclear forces for electromagnetic and weak reactions with the deuteron in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei  

OpenAIRE

A dynamics of low-energy nuclear forces is investigated for low-energy electromagnetic and weak nuclear reactions with the deuteron in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei by example of the neutron-proton radiative capture (M1-capture) n + p -> D + photon, the photomagnetic disintegration of the deuteron photon + D -> n + p and weak reactions of astrophysical interest. These are the solar proton burning p + p -> D + positron + nu_e, the pep-process p + electron + p -...

Ivanov, A. N.; Oberhummer, H.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Faber, M.

2000-01-01

193

Tensor Force Manifestations in ab Initio Study of the 2H(d, ?)4He, 2H(d, p)3H, and 2H(d, n)3He Reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2H(d, ?)4He capture reaction and the 2H(d, p)3H and 2H(d, n)3He transfer reactions at very low energies are studied in an extended microscopic cluster model with a realistic nucleon–nucleon force. Our results show that the tensor force in realistic interactions plays an essential and indispensable role to reproduce the very low-energy astrophysical S factor of these reactions. (author)

194

The Ground Axiom (GA)  

CERN Document Server

A new axiom is proposed, the Ground Axiom, asserting that the universe is not a nontrivial set forcing extension of any inner model. The Ground Axiom is first-order expressible, and any model of ZFC has a class forcing extension which satisfies it. The Ground Axiom is independent of many well-known set-theoretic assertions including the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis, the assertion V=HOD that every set is ordinal definable, and the existence of measurable and supercompact cardinals. The related Bedrock Axiom, asserting that the universe is a set forcing extension of a model satisfying the Ground Axiom, is also first-order expressible, and its negation is consistent.

Reitz, J

2006-01-01

195

The HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction: pre-industrial-to-present trends in atmospheric species and radiative forcings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent laboratory measurements have shown the existence of a HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction. This reaction is the main source of tropospheric O3, through the subsequent photolysis of NO2, as well as being a major source of OH. The branching of the reaction to HNO3 reduces the formation of these species significantly, affecting O3 abundances, radiative forcing and the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. The Oslo CTM2, a three-dimensional chemistry transport model, is used to calculate atmospheric composition and trends with and without the new reaction branch. Results for the present day atmosphere, when both temperature and pressure effects on the branching ratio are accounted for, show an 11 % reduction in the calculated tropospheric burden of O3, with the main contribution from the tropics. An increase of the global, annual mean methane lifetime by 10.9 %, resulting from a 14.1 % reduction in the global, annual mean OH concentration is also found. Comparisons with measurements show that including the new branch improves the modelled O3 in the Oslo CTM2, but that it is not possible to conclude whether the NOy distribution improves. We model an approximately 11 % reduction in the tropical tropospheric O3 increase since pre-industrial times, and a 4 % reduction of the increase in total tropospheric burden. Also, an 8 % decrease in the trend of OH concentrations is calculated, when the new branch is accounted for. The radiative forcing due to changes in O3 over the industrial era was calculated as 0.33 W m?2, reducing to 0.26 W m?2 with the new reaction branch. These results are significant, and it is important that this reaction branching is confirmed by other laboratory groups.

I. S. A. Isaksen

2011-09-01

196

Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability asonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site

197

Runners do not push off the ground but fall forwards via a gravitational torque.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the affect and timing of the four forces involved in running (gravity, ground reaction force, muscle force, and potential strain energy) is presented. These forces only increase horizontal acceleration of the centre of mass during stance but not flight. The current hierarchical models of running are critiqued because they do not show gravity, a constant force, in affect during stance. A new gravitational model of running is developed, which shows gravity as the motive force. Gravity is shown to cause a torque as the runner's centre of mass moves forward of the support foot. Ground reaction force is not a motive force but operates according to Newton's third law; therefore, the ground can only propel a runner forward in combination with muscle activity. However, leg and hip extensor muscles have consistently proven to be silent during leg extension (mid-terminal stance). Instead, high muscle-tendon forces at terminal stance suggest elastic recoil regains most of the centre of mass's height. Therefore, the only external motive force from mid-terminal stance is gravity via a gravitational torque, which causes a horizontal displacement. The aim of this paper is to establish a definitive biomechanical technique (Pose method) that is easily taught to runners (Romanov, 2002): falling forwards via a gravitational torque while pulling the support foot rapidly from the ground using the hamstring muscles. PMID:17933203

Romanov, Nicholas; Fletcher, Graham

2007-09-01

198

Confining forces  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the forces on the internal constituents of the hadrons based on the bag model. The ground state of the hadrons forms a color singlet so that the effects of the colored internal states are neutralized. From the breaking of the dilatation and conformal symmetries under the strong interactions the corresponding currents are not conserved. These currents give rise to the forces changing the motion of the internal particles which causes confinement.

Rollmann, Dirk

2015-01-01

199

Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida include a probability of thunderstorm occurrence in their daily morning briefings. This information is used by personnel involved in determining the possibility of violating Launch Commit Criteria, evaluating Flight Rules for the Space Shuttle, and daily planning for ground operation activities on Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The forecasters requested that a lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of historical warm-season (May - September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season. This study used 15 years (1989-2003) of warm season data to develop the objective forecast equations. The local CCAFS 1000 UTC sounding was used to calculate stability parameters for equation predictors. The Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data were used to determine lightning occurrence for each day. The CGLSS data have been found to be more reliable indicators of lightning in the area than surface observations through local informal analyses. This work was based on the results from two earlier research projects. Everitt (1999) used surface observations and rawinsonde data to develop logistic regression equations that forecast the daily thunderstorm probability at CCAFS. The Everitt (1999) equations showed an improvement in skill over the Neumann-Pfeffer thunderstorm index (Neumann 1971), which uses multiple linear regression, and also persistence and climatology forecasts. Lericos et al. (2002) developed lightning distributions over the Florida peninsula based on specific flow regimes. The flow regimes were inferred from the average wind direction in the 1000-700 mb layer at Miami (MIA), Tampa (TBW), and Jacksonville (JAX), Florida, and the lightning data were from the National Lightning Detection Network. The results suggested that the daily flow regime may be an important predictor of lightning occurrence on KSC/CCAFS.

Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

2004-01-01

200

Momentum-space 3N Faddeev calculations of hadronic and electromagnetic reactions with proton-proton Coulomb and three-nucleon forces included  

CERN Document Server

We extend our approach to incorporate the proton-proton (pp) Coulomb force into the three-nucleon (3N) momentum-space Faddeev calculations of elastic proton-deuteron (pd) scattering and breakup to the case when also a three-nucleon force (3NF) is acting. In addition we formulate that approach in the application to electron- and gamma-induced reactions on 3He. The main new ingredient is a 3-dimensional screened pp Coulomb t-matrix obtained by a numerical solution of a 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation (LSE). The resulting equations have the same structure as the Faddeev equations which describe pd scattering without 3NF acting. That shows the practical feasibility of both presented formulations.

Witala, H; Golak, J; Gloeckle, W

2010-01-01

201

The Ground Axiom  

CERN Document Server

A new axiom is proposed, the Ground Axiom, asserting that the universe is not a nontrivial set-forcing extension of any inner model. The Ground Axiom is first-order expressible, and any model of ZFC has a class-forcing extension which satisfies it. The Ground Axiom is independent of many well-known set-theoretic assertions including the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis, the assertion V=HOD that every set is ordinal definable, and the existence of measurable and supercompact cardinals. The related Bedrock Axiom, asserting that the universe is a set-forcing extension of a model satisfying the Ground Axiom, is also first-order expressible, and its negation is consistent. As many of these results rely on forcing with proper classes, an appendix is provided giving an exposition of the underlying theory of proper class forcing.

Reitz, J

2006-01-01

202

Chemical reactions of actinides with colloids in ground water; Chemische Reaktionen von Aktiniden mit Grundwasser-Kolloiden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown by the results of this study that the interaction between the actinoids and the colloids can be explained for a large pH-range by a complexation with humic substances. For verifying this assumption, the distribution of species as a function of pH-value of the ground waters used has been modelled applying thermodynamic data, and the model results have been compared with experimental data. The model results obtained for the species Am{sup 3+} and Cm{sup 3+} show a good agreement of computed and experimental results up to a pH-value <7.5. At higher pH-values, clearly different values are observed, which are attributed to a sorption of hydrolysed species to colloids. The model-based computation of the distribution of the non-hydrolysing species Np(V) in the pH-range under review has shown good agreement with all experimental data. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen zeigten, dass die Wechselwirkung der Aktiniden mit Humin-Kolloiden ueber einen weiten pH-Bereich durch die Komplexierung mit Huminstoffen beschreibbar ist. Zur Verifizierung wurden die Speziesverteilung in Abhaengigkeit vom pH-Wert fuer die untersuchten Grundwaesser anhand thermodynamischer Daten modelliert und mit experimentellen Ergebnissen verglichen. Bei der Spezies-Modellierung von Am{sup 3+} und Cm{sup 3+} zeigt sich bis zu einem pH-Wert <7.5 eine gute Uebereinstimmung zwischen berechneten und experimentellen Werten. Bei hoeherem pH-Wert treten deutliche Abweichungen auf, die auf eine Sorption von Hydrolysespezies an Kolloide zurueckgefuehrt werden. Hingegen zeigt die Berechnung der Spezies-Verteilung fuer das im untersuchten pH-Bereich nicht hydrolysierende Np(V) eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit den experimentellen Ergebnissen. (orig.)

Zeh, P.

1993-02-25

203

A global ab initio potential energy surface for the X?2A? ground state of the Si + OH ? SiO + H reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the first global potential energy surface (PES) for the X?2A? ground electronic state of the Si(3P) + OH(X2?) ? SiO(X1?g+) + H(2S) reaction. The PES is based on a large number of ab initio energies obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations plus Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. Corrections were applied to the ab initio energies in the reactant channel allowing a proper description of long-range interactions between Si(3P) and OH(X2?). An analytical representation of the global PES has been developed by means of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The reaction is found barrierless. Two minima, corresponding to the SiOH and HSiO isomers, and six saddle points, among which the isomerization transition state, have been characterized on the PES. The vibrational spectra of the SiOH/HSiO radicals have been computed from second-order perturbation theory and quantum dynamics methods. The structural, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of the two isomers are in good agreement with experimental data and previous high quality calculations

204

The HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction: pre-industrial-to-present trends in atmospheric species and radiative forcings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent laboratory measurements have shown the existence of a HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction. This reaction is the main source of atmospheric O3, through the subsequent photolysis of NO2, as well as being a major source of OH. The branching of the reaction to HNO3 reduces the formation of these species significantly, affecting O3 abundances, climate and the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. The Oslo CTM2, a three-dimensional chemistry transport model, is used to calculate atmospheric composition and trends with and without the new reaction branch. Results for the present day atmosphere, when both temperature and pressure effects on the branching ratio are accounted for, show an increase of the global, annual mean methane lifetime by 10.9 %, resulting from a 14.1 % reduction in the global, annual mean OH concentration. Comparisons with measurements show that including the new branch improves the modelled O3, but that it is not possible to conclude whether the NOy distribution improves. We model an approximately 11 % reduction in the tropical tropospheric O3 increase since pre-industrial times, as well as an 8 % decrease in the trend of OH concentration, when the new branch is accounted for. The radiative forcing due to changes in O3 over the industrial era was calculated as 0.33 W m?2, reducing to 0.26 W m?2 with the new reaction branch. These results are significant, and it is important that this reaction branching is confirmed by other laboratory groups.

I. S. A. Isaksen

2011-05-01

205

An experimental and computational study of the reaction of ground-state sulfur atoms with carbon disulfide  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulsed laser photolysis/resonance fluorescence technique was used to study the reaction of S(3PJ) with CS2 in an Ar bath gas. Over 290-770 K pressure-dependent kinetics were observed and low- and high-pressure limiting rate constants were derived as k0 = (11.5-0.0133 T/K) × 10-31 cm6 molecule-2 s-1 (error limits ± 20%) and k? = (2.2 ± 0.6) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Equilibration observed at 690-770 K yields a CS2-S bond dissociation enthalpy of 131.7 ± 4.0 kJ mol-1 at 298 K. This agrees with computed thermochemistry for a spin-forbidden C2V adduct, estimated at the coupled-cluster single double triple level extrapolated to the infinite basis set limit. A pressure-independent pathway, assigned to abstraction, was observed from 690 to 1040 K and can be summarized as 1.14 × 10-10 exp(-37.0 kJ mol-1/RT) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with error limits of ± 40%. The results are rationalized in terms of a computed potential energy surface and transition state theory and Troe's unimolecular formalism.

Gao, Yide; Marshall, Paul

2011-10-01

206

Identification of FX in the heliobacterial reaction center as a [4Fe-4S] cluster with an S = 3/2 ground spin state.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type I homodimeric reaction centers, particularly the class present in heliobacteria, are not well understood. Even though the primary amino acid sequence of PshA in Heliobacillus mobilis has been shown to contain an F(X) binding site, a functional Fe-S cluster has not been detected by EPR spectroscopy. Recently, we reported that PshB, which contains F(A)- and F(B)-like Fe-S clusters, could be removed from the Heliobacterium modesticaldum reaction center (HbRC), resulting in 15 ms lifetime charge recombination between P798(+) and an unidentified electron acceptor [Heinnickel, M., Shen, G., Agalarov, R., and Golbeck, J. H. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 9950-9960]. We report here that when a HbRC core is incubated with sodium dithionite in the presence of light, the 15 ms charge recombination is replaced with a kinetic transient in the sub-microsecond time domain, consistent with the reduction of this electron acceptor. Concomitantly, a broad and intense EPR signal arises around g = 5 along with a minor set of resonances around g = 2 similar to the spectrum of the [4Fe-4S](+) cluster in the Fe protein of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase, which exists in two conformations having S = (3)/(2) and S = (1)/(2) ground spin states. The Mössbauer spectrum in the as-isolated HbRC core shows that all of the Fe is present in the form of a [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster. After reduction with sodium dithionite in the presence of light, approximately 65% of the Fe appears in the form of a [4Fe-4S](+) cluster; the remainder is in the [4Fe-4S](2+) state. Analysis of the non-heme iron content of HbRC cores indicates an antenna size of 21.6 +/- 1.1 BChl g molecules/P798. The evidence indicates that the HbRC contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster identified as F(X) that is coordinated between the PshA homodimer; in contrast to F(X) in other type I reaction centers, this [4Fe-4S] cluster exhibits an S = (3)/(2) ground spin state. PMID:16716087

Heinnickel, Mark; Agalarov, Rufat; Svensen, Nina; Krebs, Carsten; Golbeck, John H

2006-05-30

207

A radial basis function (RBF) finite difference method for the simulation of reaction-diffusion equations on stationary platelets within the augmented forcing method  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a computational method for solving the coupled problem of chemical transport in a fluid (blood) with binding/unbinding of the chemical to/from cellular (platelet) surfaces in contact with the fluid, and with transport of the chemical on the cellular surfaces. The overall framework is the Augmented Forcing Point Method (AFM) (\\emph{L. Yao and A.L. Fogelson, Simulations of chemical transport and reaction in a suspension of cells I: An augmented forcing point method for the stationary case, IJNMF (2012) 69, 1736-52.}) for solving fluid-phase transport in a region outside of a collection of cells suspended in the fluid. We introduce a novel Radial Basis Function-Finite Difference (RBF-FD) method to solve reaction-diffusion equations on the surface of each of a collection of 2D stationary platelets suspended in blood. Parametric RBFs are used to represent the geometry of the platelets and give accurate geometric information needed for the RBF-FD method. Symmetric Hermite-RBF interpolants are used for enforcing the boundary conditions on the fluid-phase chemical concentration, and their use removes a significant limitation of the original AFM. The efficacy of the new methods are shown through a series of numerical experiments; in particular, second order convergence for the coupled problem is demonstrated.

Shankar, Varun; Wright, Grady B.; Fogelson, Aaron L.; Kirby, Robert M.

2014-05-01

208

Direct analysis of donor-acceptor distance and relationship to isotope effects and the force constant for barrier compression in enzymatic H-tunneling reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of dynamical effects in enzyme catalysis is both complex and widely debated. Understanding how dynamics can influence the barrier to an enzyme catalyzed reaction requires the development of new methodologies and tools. In particular compressive dynamics-the focus of this study-may decrease both the height and width of a reaction barrier. By making targeted mutations in the active site of morphinone reductase we are able to alter the equilibrium of conformational states for the reactive complex in turn altering the donor-acceptor (D-A) distance for H-transfer. The sub-A changes which we induce are monitored using novel spectroscopic and kinetic "rulers". This new way of detecting variation in D-A distance allows us to analyze trends between D-A distance and the force constant of a compressive dynamical mode. We find that as the D-A distance decreases, the force constant for a compressive mode increases. Further, we demonstrate that-contrary to current dogma-compression may not always cause the magnitude of the primary kinetic isotope effect to decrease. PMID:20698699

Pudney, Christopher R; Johannissen, Linus O; Sutcliffe, Michael J; Hay, Sam; Scrutton, Nigel S

2010-08-18

209

How low-energy weak reactions can constrain three-nucleon forces and the neutron-neutron scattering length  

CERN Document Server

We show that chiral symmetry and gauge invariance enforce relations between the short-distance physics that occurs in a number of electroweak and pionic reactions on light nuclei. Within chiral perturbation theory this is manifested via the appearance of the same axial isovector two-body contact term in pi- d -> n n gamma, p-wave pion production in NN collisions, tritium beta decay, pp fusion, nu d scattering, and the hep reaction. Using a Gamow-Teller matrix element obtained from calculations of pp fusion as input we compute the neutron spectrum obtained in pi- d -> n n gamma. With the short-distance physics in this process controlled from p p -> d e+ nu_e the theoretical uncertainty in the nn scattering length extracted from pi- d -> n n gamma is reduced by a factor larger than three, to <~0.05 fm.

Gardestig, A

2006-01-01

210

Development of polarizable force fields and hybrid QM/MM methods for the study of reaction mechanisms  

OpenAIRE

Computational chemists have successfully simulated many systems by applying the principles of quantum mechanics, while approximate molecular mechanical models have seen great utility in problems of biochemical interest. In recent years, a number of methods have been developed to combine the advantages of both techniques. In this study the so-called QM/MM method is developed and applied to the determination of the free energy of a simple Menshutkin SN2 chemical reaction. This is an extremely d...

Webb, Benjamin M.; Richards, W. Graham

2003-01-01

211

Guideline on the investigation and management of acute transfusion reactions. Prepared by the BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although acute non-haemolytic febrile or allergic reactions (ATRs) are a common complication of transfusion and often result in little or no morbidity, prompt recognition and management are essential. The serious hazards of transfusion haemovigilance organisation (SHOT) receives 30-40 reports of anaphylactic reactions each year. Other serious complications of transfusion, such as acute haemolysis, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) may present with similar clinical features to ATR. This guideline describes the approach to a patient developing adverse symptoms and signs related to transfusion, including initial recognition, establishing a likely cause, treatment, investigations, planning future transfusion and reporting within the hospital and to haemovigilance organisations. Key recommendations are that adrenaline should be used as first line treatment of anaphylaxis, and that transfusions should only be carried out where patients can be directly observed and where staff are trained in manging complications of transfusion, particularly anaphylaxis. Management of ATRs is not dependent on classification but should be guided by symptoms and signs. Patients who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be discussed with an allergist or immunologist, in keeping with UK resuscitation council guidelines. PMID:22928769

Tinegate, Hazel; Birchall, Janet; Gray, Alexandra; Haggas, Richard; Massey, Edwin; Norfolk, Derek; Pinchon, Deborah; Sewell, Carrock; Wells, Angus; Allard, Shubha

2012-10-01

212

Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

Albini, A.

1986-01-01

213

Adverse reactions to smallpox vaccine: the Israel Defense Force experience, 1991 to 1996. A comparison with previous surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the post-smallpox vaccination complication rate in a cohort of Israel Defense Force recruits enlisted in the calendar years 1991 to 1996 and to compare it with rates reported, in similar age groups, in large surveys during the 1960s. The overall complication rate was 0.4 per 10,000 vaccinees, and the rate of severe complications was very low, similar to previously published data. We conclude that among young healthy adults, vaccination with smallpox vaccine is relatively safe and is associated with a low rate of complications. Severe complications were very rare in this age group in our study. However, the complication rate is increasing with the increased percentage of primary vaccinees. PMID:10803002

Haim, M; Gdalevich, M; Mimouni, D; Ashkenazi, I; Shemer, J

2000-04-01

214

Linear energy relationships in ground state proton transfer and excited state proton-coupled electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes are elementary chemical reactions involved in a broad range of radical and redox reactions. Elucidating fundamental PCET reaction mechanisms are thus of central importance for chemical and biochemical research. Here we use quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), and the algebraic diagrammatic-construction through second-order (ADC(2)) to study the mechanism, thermodynamic driving force effects, and reaction barriers of both ground state proton transfer (pT) and photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) between nitrosylated phenyl-phenol compounds and hydrogen-bonded t-butylamine as an external base. We show that the obtained reaction barriers for the ground state pT reactions depend linearly on the thermodynamic driving force, with a Brønsted slope of 1 or 0. Photoexcitation leads to a PCET reaction, for which we find that the excited state reaction barrier depends on the thermodynamic driving force with a Brønsted slope of 1/2. To support the mechanistic picture arising from the static potential energy surfaces, we perform additional molecular dynamics simulations on the excited state energy surface, in which we observe a spontaneous PCET between the donor and the acceptor groups. Our findings suggest that a Brønsted analysis may distinguish the ground state pT and excited state PCET processes. PMID:25485993

Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P; Magomedov, Artiom; Hummer, Gerhard; Kaila, Ville R I

2015-02-12

215

The chemical hardness of molecules and the band gap of solids within charge equilibration formalisms. Toward force field-based simulations of redox reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This work finds that different charge equilibration methods lead to qualitatively different responses of molecules and solids to an excess charge. The investigated approaches are the regular charge equilibration (QE), the atom-atom-charge transfer (AACT), and the split-charge equilibration (SQE) method. In QE, the hardness of molecules and the band gap of solids approaches zero at large particle numbers, affirming the claim that QE induces metallic behavior. AACT suffers from producing negative values of the hardness; moreover valence and conduction bands of solids cross. In contrast to these methods, SQE can reproduce the generic behavior of dielectric molecules or solids. Moreover, first quantitative results for the NaCl molecule are promising. The results derived in this work may have beneficial implications for the modeling of redox reactions. They reveal that by introducing formal oxidation states into force field-based simulations it will become possible to simulate redox reactions including non-equilibrium contact electrification, voltage-driven charging of galvanic cells, and the formation of zwitterionic molecules.

Müser, M. H.

2012-04-01

216

The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

2010-05-01

217

The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

218

The HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction: pre-industrial-to-present trends in atmospheric species and radiative forcings  

OpenAIRE

Recent laboratory measurements have shown the existence of a HNO3 forming branch of the HO2 + NO reaction. This reaction is the main source of tropospheric O3, through the subsequent photolysis of NO2, as well as being a major source of OH. The branching of the reaction to HNO3 reduces the formation of these species significantly, affecting O3 abundances, radiative forcing and the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. The Oslo CTM2, a three-dimensional chemistry transport model, is used to c...

Isaksen, I. S. A.; Myhre, G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Søvde, O. A.

2011-01-01

219

Three-body forces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-body forces are defined and their properties discussed. Evidence for such forces in the trinucleon bound states and scattering reactions is reviewed. The binding energy defects of the trinucleon bound states, the 3He charge density, the Phillips line for doublet n-d scattering lengths, and three-nucleon breakup reactions are discussed, together with the possible influence of three-body forces on these observables

220

Protein Folding as a Complex Reaction: A Two-Component Potential for the Driving Force of Folding and Its Variation with Folding Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

The Helmholtz decomposition of the vector field of probability fluxes in a two-dimensional space of collective variables makes it possible to introduce a potential for the driving force of protein folding [Chekmarev, J. Chem. Phys. 139 (2013) 145103]. The potential has two components: one component (?) is responsible for the source and sink of the folding flow, which represent, respectively, the unfolded and native state of the protein, and the other (?) accounts for the flow vorticity inherently generated at the periphery of the flow field and provides the canalization of the flow between the source and sink. Both components obey Poisson’s equations with the corresponding source/sink terms. In the present paper, we consider how the shape of the potential changes depending on the scenario of protein folding. To mimic protein folding dynamics projected onto a two-dimensional space of collective variables, the two-dimensional Müller and Brown potential is employed. Three characteristic scenarios are considered: a single pathway from the unfolded to the native state without intermediates, two parallel pathways without intermediates, and a single pathway with an off-pathway intermediate. To determine the probability fluxes, the hydrodynamic description of the folding reaction is used, in which the first-passage folding is viewed as a steady flow of the representative points of the protein from the unfolded to the native state. We show that despite the possible complexity of the folding process, the ?-component is simple and universal in shape. The ?-component is more complex and reveals characteristic features of the process of folding. The present approach is potentially applicable to other complex reactions, for which the transition from the reactant to the product can be described in a space of two (collective) variables. PMID:25848943

Chekmarev, Sergei F.

2015-01-01

221

Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

222

Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Bashinov, Aleksei V; Gonoskov, Arkady A; Kim, A V; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G; Sergeev, Aleksandr M

2013-04-30

223

Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

224

NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

225

Investigating the relationship between pressure force and acoustic waveform in footstep sounds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair of sandals embedded with six pressure sensors each. Investigations of the relationships between recorded force and footstep sounds is presented, together with several possible applications of the system.

Grani, Francesco; Serafin, Stefania

2013-01-01

226

Unloading reaction during sudden ankle inversion in healthy adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research study was to determine the dynamics of early human response from sudden ankle inversion (30° tilt). Changes in vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) following trapdoor release in a group of healthy subjects were compared to those from the similar experiments using a chair with two U shaped steel legs and matched weights of the human subjects. The experiments with the chair were further repeated with additional foam paddings at their bases to introduce visco-elastic properties to legs of the chair. Following the trapdoor release a decrease in the vertical ground reaction force under the inverting leg and subsequent increase in the supporting leg were observed in both human and chair experiments. The short onset of changes in vertical GRFs in our experiments indicate that the dynamic features of early response following trapdoor release are primarily due to mechanical events and may not be significantly affected by the neuromuscular reaction of human subjects. PMID:24119321

Jain, Tarang Kumar; Wauneka, Clayton; Liu, Wen

2014-01-01

227

Quenching of spin-M1 transition matrix elements and tensor force effect in the ground state in N=Z and even-even nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quenching of spin-M1 transition matrix elements from even-even and N=Z nuclei across the sd shell region was studied by using high resolution (p, p') measurements at forward scattering angles including 0deg. The nuclear matrix elements corresponding to each excited state were deduced by using the differential cross section at 0deg estimated from unit cross section after sorting 1+ nuclear transition derived from the distinct form of angular distribution of differential scattering cross section measured. It was experimentally found from the comparison of the matrix elements calculated for the respective target nuclei with the shell-model calculation that the quenching was observed in the component of isovector, but not in the corresponding one of isoscalar. The difference between these isospins for M1 quenching is presumed to be resulted from the difference of tensor forces in the respective isospin transitions. (author)

228

Communication: direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O((3)P) + CH4 reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O((3)P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) ? OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) ? OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:24952515

Czakó, Gábor

2014-06-21

229

Análisis cuantitativo de la evolución post-quirúrgica de la rotura de ligamento cruzado anterior mediante el uso de la plataforma de fuerza - Quantitative analysis of the evolution of post-surgical anterior cruciate ligament rupture using force platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEl analisis cinético mediante plataforma de fuerza es un método objetivo de cuantificar el apoyo de los miembros en los animales domésticos.SummarySummaryKinetic análisis by jeans of force platforms is an objetive method to measure weight - bearing or ground reaction force (GRF.

Vilar, JM

2010-01-01

230

Análise da força articular resultante entre diferentes movimentos do ombro com e sem carga: estudo preliminar / Analysis of the joint reaction forces during different shoulder movements with and without external load: a preliminary study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os modelos de segmentos rígidos são extremamente úteis para auxiliar a compreensão do tipo de sobrecarga que as articulações estão expostas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a força articular resultante e momento proximal durante atividades sem e com carga externa, em um estudo preliminar. Um [...] indivíduo realizou flexão, extensão, abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo (sem e com carga). Dados cinemáticos foram obtidos por videogrametria (freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/s). Um modelo de segmentos rígidos foi utilizado para obtenção dos dados cinéticos. O modelo é regido pelas equações de movimento de Newton-Euler. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram aumentos não proporcionais na força e momento resultante. A força resultante longitudinal foi a única que apresentou aumento proporcional frente à carga externa. As componentes da força de cisalhamento e momento proximal apresentaram aumentos aleatórios. O aumento da carga externa promoveu aumentos da força e momento proximal, porém não de forma proporcional. As componentes de força e momento resultante sofrem influência da carga externa de maneira independente. Isto evidencia a necessidade de um controle rígido sobre os exercícios prescritos para diferentes disfunções do membro superior. Abstract in english Link segment models are extremely useful for increasing the comprehension of joint overload. The aim of the present study was to analyze proximal joint reaction forces and moments during different movements performed with and without external load. One subject performed shoulder flexion, extension a [...] nd abduction, and elbow flexion movements (with and without external load) Kinematic data were obtained by videogrammetry (frequency sample 50 fields/s). One link segment model was used to obtain kinetic data. The model is governed by Newton/Euler movement equations. The results suggested a not proportional increasing of proximal joint reaction forces and moments. The proximal joint reaction force longitudinal component was the only one that increased proportionally to the external load. Proximal joint reaction force shearing components and proximal moments presented increasing values of different magnitudes. The use of external load promoted increased magnitudes of proximal joint reaction force and moment, although it was not proportional. Proximal joint reaction force and moment are influenced in different ways by the external load. This suggests the need of a strict control of the prescribed exercises for different shoulder dysfunctions.

Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss; Joelly Mahnic de, Toledo; Marcelo Peduzzi de, Castro; Fábia Milman, Krumholz; Felipe de Osório, Marques.

231

[Observation study on aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using the ground-based and satellite remote sensing at background station during the regional pollution episodes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The significant effect of anthropogenic pollutants transportation on the physical and optical properties of regional background atmospheric aerosol was studied by using ground-based and satellite remote sensing data obtained at the atmospheric background station (Shangdianzi, Beijing) of North China during October 1 to 15 in 2011. The aerosol mass concentration and reactive gases concentration increased obviously during periods of October 4-5, October 7-9, and October 11-12. Comparing with the background period of October 1-3, volume concentration increased by a factor of 3-6 for reactive gases such as NO(x), and CO, and a factor of 10-20 for SO2. Mass concentration of PM2.5 was about 200 microg x m(-3) on October 9. During haze period, the AOD at 500 nm varied between 0.60 to 1.00. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was lower than 0.88. And the black carbon concentration increased 4-8 times, which suggested the aerosol absorption was very strong during this pollution episode. The absorption of aerosol particles could cause 100-400 W x m(-2) increase of atmospheric radiation. The surface radiation decreased by about 100-300 W x m(-2) due to the aerosol scattering and absorption. This could cause higher stability of atmosphere, which will significantly affect the cloud and precipitation, and thus the regional weather and climate. PMID:25247232

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Xia, Xiang-Ao; Che, Hui-Zheng; Tang, Jie; Tang, Yi-Xi; Meng, Wei; Dong, Fan

2014-07-01

232

Chemical Reactions (Netorials)  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical Reactions: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

233

Calculation of muscle loading and joint contact forces during the rock step in Irish dance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biomechanical model for the analysis of dancers and their movements is described. The model consisted of 31 segments, 35 joints, and 539 muscles, and was animated using movement data obtained from a three-dimensional optical tracking system that recorded the motion of dancers. The model was used to calculate forces within the muscles and contact forces at the joints of the dancers in this study. Ground reaction forces were measured using force plates mounted in a sprung floor. The analysis procedure is generic and can be applied to any dance form. As an exemplar of the application process an Irish dance step, the rock, was analyzed. The maximum ground reaction force found was 4.5 times the dancer's body weight. The muscles connected to the Achilles tendon experienced a maximum force comparable to their maximal isometric strength. The contact force at the ankle joint was 14 times body weight, of which the majority of the force was due to muscle contraction. It is suggested that as the rock step produces high forces, and therefore the potential to cause injury, its use should be carefully monitored. PMID:20214850

Shippen, James M; May, Barbara

2010-01-01

234

Equilibrium constants in aqueous lanthanide and actinide chemistry from time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy: The role of ground and excited state reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions between lanthanide or actinide ions and (in-) organic ligands contain important information for various radiochemical problems, such as nuclear reprocessing or the migration of radioelements in the geosphere. We study the conditions required to determine equilibrium constants by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. Based on a simulation study it is shown that the possibility to determine equilibrium constants depends upon the reaction rates in the photoexcited states of the lanthanide or actinide ions. (orig.)

Billard, I.; Luetzenkirchen, K. [Inst. de Recherches Subatomiques, Chimie Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

2003-07-01

235

Competition between the ground and first excited 5Li states by the 6Li(3He, ??p) reaction at E(3He)=2.0 and 2.2 MeV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3He+6Li ? ?+?+p reaction was studied by detecting the ?? coincidences at 2.0 and 2.2 MeV incident 3He energies. The data analysis shows the contributions of both the ground and first excited 5Li states. The measured excitation energy and width of the 1/2- 5Li state are in line with the values deduced by the same reaction at incident energies of 1.65 and 1.7 MeV. Therefore, in the 1.65 divided-by 2.2 MeV range the spectroscopic parameters do not seem to depend on the 3He bombarding energy. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

236

Mathematical models to assess foot-ground interaction: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical properties of the interface between the human body and the ground play an important role in attenuating the foot strike impact during locomotion. Understanding the properties of such an impact-attenuating system and the mathematical models governing its behavior has major implications in determining the load on the musculoskeletal system during locomotion. This interface consists of the plantar soft tissue and the sole complex of the shoe that together act like a sophisticated suspension system with generic viscoelastic properties. The interface has generally been modeled as a system of spring and damper, in which the reaction force deformation is expressed by a mathematical equation that represents the reaction force as a nonlinear function of the deformation and deformation rate of the interface. This overview intends to provide an insight into the different mathematical models that have been used to describe such relationship and into further understanding the role of the reaction model parameters in determining the behavior of the interface under compression. Various models included within this review ranged from the models representing the plantar soft tissue behavior during barefoot walking to those that consider the sole complex force-deformation behavior during shod foot running. The barefoot models are categorized under in vitro/in situ and in vivo, whereas the models representing the sole complex behavior are investigated before discussing the shod foot models. The mathematical models varied from those in which the reaction force was a nonlinear function of interface deformation to those that considered the deformation rate of the interface as a contributing factor to the interface reaction force. Ultimately, the implication of the reaction models in determining the load on the musculoskeletal system is discussed. PMID:23863546

Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

2013-08-01

237

Tensor Force Manifestations in Ab Initio Study of the 2H(d,?)4He, 2H(d,p)3H, and 2H(d,n)3He Reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2H(d,p)3H, 2H(d,n)3He, and 2H(d,?)4He reactions are studied at low energies in a multichannel ab initio model that takes into account the distortions of the nuclei. The internal wave functions of these nuclei are given by the stochastic variational method with the AV8' realistic interaction and a phenomenological three-body force included to reproduce the two-body thresholds. The obtained astrophysical S factors are all in very good agreement with the experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are identified by comparing to calculations with an effective central force. They are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

238

Tactical force protection  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for enhanced tactical force protection capabilities is evidenced from our recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan and occurs wherever U.S. Forces maintain a forward presence in a potentially hostile environment. Levels of force protection proficiency vary widely from combat units whose mission is to close with and destroy the enemy to combat support/combat service support units performing maintenance and logistics functions. We must provide force protection capabilities that are not only good enough to get the job done, but affordable for the entire force. Addressing the force protection challenge requires an investment in research and development to deliver affordable, scalable, modular and sustainable force protection equipment. This can be accomplished through an evolutionary acquisition strategy of capability upgrades in the near, mid and far-terms that leverage the Army's investments in unmanned ground sensors (UGS), unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and surveillance radar and imaging technology. This approach addresses the field's immediate tactical force protection requirements, while working towards full integration with the Future Combat System. Futuristic Tactical Force Protection will consist of a fully integrated system of systems architecture that will include UGVs, UGS and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are networked with the Future Force.

Stockel, Eugene; Moneyhun, Jon C.

2004-09-01

239

Column aerosol optical properties and aerosol radiative forcing during a serious haze-fog month over North China Plain in 2013 based on ground-based sunphotometer measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500 nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500 nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675 nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675 nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while ~0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 ?m larger than during non-pollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 ?m less than that during non-pollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 ?m3, 0.03-0.23 ?m3, and 0.03-0.10 ?m3, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50 W m-2, -180 W m-2, and -200 W m-2 at rural, suburban, and urban sites, respectively. The ARF readings at the top of the atmosphere were approximately -30 W m-2 in rural and -40-60 W m-2 in urban areas. Positive ARF at the top of the atmosphere at the Huimin suburban site was found to be different from others as a result of the high surface albedo due to snow cover.

Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agulló, E.; Blarel, L.; Wang, H.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Sun, J.; Tao, R.; Zhang, X.; Shi, G.

2014-02-01

240

Ground-Level Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground level or "bad" ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile ... the major sources of NOx and VOC. Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems, particularly ...

241

Comparison of natural and artificial forcing to study the dynamic behaviour of bell towers in low wind context by means of ground-based radar interferometry: the case of the Leaning Tower in Pisa  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of Cultural Heritage assets needs the application of non-destructive and non-invasive monitoring techniques. In particular, monuments and historical buildings which are open to the visitors and/or subject to important stress must be studied for their dynamic response. In the last 10?years the new ground-based radar interferometry technology has been developed allowing to monitor displacements from a point of sight far from the studied targets. It virtually provides a continuous mapping of displacements of the observed structures up to 10?µm with a range resolution of 0.75?m. In this paper, the application of ground-based interferometry on one very important historical building, the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, is reported. The analysis of these kind of structures is important to catch their dynamic response to natural actions in general, and also to assess the effects due to pedestrian and users, and consequently to define functional capabilities and levels of acceptable dynamic stress. The studied structure was subject to artificial loading by synchronous movement of about 20 people. Artificial forcing led the structure to a resonance condition with the same frequency of the one due to the natural noise excitation, which was separately measured, and with an oscillation amplitude more than thirty times greater than the natural one (in conditions of weak wind). During the passive stages of the survey the recorded structural vibrations were very closed to the instrumental sensitivity, making difficult to distinguish vibration amplitudes amplifications of various segments at various heights. Through the spectral analysis of the acquired data it was possible to estimate the vibration frequencies of the first modal shapes of the structure along two orthogonal directions. The power spectra of the passive survey data have the same maximum frequency of the active but contain more noise at low frequency.

Marchisio, Mario; Piroddi, Luca; Ranieri, Gaetano; Calcina, Sergio V.; Farina, Paolo

2014-10-01

242

Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted to assess differences between three water-sampling methods - collecting samples from the well by pumping a packer-isolated zone using a submersible pump, by using a grab sampler, and by using a passive diffusion sampler. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloropropane were greatest for samples collected using the submersible pump in the packed-isolated interval, suggesting that the straddle packer yielded the least dilute sample.

Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

2008-01-01

243

Crystalline beam ground state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

244

Crystalline beam ground state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

245

Crystalline beam ground state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

246

Unloading Reaction during Sudden Ankle Inversion in Healthy Adults  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research study was to determine the dynamics of early human response from sudden ankle inversion (30° tilt). Changes in vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) following trapdoor release in a group of healthy subjects were compared to those from the similar experiments using a chair with two U shaped steel legs and matched weights of the human subjects. The experiments with the chair were further repeated with additional foam paddings at their bases to introduce visco-elas...

Jain, Tarang Kumar; Wauneka, Clayton; Liu, Wen

2013-01-01

247

Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime )  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Xu Wenwu [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-05-07

248

Coaxial Atomic Force Microscope Tweezers  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force vs. applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers (CAT) can perform three dimensional assembly by picking u...

Brown, Keith Andrew; Aguilar, J. A.; Westervelt, Robert M.

2010-01-01

249

Exact integral constraint requiring only the ground-state electron density as input on the exchange-correlation force - partial differential(V)(xc)(r)/partial differential(r) for spherical atoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following some studies of integral(n)(r)inverted DeltaV(r)dr by earlier workers for the density functional theory (DFT) one-body potential V(r) generating the exact ground-state density, we consider here the special case of spherical atoms. The starting point is the differential virial theorem, which is used, as well as the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg [Phys. Rev. A 18, 2399 (1978)] identity to show that the scalar quantity paralleling the above vector integral, namely, integral(n)(r) partial differential(V)(r)/partial differential(r)dr, is determined solely by the electron density n(0) at the nucleus for the s-like atoms He and Be. The force - partial differential(V)/ partial differential(r) is then related to the derivative of the exchange-correlation potential V(xc)(r) by terms involving only the external potential in addition to n(r). The resulting integral constraint should allow some test of the quality of currently used forms of V(xc)(r). The article concludes with results from the differential virial theorem and the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity for the exact many-electron theory of spherical atoms, as well as for the DFT for atoms such as Ne with a closed p shell. PMID:19026052

March, N H; Nagy, A

2008-11-21

250

Rapid and sensitive method for detection of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef using the polymerase chain reaction.  

OpenAIRE

A rapid and sensitive method for detection of Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli (SLT-EC) with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers homologous to SLTI and SLTII genes, respectively, were used in multiplex PCR assays. The first pair generated a ca. 600-bp PCR product with DNA from all SLTI-producing E. coli tested but not from E. coli strains that produce SLTII or variants of SLTII. The second pair generated a ca. 800-bp PCR prod...

Gannon, V. P.; King, R. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Thomas, E. J.

1992-01-01

251

Guided-Ion-Beam and ab Initio Study of the Li+, K+, and Rb+ Association Reactions with Gas-Phase Butanone and Cyclohexanone in Their Ground Electronic States  

Science.gov (United States)

The association reactions between Li+, K+, and Rb+ (M) and butanone and cyclohexanone molecules under single collision conditions have been studied using a radiofrequency-guided ion-beam apparatus, characterizing the adducts by mass spectrometry. The excitation function for the [M-(molecule)]+ adducts (in arbitrary units) has been obtained at low collision energies in the 0.10 eV up to a few eV range in the center of mass frame. The measured relative cross sections decrease when collision energy increases, showing the expected energy dependence for adduct formation. The energetics and structure of the different adducts have been calculated ab initio at the MP2(full) level, showing that the M+-molecule interaction takes place through the carbonyl oxygen atom, as an example of a nontypical covalent chemical bond. The cross-section energy dependence and the role of radiative cooling rates allowing the stabilization of the collision complexes are also discussed.

Lucas, J. M.; de Andrés, J.; López, E.; Albertí, M.; Bofill, J. M.; Bassi, D.; Ascenzi, D.; Tosi, P.; Aguilar, A.

2009-08-01

252

Crossed molecular beam study on the ground state reaction of atomic boron [B((2)P(j))] with hydrogen cyanide [HCN(X(1)sigma(+))].  

Science.gov (United States)

The linear boronisocyanide species, [BNC(X(1)Sigma(+))], represents the simplest triatomic molecule with three distinct, neighboring main group atoms of the second row of the periodic table of the elements: boron, carbon, and nitrogen. This makes boronisocyanide a crucial benchmark system to understand the chemical bonding and the electronic structure of small molecules, in particular when compared to the isoelectronic tricarbon molecule, [CCC(X(1)Sigma(g)(+))]. However, a clean, directed synthesis of boronisocyanide-a crucial prerequisite to study the properties of this molecule-has remained elusive so far. Here, we combine crossed molecular beam experiments of ground state boron atoms ((2)P(j)) with hydrogen cyanide with electronic structure calculations and reveal that the boronisocyanide molecule, [BNC(X(1)Sigma(+))], is formed as the exclusive product under gas phase single collision conditions. We also show that higher energy isomers such as the hitherto unnoticed, ring-strained cyclic BNC(X(3)A') structure, which is isoelectronic to the triplet, cyclic tricarbon molecule, [C(3)(X(3)A(2)')], do exist as local minima. Our studies present the first directed synthesis and observation of gas phase boronisocyanide providing a doorway for further fundamental studies on one of the simplest triatomic molecules composed solely of group III-V elements. PMID:20681533

Jones, Brant; Matsyutenko, Pavlo; Su, Nung C; Chang, Agnes H H; Kaiser, Ralf I

2010-09-01

253

An experimental guided-ion-beam and ab initio study of the ion-molecule gas-phase reactions between Li+ ions and iso-C3H7Cl in their ground electronic state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive collisions between Li+ ions and i-C3H7Cl molecules have been studied in the 0.20-12.00 eV center-of-mass energy range using an octopole radio frequency guided-ion beam apparatus recently developed in our laboratory. At low collision energies, dehydrohalogenation reactions giving rise to Li(C3H6)+ and Li(HCl)+ are the main reaction channels, while at higher ones C3H7+ and C2H3+ become dominant, all their reactive cross sections having been measured as a function of the collision energy. To obtain information about the potential energy surfaces (PESs) on which the reactive processes take place, ab initio calculations at the MP2 level have been performed. For dehydrohalogenations, the reactive ground singlet PES shows ion-molecule adduct formation in both the reactant and product sides of the surface. Following the minimum energy path connecting both minima, an unstable intermediate and the corresponding barriers, both lying below the reactant's energy, have been characterized. The entrance channel ion-molecule adduct is also involved in the formation of C3H7+, which then generates C2H3+ via an CH4 unimolecular elimination. A qualitative interpretation of the experimental results based on ab initio calculations is also included.ations is also included.

254

Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related hay. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

255

Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

Bogen, K T

2001-05-24

256

Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

Bogen, K.T.

1999-09-29

257

Deuteration effect on the NH/ND stretch band of the jet-cooled 7-azaindole and its tautomeric dimers: Relation between the vibrational relaxation and the ground-state double proton-transfer reaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Deuteration effect on IR spectra of 7-azaindole tautomeric dimers is investigated. • The NH/ND stretch levels are found to relax basically within the monomer unit. • Only the NH stretch of the tautomeric dimer exhibits a drastic deuteration effect. • The deuteration effect is related to the double proton-transfer reaction. - Abstract: Infrared spectra of NH and ND stretch bands of the 7-azaindole (7-AI) dimer and its tautomeric dimer are observed to investigate a deuteration effect on the spectra and also a ground-state double proton-transfer (DPT) reaction. We examined the three isotopic species for each dimers; undeuterated one (NH–NH) and one or two hydrogen atom(s) of the NH groups is deuterated ones (NH–ND and ND–ND, respectively). It is found that the ND stretch band profiles of the NH–ND and ND–ND tautomeric dimers are very similar with each other. This result is very distinct from the result of the comparison of the NH stretch band profiles of the NH–NH and NH–ND dimers in our previous paper. For a further discussion, we examined the deuteration effect in the case of the 7-AI dimer. It is found that band profiles of the NH stretch of the NH–NH and the NH–ND dimers and also the ND stretch of the NH–ND and the ND–ND dimers exhibit similar patterns, respectively. These facts indicates that the vibrational relaxation from the NH/ND stretch level of the dimer basically proceed within a monomer unit. The large deuteration effect of the NH stretch band profile observed previously is found to be characteristic of the tautomeric dimer. This behavior is related to a large anharmonicity of the potential energy surface originating from an existence of the double-proton transfer reaction barrier.

Ishikawa, Haruki, E-mail: harukisc@kitasato-u.ac.jp; Nakano, Takumi; Takashima, Tsukiko; Yabuguchi, Hiroki; Fuke, Kiyokazu, E-mail: Fuke@kobe-u.ac.jp

2013-06-20

258

Detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 in ground beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups, which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, are responsible for the majority of non-O157 STEC infections in the United States, representing a growing public health concern. Cattle and other ruminants are reservoirs for these pathogens; thus, food of bovine origin may be a vehicle for infection with non-O157 STEC. Methods for detection of these pathogens in animal reservoirs and in food are needed to determine their prevalence and to develop intervention strategies. This study describes a method for detection of non-O157 STEC in ground beef, consisting of enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth at 42°C, followed by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting stx(1), stx(2), and genes in the O-antigen gene clusters of the six serogroups, [corrected] and then immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by plating onto Rainbow® Agar O157 and PCR assays for confirmation of isolates. All ground beef samples artificially inoculated with 1-2 and 10-20 CFU/25?g of ground beef consistently gave positive results for all of the target genes, including the internal amplification control using the multiplex real-time PCR assays after enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth for a total of 24?h (6?h at 37°C and 18?h at 42°C). The detection limit of the real-time multiplex PCR assays was ?50 CFU per PCR. IMS for O26, O103, O111, and O145 was performed with commercially available magnetic beads, and the IMS beads for O45 and O121 were prepared using polyclonal antiserum against these serogroups. A large percentage of the presumptive colonies of each serogroup picked from Rainbow Agar O157 were confirmed as the respective serogroups; however, the percent recovery of STEC O111 was somewhat lower than that of the other serogroups. This work provides a method for detection and isolation in ground beef and potentially other foods of non-O157 STEC of major public health concern. PMID:21214490

Fratamico, Pina M; Bagi, Lori K; Cray, William C; Narang, Neelam; Yan, Xianghe; Medina, Marjorie; Liu, Yanhong

2011-05-01

259

Magnus force and Hellmann-Feynman force: path integral approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers the derivation of the Magnus force from a model system consisting of a single vortex imbedded in a uniform positive background coupled with a mutual interaction charged boson. By eliminating the charged boson degree of freedom, the effective action of a single vortex is obtained and can be used to derive the Hellmann-Feynman force. From the ground state contribution a Magnus force is obtained. (author)

260

Estimation of tensile force in the hamstring muscles during overground sprinting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify the period of the gait cycle during which the hamstring muscles were likely injured by estimating the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle during overground sprinting. We conducted three-dimensional motion analysis of 12 male athletes performing overground sprinting at their maximal speed and calculated the hamstring muscle-tendon length and joint angles of the right limb throughout a gait cycle during which the ground reaction force was measured. Electromyographic activity during sprinting was recorded for the biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles of ipsilateral limb. We estimated the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle by using the length change occurred in the musculotendon and normalized electromyographic activity value. The study found a quick increase of estimated tensile force in the biceps femoris long head during the early stance phase of the gait cycle during which the increased hip flexion angle and ground reaction force occurred at the same time. This study provides quantitative data of tensile force in the hamstring muscles suggesting that the biceps femoris long head muscle is susceptible to a strain injury during the early stance phase of the sprinting gait cycle. PMID:25254895

Ono, T; Higashihara, A; Shinohara, J; Hirose, N; Fukubayashi, T

2015-02-01

261

Accurate Hellman-Feynman force method for the study of the first and second derivatives of potential energy hypersurface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors review the method of calculating a reliable H-F-force, starting from the underlying theorem, and examine the accuracy of calculated H-F force. The authors then show some recent applications of the method to geometry optimizations of the molecules in ground and excited states and of the transition state of a chemical reaction. Further, when the H-F theorum is used, an analytic expression of the second derivative becomes much simpler than a straightforward second derivative of the energy. The authors report calculations of force constants by this method and explain the electronic origins of the second derivatives

262

A hub dynamometer for measurement of wheel forces in off-road bicycling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamometric hubset that measures the two ground contact force components acting on a bicycle wheel in the plane of the bicycle during off-road riding while either coasting or braking was designed, constructed, and evaluated. To maintain compatibility with standard mountain bike construction, the hubs use commercially available shells with modified, strain gage-equipped axles. The axle strain gages are sensitive to forces acting in the radial and tangential directions, while minimizing sensitivity to transverse forces, steering moments, and variations in the lateral location of the center of pressure. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check that computed differences between applied and apparent loads developed during coasting revealed root mean squared errors of 1 percent full-scale or less (full-scale load = 4500 N). The natural frequency of the rear hub with the wheel attached exceeded 350 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer useful for its intended purpose during coasting. To demonstrate this usefulness, sample ground contact forces are presented for a subject who coasted downhill over rough terrain. The dynamometric hubset can also be used to determine ground contact forces during braking providing that the brake reaction force components are known. However, compliance of the fork can lead to high cross-sensitivity and corresponding large (> 5 percent FS) measurement errors at the front wheel. PMID:10080099

De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

1999-02-01

263

Precision measurements of the pp\\to \\pi^+pn and pp\\to \\pi^+d reactions: importance of long-range and tensor force effects  

CERN Document Server

Inclusive measurements of pion production in proton--proton collisions in the forward direction were undertaken at 400 and 600 MeV at COSY using the Big Karl spectrograph. The high resolution in the $\\pi^+$ momentum ensured that there was an unambiguous separation of the $pp\\to {\\pi}^+d/\\pi^+pn$ channels. Using these and earlier data, the ratio of the production cross sections could be followed through the $\\Delta$ region and compared with the predictions of final state interaction theory. Deviations are strongly influenced by long-range terms in the production operator and the tensor force in the final $pn$ system. These have been investigated in a realistic $pp\\to\\pi^+d/\\pi^+pn$ calculation that includes $S \\rightleftharpoons D$ channel coupling between the final nucleons. A semi-quantitative understanding of the observed effects is achieved.

Budzanowski, A; Hawranek, P; Jahn, R; Jha, V; Kilian, K; Kirillov, Da; Kirillov, Di; Kliczewski, S; Kolev, D; Kravcikova, M; Lesiak, M; Lieb, J; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Martinská, G; Nedev, S; Niskanen, J A; Piskunov, N; Protic, D; Ritman, 6 J; Von Rossen, P; Roy, B J; Sitnik, I; Siudak, R; Stein, H J; Tsenov, R; Urbán, J; Vankova, 2 G; Wilkin, C

2009-01-01

264

Precision measurements of the pp??+pn and pp??+d reactions: Importance of long-range and tensor force effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inclusive measurements of pion production in proton-proton collisions in the forward direction were undertaken at 400 and 600 MeV at the cooler synchrotron (COSY) at Forschungszentrum Julich using the Big Karl spectrograph. The high resolution in the ?+ momentum ensured that there was an unambiguous separation of the pp??+d/?+pn channels. Using these and earlier data, the ratio of the production cross sections could be followed through the ? region and compared with the predictions of final state interaction theory. Deviations are strongly influenced by long-range terms in the production operator and the tensor force in the final pn system. These have been investigated in a realistic pp??+d/?+pn calculation that includes SD channel coupling between the final nucleons. A semiquantitative understanding of the observed effects is achieved.

265

Finding Ground  

OpenAIRE

My thesis called: ”Finding Ground” is an examination of my own artistic expression. Inspi-rations are memories of Finland and inner landscapes. A focus of my examinations lays in the historical background and the ground of my choices for material, technique and col-ours. The practical outcomes are woven objects of paper yarn und paintings in oil on can-vas. Both are speaking a different visual and sensual language, but talking about the same topic, the one of an end of searching and getti...

Rosenstock, Dorothea

2013-01-01

266

Some applications of the virial theorem to molecular force fields: the zero virial reaction coordinate and diatomic potentials from the normalized kinetic field functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a fixed-angle potential energy surface (PES), W(Q), following the zero virial path (ZVP), on which ?/sub ?//sup N/Q/sub ?/ . del /sub ?/W(Q) = 0, provides an efficient way for locating the transition state and generating a good approximation to the minimum-energy reaction path; vector Q = (Q1, ..., Q/sub N/ stands for nuclear coordinates. An algorithm which employs the ZVP following is proposed for exploring PESs when starting from the reactant (or product) region. It seems that this approach allows one to avoid some discontinuities in the reaction coordinate, which often result from the bottom-following procedures. The implications of the integral forms of the virial theorem are examined and a new way of constructing potential energy functions W(R) for diatomic molecules is proposed. It starts with the normalization of the kinetic component T(R) of the potential: integral0/sup infinity/[T(R) - T(infinity)]dR = Z/sub A/Z/sub B/, where Z/sub A/ and Z/sub B/ are the nuclear charges and R is the internuclear distance. The modified potentials are derived for four different analytical representations of T(R), T/sub X(R)(X = M, R, RM, and HH) by the Morse, Rydberg, Rosen--Morse, and Hulbert--Hirschfelder functions, respectively. The three-parameter modified potentials (X = M, R, and RM) are tested against known spectroscopic data for H2+ and H2.The modified potentials require one less experimental constant to fie one less experimental constant to fit the potential parameters than do their original analogs. It follows that the Morse and Rydberg functions constitute satisfactory representations of the kinetic component T(R), and that enforcing its normalization improves predictions of spectroscopic constants and relations between them. 46 references

267

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y

2012-10-01

268

Ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

269

Influence of the instrumented force shoe on gait pattern in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is associated with alterations in gait. As an alternative to force plates, instrumented force shoes (IFSs) can be used to measure ground reaction forces. This study evaluated the influence of IFS on gait pattern in patients with knee OA. Twenty patients with knee OA walked in a gait laboratory on IFS and control shoes (CSs). An optoelectronic system and force plate were used to perform 3D gait analyses. A comparison of temporal-spatial gait parameters, kinematics, and kinetics was made between IFS and CS. Patients wearing IFS showed a decrease in walking velocity and cadence (8%), unchanged stride length, an increase in stance time (13%), stride time (11%) and step width (14%). No differences were found in knee adduction moment or knee kinematics. Small differences were found in foot and ankle kinematics (2-5°), knee transverse moments (5%), ankle frontal (3%) and sagittal moments (1%) and ground reaction force (1-6%). The gait of patients with knee OA was only mildly influenced by the IFS, due to increased shoe height and weight and a change in sole stiffness. The changes were small compared to normal variation and clinically relevant differences. Importantly, in OA patients no effect was found on the knee adduction moment. PMID:21866409

van den Noort, Josien; van der Esch, Martin; Steultjens, Martijn P; Dekker, Joost; Schepers, Martin; Veltink, Peter H; Harlaar, Jaap

2011-12-01

270

Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkheads and transverse frames, floors and bulkheads. The expressions are derived by use of an energy method or a type of 'upper bound' method which rigorously takes into account the effects of large plastic deformations, friction and fracture. A high level of generality for the methodology has been obtained by postulating a global mode of deformation for the structure around the rock with one free parameter, the plate split angle, related to the shape of thedeformation mode. It is assumed that intersections between structural components stay intact during the entire deformation process so the resistance of the individual structural members are derived according to the global deformation mode. The resistance of the entire structure is found by minimizing the energy disspiation from all the deformed members with respect to the plate split angle. In a subsequent paper it is shown that the theoreticl model predicts the damage of four large scale tests and an accidental grounding with errors less than 10%. Moreover, it is illustrated by an example that the model evaluation of a grounding scenario is sufficientlty fast to be used in a probabilistic framework in a Formal safety Assessment.

Simonsen, Bo Cerup

1997-01-01

271

Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be ?-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). PMID:22839691

Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

2012-08-21

272

Labor Force  

Science.gov (United States)

The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

273

Dispersion Forces  

CERN Document Server

In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

2012-01-01

274

Absolute rate data for reactions of ground-state atomic calcium, Ca(4s21S0), at elevated temperatures determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on reactions of ground-state atomic calcium, Ca(4s21S0), with a large number of collision partners investigated by direct spectroscopic measurement using atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy in the time-domain. Ca(41S0) was generated by the pulsed irradiation of CaI2 vapor at elevated temperatures and monitored photoelectrically in the single-shot mode using the resonance transition at ? = 422.7 nm Ca(41P1) left-arrow Ca(41S0). Decay profiles in the presence of the gases CH3Cl, C2H5Cl, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2, CH3F, CF3H, CR4, SF6, HCl, HBr, N2O with excess helium buffer gas were captured in a transient recorder and transferred either directly to a microcomputer or mainly to an XY-recorder for subsequent kinetic analysis. The development of the present method was principally feasible because of the construction here of an extremely intense, high-current hollow cathode atomic resonance source for the calcium transition employed in the investigation. Although the kinetic measurements for the removal of Ca(41S0) with H2O showed consistent plots, these yielded a value of kR(T = 911 K) = (3.4 ± 0.2) x 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which is visup>-1 s-1, which is viewed with caution as it implies a bond dissociation energy of D(Ca-OH) of a magnitude at the extreme limits of the largest value reported from various analyses on calcium in premixed H2-O2-N2 flames

275

Multiparticle transfer and frictional forces in heavy ion collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the frictional forces in a low-energy heavy ion collision by solving the independent particle transfer between two potentials moving on prescribed trajectories. We conclude that, although one may extract both a tangential and a radial frictional force for the initial stage of the collision, they will be different in the final stage of the reaction and they depend on the shell structure. The strong coherence of the transfer process shows up in the probability of remaining in the initial ground state, which is strongly enhanced over the result obtained from incoherent transfer. This indicates that a measurement of the absorption in the entrance channel is a sensitive measure of the effect of two-body collisions and other relaxation mechanisms. (orig.)

276

Earth Force  

Science.gov (United States)

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

277

Effect of increased pushoff during gait on hip joint forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior acetabular labral tears and anterior hip pain may result from high anteriorly directed forces from the femur on the acetabulum. While providing more pushoff is known to decrease sagittal plane hip moments, it is unknown if this gait modification also decreases hip joint forces. The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing pushoff decreases hip joint forces. Nine healthy subjects walked on an instrumented force treadmill at 1.25 m/s under two walking conditions. For the natural condition, subjects were instructed to walk as they normally would. For the increased pushoff condition, subjects were instructed to "push more with your foot when you walk". We collected motion data of markers placed on the subjects' trunk and lower extremities to capture trunk and leg kinematics and ground reaction force data to determine joint moments. Data were processed in Visual3D to produce the inverse kinematics and model scaling files. In OpenSim, the generic gait model (Gait2392) was scaled to the subject, and hip joint forces were calculated for the femur on the acetabulum after computing the muscle activations necessary to reproduce the experimental data. The instruction to "push more with your foot when you walk" reduced the maximum hip flexion and extension moment compared to the natural condition. The average reduction in the hip joint forces were 12.5%, 3.2% and 9.6% in the anterior, superior and medial directions respectively and 2.3% for the net resultant force. Increasing pushoff may be an effective gait modification for people with anterior hip pain. PMID:25468661

Lewis, Cara L; Garibay, Erin J

2015-01-01

278

Modelo 3D para quantificação das forças articulares e momentos proximais resultantes para o membro superior / 3D model for analysis of resultant proximal reaction forces and moments for the upper limb  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo implementar um modelo biomecânico, de segmentos articulados, associado à dinâmica inversa que permita a análise em três dimensões das forças de reação proximais e momentos proximais resultantes para diferentes gestos do membro superior. Método: Os gestos ava [...] liados foram: flexão, extensão e abdução de ombro e flexão de cotovelo, os quais foram realizados por um indivíduo do sexo masculino. O modelo implementado é composto por cinco segmentos rígidos (mão, antebraço, braço, escápula e tronco) conectados. As equações de movimento de Newton-Euler foram utilizadas para quantificação das forças e momentos proximais resultantes. Para registro cinemático foram utilizadas cinco câmeras digitais, com freqüência de amostragem de 50 campos/seg. A precisão estimada do sistema de videogrametria foi, em média, de 1,7 mm. Foi monitorada a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos deltóide (anterior, médio e posterior), bíceps braquial, tríceps braquial e peitoral maior. O modelo foi avaliado através da comparação qualitativa dos resultados de momento proximal resultante, com a atividade eletromiográfica. Resultados: Os resultados sugerem que o modelo apresenta resultados coerentes. O sinal eletromiográfico e o momento proximal apresentam sincronismo temporal. Conclusão: O modelo foi capaz de estimar as forças de reacção e momentos proximais resultantes nos diferentes gestos. Abstract in english Objectives: The aim of this study was to implement a biomechanical model, with linked segments associated with inverse dynamics, to analyze proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities. Methods: one male subject performed flexion, extension and abduction of the shoulder a [...] nd flexion of the elbow. The model is composed of five connected rigid segments (hand, forearm, arm, scapula and trunk). The Newton-Euler motion equations were used to quantify proximal net reaction forces and moments. For kinematics recording, five cameras with a frequency sample of 50 fps were used. Videogrammetry accuracy was, on average, 1,7mm. The following muscles had their activities monitored: deltoid (anterior, medial, posterior), biceps brachialis, triceps brachialis, pectoralis major. The model was evaluated by qualitative comparison of proximal net moments with electromyographic signal of agonist muscles. Results: The results showed a temporal synchronism between the proximal net moments and agonist EMG activity. Conclusions: The model was able to estimate proximal net forces and moments during different upper limbs’ activities.

Daniel Cury, Ribeiro; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss.

279

Influence of external force on properties and reactivity of disulfide bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanochemistry of the disulfide bridge--that is, the influence of an externally applied force on the reactivity of the sulfur-sulfur bond--is investigated by unrestricted Kohn-Sham theory. Specifically, we apply the COGEF (constrained geometry simulates external force) approach to characterize the mechanochemistry of the disulfide bond in three different chemical environments: dimethyl disulfide, cystine, and a 102-atom model of the I27 domain in the titin protein. Furthermore, the mechanism of the thiol-disulfide reduction reaction under the effect of an external force is investigated by considering the COGEF potential for the adduct and transition-state clusters. With the unrestricted Becke-three-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (UB3LYP) exchange-correlation functional in the 6-311++G(3df,3pd) orbital basis, the rupture force of dimethyl disulfide is 3.8 nN at a disulfide bond elongation of 35 pm. The interaction with neighboring groups and the effect of conformational rigidity of the protein environment have little influence on the mechanochemical characteristics. Upon stretching, we make the following observations: the diradical character of the disulfide bridge increases; the energy difference between the singlet ground state and low-lying triplet state decreases; and the disulfide reduction is promoted by an external force in the range 0.1-0.4 nN. Our model of the interplay between force and reaction mechanism is in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:21366304

Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Helgaker, Trygve; Uggerud, Einar

2011-03-24

280

Mobile Forces  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of engineering principles is explored in the creation of mobiles. As students create their own mobiles, they take into consideration the forces of gravity and convection air currents. They learn how an understanding of balancing forces is important in both art and engineering design.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

281

Labor Force  

Science.gov (United States)

The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

282

Buoyant Force  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a lab where students gather data on buoyant force and height of and object being submerged in two different types of fluids. The slope of the buoyant force and height is proportional to the density of the fluid. Students compare the densities of the fluids calculated with the actual densities.

Renae Garski, Bigfork High School, Bigfork, MN, based on an original activity from Science Workshop, p. 115

283

The amazing normal forces  

CERN Document Server

This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) That real objects are deformable even when deformations are not easily visible, and (ii) that the relation between friction and normal forces follows from the action-reaction principle. The traditional formulae under static and kinetic conditions are then analyzed to show that peculiarity of the normal-friction relationship follows readily from observations and knowledge of physics principles.

Petrache, Horia I

2012-01-01

284

Flexible propulsors in ground effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming 'in ground effect', that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. PMID:24667542

Quinn, Daniel B; Lauder, George V; Smits, Alexander J

2014-09-01

285

Level locomotion in wood ants: evidence for grounded running.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to better understand the strategies of locomotion in small insects, we have studied continuous level locomotion of the wood ant species Formica polyctena. We determined the three-dimensional centre of mass kinematics during the gait cycle and recorded the ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping frequency. The centre of mass energetics indicated a bouncing gait, in which horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy fluctuated in close phase. We determined a high degree of compliance especially in the front legs, as the effective leg length was nearly halved during the contact phase. This leads to only small vertical oscillations of the body, which are important in maintaining ground contact. Bouncing gaits without aerial phases seem to be a common strategy in small runners and can be sufficiently described by the bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model. Thus, with our results, we provide evidence that wood ants perform 'grounded running'. PMID:24744414

Reinhardt, Lars; Blickhan, Reinhard

2014-07-01

286

Force,” ontology, and language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

David T. Brookes

2009-06-01

287

Take-off and landing forces in jumping frogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anurans use a saltatorial (jumping) mode of locomotion. A jumping cycle can be divided into four subphases: propulsion, flight, landing and recovery. We studied the landing phase during locomotion in Rana esculenta by measuring the ground reaction forces during propulsion and landing over a range of distances. Landing performance affects locomotor ability in jumping frogs. Landing and recovery together take up one third of the locomotor cycle. Peak landing forces are on average almost three times larger than propulsive forces. The forelimbs appear to be fully extended when they make contact with the substrate and absorb the first impact peak. The height of this peak varies depending on arm positioning and jumping distance. Since the stiffness of the arms stays constant over the full jumping range, it is possible that this is a limiting factor in the ability of the forelimbs to work as dampers. A spring-dashpot model is used to model the effect of arm angle at touch down. Damping during landing is performed by placing the forelimbs at an optimal angle to cancel frictional forces effectively. PMID:16354779

Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Aerts, Peter

2006-01-01

288

Aberrant Assembly Complexes of the Reaction Center Light-harvesting 1 PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) Core Complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy*  

Science.gov (United States)

In the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, many protein complexes congregate within the membrane to form operational photosynthetic units consisting of arrays of light-harvesting LH2 complexes and monomeric and dimeric reaction center (RC)-light-harvesting 1 (LH1)-PufX “core” complexes. Each half of a dimer complex consists of a RC surrounded by 14 LH1 ?? subunits, with two bacteriochlorophylls (Bchls) sandwiched between each ?? pair of transmembrane helices. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the assembly of single molecules of the RC-LH1-PufX complex using membranes prepared from LH2-minus mutants. When the RC and PufX components were also absent, AFM revealed a series of LH1 variants where the repeating ?1?1(Bchl)2 units had formed rings of variable size, ellipses, and spirals and also arcs that could be assembly products. The spiral complexes occur when the LH1 ring has failed to close, and short arcs are suggestive of prematurely terminated LH1 complex assembly. In the absence of RCs, we occasionally observed captive proteins enclosed by the LH1 ring. When production of LH1 units was restricted by lowering the relative levels of the cognate pufBA transcript, we imaged a mixture of complete RC-LH1 core complexes, empty LH1 rings, and isolated RCs, leading us to conclude that once a RC associates with the first ?1?1(Bchl)2 subunit, cooperative associations between subsequent subunits and the RC tend to drive LH1 ring assembly to completion. PMID:25193660

Olsen, John D.; Adams, Peter G.; Jackson, Philip J.; Dickman, Mark J.; Qian, Pu; Hunter, C. Neil

2014-01-01

289

Frictional forces and ankle fractures in sport.  

OpenAIRE

The frictional forces between the sports footwear and the ground can induce distorsion trauma to the lower extremity. Two cases are reported in which fractures about the ankle are related to this friction. An adjustment and reduction of the frictional forces are recommendable.

Menck, H.; Jørgensen, U.

1983-01-01

290

Force of an Actin Spring  

OpenAIRE

Cellular movements are produced by forces. Typically, cytoskeletal proteins such as microtubules and actin filaments generate forces via polymerization or in conjunction with molecular motors. However, the fertilization of a Limulus polyphemus egg involves a third type of actin-based cellular engine—a biological spring. During the acrosome reaction, a 60-?m long coiled and twisted bundle of actin filaments straightens and extends from a sperm cell, penetrating the vitelline layer surroundi...

Shin, Jennifer H.; Tam, Barney K.; Brau, Ricardo R.; Lang, Matthew J.; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

2007-01-01

291

Design Optimization of Ground Clearance of Domestic Cars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drag and lift forces plays a vital role in the performance and stability of vehicles. Less drag means less fuel consumption and hence less vehicular pollution. Also, lower lift force means higher chance of adhesion of the car body with the ground causing less overturning of the vehicle, which improves the vehicle performance. Both drag and lift forces can be manipulated by varying the ground clearance of the cars. The present study concentrates on studying the effect of ground clearance on these aerodynamic forces experimentally. Wind tunnel studies with a notch-back car model revealed increase in drag and decrease in lift with increase in ground clearance. Therefore, optimization is required for designing the best ground clearance and a preferable value of the same is thus obtained.

Debojyoti Mitra

2010-07-01

292

On Grounding of Fast Ships  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact withthe ground, the paper presents experimental results from crushing tests of aluminium hull girder components with realistic full-scale scantlings. A comparison with existing simplified calculation procedures for ductile metallic structures show that these procedures cannot be used to predict the crushing behaviour of the fore body of high speed ships.

Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1997-01-01

293

Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Tanks Subjected to Six Correlated Ground Motion Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, rotational components of ground motion acceleration were defined according toimproved method from the corresponding available translational components based on transversely isotropicelastic wave propagation in the soil. With such improvement, it becomes possible to consider frequencydependent wave velocities on rotational components of ground motion. For this purpose, three translationalcomponents of El Centro earthquake (24 January 1951 were adopted to generate their relative rotationalcomponents based on SV and SH wave incidence by Fast Fourier transform with 4096 discrete frequencies.The translational and computed rotational motions were then applied to the concrete elevated water storagetanks with different structural characteristics and water elevations. The finite element method is used for thenonlinear analysis of water storage tanks considering the fluid-structure interaction using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach and the concrete material nonlinearities have been taken into account through William-Warnke model. The nonlinear response of these structures considering the six components of ground motionshowed that the rotational components of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum displacementand reaction force of the structure. These variations are depending on the frequency of structure andpredominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.

L. Kalani Sarokolayi

2013-01-01

294

Measurement of 241Am Ground State Radiative Neutron Capture Cross Section with Cold Neutron Beam. Progress Report on Research Contract HUN14318 for the CRP on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ground state cross section of 242Am has been measured with beams of cold neutrons at the Budapest Research Reactor using the X-ray emission of the decay product of 242Pu. This methodology avoids the uncertainty caused by resonance neutrons in the pile activations. The target was characterized with gamma and X-ray spectrometry. The obtained ground state cross section is 540 ± 32 b, which is at the low end of the most recent literature values, but agrees with most of them within their uncertainty. (author)

295

Forces Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of online simulations shows the forces that may be at work on geologic structures or on man-made structures during an earthquake. Users can see examples of compression, tension, bending, and torsion. Each simulation also features a link to a photo of a real-life example.

296

Allergic Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic Reactions: Tips to Remember Allergies often bring to mind sneezing, runny nose or watery eyes. While these ... symptoms of some types of allergic disease, an allergic reaction is actually a result of a chain reaction ...

297

Reaction Automata  

CERN Document Server

Reaction systems are a formal model that has been introduced to investigate the interactive behaviors of biochemical reactions. Based on the formal framework of reaction systems, we propose new computing models called reaction automata that feature (string) language acceptors with multiset manipulation as a computing mechanism, and show that reaction automata are computationally Turing universal. Further, some subclasses of reaction automata with space complexity are investigated and their language classes are compared to the ones in the Chomsky hierarchy.

Okubo, Fumiya; Yokomori, Takashi

2011-01-01

298

Friction Force  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use LEGO® MINDSTORMS® robotics to help conceptualize and understand the force of friction. Specifically, they observe how different surfaces in contact result in different frictional forces. A LEGO robot is constructed to pull a two-wheeled trailer made of LEGO parts. The robot is programmed to pull the trailer 10 feet and trial runs are conducted on smooth and textured surfaces. The speed and motor power of the robot is kept constant in all trials so students observe the effect of friction between various combinations of surfaces and trailer wheels. To apply what they learn, students act as engineers and create the most effective car by designing the most optimal tires for given surface conditions.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

299

TARDEC's Intelligent Ground Systems overview  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the Intelligent Ground Systems (IGS) Area at the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is to conduct technology maturation and integration to increase Soldier robot control/interface intuitiveness and robotic ground system robustness, functionality and overall system effectiveness for the Future Combat System Brigade Combat Team, Robotics Systems Joint Project Office and game changing capabilities to be fielded beyond the current force. This is accomplished through technology component development focused on increasing unmanned ground vehicle autonomy, optimizing crew interfaces and mission planners that capture commanders' intent, integrating payloads that provide 360 degree local situational awareness and expanding current UGV tactical behavior, learning and adaptation capabilities. The integration of these technology components into ground vehicle demonstrators permits engineering evaluation, User assessment and performance characterization in increasingly complex, dynamic and relevant environments to include high speed on road or cross country operations, all weather/visibility conditions and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). Focused testing and experimentation is directed at reducing PM risk areas (safe operations, autonomous maneuver, manned-unmanned collaboration) and transitioning technology in the form of hardware, software algorithms, test and performance data, as well as User feedback and lessons learned.

Jaster, Jeffrey F.

2009-05-01

300

XMM Future Operational Ground Segment  

Science.gov (United States)

XMM-Newton has been operating for 14 years which have been characterised by an extraordinary scientific return leading to it being considered as one of the most important scientific missions operated by ESA. XMM-Newton has outlived its original operating lifetime and this has led to a new array of technical challenges which new software and operating strategies have greatly mitigated and have enabled XMM-Newton to continue to perform optimally. XMM-Newton relies on reaction wheels and thrusters to manoeuvre consuming on -board fuel and limiting XMM-Newtons operating life. As a result a new operating concept for the reaction wheels has been devised and reduces the fuel consumption by approximately 50% potentially allowing XMM-Newton to operate until 2028. This extension leads to a new set of challenges; firstly, a change in the orbital inclination causes XMM-Newtons ground station Kourou to develop a gap in coverage around perigee for a period of 5 years from mid-2014 and secondly, XMM-Newtons second prime ground station, Perth, is to be decommissioned at the end of 2015 due to regulation governing civil spectrum usage. This paper illustrates how these issues are resoled from a ground segment perspective and when implemented will ensure XMM-Newtons continuance into the next decade.

Finn, T.; Kirsch, M.; Schmidt, F.; Pfeil, N.; Vasconcellos, A.; Martin, J.

2014-07-01

301

Grounding experiments on soft bottoms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up on selected beaches of the island with velocities ranging between 2m/s and 5.5 m/s. During the tests, surge, heave, and pitch accelerations were measured and also the deformations of the beach and ship bow. Based on these accelerations, rigid body velocities and motions were determined. The forces arising from the interaction between the bow of the vessel and the seabed were determined by solving the equations of motions. This article describes the analysis of the measured results and a comparison of the results form the full-scale measurements with results from recently developed analysis procedure for grounding on soft bottoms.

Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

302

The (3He,?) reaction mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-rays emitted after the 163Dy(3He,?xn) reactions at E(3He)=45 MeV have been measured. The transferred angular momentum in the reaction is deduced from the side-feeding ?-intensities of the ground bands in the residual 162-xDy isotopes. With decreasing ?-energy the average spin transfer increases from ?5? to ?11?. The (3He,?) reaction at these energies is dominated by direct processes. Even at the highest spin transfer the contribution from the compound reaction channel is negligible. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

303

Travelling-stripe forcing generates hexagonal patterns  

OpenAIRE

We study the response of Turing stripe patterns to a simple spatiotemporal forcing. This forcing has the form of a traveling wave and is spatially resonant with the characteristic Turing wavelength. Experiments conducted with the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction reveal a striking symmetry-breaking phenomenon of the intrinsic striped patterns giving rise to hexagonal lattices for intermediate values of the forcing velocity. The phenomenon is understood in the framew...

Mi?guez, D. G.; Nicola, E. M.; Mun?uzuri, A. P.; Casademunt I Viader, Jaume; Sague?s I Mestre, Francesc; Kramer, L.

2004-01-01

304

Magnificent Ground Water Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

305

The Spinning World of Spacecraft Reaction Wheels  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a activity about how reaction wheels affect spacecraft orientation (attitude). Learners will observe Newton's Third Law (action-reaction) in the changes caused by a reaction wheel acting upon a spacecraft suspended from a support wire and in the ensuing interfering forces from the wire support. The experiment includes an option for demonstration and for learner investigation. Notes about gyroscopes are included.

2012-08-03

306

HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is provides information on ground-water contamination control and prevention technology to decision makers, field managers, and the scientific community. his 212-page resource document brings together available technical information on ground water in a convenient f...

307

Private Ground Water Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive their ... frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it is absorbed ...

308

The ground based plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

309

PYCNONUCLEAR REACTIONS  

OpenAIRE

In dense stellar matter, the rate of fusion nuclear reactions is tremendously enhanced by many-body effects : the Coulomb electrostatic repulsion between two reacting nuclei is screened by surrounding medium. The rate of the nuclear reactions in dense matter (pyconuclear reactions) is an essential ingredient for understanding the evolution of dense stars. The calculation of the reaction rate enhancement factor has been done for the one-component plasma model. The enhancement factor can be exp...

Alastuey, A.; Jancovici, B.

1980-01-01

310

Casimir-Polder forces on moving atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polarizable atoms and molecules experience the Casimir-Polder force near magnetoelectric bodies, a force that is induced by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the matter. Atoms and molecules in relative motion to a magnetoelectric surface experience an additional velocity-dependent force. We present a full quantum-mechanical treatment of this force and identify a generalized Doppler effect, the time delay between photon emission and reabsorption, and the Roentgen interaction as its three sources. For ground-state atoms, the force is very small and always decelerating, hence commonly known as quantum friction. For atoms and molecules in electronically excited states, on the contrary, both decelerating and accelerating forces can occur depending on the magnitude of the atomic transition frequency relative to the surface-plasmon frequency.

311

Chemical Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-05-01

312

Enzyme Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This video shows an enzyme reaction lab. The teacher demonstrates how the enzyme, catalase, reacts with hydrogen peroxide (a substrate found in cells). The teacher first demonstrates a normal enzyme reaction. He or she then goes on to show how manipulating temperature and pH will affect the reaction of an enzyme.

Minerva Deland School

2011-10-03

313

TFTR grounding system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the rationale and concepts which led to the TFTR grounding system. Examples of induced voltages and voltage gradients expected during plasma disruption are presented. The methods of voltage gradient control and grounding connections are described. In addition to conventional grounding arrangements for equipment housings, fences, cable trays, special requirements for the vacuum vessel, TFTR coil cases, PF coil surfaces and umbrella-like support structures are described. Arrangements for diagnostic grounds which are designed to minimize interference from the facility ground also are described

314

14 CFR 27.501 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with skids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads...reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft...reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level...

2010-01-01

315

14 CFR 29.501 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with skids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads...reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft...reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level...

2010-01-01

316

Synthesizing Friction In A Force-Reflecting Hand Controller  

Science.gov (United States)

Algorithm synthesizes frictionlike limited reaction force in force-reflecting hand controller. Synthetic friction enhances operator's feel and improves control characteristics in two ways: handle of controller retains setting when operator releases it, and in case of multiple-axis controller, synthetic frictional force helps to hold control setting on one axis when handle pushed to command movement along another axis.

Kauffman, James

1993-01-01

317

Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji [J. Phys. (Paris) 43, 1617 (1982), 10.1051/jphys:0198200430110161700; J. Phys. (Paris) 45, 637 (1984), 10.1051/jphys:01984004504063700], which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment of atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then we use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the distinctive features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the distinctive behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low-temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework, and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei

2014-09-01

318

Performance and Stability of a Winged Vehicle in Ground Effect  

CERN Document Server

Present work deals with the dynamics of vehicles which intentionally operate in the ground proximity. The dynamics in ground effect is influenced by the vehicle orientation with respect to the ground, since the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, which in turn depend on height and angle of attack, also vary with the Euler angles. This feature, usually neglected in the applications, can be responsible for sizable variations of the aircraft performance and stability. A further effect, caused by the sink rate, determines unsteadiness that modifies the aerodynamic coefficients. In this work, an analytical formulation is proposed for the force and moment calculation in the presence of the ground and taking the aircraft attitude and sink rate into account. The aerodynamic coefficients are firstly calculated for a representative vehicle and its characteristics in ground effect are investigated. Performance and stability characteristics are then discussed with reference to significant equilibrium conditions, w...

de Divitiis, Nicola

2009-01-01

319

Nuclear reactions  

OpenAIRE

Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay o...

???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna; Velytchenko, A.

2009-01-01

320

Transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of transfer reactions to obtain spectroscopic information is briefly reviewed. Single nucleon transfer reaction sum rules are applied to the interacting Boson Fermion model. Aspects of two nucleon transfer reaction mechanisms are discussed, and new results on bound state wave function treated in detail. A new approach to the extended basis shell model shows relatively little configuration mixing and supports the conventional half binding energy recipe for radial wave functions

321

Electrical grounding prong socket  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

Leong, Robert (Dublin, CA)

1991-01-01

322

Ponderomotive forces in dielectric  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article disputes the validity of the usually accepted expression for the volume force in fluid dielectrics, as given in most textbooks. It proposes that this volume force ought to be derived from the expression of the force in a point dipole. It also shows that the alternative force expression in terms of polarization charge densities leads to correct results concerning the total force

323

Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. PMID:23831138

Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

2013-10-21

324

Significance of redistribution reactions defected by in situ atomic force microscopy during early stages of fast scan rate redox cycling experiments at a solid 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane-glassy carbon electrode-aqueous (electrolyte) interface  

OpenAIRE

The reduction of solid 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) at an electrode-TCNQ-aqueous (electrolyte) is complex, irrespective of whether the solid on the electrode surface is attached by direct adherence or formed by electrochemical deposition. In order to understand the origin of reaction pathways that accompany the [TCNQ]0/- process, fast scan rate (0.1 Vs-1) redox cycling and potential step experiments on TCNQ mechanically attached to a glassy carbon electrode placed in aqueous soluti...

Suarez, Mf; Bond, Am; Compton, Rg

1999-01-01

325

First observation of $^{13}$Li ground state  

OpenAIRE

The ground state of neutron-rich unbound $^{13}$Li was observed for the first time in a one-proton removal reaction from $^{14}$Be at a beam energy of 53.6 MeV/u. The $^{13}$Li ground state was reconstructed from $^{11}$Li and two neutrons giving a resonance energy of 120$^{+60}_{-80}$ keV. All events involving single and double neutron interactions in the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) were analyzed, simulated, and fitted self-consistently. The three-body ($^{11}$Li+$n+n$) co...

Kohley, Z.; Lunderberg, E.; Deyoung, P. A.; Volya, A.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Christian, G.; Cooper, N. L.; Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Hall, C.; Hinnefeld, J.; Luther, B.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.

2013-01-01

326

Perl Tools for Automating Satellite Ground Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The freeware scripting language Pert offers many opportunities for automating satellite ground systems for new satellites as well as older, in situ systems. This paper describes a toolkit that has evolved from of the experiences gained by using Pert to automate the ground system for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and for automating some of the elements in the Earth Observing System Data and Operations System (EDOS) ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). CGRO is an older ground system that was forced to automate because of fund cuts. Three 8 hour shifts were cut back to one 8 hour shift, 7 days per week. EDOS supports a new mission called Terra, launched December 1999 that requires distribution and tracking of mission-critical reports throughout the world. Both of these ground systems use Pert scripts to process data and display it on the Internet as well as scripts to coordinate many of the other systems that make these ground systems work as a coherent whole. Another task called Automated Multimodal Trend Analysis System (AMTAS) is looking at technology for isolation and recovery of spacecraft problems. This effort has led to prototypes that seek to evaluate various tools and technology that meet at least some of the AMTAS goals. The tools, experiences, and lessons learned by implementing these systems are described here.

McLean, David; Haar, Therese; McDonald, James

2000-01-01

327

Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

Lam Tai

2011-09-01

328

Parametric Time-Dependent Navier-Stokes Computations for a YAV-8B Harrier in Ground Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The Harrier Jump Jet has the distinction of being the only powered-lift aircraft in the free world to achieve operational status and to have flown in combat. This V/STOL aircraft can take-off and land vertically or utilize very short runways by directing its four exhaust nozzles towards the ground. Transition to forward flight is achieved by rotating these nozzles into a horizontal position. Powered-lift vehicles have certain advantages over conventional strike fighters. Their V/STOL capabilities allow for safer carrier operations, smaller carrier size, and quick reaction time for troop support. Moreover, they are not dependent on vulnerable land-based runways. The AV-8A Harrier first entered service in the British Royal Air Force (RAF) during 1969, and the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) in 1971. The AV-8B was a redesign to achieve improved payload capacity, range, and accuracy. This modified design first entered service with the USMC and RAF in 1985. The success and unique capabilities of the Harrier has prompted the design of a powered-lift version of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). The flowfield for the Harrier near the ground during low-speed or hover flight operations is very complex and time-dependent. A sketch of this flowfield is shown. Warm air from the fan is exhausted from the front nozzles, while a hot air/fuel mixture from the engine is exhausted from the rear nozzles. These jets strike the ground and move out radially forming a ground jet-flow. The ambient freestream, due to low-speed forward flight or - headwind during hover, opposes the jet-flow. This interaction causes the flow to separate and form a ground vortex. The multiple jets also interact with each other near the ground and form an upwash or jet fountain, which strikes the underside of the fuselage. If the aircraft is sufficiently close to the ground, the inlet can ingest ground debris and hot gases from the fountain and ground vortex. This Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) can cause a sudden loss of thrust (powered lift), and the vehicle may crash. The high-speed jet flow along the ground can also entrain the ambient flow, resulting in a low pressure region underneath the vehicle. The accompanied loss of lift is referred to as the suckdown effect. The ground vortex may also be highly unsteady, dramatically changing its size and position with time at low frequencies, e.g., 1 Hz.

Chaderjian, Neal M.; Pandya, Shishir; Ahmad, Jasim; Murman, Scott; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

329

Classical Helium Atom with Radiation Reaction  

OpenAIRE

We study a classical model of Helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite...

Carati, Andrea; Galgani, Luigi

2011-01-01

330

SEM Ground Spider Interactive  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive look at a ground spider's anatomy has close-up images taken using the high-resolution technology of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). By mousing over the labeled images, students can view fifteen features of a generalized ground spider's anatomy.

331

Neutrino nuclear response and photo nuclear reaction  

OpenAIRE

Photo nuclear reactions are shown to be used for studying neutrino/weak nuclear responses involved in astro-neutrino nuclear interactions and double beta decays. Charged current weak responses for ground and excited states are studied by using photo nuclear reactions through isobaric analog states of those states, while neutral current weak responses for excited states are studied by using photo nuclear reactions through the excited states. The weak interaction strengths are...

Ejiri, H.; Titov, A. I.; Boswell, M.; Young, A.

2013-01-01

332

Communication, concepts and grounding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. PMID:25096266

van der Velde, Frank

2015-02-01

333

A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the behavior of biological macromolecules and enzymatic reactions under force, advances in single-molecule force spectroscopy have proven instrumental. Magnetic tweezers form one of the most powerful of these techniques, due to their overall simplicity, non-invasive character, potential for high throughput measurements, and large force range. Drawbacks of magnetic tweezers, however, are that accurate determination of the applied forces can be challenging for short biomolecules at high forces and very time-consuming for long tethers at low forces below ˜1 piconewton. Here, we address these drawbacks by presenting a calibration standard for magnetic tweezers consisting of measured forces for four magnet configurations. Each such configuration is calibrated for two commonly employed commercially available magnetic microspheres. We calculate forces in both time and spectral domains by analyzing bead fluctuations. The resulting calibration curves, validated through the use of different algorithms that yield close agreement in their determination of the applied forces, span a range from 100 piconewtons down to tens of femtonewtons. These generalized force calibrations will serve as a convenient resource for magnetic tweezers users and diminish variations between different experimental configurations or laboratories.

Yu, Zhongbo; Dulin, David; Cnossen, Jelmer; Köber, Mariana; van Oene, Maarten M.; Ordu, Orkide; Berghuis, Bojk A.; Hensgens, Toivo; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

2014-12-01

334

Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The paper includes a discussion of presently used calculational techniques, experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces in trinucleon ground states, future directions in theoretical research and future experimental research

335

Airport Ground Staff Scheduling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modern airports are centers of transportation that service a large number of aircraft and passengers every day. To facilitate this large volume of transportation, airports are subject to many logistical and decision problems that must continuously be solved to make sure each flight and passenger travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators to increase cost effectiveness and deliver fast and reliable service. This thesis presents models and algorithms for general optimization and decision problems arising within ground handling. The thesis contains an introductory part which provide an overview of the ground handling environment and reviews a series of optimization problems from the specific perspective of airport ground handling. In addition, the thesis contains five scientific papers, which consider specific optimization problems within ground handling in detail. The considered problems range from generalized approaches to workforce planning, to highly detailed scheduling problems arising in the highly dynamic environment of airports.

Clausen, Tommy

2010-01-01

336

An Ignored Mechanism for the Longitudinal Recoil Force in Railguns and Revitalization of the Riemann Force Law  

CERN Document Server

The electric induction force due to a time-varying current is used to account for the longitudinal recoil force exerted on the rails of railgun accelerators. As observed in the experiments, this induction force is longitudinal to the rails and can be the strongest at the heads of the rails. Besides, for the force due to a closed circuit, it is shown that the Riemann force law, which is based on a potential energy depending on a relative speed and is in accord with Newton's law of action and reaction, can reduce to the Lorentz force law.

Su, C C

2005-01-01

337

The Fifth Force, the Sixth Force and the Spring Force  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upon  revisiting the famous Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments on the gravitational red-shift , the fifth and even the sixth force in nature are in fact the stretching and compression force of the spring , where the spring term is the cosmological constant in Einstein’s field equations.

Ling Man Tsang

2012-04-01

338

Two-body forces and amplitudes in the three-body model for the 4He(d(pol), p?)n reaction with Ed = 12 and 17 MeV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 4He(d(pol), p?)n cross section, vector and tensor analyzing-power data with 12 and 17 MeV deuterons at kinematic conditions including proton-alpha quasifree scattering, neutron-alpha and proton-alpha final-state interactions, as well as collinearity, are compared with the predictions of the three-body model using different nucleon-alpha and neutron-proton forces. In general, better two-body potentials give a better fit to the data, except for the vector analyzing-power data. The roles of the impulse and multiple-scattering amplitudes are studied to understand the sensitivity to two-body potentials and to understand the reason for the successes and the failures of the model. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 table

339

Enzyme Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzyme reaction rate activity allows students to simulate the effects of variables such as temperature and pH on the reaction rate of the enzyme catalase. This computer simulation is best used after the students have done a wet lab experiment. The value of the simulation is that it requires the students to interpret and analyze the graphical representation of data and it enables the running of mutiple experiments in a short amount of time.

Maryland Virtual High School

340

Ground Source Heat Pumps  

OpenAIRE

A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP) is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is ...

Lale Valizade

2013-01-01

341

Traveling-Stripe Forcing Generates Hexagonal Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the response of Turing stripe patterns to a simple spatiotemporal forcing. This forcing has the form of a traveling wave and is spatially resonant with the characteristic Turing wavelength. Experiments conducted with the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction reveal a striking symmetry-breaking phenomenon of the intrinsic striped patterns giving rise to hexagonal lattices for intermediate values of the forcing velocity. The phenomenon is understood in the framework of the corresponding amplitude equations, which unveils a complex scenario of dynamical behaviors.

Míguez, D. G.; Nicola, E. M.; Muñuzuri, A. P.; Casademunt, J.; Sagués, F.; Kramer, L.

2004-07-01

342

Force and Its Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

This page is from a comprehensive and comprehensible tutorial in physics. Schematic drawings, animations, and links to animations are included. Use the link in the left navigation bar to explore the related topic of types of forces including frictional force, gravitational force, and magnetic force.

2010-01-01

343

Macroscopic aspects of heavy-ion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results on multi-nucleon transfer reactions and deep-inelastic reactions are presented. Boundary conditions following from the liquid-drop model are used to determine an asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interaction potential which includes deformation degrees of freedom in the exit reaction channel explicitly. The problem of competition between fusion and two-body reactions is formulated. A phenomenological model of deep-inelastic reactions is proposed. The model is constructed on the basis of classical equations of motion of the Lagrange-Rayleigh type (with inclusion of conservative and dissipative forces). (author)

344

Ground potential rise monitor  

Science.gov (United States)

A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

2012-07-17

345

Transition from leg to wing forces during take-off in birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Take-off mechanics are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of flying animals. Recent research has revealed that initial take-off velocity in birds is driven mostly by hindlimb forces. However, the contribution of the wings during the transition to air is unknown. To investigate this transition, we integrated measurements of both leg and wing forces during take-off and the first three wingbeats in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, body mass 15 g, N=7) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, body mass 50 g, N=3). We measured ground reaction forces produced by the hindlimbs using a perch mounted on a force plate, whole-body and wing kinematics using high-speed video, and aerodynamic forces using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Take-off performance was generally similar between species. When birds were perched, an acceleration peak produced by the legs contributed to 85±1% of the whole-body resultant acceleration in finch and 77±6% in dove. At lift-off, coincident with the start of the first downstroke, the percentage of hindlimb contribution to initial flight velocity was 93.6±0.6% in finch and 95.2±0.4% in dove. In finch, the first wingbeat produced 57.9±3.4% of the lift created during subsequent wingbeats compared with 62.5±2.2% in dove. Advance ratios were <0.5 in both species, even when taking self-convection of shed vortices into account, so it was likely that wing-wake interactions dominated aerodynamics during wingbeats 2 and 3. These results underscore the relatively low contribution of the wings to initial take-off, and reveal a novel transitional role for the first wingbeat in terms of force production. PMID:22972887

Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

2012-12-01

346

Surface and Interfacial Forces  

CERN Document Server

This systematic introduction to the topic includes theoretical concepts to help readers understand and predict surface forces, while also integrating experimental techniques and practical applications with up-to-date examples plus motivating exercises. Starting with intermolecular forces, the authors discuss different surfaces forces, with a major part devoted to surface forces between solid surfaces in liquid media. In addition, they cover surface forces between liquid-vapor interfaces and between liquid-liquid interfaces.

Butt, Hans-Jurgen

2010-01-01

347

Forces from noncommutative geometry  

OpenAIRE

Einstein derived general relativity from Riemannian geometry. Connes extends this derivation to noncommutative geometry and obtains electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces. These are pseudo forces, that accompany the gravitational force just as in Minkowskian geometry the magnetic force accompanies the electric force. The main physical input of Connes' derivation is parity violation. His main output is the Higgs boson which breaks the gauge symmetry spontaneously and gives ...

Schucker, T.

2001-01-01

348

Chemistry of ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with both natural and contaminated waters. It covers: Evolution of Ground Water (including the influence of mineral solubility and precipitation, production of acid waters, trace element mobility, chemical equilibrium computer models, oxygen and sulfur isotopes in pollution studies, radionuclides, nitrates and phosphates, importance of nitrogen isotopes in determining sources of nitrate pollution, solute transport modeling, organic chemicals, interactions with the geologic matrix, transport, and degradation monitoring and sampling of ground water and analytical chemistry techniques

349

On the entropy of radiation reaction  

CERN Document Server

The inexorable development of ever more powerful laser systems has re-ignited interest in electromagnetic radiation reaction and its significance for the collective behaviour of charged matter interacting with intense electromagnetic fields. The classical radiation reaction force on a point electron is non-conservative, and this has led some authors to question the validity of methods used to model ultra-intense laser-matter interactions including radiation reaction. We explain why such concern is unwarranted.

Burton, David A

2013-01-01

350

On the entropy of radiation reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inexorable development of ever more powerful laser systems has re-ignited interest in electromagnetic radiation reaction and its significance for the collective behavior of charged matter interacting with intense electromagnetic fields. The classical radiation reaction force on a point electron is non-conservative, and this has led some authors to question the validity of methods used to model ultra-intense laser–matter interactions including radiation reaction. We explain why such concern is unwarranted.

351

On the Rate Expressions for "Reversible" Gas-Solid Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

It is argued that the term with the negative sign in the rate expression for an equilibrium-limited gas-solid reaction can be viewed as representing a lowering of the concentration driving force for the forward reaction due to equilibrium limitation. While the gas composition favors the forward reaction, the negative term may represent the local rate of the reverse reaction. When the gas composition changes significantly to the opposite side of equilibrium, however, this term as written for the forward reaction does not represent the rate of the reverse reaction. Even the reaction order with respect to the same gaseous species may become different for the reverse reaction.

Sohn, Hong Yong

2014-10-01

352

Macroscopic QED in linearly responding media and a Lorentz-Force approach to dispersion forces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis, a very general quantization scheme for the macroscopic electromagnetic field in arbitrary linearly responding media is presented. It offers a unified approach to QED in such media. Applying the quantization scheme, a theory of the dispersion forces on the basis of the Lorentz force is developed. By regarding the dispersion force as the (ground-state or thermal-state) expectation value of the Lorentz force that acts on appropriately defined charge and current densities, Casimir, Casimir-Polder, and van der Waals forces are united in a very natural way that makes transparent their common physical basis. Application of the theory to planar structures yields generalizations of well-known Lifschitz and Casimir-type formulas. (orig.)

Raabe, Christian

2008-07-08

353

Reaction mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported

354

LASRE ground hotfire #2  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) concluded its flight operations phase at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November 1998. The experiment's goal was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future potential reusable launch vehicle. Information from the LASRE experiment will help Lockheed Martin maximize its design for a future potential reusable launch vehicle. It gave Lockheed an understanding of the performance of the lifting body and linear aerospike engine combination even before the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator flies. LASRE was a small, half-span model of a lifting body with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine. The experiment, mounted on the back of an SR-71 aircraft, operates like a kind of 'flying wind tunnel.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle engine plume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting body shape at specific altitudes and speeds of up to approximately 750 miles per hour. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements look to minimize that interaction. During the flight research program, the aircraft completed seven research flights. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus on the back of the aircraft. The first of those two flights occurred October 31, 1997. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 and a maximum altitude of 33,000 feet before landing at Edwards, California, at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/pod configuration. Five follow-on flights focused on the experiment; two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to check engine operation characteristics. The first of these flights occurred March 4, 1998. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards, California, at 12:13 p.m. PST. During further flights in the spring and summer of 1998, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. In addition, two engine hot firings were conducted on the ground. It was decided not to do a final hot-fire flight test as a result of the liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The ground firings and the airborne cryogenic gas flow tests provided enough information to predict the hot gas effects of an aerospike engine firing during flight. The experiment itself was a small, half-span model that contained eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium and instrumentation. The model, engine and canoe together were called the 'pod.' The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on NASA's SR-71, on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use information gained from LASRE and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin are partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement.The goal of the X-33 program, and a major goal for NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology, has been to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The program implements the National Space Transportation Policy, which was designed to accelerate the development of new launch technologies and concepts that contribute to the continuing commercialization of the national space launch industry. Both the flagship X-33 and the smaller X-34 technology testbed demonstrator fall under the Space Transportation Program Offices at NASA Marshall Space Flight

1997-01-01

355

On the action and reaction principle in special relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two forces, due to internal action and reaction, with points of application in relative motion are shown to be different even if they are applied to material points in contact. The action and reaction principle holds, in the case of steady-state, relative motion, if the resultants of the forces acting on each of the two interacting bodies are considered. For a nonsteady-state problem the principle does not hold even for the resultants of the forces

356

Optical tweezers escape forces  

Science.gov (United States)

With suitable calibration, optical tweezers can be used to measure forces. If the maximum force that can be exerted is of interest, calibration can be performed using viscous drag to remove a particle from the trap, typically by moving the stage. The stage velocity required to remove the particle then gives the escape force. However, the escape force can vary by up to 30% or more, depending on the particle trajectory. This can have significant quantitative impact on measurements. We describe the variation of escape force and escape trajectory, using both experimental measurements and simulations, and discuss implications for experimental measurement of forces.

Bui, Ann A. M.; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Khatibzadeh, Nima; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

2014-09-01

357

Polarized neutron matter with Skyrme forces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that Skyrme forces with a commonly used parameter t{sub 2} < 0 lead to instability of polarized neutron matter. This instability has a form of the ferromagnetic spin ordering. There is, however, no ground state and the system displays a singular behaviour. Physically consistent description of polarized neutron matter requires that the exchange parameter x{sub 2}, which was neglected in spin-saturated systems, is in the range -5/4 < x{sub 2} {<=} -1. We find that Skyrme forces with x{sub 2} in this range provide very good parametrization of realistic neutron matter calculations. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs.

Kutschera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, W. [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

1993-11-01

358

Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

Thomas, Gary; James, David

2006-01-01

359

Reaction Time  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners conduct an experiment to test how fast they can react. Learners try to catch a piece of paper with a ruler printed on it (or a ruler) as quickly as they can. Learners collect data and compare the reaction times of friends and family.

WGBH Boston

2003-01-01

360

Allergic reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medications, and pollens) can ... it. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... release more venom. If the person develops an itchy rash, apply ...

361

Ground and air resonance of bearingless rotors in hover  

Science.gov (United States)

A finite element formulation is used to investigate ground and air resistence in hover for a bearingless rotor. Aerodynamic forces are studied using quasi-steady strip theory, and unsteady aerodynamic effects are introduced through an inflow dynamics model. Reasonable correlation was found between predicted ground and air resonance results and data obtained from measurements using a 1/8th Froude-scaled dynamic model. Systematic parametric studies of the effects of various design parameters were performed, and lag frequency was found to significantly influence ground resonance stability, whereas pitch-lag coupling, blade sweep and pitch link stiffness had powerful effects on air resonance stability.

Jang, Jinseok; Chopra, Inderjit

1987-01-01

362

Forces in general relativity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

Ridgely, Charles T, E-mail: charles@ridgely.w [Thienes Engineering Inc., La Mirada, CA 90638 (United States)

2010-07-15

363

Ground Water Contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

This detailed discussion explains that most ground water contamination is the result of human activity, and that several laws have been passed with an aim to minimize effects. The Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are explained along with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or Superfund), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Other terms explained include zone of contribution, interaquifer leakage, and plume of contamination. Special tables included at this site are Typical Sources of Potential Ground Water Contamination by Land Use Category and Potential Harmful Components of Common Household Products. There is also a full page diagram showing some potential sources of ground water contamination.

364

Ground Source Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is a big difference. The cost of equipment, material and installation can be expensive, depending on the type of heat pump installation planned.

Lale Valizade

2013-07-01

365

Move of ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

366

The thermodynamic driving force for kinetics in general and enzyme kinetics in particular.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermodynamic driving force of a reaction is usually taken as the chemical potential difference between products and reactants. The forward and backward reaction rates are then related to this force. This procedure is of very limited validity, as the resulting expression contains no kinetic factor and gives little information on reaction kinetics. The transformation of the reaction rate as a function of concentration (and temperature) into a function of chemical potential should be more properly performed, as illustrated by a simple example of an enzymatic reaction. The proper thermodynamic driving force is the difference between the exponentials of the totaled chemical potentials of reactants and products. PMID:25598535

Peka?, Miloslav

2015-03-16

367

Trois familles, quatre forces  

CERN Multimedia

ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

Augereau, J F

2002-01-01

368

Chemical Reactions in DSMC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSMC simulations of chemically reacting gas flows have generally employed procedures that convert the macroscopic chemical rate equations to reaction cross-sections at the microscopic level. They therefore depend on the availability of experimental data that has been fitted to equations of the Arrhenius form. This paper presents a physical model for dissociation and recombination reactions and a phenomenological model for exchange and chain reactions. These are based on the vibrational states of the colliding molecules and do not require any experimentally-based data. The simplicity of the models allows the corresponding rate equations to be written down and, while these are not required for the implementation of the models, they facilitate their validation. The model is applied to a typical hypersonic atmospheric entry problem and the results are compared with the corresponding results from the traditional method. It is also used to investigate both spontaneous and forced ignition as well as the structure of a deflagration wave in an oxygen-hydrogen mixture.

369

Debunking Coriolis Force Myths  

Science.gov (United States)

Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

Shakur, Asif

2014-01-01

370

Measurements of piping forces in a safety valve discharge line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements were made of support reactions to transient hydrodynamic forces on the discharge line of a nuclear reactor safety valve test facility. Data is presented for three different test conditions two with upstream loop seals and one with only steam. Sufficient information is provided to permit verification/development of hydrodynamic force predictive models

371

Solvation force simulations in atomic force microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Solvation force oscillation in octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) versus the distance between an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and mica substrate has been studied through molecular dynamics simulations. A driving spring model in a liquid-vapor molecular ensemble is used to explore the force oscillation mechanism. It has been found that OMCTS fluid in tip-substrate contact has a strong tendency to form a layered structure, starting from n = 8 layers. The force profile obtained from simulation is qualitatively similar to those in contact mode AFM experiments. However, the bulk-like diffusion and rotation of OMCTS molecules underneath the AFM tip suggest that, under the tip-substrate confinement geometry, the layered OMCTS film cannot form a solidified structure except under n = 2 extreme contact-layer confinement.

Xu, Rong-Guang; Leng, Yongsheng

2014-06-01

372

Earth's Water:Ground Water  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

373

Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state  

Science.gov (United States)

The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC -- or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever -- permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

Meystre, Pierre

2011-06-01

374

Experimental determination of the normalization constant of the (?, t) reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The zero-range normalization constant for the (?, t) reaction is determined by comparing the same nuclear transitions induced by the (?, t) reaction and the (3He, d) reaction, whose normalization is known. The ground-state transitions on targets of 48Ca and 92Mo are studied, leading to D2 = (20.8 +- 3.3) x 104 MeV2 x fm3, for the (?, t) reaction. (orig.)

375

Collison and Grounding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the probabilistic and physical nature of such accidents, and consequences on watertight integrity, structural integrity and environment.

Wang, G. USA

2006-01-01

376

A comparison of methods for determining the rate of force development during isometric midthigh clean pulls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve female division I collegiate volleyball players were recruited to examine the reliability of several methods for calculating the rate of force development (RFD) during the isometric midthigh clean pull. All subjects were familiarized with the isometric midthigh clean pull and participated in regular strength training. Two isometric midthigh clean pulls were performed with 2 minutes rest between each trail. All measures were performed in a custom isometric testing device that included a step-wise adjustable bar and a force plate for measuring ground reaction forces. The RFD during predetermined time zone bands (0-30, 0-50, 0-90, 0-100, 0-150, 0-200, and 0-250 milliseconds) was then calculated by dividing the force at the end of the band by the band's time interval. The peak RFD was then calculated with the use of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 milliseconds sampling windows. The average RFD (avgRFD) was calculated by dividing the peak force (PF) by the time to achieve PF. All data were analyzed with the use of intraclass correlation alpha (ICC?) and the coefficient of variation (CV) and 90% confidence intervals. All predetermined RFD time bands were deemed reliable based on an ICC? >0.95 and a CV <4%. Conversely, the avgRFD failed to meet the reliability standards set for this study. Overall, the method used to assess the RFD during an isometric midthigh clean pull impacts the reliability of the measure and predetermined RFD time bands should be used to quantify the RFD. PMID:25259470

Haff, G Gregory; Ruben, Ryan P; Lider, Joshua; Twine, Corey; Cormie, Prue

2015-02-01

377

Faking It: Coriolis Force  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson will help students understand what the Coriolis force is, and what effects it has on objects in motion. Students will be able to describe and explain the Coriolis force, and compare and contrast conditions under which the Coriolis force has a significant impact on objects in motion with conditions under which the influence of the Coriolis force is negligible. Portions of this lesson are based on a webpage called "Bad Coriolis", a resource devoted to correcting misconceptions about the Coriolis force and other natural phenomena.

378

Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

379

Enantioselective catalysis of photochemical reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of the excited state renders the development of chiral catalysts for enantioselective photochemical reactions a considerable challenge. The absorption of a 400?nm photon corresponds to an energy uptake of approximately 300?kJ?mol(-1) . Given the large distance to the ground state, innovative concepts are required to open reaction pathways that selectively lead to a single enantiomer of the desired product. This Review outlines the two major concepts of homogenously catalyzed enantioselective processes. The first part deals with chiral photocatalysts, which intervene in the photochemical key step and induce an asymmetric induction in this step. In the second part, reactions are presented in which the photochemical excitation is mediated by an achiral photocatalyst and the transfer of chirality is ensured by a second chiral catalyst (dual catalysis). PMID:25728854

Brimioulle, Richard; Lenhart, Dominik; Maturi, Mark M; Bach, Thorsten

2015-03-23

380

Aerodynamic ground effect in fruitfly sized insect takeoff  

CERN Document Server

Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling, considering the voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore the possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. The numerical method is based on a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver and a simple flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia, and the leg thrust. Forces, power and displacements are compared for takeoffs with and without ground effect. Natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly, modified takeoffs and hovering are analyzed. The results show that the ground effect during the natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, the ground effect does not produce any significant increase of the vertical force neither. Moreover, the vertical force even drops in most of the cases considered. There is a consistent increase of the horizontal force, and a decrease of the aerodynamic power, if the rate of climb is suff...

Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

2015-01-01

381

Ab initio theories of nuclear structure and reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of nuclear forces with two-nucleon, three-nucleon and possibly even four-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. I will discuss recent breakthroughs that allow for ab initio calculations for ground states and spectroscopy of nuclei throughout the p- and sd-shell and beyond with two- and three-nucleon interactions. I will highlight results obtained within the NCSM, CCM, QMC, and nuclear lattice EFT. I will also present new ab initio many-body approaches capable of describing both bound and scattering states in light nuclei simultaneously and discuss results for reactions important for astrophysics, such as ^7Be(p,?)^8B radiative capture, and for ^3H(d,n)^4He fusion.

Navratil, Petr

2012-10-01

382

Force and Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

The Force and Motion SciPack explores the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The focus is on topics linked to Standards and Benchmarks related to concepts such as constant motion, acceleration, speed and direction as well as a discussion of Newton's Laws of Motion.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Force and Motion: Position and Motion? Identify the position of one object relative to the position of another object by providing the approximate distance and angles between the objects, the angles being measured from some reference line.? Define the concepts of speed and velocity.? Determine the average speed of an object given necessary information.? Describe, draw, or otherwise detail the velocity of an object given magnitude and direction.? Define acceleration.? Recognize examples of acceleration and provide examples of acceleration.? Distinguish between constant and changing motion.? Distinguish increasing speed from increasing acceleration.? Recognize that the state of rest is a state of zero speed (rather than as something fundamentally different than motion).Force and Motion: Newton's First Law? Recognize and give examples of forces. ? Recognize and give examples of balanced and unbalanced forces.? Equate the term "unbalanced force" with "a net force that does not equal zero."? Apply, in an informal way, Newton's first law. ? Explain the role of the force of friction in determining how well Newton's first law seems to apply or not apply to a given physical situation. ? Explain the reasoning Galileo used to justify the second part of Newton's first law.? Explain how the force of friction applies to the second part of Newton's first law.? Recognize the concept of inertia (as opposed to a force, momentum, etc.). ? Recognize that an object at rest may have forces acting on it.? Distinguish between "impulse" and "sustained" forces (and recognize both).? Recognize that objects do not have internal forces that keep them moving.Force and Motion: Newton's Second Law? Understand that the "F" in F = ma stands for the net force acting on an object, "m" stands for the mass of the object, and "a" stands for the resulting acceleration of the object.? Demonstrate the cause-effect relationship associated with Newton's Second Law--that net forces cause accelerations and not the other way around. ? Know that a net force was applied if an acceleration is observed, and, if the application of a net force is observed, the result will be an acceleration.? State and apply Newton's second law. ? Distinguish between the role of "F" and the role of "m" in Newton's second law. ? Recognize that an object can apply a force to another object, but an object cannot carry a force with it.? Use and interpret ratios and proportions, such as through appropriate use of the phrases "for each," "per"," or "for every."Force and Motion: Newton's Third Law? Explain that when object A exerts a force on object B, object B exerts an equal and opposite force back on object A, regardless of the masses or motion of either object.? Identify the force that B applies on A, given a force that A applies on B.? Recognize that these forces are exerted simultaneously.? Apply this concept in a variety of situations. ? Use Newton's third law to explain how an inanimate object can exert a force on another object.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-21

383

Interatomic Forces in Solids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Introduction. 1.1. Born's theory: harmonic approximation and adiabatic approximation. 1.2. Relation between force constants and dynamical matrix. 1.3. Illustration with a 3-D lattice and symmetry effect. 1.4. Central and tensor forces. 2. Forces in simple solids. 2.1. Central force and tensor force model for Na. 2.2. Method of Fourier analysis. 2.3. Work of de Launay, Bhatia and Krebs; failure of Cauchy relations. 3. Forces in alkali halides and semiconductors. 3.1. Discussion on Ge. 3.2. Discussion Na I. 4. Forces in free-electron-like metals. 4.1. Pseudopotential approach of Harrison and Sham. 4.2. Harrison's method. 4.3. Work of Sham and others. (author)

384

Forces in molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

2007-01-01

385

Quantum fictitious forces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force".

Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.

2002-01-01

386

Quantum fictitious forces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: ''Force without force''. (orig.)

387

Limit cycle walking on a regularized ground  

CERN Document Server

The singular nature of contact problems, such as walking, makes them difficult to analyze mathematically. In this paper we will "regularize" the contact problem of walking by approximating the ground with a smooth repulsive potential energy and a smooth dissipative friction force. Using this model we are able to prove the existence of a limit cycle for a periodically perturbed system which consists of three masses connected by springs. In particular, this limit cycle exists in a symmetry reduced phase. In the unreduced phase space, the motion of the masses resembles walking.

Jacobs, Henry O

2012-01-01

388

Force Limited Vibration Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

2005-01-01

389

The Reaction Specificity of Nanoparticles in Solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iron-based metallic and oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have enhanced reactivity towards a variety of chemical species, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and reducible oxyanions, which frequently contaminate ground water at DOE and other government and industrial sites. Possibly of greater importance is the ability of these nanoparticles to select specific reaction pathways, potentially facilitating the formation of the most environmentally acceptable reaction products.

Baer, Donald R.

2006-06-01

390

Nuclear reactions. An introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental methods and tools with basic theoretical knowledge. Emphasis is placed on the importance of spin and orbital angular momentum (leading e.g. to applications in energy research, such as fusion with polarized nuclei), and on the operational definition of observables in nuclear physics. The end-of-chapter problems serve above all to elucidate and detail physical ideas that could not be presented in full detail in the main text. Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and a basic grasp of both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics; the latter in particular is a prerequisite for interpreting nuclear reactions and the connections to particle and high-energy physics.

391

Nuclear reactions. An introduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental methods and tools with basic theoretical knowledge. Emphasis is placed on the importance of spin and orbital angular momentum (leading e.g. to applications in energy research, such as fusion with polarized nuclei), and on the operational definition of observables in nuclear physics. The end-of-chapter problems serve above all to elucidate and detail physical ideas that could not be presented in full detail in the main text. Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and a basic grasp of both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics; the latter in particular is a prerequisite for interpreting nuclear reactions and the connections to particle and high-energy physics.

Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

2014-03-01

392

Operational Considerations when Designing New Ground Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) launched in April of 1991 with a nominal 15-year old mission. Since then, the HST mission life has been extended to 2010. As is true for all NASA missions, HST is being asked to decrease its operational costs for the remainder of its mission life. Various techniques are being incorporated for cost reductions, with one of the core means being the design of a new and more efficient ground system for HST operations. This new ground system, "Vision 2000", will reduce operational and maintenance costs and also provide the HST Project with added flexibility to react to future changes. Vision 2000 began supporting HST Operations in January of 1999 and will support the mission for the remainder of the mission life. Upgrading a satellite's ground system is a popular approach for reducing costs, but it is also inherently risky. Validating a new ground system can be a severe distraction to a flight team while operating a satellite. Mission data collection and health and safety requirements are rarely, if ever, relaxed during this validation period, forcing flight teams to undertake an additional task while operating the satellite. Additionally, flight teams must usually undergo extensive training to effectively utilize the new system. Once again, this training usually occurs as an additional task, in addition to the nominal satellite operations. While operating the spacecraft, the Flight Team typically assists in the design, validation, and verification of a new ground system. This is a distraction and strain on the Flight Team, but the benefit of using the Flight Team in all phases of ground system development far outweigh the negative aspects. Finally, above the cost of the new system, the integration into the facility with the current control center system are resources and costs not normally taken into account in the design phase of the new system. In addition to the standard issues faced by a Project when upgrading its ground system, the HST Project also must continue to support Space Shuttle servicing missions, which occur approximately every two to three years. This paper will address many of the issues common to all missions when re-hosting ground systems, and those faced by the HST Project in particular.

Walyus, Keith; Barbahenn, George; Crabb, William; Miebach, Manfred; Pataro, Peter

2000-01-01

393

First observation of $^{13}$Li ground state  

CERN Document Server

The ground state of neutron-rich unbound $^{13}$Li was observed for the first time in a one-proton removal reaction from $^{14}$Be at a beam energy of 53.6 MeV/u. The $^{13}$Li ground state was reconstructed from $^{11}$Li and two neutrons giving a resonance energy of 120$^{+60}_{-80}$ keV. All events involving single and double neutron interactions in the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) were analyzed, simulated, and fitted self-consistently. The three-body ($^{11}$Li+$n+n$) correlations within Jacobi coordinates showed strong dineutron characteristics. The decay energy spectrum of the intermediate $^{12}$Li system ($^{11}$Li+$n$) was described with an s-wave scattering length of greater than -4 fm, which is a smaller absolute value than reported in a previous measurement.

Kohley, Z; DeYoung, P A; Volya, A; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Christian, G; Cooper, N L; Frank, N; Gade, A; Hall, C; Hinnefeld, J; Luther, B; Mosby, S; Peters, W A; Smith, J K; Snyder, J; Spyrou, A; Thoennessen, M

2013-01-01

394

Ibis ground calibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

395

Ground motion effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

396

The LOFT Ground Segment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . Wedescribe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase (> 2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.

2014-01-01

397

The LOFT ground segment  

Science.gov (United States)

LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book1. We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase ( >2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barret, D.; Binko, Pavel; Brandt, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Courvoisier, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Feroci, M.; Ferrigno, C.; Giommi, P.; Götz, D.; Guy, L.; Hernanz, M.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Klochkov, D.; Kuulkers, Erik; Motch, C.; Lumb, D.; Papitto, A.; Pittori, Carlotta; Rohlfs, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schmid, C.; Schwope, A. D.; Smith, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.

2014-07-01

398

Coulomb force as an entropic force  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by Verlinde's theory of entropic gravity, we give a tentative explanation to the Coulomb's law with an entropic force. When trying to do this, we find the equipartition rule should be extended to charges and the concept of temperature should be reinterpreted. If one accepts the holographic principle as well as our generalizations and reinterpretations, then Coulomb's law, the Poisson equation, and the Maxwell equations can be derived smoothly. Our attempt can be regarded as a new way to unify the electromagnetic force with gravity, from the entropic origin. Possibly some of our postulates are related to the D-brane picture of black hole thermodynamics.

399

Air Force Link  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriately enough, this website is "dedicated to the men and women who made the U.S. Air Force what it is today." As an official website of the United States Air Force, the Air Force Link Heritage website presents a wide range of materials that detail the history of this division of the Armed Forces. Here visitors will find a "This Week in History" feature which presents summary details of important events in the organization's past, such as the dates of important test flights and important air battles. Within the "Categories" area, visitors can delve into Air Force history. Neatly divided into decades, each section allows visitors to view photographs of important persons in the Air Force during the period, along with documents that relate various aspects of the group's history. Finally, the site also contains a set of links to other useful sites, such as the American Airpower Heritage Museum and the National Museum of Naval Aviation.

400

New dispersive ?NN force and s-shell hypernuclei  

Science.gov (United States)

Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the ground- and excited-state binding energies of s-shell hypernuclei using a new form of dispersive spin-dependent noncentral ?NN force have been made to study its effect on the overbinding problem of 5?He and on the spin dependence of ?N force. A detailed analysis shows that the strength of the dispersive ?NN force can be adjusted to resolve the overbinding problem using two-body correlations alone. Consequently, the ambiguity in the strength of the dispersive ?NN force masks the effect of 2?-exchange ?NN force and ?NN correlations on the data. The contribution of the dispersive force to the 0+-1+ spin-flip splitting of A=4 hypernuclei is not uniquely determined. Further B? data favor a small spin dependence of the ?N potential, a situation characteristically similar to other versions of dispersive ?NN potentials.

Shoeb, Mohammad; Neelofer, Nasra; Usmani, Q. N.; Rahman Khan, M. Z.

1999-05-01

401

Jet reaction and thermal counterflow in He II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal counterflow in subcritical and supercritical regimes is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Temperature dependences of the reaction force acting on the heat-generating surface and of the critical flow (critical velocity) as well as the reaction force as a function of the heat power are measured. The difference is explained between the temperature dependences obtained in Kapitsa and Strelkov experiments and this paper on one hand, and in Hall experiment on the other. It is shown that in supercritical regime the generation of vertices reduces the reaction force, since the vortex moment and velocities are antiparallel

402

As forças transientes durante a marcha militar / Transient forces during military marching / Las fuerzas con efecto transiente durante la marcha militar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O padrão vertical anormal da força de reação do solo (FRS) apresenta a assimetria ou mais de dois picos como marcha patológica típica. Uma força típica e assimétrica é a força transiente. Será que a marcha militar é uma espécie de marcha patológica? OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar a força [...] de reação do solo vertical durante a fase de apoio da marcha militar. MÉTODO: Os participantes foram 20 soldados do Exército Brasileiro que tiveram anteriormente uma lesão nos membros inferiores relacionada com a marcha militar. Duas plataformas de força foram usadas para medir as componentes da FRS (mediolateral, anteroposterior e vertical) durante a marcha. Para cada lado e condição (andar e marcha), cinco amostras para cada pé foram registradas. A análise de variância foi utilizada para comparar os parâmetros da FRS durante o andar e marcha. RESULTADO: O primeiro pico de força foi o mais alto durante a condição de marcha. O pico de força transiente durante a marcha foi maior que o primeiro pico durante o andar. A força mínima foi a maior durante a marcha. CONCLUSÃO: A análise das forças de reação do solo marcha militar mostra uma força vertical transiente que não está normalmente presente no padrão de marcha normal. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: El estándar vertical anormal de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS) presenta la asimetría, o más de dos picos, como marcha patológica típica. Una fuerza típica y asimétrica es la fuerza con efecto transiente. ¿Será que la marcha militar es un tipo de marcha patológica? Objetivo: Desc [...] ribir y analizar la fuerza vertical de reacción del suelo durante la fase de apoyo de la marcha militar. MÉTODO: Los participantes fueron 20 soldados del Ejército Brasileño, quienes tuvieron antes una lesión en los miembros inferiores relacionada con la marcha militar. Se usaron dos plataformas de fuerza para medir los componentes de la FRS (mediolateral, anteroposterior y vertical) durante la marcha. Para cada lado y condición (andar y marcha), se registraron cinco muestras para cada pie. El análisis de la variación fue utilizado para comparar los parámetros de la FRS durante el andar y la marcha. RESULTADO: El primer pico de fuerza fue el más alto durante la condición de marcha. El pico de fuerza, con efecto transiente durante la marcha, fue mayor que el primer pico durante el andar. La fuerza mínima fue mayor durante la marcha. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis de las fuerzas de reacción del suelo, en la marcha militar, muestra una fuerza vertical, con efecto transiente, que normalmente no está presente en el estándar de marcha normal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The abnormal vertical ground reaction force (GRF) pattern presents the asymmetry or the presence of more than two peaks as typical pathological gait. The typical asymmetric force is the transient force. Is the military marching a kind of pathological gait? OBJECTIVE: To describe and an [...] alyze the vertical ground reaction forces during the stance phase of the military marching. METHOD: Participants were 20 Brazilian Army soldiers who previously had an injury in the lower limbs related to the military marching. Two strain-gauge force platforms measured the GRF components (mediolateral, anterior posterior; and vertical components) during gait. To each side and condition (gait and marching) five samples for each foot were recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the GRF parameters during gait and marching. RESULTS: The first force peak was the highest during the marching condition. The first force peak was the highest during marching condition. The peak transient force during marching was higher than the first peak during gait. The minimum force was higher during marching. CONCLUSION: The analysis of ground reaction forces in military marching shows a transient vertical force that is not usually present in normal gait pattern.

Thais Pereira, Guisande; Julio Cerca, Amadio; Alberto Carlos, Amadio; Luis, Mochizuki.

2013-12-01

403

Casimir force of expulsion  

OpenAIRE

The possibility in principle is shown that the noncompensated Casimir force can exist in nanosized open metal cavities. The force shows up as time-constant expulsion of open cavities toward their least opening. The optimal parameters of the angles of the opening, of "generating lines" of cavities and their lengths are found at which the expulsive force is maximal. The theory is created for trapezoid configurations, in particular for parallel mirrors which experience both the...

Fateev, Evgeny G.

2012-01-01

404

Relativistic Linear Restoring Force  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

2012-01-01

405

Asymmetric Electrostatic Force  

OpenAIRE

Asymmetric electrostatic forces are a very interesting and new phenomenon. The magnitude of an electrostatic force that acts on a point charge does not change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. On the contrary, the magnitude of the electrostatic force that acts on a charged asymmetric shaped conductor does change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. 5 years ago, this phenomenon was reported by a simple experiment and a simulation and named as an Asymmetric ...

Katsuo Sakai

2014-01-01

406

Force induced DNA melting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force fm, at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.followed by sharp jumps.

407

Intermolecular and surface forces  

CERN Document Server

This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

Israelachvili, Jacob N

2011-01-01

408

Intermolecular and Surface Forces  

CERN Document Server

This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

Israelachvili, Jacob N

2010-01-01

409

Theory of intermolecular forces  

CERN Document Server

Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

1971-01-01

410

Vibronic coupling in ionized organic molecules: structural distortions and chemical reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionized organic molecules (radical cations) in radiation chemistry are liable to undergo vibronic coupling whenever there is a relatively small energy gap ({approx}0.5-1.5 eV) between their ground and excited states. As a result of this mixing, the force constant for the symmetry-allowed vibrational mode that couples these states is lowered in the ground state of the radical cation so that deformation can take place more easily along this specific mode. This pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect can then result in a permanent structural distortion of the radical cation relative to the symmetry of the parent neutral molecule. It can also bring about an energetically favored pathway for a facile chemical rearrangement along a reaction coordinate defined by the coupling mode. Examples taken from matrix-isolation studies are used to illustrate these dramatic consequences of vibronic coupling in radical cations. Thus, the bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene and tetramethylurea radical cations are found to have twisted structures departing from the C{sub 2v} symmetry of their parent molecules, while the oxirane and bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane radical cations undergo ring-opening rearrangements along reaction coordinates that correspond to the deformational modes predicted by the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect.

Williams, Ffrancon E-mail: ffwilliams@utk.edu

2003-06-01

411

Notes on dipolar (e,2e) reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To calculate the triple differential cross section of dipolar (e,2e) reactions in the vicinity of a binary peak, the authors propose to use a form of Born approximation which effectively takes into account the orthogonality of the ground and ionisation atomic states if Q -> O. (author)

412

Force adaptation in human walking with symmetrically applied downward forces on the pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of external constraints and/or applied forces during movement can lead to reactive as well as adaptive changes in human motion. Previous researches in the literature have usually focused on adaptation in human kinematics when external forces were applied using exoskeletons during the swing phase of gait. This work aims to study adaptation in human walking when externally applied forces are present on the pelvis both during the swing and stance phases of the gait. A novel tethered pelvic assist device (TPAD) was used to passively apply downward forces on the human pelvis while walking. During the experiment, healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at a constant speed while their kinematics and foot pressure data were recorded. Data analysis revealed that the healthy subjects exhibited both reactive as well as adaptive changes in their gait parameters. The immediate response of the subjects was to increase their hip flexion to clear their foot off the ground as they were unable to lift their pelvis to their usual height during normal motion. Seven out of eight subjects in the study resisted the downward forces to move their pelvis up. Eventually, they reached a level of downward force that they could sustain over the training. This adaptation to the downward force was reflected in the heel peak pressure values during the cycles of the gait. On removing the tethers, aftereffects in heel peak pressure during the gait cycles were observed. PMID:23366634

Vashista, Vineet; Agrawal, Neelima; Shaharudin, Shazlin; Reisman, Darcy S; Agrawal, Sunil K

2012-01-01

413

Comparison of Frozen-Density Embedding and Discrete Reaction Field Solvent Models for Molecular Properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the performance of two discrete solvent models in connection with density functional theory (DFT) for the calculation of molecular properties. In our comparison we include the discrete reaction field (DRF) model, a combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) model using a polarizable force field, and the frozen-density embedding (FDE) scheme. We employ these solvent models for ground state properties (dipole and quadrupole moments) and response properties (electronic excitation energies and frequencydependent polarizabilities) of a water molecule in the liquid phase. It is found that both solvent models agree for ground state properties, while there are significant differences in the description of response properties. The origin of these differences is analyzed in detail and it is found that they are mainly caused by a different description of the ground state molecular orbitals of the solute. In addition, for the calculation of the polarizabilities, the inclusion of the response of the solvent to the polarization of the solute becomes important. This effect is included in the DRF model, but is missing in the FDE scheme. A way of including it in FDE calculations of the polarizabilities using finite field calculations is demonstrated.

Jacob, Christoph; Neugebauer, Johannes; Jensen, Lasse; Visscher, Lucas

2006-04-20

414

Force field development on pigments of photosystem 2 reaction centre.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 43, ?. 3 (2005), s. 417-420. ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP206/02/D177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : pho tosystem 2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2005

Palen?ár, Peter

2005-01-01

415

Absorption spectra of ground-state and low-lying electronic States of copper nitrosyl: a rare gas matrix isolation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction of ground-state Cu atoms with NO during condensation in solid argon, neon, and binary argon/neon mixtures has been reinvestigated. In addition to the ground-state already characterized in rare gas matrixes by its nu1 mode in reactions of laser-ablated Cu with nitric oxide, another very low lying electronic state is observed for CuNO in solid argon. Photoconversion and equilibrium processes are observed between the two lowest lying electronic states following photoexcitations to second and third excited states in the visible and near-infrared. The electronic spectrum of the CuNO complex was also recorded to understand the photoconversion processes. In solid neon, only the ground state (probably 1A') and the second and third excited states are observed. This suggests that interaction with the argon cage stabilizes the triplet state to make 1A' and 3A' ' states almost isoenergetic in solid argon. On the basis of previous predictions founded on DFT calculations on the very low lying 1A' and 3A' ', a mechanism is proposed, involving the singlet-triplet state manifolds. For these two lower and one higher electronic states, 14N/15N, 16O/18O, and 63Cu/65Cu isotopic data on nu1, nu2, and nu3 have been measured. On the basis of harmonic force-field calculations and relative intensities in the vibronic progressions, some structural parameters are estimated. The molecule is bent in all electronic states, with Cu-N-O bond angles varying slightly around 130 +/- 10 degrees , but the Cu-N bond force constants are substantially different, denoting larger differences in bond lengths. PMID:16833320

Krim, Lahouari; Wang, Xuefeng; Manceron, Laurent; Andrews, Lester

2005-11-17

416

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-02-01

417

Forces in yeast flocculation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

418

Multivariate Force of Mortality  

CERN Document Server

We introduce bi-variate and multivariate force of mortality functions. The pattern of mortality in a population is one of the strong influencing factors in determining the life expectancies at various ages in the population. Multiple reasons behind declining forces of mortality could be studied using the proposed functions.

Rao, Arni S R Srinivasa

2011-01-01

419

Predicting Ground Illuminance  

Science.gov (United States)

Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases, performed somewhat better than the Brown model during daytime hours. During nighttime hours under cloudy skies, both models produced erratic results.

Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

2015-01-01

420

Generalized Casimir forces in nonequilibrium systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, we propose a method to determine fluctuation-induced forces in nonequilibrium systems. These forces are the analog of the well-known Casimir forces, which were originally introduced in quantum field theory and later extended to the area of critical phenomena. The procedure starts from the observation that many nonequilibrium systems exhibit fluctuations with macroscopic correlation lengths, and the associated structure factors strongly depend on the wave vectors for long wavelengths; in some cases the correlations become long range, and the structure factors show algebraic divergences in the long-wavelength limit. The introduction of external bodies into such systems in general modifies the spectrum of these fluctuations, changing the value of the renormalized pressure, which becomes inhomogeneous. This inhomogeneous pressure leads to the appearance of a net force between the external bodies. It is shown that the force can be obtained from the knowledge of the structure factor of the homogeneous system. The mechanism is illustrated by means of a simple example: a reaction-diffusion equation, where the correlation function has a characteristic length. The role of this length in the Casimir force is elucidated. PMID:17677416

Brito, R; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U; Soto, R

2007-07-01

421

Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid–gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe–sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface. PMID:25671164

Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, M Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V

2015-01-01

422

Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid-liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid-liquid interface. PMID:25671164

Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, M Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J

2015-01-01

423

Microscopic models for direct inelastic scattering and direct preequilibrium emission: nucleon induced reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed microscopic models for nucleon induced inelastic scattering and one-step direct preequilibrium emission. These models are based on reliable effective in-medium two-body interactions and a microscopic description of the ground and excited states of target nuclei. No arbitrary renormalization process enters our analyzes and the predictions are directly compared to experimental data. The nuclear structure information are obtained in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) framework with the Gogny force, which provides accurate descriptions of spherical nuclei without pairing. For medium energy (50-200 MeV) proton induced reactions, this approach gives very good predictions for direct inelastic scattering and for the first-step in direct preequilibrium emission. The one-step preequilibrium model has also been extended to fast neutron scattering (10-20 MeV) for the 90Zr target described with RPA theory, and for axially deformed nuclei with a simpler description of the excited states (i.e. particle-hole excitations). Predictions of the reaction model reproduce well experimental data for 90Zr. For deformed targets (232Th and 238U), our calculations underestimate the data at high emission energy. The cross section missing for both actinides may stem from the excitation of vibrational states with excitation energies lower than 5 MeV which are not described with incoherent particle-hole excitations. This defect might be cured if the target spectra are described within the Quasi-particle-RPA (QRPA) theory recently implemented with the Gogny force.

Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Bonneau, L.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Kawano, T.; Karataglidis, S.; Péru, S.

2010-03-01

424

Isospin dependence of nucleon correlations in ground-state nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersive optical model (DOM) as presently implemented can investigate the isospin (nucleon asymmetry) dependence of the Hartree-Fock-like potential relevant for nucleons near the Fermi energy. Data constraints indicate that a Lane-type potential adequately describes its asymmetry dependence. Correlations beyond the mean field can also be described in this framework, but this requires an extension that treats the non-locality of the Hartree-Fock-like potential properly. The DOM has therefore been extended to properly describe ground-state properties of nuclei as a function of nucleon asymmetry in addition to standard ingredients like elastic nucleon scattering data and level structure. Predictions of nucleon correlations at larger nucleon asymmetries can then be made after data at smaller asymmetries constrain the potentials that represent the nucleon self-energy. A simple extrapolation for Sn isotopes generates predictions for increasing correlations of minority protons with increasing neutron number. Such predictions can be investigated by performing experiments with exotic beams. The predicted neutron properties for the double closed-shell 132Sn nucleus exhibit similar correlations as those in 208Pb. Future relevance of these studies for understanding the properties of all nucleons, including those with high momentum, and the role of three-body forces in nuclei are briefly discussed. Such an implementation will require a proper treatment of the non-locality of the imaginary part of the potentials and a description of high-momentum nucleons as experimentally constrained by the (e, e' p) reactions performed at Jefferson Lab. (orig.)