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Obesity influences propranolol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting employing cardiopulmonary bypass Influência da obesidade na farmacocinética do propranolol em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea  

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Propranolol plasma levels and kinetic disposition may be altered by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB-H). We investigated the potential influence of obesity on propranolol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting employing CPB-H. Fifteen patients, receiving propranolol perorally pre- (10-40 mg, 2-3 times a day) and post-operatively (10 mg, once a day) were distributed in two groups, based on body mass index (BMI), in obese (n = 9, BMI: mean 29.4 kg/m²) an...

Valéria Adriana Pereira; Maria José Carvalho Carmona; Célia Etsuco Kobayashi Omosako; José Otávio Costa Auler Júnior; Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos

2003-01-01

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Unchanged Plasma Levels of the Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients and Cardiopulmonary Bypass Use  

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Objective and Design The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been recently recognized as a potential biological marker of various disease states, but the impact of a major surgical intervention on the suPAR level has not yet been established. The aim of our study was to investigate if the induction of a systemic inflammatory reaction in response to cardiopulmonary bypass would be accompanied by an increase in the plasma suPAR level. Methods and Subjects Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were added. Based on the baseline suPAR level, patients were divided into group 1 (suPAR within normal range) or group 2 (suPAR above range). Blood was collected before the induction of anesthesia and 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Plasma suPAR, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, troponin I, NT-proBNP, and NGAL were quantified to assess the impact of surgical trauma on these markers. Results The baseline suPAR level was within the normal range in 31 patients (3.3 ng/mL), and elevated in 29 (5.1 ng/mL) (p<0.001). Baseline mediators of systemic inflammatory reaction concentrations (IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-8) and organ injury indices (troponin I, NT-proBNP, and NGAL) were low and increased after surgery in all patients (p<0.05). The surgery did not cause significant changes in the suPAR level either at 6 or 24 hours after, however the difference between groups observed at baseline remained substantial during the postoperative period. Conclusions There was no change in the suPAR level observed in patients subjected to elective cardiac coronary artery bypass surgery and CPB, despite activation of a systemic inflammatory reaction.

Gozdzik, Waldemar; Adamik, Barbara; Gozdzik, Anna; Rachwalik, Maciej; Kustrzycki, Wojciech; Kubler, Andrzej

2014-01-01

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Cardiopulmonary bypass assisted resection of mediastinal masses.  

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We report a recurrent solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum that was encircling the right pulmonary artery. The resection of the tumor with the involved right pulmonary artery segment and sequential graft reconstruction of the vessel was facilitated by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We review the indications, management, and outcomes of cardiopulmonary bypass for the resection of mediastinal masses. PMID:22500568

Agathos, E Andreas; Lachanas, Elias; Karagkiouzis, Grigorios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tomos, Periklis

2012-05-01

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Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol  

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The pharmacokinetics of some ?-blockers are altered by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery employing CPB on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol. We studied patients receiving oral propranolol with doses ranging from 80 to 240 mg (N = 11) or atenolol with doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg (N = 8) in the pre- and postoperative period of CABG with moderately hypothermic CPB (32°C). On ...

Carmona, M. J. C.; Pereira, V. A.; Malbouisson, L. M. S.; Auler Jr, J. O. C.; Santos, S. R. C. J.

2009-01-01

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The effects of stent interaction on porcine urinary bladder matrix employed as stent-graft materials.  

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Deployment of stent-grafts, derived from synthetic biomaterials, is an established minimally invasive approach for effectively treating abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, a notable disadvantage associated with this surgical technique is migration of the deployed stent-graft due to poor biocompatibility and inadequate integration in vivo. Recently, tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECMs) have shown early promise as integrating stabilisation collars in this setting due to their ability to induce a constructive tissue remodelling response after in vivo implantation. In the present study the effects of stent loading on an ECM?s mechanical properties were investigated by characterising the compression and loading effects of endovascular stents on porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM) scaffolds. Results demonstrated that the maximum stress was induced when the stent force was 8-times higher than a standard commercially available stent-graft and this represented about 20% of the failure strength of the UBM material. In addition, the influence of stent shape was also investigated. Findings demonstrated that the stress induced was higher for circular stents at low forces and a higher stress was induced on square stents when increased force was applied. Our findings demonstrate that porcine UBM possesses sufficient mechanical strength to withstand the compression and loading effects of commercially available stent-grafts in the setting of endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:24709565

Callanan, A; Davis, N F; McGloughlin, T M; Walsh, M T

2014-06-01

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Apoptosis during CABG surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass is prominent in ventricular but not in atrial myocardium  

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Objectives. We aimed to compare the rate of apoptosis after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardioplegic arrest during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery between atrial and ventricular tissue.

Ruifrok, W. T.; Westenbrink, B. D.; Boer, R. A.; Den Hamer, I. J.; Erasmus, M. E.; Mungroop, H. E.; Epema, A. H.; Voors, A. A.; Veldhuisen, D. J.; Gilst, W. H.

2010-01-01

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Basics of cardiopulmonary bypass: normal and abnormal postoperative CT appearances.  

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Cardiothoracic surgical procedures with and without cardiopulmonary bypass are becoming more commonly performed as surgical techniques improve and the population ages. Changes related to cardiopulmonary bypass are often depicted at routine postoperative computed tomographic (CT) studies performed for various reasons. The purpose of this article is to present knowledge critical to the accurate postoperative evaluation of the patient who has undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. This article will review the surgical technique for cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as the associated normal and abnormal postoperative imaging findings. Common cannulation sites used for cardiopulmonary bypass include the ascending aorta, axillary artery, right atrium, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava. Normal postoperative findings related to cardiopulmonary bypass include (a) felt pledgets, which are used to reinforce cannulation sites; (b) oversewn side grafts; and (c) oversewn graft side branches. These normal postoperative findings can be mistaken for abnormalities. Abnormal postoperative findings related to cardiopulmonary bypass include pseudoaneurysm formation at cannulation sites, aortic dissection, and seroma formation. An awareness of normal and abnormal postoperative CT findings related to cardiopulmonary bypass is critical for all radiologists who interpret chest CT studies, to help prevent unnecessary further evaluation and to help direct prompt treatment when warranted. PMID:23322827

El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Wu, Carol C; Schoenhagen, Paul; Little, Brent P; Cheng, Allen; Abbara, Suhny; Roselli, Eric E

2013-01-01

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A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting  

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Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION, posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION, and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass; general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone, alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence.

Trethowan Brian A

2011-11-01

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Effects of massage therapy on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery  

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INTRODUCTION: Having poor sleep quality is common among patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. Pain, stress, anxiety and poor sleep quality may be improved by massage therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether massage therapy is an effective technique for improving sleep quality in patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. METHOD: Participants included cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery patients who were randomized into a control g...

Flavia Baggio Nerbass; Maria Ignez Zanetti Feltrim; Silvia Alves de Souza; Daisy Satomi Ykeda; Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

2010-01-01

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Cancer and the cardiopulmonary system  

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This volume addresses the problems induced in the cardiopulmonary function by certain advanced diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities for cancer, reviews the cardiopulmonary changes resulting from cancer itself, and assesses the limitations to surgical and nonsurgical management of diverse neoplastic conditions. Information on the effects of various tumors on cardiopulmonary function and on the spectrum of adverse cardiopulmonary reactions caused by chemotherapy and radiation theorapy is provided, with specific practical guidance on diagnosis and treatment.

Khalil, A.M.; Ewer, M.S.

1984-01-01

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A marked increase in gastric fluid volume during cardiopulmonary bypass  

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Major physiological stress occurs during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This is related to hypothermia and artificial organ perfusion. Thus, serious gastrointestinal complications, particularly upper gastrointestinal bleeding, sometimes follow cardiac surgery. We have compared the antisecretory effects of a preanesthetic H2 antagonist (roxatidine, cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n = 15) and a proton pump inhibitor (rabeprazole, cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI group, n = 15) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and also compared in patients undergoing a off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n = 15). Gastric pH (5.14 ± 0.61) and gastric fluid volume (13.2 ± 2.4 mL) at the end of surgery in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 groups was significantly lower and higher than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (6.25 ± 0.54, 51.3 ± 8.0 mL) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (7.29 ± 0.13, 63.5 ± 14.8 mL) groups, respectively although those variables did not differ between groups after the induction of anesthesia. Plasma gastrin (142 ± 7 pg/mL) at the end of surgery and maximal blood lactate levels (1.50 ± 0.61 mM) in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group were also significantly lower than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (455 ± 96 pg/mL, 3.97 ± 0.80 mM) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (525 ± 27 pg/mL, 3.15 ± 0.44 mM) groups, respectively. In addition, there was a significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate (r = 0.596). In conclusion, cardiopulmonary bypass may cause an increase in gastric fluid volume which neither H2 antagonist nor PPI suppresses. A significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate suggests that gastric fluid volume may predict degree of gastrointestinal tract hypoperfusion.

Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kushikata, Tetsuya

2011-01-01

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PRODUCTION OF INDIAN CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS FREE PLANTS OF KINNOW EMPLOYING CHEMOTHERAPY COUPLED WITH SHOOT TIP GRAFTING  

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Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) is known to cause serious problem in Kinnow (Citrus nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora). This paper reports the elimination of ICRSV from Kinnow by chemotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting under in vitro conditions. Nodal segments from infected mother plant (indexed by indirect ELISA and RT-PCR) were cultured on MS medium containing 2-iP (1mg/l) and malt extract (800 mg/l) along with different concentrations of five antiviral chemicals acycloguanosine...

Sanjeev, Sharma; Balwinder, Singh; Gita, Rani; Aijaz Asghar, Zaidi; Vipin, Hallan; Avinash, Nagpal; Gurdeep Singh, Virk

2007-01-01

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PRODUCTION OF INDIAN CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS FREE PLANTS OF KINNOW EMPLOYING CHEMOTHERAPY COUPLED WITH SHOOT TIP GRAFTING  

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Full Text Available Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV is known to cause serious problem in Kinnow (Citrus nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora. This paper reports the elimination of ICRSV from Kinnow by chemotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting under in vitro conditions. Nodal segments from infected mother plant (indexed by indirect ELISA and RT-PCR were cultured on MS medium containing 2-iP (1mg/l and malt extract (800 mg/l along with different concentrations of five antiviral chemicals acycloguanosine, azidothymidine, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1, 2,5-triazine (DHT, ribavirin and 2- thiouracil. Shoot tips of size 0.7 mm were excised from the sprouts of these nodal segments and grafted on to rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri under aseptic conditions. The plantlets obtained from chemotherapy coupled with in vitro micrografting were indexed by indirect ELISA and RT-PCR after acclimatization. Maximum effect (37% virus elimination was seen for ribavirin at 25 mg/l followed by 2-thiouracil at 25 mg/l (21.4% and acyclguanosine at 25 mg/l (20.8%. Azidothymidine and DHT at the tested doses could not eliminate ICRSV. In the present study only those plants/plantlets were considered virus free, which showed negative reaction both with indirect ELISA and RT-PCR.

Sharma SANJEEV

2007-11-01

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Innominate truncal and arch blowout with left hemiparesis and right hemothorax followed by delayed cheese-wire perforation of innominate graft  

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We present the case of a 68 year old Caucasian woman, in extremis, with left hemiparesis and right hemothorax, in hypovolemic shock, secondary to a blow-out of a large penetrating ulcer at the junction of innominate trunk and aortic arch. She underwent interposition graft replacement of innominate trunk and repair of aortic arch, on cardiopulmonary bypass, employing total circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and had total resolution of hemiparesis. She, however, repre...

Kaul, Pankaj; Paniagua, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

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Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pharmacokinetics of some ?-blockers are altered by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery employing CPB on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol. We studied patients receiving oral propran [...] olol with doses ranging from 80 to 240 mg (N = 11) or atenolol with doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg (N = 8) in the pre- and postoperative period of CABG with moderately hypothermic CPB (32°C). On the day before and on the first day after surgery, blood samples were collected before ?-blocker administration and every 2 h thereafter. Plasma levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data were treated by pharmacokinetics-modelling. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA or the Friedman test, as appropriate, and P

Carmona, M.J.C.; Pereira, V.A.; Malbouisson, L.M.S.; Auler Jr., J.O.C.; Santos, S.R.C.J..

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: New Concept  

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of life-saving actions that improve the chances of survival, following cardiac arrest. Successful resuscitation, following cardiac arrest, requires an integrated set of coordinated actions represented by the links in the Chain of Survival. The links include the following: immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system, early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions, rapid defibrillation, effective advan...

Lee, Kwangha

2012-01-01

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Elderly,  

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Contents: The technology of resuscitation; Utilization and outcomes; Costs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Orders not to resuscitate; Resuscitation policies; Legal issues in resuscitation decisions.

C. K. Cassel M. D. Silverstein J. LaPuma M. McCally D. Roland

1985-01-01

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21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.  

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...false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870...4240 Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting...

2010-04-01

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Surgical results of coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass: analysis of 3,410 patients / Resultados cirúrgicos na revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea: análise de 3.410 pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado um grande avanço na cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica sem circulação extracorpórea (RMSCEC). Esse desenvolvimento deveu-se à combinação dos avanços da técnica cirúrgica e ao desenvolvimento de instrumentos que possibilitam a realização deste procedi [...] mento nas mais variadas situações. Este é um estudo retrospectivo, que visa avaliar nossa experiência com este procedimento nos últimos 11,5 anos. Os autores enfatizam o rápido progresso do método nos últimos anos, suas indicações, contra-indicações e resultados. MÉTODO: No período de agosto de 1991 e dezembro de 2002, 3.410 pacientes consecutivos, portadores de angina do peito, foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica sem circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 13 a 93 anos (63 12,0 anos), sendo 58% dos pacientes do sexo masculino. A angina foi classificada segundo a Canadian Cardiovascular Society, sendo 6,1% na classe I, 6,8% na classe II, 46,3% na classe III e 40,8% na classe IV. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade intra-operatória foi baixa (0,4%). A mortalidade hospitalar (trinta dias de pós-operatório) foi de 2,58%. A mortalidade e morbidade, no grupo dos pacientes octogenários, foram extremamente baixas em relação aos pacientes operados com circulação extracorpórea (2,2% x 12,6%) (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Over the past few years, great strides have been made in off-pump coronary surgery. This progress is due to a combination of the advances in surgical techniques and the development of instruments that make it possible to perform this procedure in the most varied situations. This is a ret [...] rospective study, the purpose of which is to assess our experience with this procedure over the last eleven and a half years. The authors underscore the rapid progress of the method in recent years and report on its indications, contraindications and results. METHODS: In the period from August 1991 to December 2003, 3,410 consecutively patients suffering from angina pectoris were submitted to off-pump coronary surgery. Ages ranged from 13 to 93 years, with a mean of 63 ± 12.0 years. Males accounted for 58% of the cases. The angina was rated according to the criteria of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, 6.1% of the patients being in Class I, 6.8% in Class II, 46.3% in Class III and 40.8% in Class IV. RESULTS: Intraoperative mortality was low (0.4%). Hospital mortality (30 postoperative days) was 2.5%. Mortality and morbidity among the octogenarian patients were extremely low compared with patients operated on with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (2.2% versus 12.6%) (p

Ricardo de Carvalho, Lima; Mozart Augusto Soares, Escobar; José Glauco, Lobo Filho; Roberto, Diniz; Antonio, Saraiva; Antonio, Césio; Mário, Gesteira; Frederico, Vasconcelos.

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Skin graft  

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Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

 
 
 
 
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The Evaluation of Arterial and Venous Grafts with Intraoperative Flowmeter Techniques in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Operations  

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coronary artery bypass grafts with Transit Time Flowmeter (TTFM). Material and Methods: Fifty-nine patients who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were included in the study. Coronary artery bypass anastomoses were performed using the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and saphenous vein. At the end of the cardiopulmonary bypass, graft flow (ml/min), pulsatility index (PI), flow curve and diastolic filling...

2010-01-01

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Cardiac muscle apoptosis: a comparison of myocardium revascularization with and without cardiopulmonary bypass Apoptose no músculo cardíaco: comparação na revascularização do miocárdio com e sem circulação extracorpórea  

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OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory response and metabolic disturbances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and without (OFF-PUMP) have been researched. Apoptosis in ischemic reperfusion and chronic disease models has been shown in recent studies. The objective of this study is to compare the apoptosis intensity detected in cardiac myocytes before and after CABG with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. METHOD: Eighteen patients undergoing elective CABG were divided...

Diego Felipe Gaia; Rafael Saviolo Moreira; Magaly Arrais; Nivia Cristina Tot Vinhola; Enio Buffolo; Ricardo Luiz Smith

2003-01-01

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Bone Grafts  

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A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : The Short Comings in Malaysia  

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This short review explores the current status of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Malaysia and highlights some of the factors that have a negative impact on its rate of success. Absence of a unifying body such as a national resuscitation council results in non-uniformity in the practice and teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the out-of-hospital setting, there is the lack of basic skills and knowledge in performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as using an automate...

Sheng, Chew Keng; Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Abdul; Jaalam, Kamaruddin; Adnan, Wan Aasim Wan

2008-01-01

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Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on propofol pharmacokinetics and bispectral index during coronary surgery  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 coronary artery bypass grafts were anesthetized with sufentanil and a propofol target controlled infusion (2.0 µg/mL. Depth of hypnosis was monitored using the bispectral index. Blood samples were collected from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma propofol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a non-compartmental propofol pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After cardiopulmonary bypass, despite similar plasma propofol concentrations in both groups, bispectral index values were lower in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. Time to extubation after the end of propofol infusion was greater in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group (334 ± 117 vs. 216 ± 85 min, p = 0.04. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had shorter biological (1.82 ± 0.5 vs. 3.67 ± 1.15h, p < 0.01 and terminal elimination (6.27 ± 1.29 vs. 10.5h ± 2.18, p < 0.01 half-life values, as well as higher total plasma clearance (28.36 ± 11.40 vs.18.29 ± 7.67 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03, compared to patients in the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. CONCLUSION: Aside from the increased sensitivity of the brain to anesthetics after cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in propofol pharmacokinetics may contribute to its central nervous system effects.

Ricardo Antonio G. Barbosa

2009-03-01

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A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting  

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Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

2011-01-01

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A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting  

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Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

2011-01-01

28

Cardiopulmonary involvement in Puumala hantavirus infection  

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BACKGROUND: Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary distress with high mortality. Pulmonary involvement in European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection has been reported, whereas knowledge of potential cardiac manifestations is limited. We aimed to comprehensively investigate cardiopulmonary involvement in patients with PUUV-inf...

Rasmuson, Johan; Lindqvist, Per; So?rensen, Karen; Hedstro?m, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Ahlm, Clas

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity  

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

1991-01-01

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Lowest Hematocrit on Cardiopulmonary Bypass Impairs the Outcome in Coronary Surgery  

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Severe hemodilutional anemia on cardiopulmonary bypass increases morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. The present study focuses on the lowest hematocrit values during extracorporeal circulation and on allogenic blood transfusions as mortality and morbidity risk factors. The records of 1,766 consecutive adult patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery at 3 institutions have been analyzed retrospectively for in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes. Clinical data were from the Italian National Cardioanesthesia Database. Multivariate analysis and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves were applied. The lowest hematocrit value on cardiopulmonary bypass was an independent risk factor for postoperative low-output syndrome and renal failure. The hematocrit cutoff values were similar for renal failure (23%) and low-output syndrome (24%). Blood transfusions were significantly associated with both renal failure and low-output syndrome. The risk of renal failure doubled when the nadir-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass hematocrit occurred in transfused patients. Anemia upon cardiopulmonary bypass was not associated with death. Our findings confirm that both severe anemia and blood transfusions were significantly associated with renal failure and low-output syndrome.

Ranucci, Marco; Biagioli, Bonizella; Scolletta, Sabino; Grillone, Giovanni; Cazzaniga, Anna; Cattabriga, Iolter; Isgro, Giuseppe; Giomarelli, Pierpaolo

2006-01-01

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and real life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Beloveds are, probably, the most well known and widely-read guidelines in Medicine. Although for decades these guidelines are regularly revisited every 5 years, the survival to cardiac arrest on the territory remain unsatisfactory, attesting itself on 6,4% or less. These discouraging outcomes caused some reflections on the validity of the guidelines concrete application. Some reviews, supported by the results of some good studies recently published, and the introduction of new technologies have produced remarkable changes not only in the guidelines, but also in the methodology subtended to the review process, and the consequent creation of new recommendations. The recent publication on Circulation of the 2005 guidelines is the standing point for an analysis of the great changes carried out.

Fabio D’Este

2006-02-01

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Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a key part of emergency cardiac care. It is a basic life support procedure that can be taught in the schools with the assistance of the American Heart Association. (JMF)

Carveth, Stephen W.

1979-01-01

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Wolf Creek VI Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sixth Wolf-Creek Conference was held at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in Rancho Mirage from June 4, 2001 to June 7, 2001. Approximately 70 internationally renown experts on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation attended the Conference and presented their most recent...

M. Weil

2001-01-01

34

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation following profound immersion hypothermia.  

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A case is presented in which prolonged resuscitation and rewarming was performed following post-rescue cardiopulmonary arrest in severe immersion hypothermia. The rescue and resuscitation techniques necessary to optimise outcome in such cases are described.

Steedman, D. J.; Rainer, T.; Campanella, C.

1997-01-01

35

Outcome Predictors of Pediatric Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

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Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) allows clinicians to potentially rescue pediatric patients unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Clinical and laboratory variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge are beginning to emerge. In this retrospective, historical cohort case series, clinical, and laboratory data from 31 pediatric patients (<21 years of age) receiving ECPR from March 2000 to April 2006 at our university-affiliated, tertiary-ca...

Kelly, Robert B.; Harrison, Rick E.

2010-01-01

36

Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Güldem Turan

2012-04-01

37

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances  

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Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of...

Zago, Alexandre C.; Nunes, Cristine E.; Da Cunha, Viviane R.; Euler Manenti; Luís Carlos Bodanese

1999-01-01

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Rationale, design and methodology for a Prospective Randomized Study of graft patency in Off-pump and On-pump MultI-Vessel coronary artery bypasS Surgery (PROMISS) using multidetector computed tomography  

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Abstract Background Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft patency when compared with conventional coronary artery angiography and is less invasive. The study hypothesis is that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (Off-Pump) has equivalent early graft patency as if...

Uva Miguel; Matias Fernando; Cavaco Sara; Magalhães Manuel

2008-01-01

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Reduction of early postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery patients treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The major clinical features of this include a reduction of pulmonary compliance and increased extracellular fluids, with increased pulmonary shunt fraction similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome, thus resulting in prolonged mechanical ventilation time (VAM) and intensive care unit length of stay (ICU STAY). We evaluated the feasibility of an intraoperatory cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit connected with a monitor for continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) to ameliorate pulmonary function after open heart surgery reducing VAM and ICU STAY. Forty patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized at the time of surgery into a control group (20 patients who received standard cardiopulmonary bypass) and a study group (20 patients who received CVVH during cardiopulmonary bypass). The analysis of postoperative variables showed a significative reduction of VAM in treated group (CVVH group mean 3.55 h +/- 0.85, control group 5.8 h +/- 0.94, P < 0.001) and ICU STAY (CVVH group mean 29.5 h +/- 6.7, control group 40.5 h +/- 6.67, P < 0.001). In our experience, the use of intraoperatory CVVH during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with lower early postoperative morbidity. PMID:19624590

Luciani, Remo; Goracci, Massimo; Simon, Caterina; Principe, Francesco; Fazzari, Loredana; Punzo, Giorgio; Menè, Paolo

2009-08-01

40

Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol  

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Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of some ?-blockers are altered by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery employing CPB on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and atenolol. We studied patients receiving oral propranolol with doses ranging from 80 to 240 mg (N = 11 or atenolol with doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg (N = 8 in the pre- and postoperative period of CABG with moderately hypothermic CPB (32°C. On the day before and on the first day after surgery, blood samples were collected before ?-blocker administration and every 2 h thereafter. Plasma levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data were treated by pharmacokinetics-modelling. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA or the Friedman test, as appropriate, and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. A prolongation of propranolol biological half-life from 5.41 ± 0.75 to 11.46 ± 1.66 h (P = 0.0028 and an increase in propranolol volume of distribution from 8.70 ± 2.83 to 19.33 ± 6.52 L/kg (P = 0.0032 were observed after CABG with CPB. No significant changes were observed in either atenolol biological half-life (from 11.20 ± 1.60 to 11.44 ± 2.89 h or atenolol volume of distribution (from 2.90 ± 0.36 to 3.83 ± 0.72 L/kg. Total clearance was not changed by surgery. These CPB-induced alterations in propranolol pharmacokinetics may promote unexpected long-lasting effects in the postoperative period while the effects of atenolol were not modified by CPB surgery.

M.J.C. Carmona

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a new perspective  

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Full Text Available At the present there are principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR which are reflected in the recommendations of the AHA and ESC of 2010. They include strict rules on well-timed and proper closed-chest cardiac massage. According to these rules chest compressions should be repeated at least 100 times per minute at a depth of not less than 5 cm. To comply with the standards is not easy even for skilled staff, operator tiredness quickly leads to decrease in CPR quality. Various mechanical devices for closed-chest cardiac massage are used nowadays. One of them is LUCAS system.In some studies LUCAS system showed an efficacy and safety comparable with manual closed-chest cardiac massage. Design features of the LUCAS device do not disturb other life maintaining activities — defibrillation, mechanical ventilation. The device permeability for X-rays makes possible the use of LUCAS in cath labs, if CPR is needed during the intervention procedure. LUCAS system can serve as an alternative tool for CPR. It can be used in intensive care units, as well as be at the disposal of special emergency teams.

V. A. Sulimov

2012-01-01

42

Skin Graft  

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Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

2012-01-01

43

Are We Successful in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?  

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Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine the success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed in the patients with diagnosis of cardiac arrest, and demographic characteristics of these patients. Material and Methods: The patients admitted to Adana Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine between 01.01.2011 and 31.12.2012, and who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation were included to this study planned as retrospectively. The age, gender, status of judicial cases, causes and time of cardiac arrest, first observed arrest rhythm, the diseases prior to the arrest, means of arrival to emergency department, duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the name of the hospitalised clinic, the existence of the operation, and outcome of the patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation in accordance with current advanced life support protocols were recorded in standard data entry form. Results: A total of 290 patients with completely accessible data were included to the study. Most of these patients were men (65.2%. The mean ages were 61 ± 19 years for men, 67 ± 14 years for women (p = 0.018. The most common diagnosis were ischemic heart disease and heart failure according to the analysis of the patient's medical history. 92 patients (31.7% were brought to the emergency department after death, and all of these patients were unsuccessful following to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 198 patients (68.3% had cardiac arrest in the emergency department, and we determined that cardiopulmonary resuscitation application of 102 patients were successful. The most common causes of cardiac arrest were myocardial infarction and heart failure. Mostly first observed rhythm in the monitor was asystole. The response rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia was higher. Most patients were hospitalised to the coronary intensive care unit, and 11 of the 21 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were discharged from hospital in good health. Total 15 (5% of all patients included to the study were discharged in good health. Conclusion: The lower rate of success in cardiopulmonary resuscitation showed the presence of defects in all stages of the chain of life, and suggests that some actions should be performed to correct them. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 601-609

Nalan Kozaci

2013-08-01

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Smoking cessation in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the smoking cessation rates of outpatients with cardiopulmonary disease and the differences between non-cardiopulmonary diseases.Methods: Two hundred and two active smokers with comorbid diseases were prospectively evaluated between September 2004 and January 2008 in this observational study. All of the patients answered Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence with a regular questionnaire of general characteristics. Behavioral counseling therapies were administered to all of the subjects. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or combination therapies were the pharmacological therapies after running the baseline spirometry and carbon monoxide oximetry tests. Subjects were classified as patients with cardiopulmonary disease (124 and non-cardiopulmonary diseases (78, based on medical history. Student t and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: The age of smoking was similar but total amount of smoked tobacco was higher (p0.05. Conclusion: Results of this analysis confirm that, tobacco dependence is still a severe but necessary condition for the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Additionally neither of the treatment protocols was superior to the others.

Zeynep P?nar Önen

2011-05-01

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Acute renal failure complicating cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.  

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Acute renal failure developed in 24 (5.3%) of 456 children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery during a 2-year period. It was more common in younger children, in those with complex cardiac lesions, and in those with long overall bypass times. Fourteen (58%) recovered renal function; renal failure was responsible for death in only two. Early vigorous peritoneal dialysis is advocated after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery if there is oliguria (less than or equal to 1.0 ml urine/kg per hour)...

Rigden, S. P.; Barratt, T. M.; Dillon, M. J.; Leval, M.; Stark, J.

1982-01-01

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Radiation-induced grafting of diallyldimethylammonium chloride onto acrylic acid grafted polyethylene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) was grafted onto polyethylene (PE) films by a double grafting procedure. The PE film was initially modified by grafting acrylic acid (AA), through a mutual irradiation method. AA-g-PE film, thus obtained was subjected to subsequent radiation grafting reaction of DADMAC, to give a DADMAC-g-AA-g-PE film having a comb-type structure. The influence of different conditions, such as the extent of AA grafting, DADMAC concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate, on the grafting yield of DADMAC was investigated. A maximum DADMAC grafting of 30% was achieved. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the grafted films were gravimetrically determined. TGA and FT-IR techniques were employed to characterize the grafted PE films.

Francis, Sanju [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: sanju@barc.gov.in; Dhanawade, B.R.; Mitra, D.; Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2009-01-15

47

Radiation-induced grafting of diallyldimethylammonium chloride onto acrylic acid grafted polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) was grafted onto polyethylene (PE) films by a double grafting procedure. The PE film was initially modified by grafting acrylic acid (AA), through a mutual irradiation method. AA-g-PE film, thus obtained was subjected to subsequent radiation grafting reaction of DADMAC, to give a DADMAC-g-AA-g-PE film having a comb-type structure. The influence of different conditions, such as the extent of AA grafting, DADMAC concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate, on the grafting yield of DADMAC was investigated. A maximum DADMAC grafting of 30% was achieved. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the grafted films were gravimetrically determined. TGA and FT-IR techniques were employed to characterize the grafted PE films

2009-01-01

48

Novelties in cardiopulmonary resuscitation of adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper it is presented novelties in cardiopulmonary resuscitation of adults. It was indicated to importance of maintenance of cardiac output as main factor of successful resuscitation. In was pointed out defibrillation by automatic external defibrillators (AED, especially of biphasic type. Recapitulation of the novelties was also stated.

Jovanovi? N.

2002-01-01

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

1994-01-01

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Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts: Comparison between on Pump and off Pump  

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The present study was undertaken to compare the in hospital results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with (on pump) or without (off pump) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were collected on all first-time isolated CABGs with saphenous vein and/or artery grafts at Shahid Madani Hospital in Tabriz-Iran, between 2006 and 2009. Age and clinical profile were marched between on pump and off pump group patients. Patients with concomitant cardiac operations or beating pump technique were exclu...

2010-01-01

51

Lowest hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass impairs the outcome in coronary surgery: An Italian Multicenter Study from the National Cardioanesthesia Database.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe hemodilutional anemia on cardiopulmonary bypass increases morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. The present study focuses on the lowest hematocrit values during extracorporeal circulation and on allogenic blood transfusions as mortality and morbidity risk factors. The records of 1,766 consecutive adult patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery at 3 institutions have been analyzed retrospectively for in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes. Clinical data were from the Italian National Cardioanesthesia Database. Multivariate analysis and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves were applied. The lowest hematocrit value on cardiopulmonary bypass was an independent risk factor for postoperative low-output syndrome and renal failure. The hematocrit cutoff values were similar for renal failure (23%) and low-output syndrome (24%). Blood transfusions were significantly associated with both renal failure and low-output syndrome. The risk of renal failure doubled when the nadir-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass hematocrit occurred in transfused patients. Anemia upon cardiopulmonary bypass was not associated with death. Our findings confirm that both severe anemia and blood transfusions were significantly associated with renal failure and low-output syndrome. PMID:17041685

Ranucci, Marco; Biagioli, Bonizella; Scolletta, Sabino; Grillone, Giovanni; Cazzaniga, Anna; Cattabriga, Iolter; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Giomarelli, Pierpaolo

2006-01-01

52

[Redo Off-pump Coronary Artery Grafting through Left Thoracotomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

An 80-year-old man successfully underwent reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting( CABG) via left thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The proximal end of the saphenous vein graft( SVG)was connected to the thoracic aorta using an automated proximal anastomosis system. Then the SVG routed beneath the pulmonary hilum was anastomosed to the high lateral branch and the anterior descending artery in a sequential mode. He recovered uneventfully and is free of chest pain after redo CABG. In selected patients, redo CABG for the left coronary artery can be safely performed through left thoracotomy. PMID:24917403

Oguma, Fumiaki; Sugawara, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

53

History of the evolution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references on CPR go back to the era of Ancient Egypt (3100 B.C.. Although the technique for mouth to mouth ventilation was known in ancient times, its efficacy was demonstrated just in 1958. The ease and efficacy of chest compressions were demonstrated in 1960. Electrical defibrillation may have begun in 1775, but it was applied to a victim of cardiac arrest in the 1950s. Conclusion: CPR is currently a rapidly evolving field of medical science. According to latest data, there is evidence that high quality chest compressions, prompt defibrillation if applicable and treatment of reversible causes improve Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references on CPR go back to the era of Ancient Egypt (3100 B.C.. Although the technique for mouth to mouth ventilation was known in ancient times, its efficacy was demonstrated just in 1958. The ease and efficacy of chest compressions were demonstrated in 1960. Electrical defibrillation may have begun in 1775, but it was applied to a victim of cardiac arrest in the 1950s. Conclusion: CPR is currently a rapidly evolving field of medical science. According to latest data, there is evidence that high quality chest compressions, prompt defibrillation if applicable and treatment of reversible causes improve neurologically intact long term survival of cardiac arrest victims.

George Karlis

2013-04-01

54

Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

Kangas, Lars J. (Richland, WA); Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

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Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing  

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The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V?O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of th...

2012-01-01

56

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and its application  

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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become an important clinical tool to evaluate exercise capacity and predict outcome in patients with heart failure and other cardiac conditions. It provides assessment of the integrative exercise responses involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems, which are not adequately reflected through the measurement of individual organ system function. CPET is being used increasingly in a wide spectrum of clinical applications for ev...

2007-01-01

57

Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

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Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and u...

Adib Hajbaghery, M.; Akbari, H.; Ga, Mousavi

2005-01-01

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Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

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Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

M Adib Hajbaghery

2005-05-01

59

Effects of massage therapy on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Having poor sleep quality is common among patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. Pain, stress, anxiety and poor sleep quality may be improved by massage therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether massage therapy is an effective technique for improving sle [...] ep quality in patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. METHOD: Participants included cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery patients who were randomized into a control group and a massage therapy group following discharge from the intensive care unit (Day 0), during the postoperative period. The control group and the massage therapy group comprised participants who were subjected to three nights without massage and three nights with massage therapy, respectively. The patients were evaluated on the following mornings (i.e., Day 1 to Day 3) using a visual analogue scale for pain in the chest, back and shoulders, in addition to fatigue and sleep. Participants kept a sleep diary during the study period. RESULTS: Fifty-seven cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery patients were enrolled in the study during the preoperative period, 17 of whom were excluded due to postoperative complications. The remaining 40 participants (male: 67.5%, age: 61.9 years ± 8.9 years, body mass index: 27.2 kg/m² ± 3.7 kg/m²) were randomized into control (n = 20) and massage therapy (n = 20) groups. Pain in the chest, shoulders, and back decreased significantly in both groups from Day 1 to Day 3. The participants in the massage therapy group had fewer complaints of fatigue on Day 1 (p=0.006) and Day 2 (p=0.028) in addition, they reported a more effective sleep during all three days (p=0.019) when compared with the participants in the control group. CONCLUSION: Massage therapy is an effective technique for improving patient recovery from cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery because it reduces fatigue and improves sleep.

Nerbass, Flavia Baggio; Feltrim, Maria Ignez Zanetti; Souza, Silvia Alves de; Ykeda, Daisy Satomi; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo.

60

Effects of massage therapy on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Having poor sleep quality is common among patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. Pain, stress, anxiety and poor sleep quality may be improved by massage therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether massage therapy is an effective technique for improving sleep quality in patients following cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery. METHOD: Participants included cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery patients who were randomized into a control group and a massage therapy group following discharge from the intensive care unit (Day 0, during the postoperative period. The control group and the massage therapy group comprised participants who were subjected to three nights without massage and three nights with massage therapy, respectively. The patients were evaluated on the following mornings (i.e., Day 1 to Day 3 using a visual analogue scale for pain in the chest, back and shoulders, in addition to fatigue and sleep. Participants kept a sleep diary during the study period. RESULTS: Fifty-seven cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery patients were enrolled in the study during the preoperative period, 17 of whom were excluded due to postoperative complications. The remaining 40 participants (male: 67.5%, age: 61.9 years ± 8.9 years, body mass index: 27.2 kg/m² ± 3.7 kg/m² were randomized into control (n = 20 and massage therapy (n = 20 groups. Pain in the chest, shoulders, and back decreased significantly in both groups from Day 1 to Day 3. The participants in the massage therapy group had fewer complaints of fatigue on Day 1 (p=0.006 and Day 2 (p=0.028 in addition, they reported a more effective sleep during all three days (p=0.019 when compared with the participants in the control group. CONCLUSION: Massage therapy is an effective technique for improving patient recovery from cardiopulmonary artery bypass graft surgery because it reduces fatigue and improves sleep.

Flavia Baggio Nerbass

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Software for interpreting cardiopulmonary exercise tests  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET has become an important modality for the evaluation and management of patients with a diverse array of medical problems. However, interpreting these tests is often difficult and time consuming, requiring significant expertise. Methods We created a computer software program (XINT that assists in CPET interpretation. The program uses an integrative approach as recommended in the Official Statement of the American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians (ATS/ACCP on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing. In this paper we discuss the principles behind the software. We also provide the detailed logic in an accompanying file (Additional File 1. The actual program and the open source code are also available free over the Internet at http://www.xint.org. For convenience, the required download files can also be accessed from this article. Additional file 1 XINTlogic. This file provides the detailed logic used by the XINT program. The variable names are described in Table 1. The actual source code may also be read directly simply by opening the source code with a text editor. Click here for file Results To test the clinical usefulness of XINT, we present the computer generated interpretations of the case studies discussed in the ATS/ACCP document in another accompanying file (Additional File 2. We believe the interpretations are consistent with the document's criteria and the interpretations given by the expert panel. Additional file 2 XINTinterpretations. These are the XINT generated reports based on the five examples provided in the ATS/ACCP statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing 1. Click here for file Conclusion Computers have become an integral part of modern life. Peer-reviewed scientific journals are now able to present not just medical concepts and experimental studies, but actual functioning medical interpretive software. This has enormous potential to improve medical diagnoses and patient care. We believe XINT is such a program that will give clinically useful interpretations when used by the medical community at large.

Corry David B

2007-10-01

62

Strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients  

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The purpose of this paper is to provide strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Currently, there are no standardized methods for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in this population; therefore, making comparisons across studies is difficult if not impossible. These strategies are intended for physicians, pulmonary technicians, exercise physiologists, and other healthcare professionals who conduct cardiopulmonary exercise testing on pectus e...

Malek, Moh H.; Coburn, Jared W.

2008-01-01

63

Strategies for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing of Pectus Excavatum Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to provide strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Currently, there are no standardized methods for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in this population; therefore, making comparisons across studies is difficult if not impossible. These strategies are intended for physicians, pulmonary technicians, exercise physiologists, and other healthcare professionals who conduct cardiopulmonary exercise testing on pectus e...

Malek, Moh H.; Coburn, Jared W.

2008-01-01

64

Bypass grafts to the ankle and foot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred forty-three bypasses to paramalleolar arteries were performed in 224 extremities of 208 patients since 1971; 166 were implanted in men (68%) and 77 in women (32%). The median age was 73 years. Gangrene (61%), nonhealing ulcer (15%), rest pain (22%), and trauma (2%) were the indications for bypass. Usual risk factors were noted: diabetes (65%), smoking (51%), heart disease (46%), and hypertension (45%). The extent of occlusive disease dictated three graft configurations: long grafts originating in arteries proximal to the adductor tendon (n = 111), short grafts originating at or below the popliteal artery (n = 88), and jump grafts originating near the distal end of a previous femorodistal bypass (n = 44). The association between diabetes (incidence 80%) and gangrene (75%) in patients with short grafts was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). The 2-year secondary patency rate of long in situ grafts was 92% compared with 72% for other autogenous vein long grafts. The limb salvage rate for all autogenous vein long grafts was 90% at 3 years. The secondary patency rate at 3 years for short grafts was 81% and the limb salvage rate was 80%. There were four amputations with patent grafts. Primary and secondary patency rates of jump grafts were similar (53%), whereas the limb salvage rate was 89% at 2 years. Patency and limb salvage rates of rarely employed nonautogenous conduits were less than 35% at 1 year (long grafts). Bypass grafts to the ankle and foot are effective and durable and should be performed with autogenous vein. PMID:3373620

Andros, G; Harris, R W; Salles-Cunha, S X; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W; Apyan, R L

1988-06-01

65

Gum Graft Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Find a Periodontist Gum Graft Surgery Exposed tooth roots are the result of ... reduce sensitivity. What are the benefits of gum graft surgery? A gum graft can reduce further recession ...

66

Strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to provide strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Currently, there are no standardized methods for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in this population; therefore, making comparisons across studies is difficult if not [...] impossible. These strategies are intended for physicians, pulmonary technicians, exercise physiologists, and other healthcare professionals who conduct cardiopulmonary exercise testing on pectus excavatum patients. By using the strategies outlined in this report, comparisons across studies can be made, and the effects of pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function can be assessed with greater detail.

Malek, Moh H.; Coburn, Jared W..

67

Strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Currently, there are no standardized methods for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in this population; therefore, making comparisons across studies is difficult if not impossible. These strategies are intended for physicians, pulmonary technicians, exercise physiologists, and other healthcare professionals who conduct cardiopulmonary exercise testing on pectus excavatum patients. By using the strategies outlined in this report, comparisons across studies can be made, and the effects of pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function can be assessed with greater detail.

Moh H. Malek

2008-01-01

68

Graft copolimerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and acrylamide, onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. ? ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft-copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption, and melting point of the grafted fibers were found to increase with the increasing of the degree of grafting. Polypropylene for 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dye absorption for almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, disper, and naphthol dyes. However, for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colorfastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colorfastness to washing for polypropylene 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain types of dyes such as vat and naphthol dyes. (author)

1978-10-01

69

Graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers such as 1-vinyl-2 pyrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid and acrylamide onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. Gamma ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption and the melting point of the grafted fibers increased with the increase of the degree of grafting. Polypropilen 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dyes absorption of almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, dispers, and naphtol. However for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colour fastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colourfastness to washing for polypropylene grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain dyes such as v and naphtol dyes

1977-01-01

70

Prueba de ejercicio con análisis de gases espirados / Cardiopulmonary exercise testing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prueba de ejercicio con análisis de gases espirados (PEAGE) es una herramienta útil tanto en el proceso diagnóstico como pronóstico de pacientes con enfermedades cardiovasculares, pulmonares, neuromusculares e incluso metabólicas. El análisis de la composición del gas espirado y las característic [...] as de la dinámica ventilatoria, nos dejan ver la manera en que la energía es transformada incluso a nivel celular (crestas mitocondriales), a través de diferentes procesos metabólicos. Mediante la PEAGE, el médico podrá discernir entre las diversas causas de disnea con origen indeterminado. Por otro lado, esta prueba representa un importante apoyo para indicar la realización de un trasplante (cardiaco, pulmonar o ambos) en pacientes con cardiopatía o neumopatía graves. La utilidad de una prueba cardiopulmonar, ha sido también comprobada en deportistas de alto rendimiento y en pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas. En el pasado, el acceso que tenían tanto el médico como el paciente a la realización de una PEAGE era restringido, debido principalmente a la complejidad y altos costos de los equipos. Sin embargo, hoy en día la tecnología se ha simplificado y los costos han disminuido, lo que ha hecho de la PEAGE una alternativa real en el trabajo cotidiano. Abstract in english Cardiopulmonary exercise test is a useful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular, pulmonary, neuromuscular and even metabolic disorders. The composition and the analysis of expired gas, and the characteristics of ventilatory dynamics, let us see how energy is transformed [...] , within the cells (mitochondrial cristae), through several metabolic processes. Using the cardiopulmonary exercise testing, physicians can distinguish among several causes of dyspnea with undetermined origin. On the other hand, this test represents an important support to indicate the indication of a graft-transplant (heart, lung or both) in patients with severe heart disease, lung disease or both. Cardiopulmonary test has also been used to evaluate high performance athletes and patients with congenital heart disease. In the past, physicians and patients had a restricted access to the performance of a cardiopulmonary exercise testing, mainly due to the complexity and high costs of this technology. Nowadays, this kind of equipment has been simplified and the costs lowered, in consequence this test became a real alternative in daily work.

Hermes, Ilarraza-Lomelí.

71

Histamine release during adult cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histamine, an inflammatory mediator in its own right, may also be a marker for a more widespread systemic inflammatory process. In this study we have examined variations in plasma histamine concentrations produced during the course of cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass, the relationship between these variations and intra-operative events. By assays of serum tryptase and CD-63 expression we have also attempted to identify the source of histamine. Histamine concentrations that were significantly raised from baseline level were demonstrated. These were elevated from the time of aortic cross-clamping and continued to be raised for 24 h postoperatively (p histamine. 41% of patients had arrhythmias in the post bypass period. The rise in histamine levels was not related to the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:16288615

Fayaz, K M; Pugh, S; Balachandran, S; Sudheer, P S; Hall, J E

2005-12-01

72

[Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prone position].  

Science.gov (United States)

In certain surgical positions standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) cannot be carried out. It is sometimes impossible or time-consuming to establish a supine position without increasing the no-flow-time and therefore creating a negative outcome of the patient. The case of CPR in a prone position during an emergency evacuation of a cerebellar hematoma is reported. The resuscitation was initiated in the prone position to decrease the no-flow-time. This was very effective because the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) started before turning the patient to the supine position. Resuscitation in the prone position in this case was equally as effective as in the traditional supine position. PMID:20852835

Haffner, E; Sostarich, A M; Fösel, T

2010-12-01

73

Graft irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host disease in combined pancreas-spleen transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of combined pancreas-spleen transplantation (PST) was studied in LBN F1 recipients of Lewis grafts in order to evaluate the efficacy of pretransplant graft irradiation in preventing lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipients of unmodified PST uniformly developed severe GVHD and died (MST = 16.7 +/- 3.8 days). Whole body donor irradiation with either 500 or 250 rad prevented lethal GVHD. Similarly, ex vivo graft irradiation with either 1000 or 500 rad also resulted in normal weight gain, graft function, and host survival for the 6-week study period. Conversely, delay of graft irradiation until 3 days after transplantation failed to prevent this complication (MST = 15.8 +/- 3.7 days). Recipients of irradiated grafts displayed glucose tolerance tests that were identical to those in the control group indicating that the doses of radiation employed in these experiments were not deleterious to islet function. Irradiated spleen grafts appeared histologically normal at 6 weeks after transplantation. Cells derived from these grafts failed to stimulate lymph node enlargement in a popliteal lymph node assay for GVHD, suggesting that these spleens may have become repopulated with host cells. These experiments confirm that PST has the potential to cause lethal GVHD and suggest that pretransplant graft irradiation may be used to prevent its occurrence

1986-01-01

74

Radiation initiated grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various methods of grafting of vinyl monomers on to synthetic polymers have been presented with an emphasis for suppressing the parasitic homopolymerisation both in in-source grafting as well as post-irradiation grafting. The parameters like glass transition temperature of the polymer, preswelling, swelling along with grafting etc., have been considered in detail for obtaining the maximum graft yield with least homopolymerisation. Recent work carried out on grafting of vinyl monomers on to the synthetic fibres and films have been presented and discussed. Practical applications of radiation grafted materials are indicated. (author)

1980-08-01

75

A Comfortability Level Scale for Performance of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the development of an instrument to appraise the comfortability level of college students in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methodology and findings of data collection are given. (Author/DF)

Otten, Robert Drew

1984-01-01

76

Industry Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

77

ICT Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This page, from the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technology Center, provides some information on careers and employment in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industries. The three types of individuals using information and communications technologies include ICT users, enablers and creators. The webpage also includes employment data from a few different agencies including the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.

2011-08-02

78

Maternal Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

79

Employment Law  

Science.gov (United States)

Ross Runkel is a retired professor of law, and given his long experience with employment and labor law, it seems quite natural that he would be the founder of the site, Employment Law. Along with a team of other equally qualified professionals, he has created this site to serve as a clearinghouse of material about the world of employment law and its many facets. First time visitors may wish to check out his employment law or arbitration blogs, then move on to one of the most popular features, a list of recent and pending cases in the field that have been heard before the US Supreme Court. Additionally, the âÂÂArticlesâ area contains pieces authored by Runkel and others, including a piece on how to find an employment lawyer and several timely pieces on the National Labor Relations Board.

Runkel, Ross, 1939-

80

Necessity of immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in trauma emergency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types of trauma and survival of patients that require immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in trauma emergencies. A total of 13301 patients treated as accident victims between July 2004 and December 2006 were evaluated in a prospective st...

Luciano Baitello; Marcela Gonzáles; Cesar Espada; de Godoy José

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Renal graft].  

Science.gov (United States)

After years of pioneering research and clinical applications, renal transplantation has now moved into the era of routine practice-the first line treatment for renal failure in more than 1500 new patients each year in France. Despite this success, transplantation is not a cure, it simply replaces one disease by another-immunodepression. As a result, over the next 20 years, 60% of the recipients will undoubtedly develop cancer. In addition, the life span of a transplanted kidney is shorter than that of the recipient. Consequently most of them will require a second graft 8 to 10 years after the first. Together with the development of new innovating immunology agents such as FK 506 and mycophenolate, for example, these current facts raise the challenging question of the future for renal transplantation. Will adequation between donors and recipients be achieved? Should we develop single organ transplantation units within our current nephrology-urology structures or create multiorgan units devoted solely to transplantation? And finally, will (or perhaps when will) progress in immunology completely control the problem of organ rejection? One technical point is also of interest. Being (with orthopaedic surgery) one of the rare indications where open surgery can be expected to continue over the next 20 years, renal transplantation units will play an essential role in training future surgeons. PMID:8545355

Benoit, G

1995-10-28

82

Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery is standard of care: Where do you stand?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has allowed the establishment of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease. However, the concern that CPB may be responsible for CABG-related morbidity has been raised, and it has been suggested that CABG itself would be safer without CPB. The development of commercially available cardiac stabilization devices resulted in several large, nonrandomized retrospective case series. The ...

2006-01-01

83

Minimized extracorporeal circulation for the robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting hybrid procedure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) can be performed on the beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass support in high-risk patients or patients for whom technical difficulties are expected with a complete off-pump approach. To minimize the inflammatory response and reduce the requirement for transfusion, minimized extracorporeal circulation is an attractive option for robotic TECAB procedures. The present report describes a case for which minimized ...

Lehr, Eric J.; Odonkor, Patrick; Reyes, Peter; Bonatti, Johannes

2010-01-01

84

Terumo-Triplex grafts for total arch replacement: analysis of postoperative graft performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the performance of Terumo-Triplex (TRP) with a large-diameter vascular graft sealed with non-biodegradable material in 48 patients who underwent total arch replacement under selective cerebral perfusion between 2004 and 2009. TRP grafts were used in 13 patients (T group), Gelseal graft in 15 (G group), Hemashield graft in 10 (H group) and Intergard graft in 10 (I group). The total tube drainage, time to tube removal, graft dilation ratio and inflammation were evaluated postoperatively. Cardiopulmonary bypass and selective cerebral perfusion times did not differ between groups. Two patients died in hospital. The total drain drainage was significantly lower in the T group (956 ± 156 ml) than in the H (2058 ± 403 ml, p = 0.001) or I (5959 ± 1027 ml, p = 0.01) groups. The time to tube removal was significantly lower in T group and G group than H and I group (T: 3.7 ± 0.4, G: 4.1 ± 0.4, H: 8.3 ± 1.6, I: 18.6 ± 3.6 days, T vs. H, I: p = 0.07, 0.0002, G vs. H, I: p = 0.004, <0.0001). The graft dilation ratio was significantly lower in T group than G group (T: 104 ± 4 vs. 130 ± 7 %, p = 0.001). The max C-reactive protein level was significantly lower in T group (16.2 ± 4.5 mg/dl) than in the G group (19.4 ± 3.2 mg/dl, p = 0.047), H (20.4 ± 4.1 mg/dl, p = 0.048), or I (20.5 ± 4.5 mg/dl, p = 0.013) groups. Maximum body temperature was also lower in the T group (38.2 ± 0.5 °C) than in the G (38.7 ± 0.4 °C, p = 0.011), H (38.9 ± 0.6 °C, p = 0.0087), and I (39.3 ± 0.7 °C, p = 0.0005). Thus, TRP graft might attenuate inflammatory response compared to the other sealed grafts for total arch replacement in patients with aortic arch aneurysm or dissection. PMID:22527980

Ohata, Toshihiro; Ueda, Hideki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Fukuda, Hirotsugu; Miyamoto, Yuji

2012-09-01

85

Hantaviruses and cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging health problem in South America due to urban growth and to the expansion of agriculture and cattle-raising areas into ecosystems containing most of the species of Sigmodontinae rodents that act as hantavirus reservoirs. About 4000 HCPS cases have been reported in South America up to 2013, associated with the following hantaviruses: Andes, Anajatuba, Araraquara (ARQV), Paranoá, Bermejo, Castelo dos Sonhos, Juquitiba, Araucária, Laguna Negra, Lechiguanas, Maripa, Oran, Rio Mamore and Tunari. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by contact with or through aerosols of excreta and secretions of infected rodents. Person-to-person transmission of hantavirus has also been reported in Argentina and Chile. HCPS courses with a capillary leaking syndrome produced by the hantavirus infecting lung endothelial cells and mostly with a severe inflammatory process associated with a cytokine storm. HCPS starts as a dengue-like acute febrile illness but after about 3 days progresses to respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, leading to a high fatality rate that reaches 50% for patients infected with ARQV. PMID:24508343

Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Souza, William Marciel de; Ferrés, Marcela; Enria, Delia Alcira

2014-07-17

86

Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

Groarke, J

2010-09-01

87

Change of platelet functions during cardiopulmonary bypass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For observing the activation degree of platelets during various stages of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for an ?-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of activated human platelets was used. The number of platelets fell significantly during CPB and went to minimum at the end of CPB. The GMP-140 molecules on the platelet surface remarkably increased at the start of CPB, then reached to maximum between the ending of CPB and administration of protamine, and returned to normal 2 hours post-operation. However, after ending of CPB the concentration of GMP-140 in plasma began to increase, 2 hours post-operation reached to peak and 24 to 48 hours after ending CPB returned to normal. The TxB_2 in plasma reached the first peak after heparinization and start of CPB, the second peak was in the end of CPB and after administration of protamine, and returned to normal 2 hours post-operation. But the 6-keto-PGF_1_? did not change very much. The concentration of PF_4 increased at the start of CPB reached to peak at the end of CPB and became normal 24 hours post-operation. The vWF increased at the start of CPB and reached to peak at the ending of CPB, then returned to normal 24 hours post-operation. These results could explain the activation degree of platelets during CPB

1992-01-01

88

Endovascular stent-graft management of thoracic aortic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional standard therapy for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is open operative repair with graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. Despite important advances in surgical techniques, anesthetic management, and post-operative care over the last 30 years, the mortality and morbidity of surgery remains considerable, especially in patients at high risk for thoracotomy because of coexisting severe cardiopulmonary abnormalities or other medical diseases. The advent of endovascular stent-graft technology provides an alternative to open surgery for selected patients with TAA. The initial experience suggests that stent-graft therapy potentially may reduce the operative risk, hospital stay and procedural expenses of TAA repair. These potential benefits are especially attractive for patients at high risk for open TAA repair. Current results of endovascular TAA therapy document operative mortalities of between 0 and 4%, aneurysm thrombosis in 90 and 100% of cases, and paraplegia as a complication in 0 and 1.6% of patients. The early success of stent-graft repair of TAA has fostered the application of these devices for the management of a wide variety of thoracic aortic pathologies, including acute and chronic dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, traumatic injuries, and other diseases. The results of prospective controlled trials that compare the outcomes of stent-graft therapy with those of surgical treatment in patients with specific types of aortic disease are anxiously awaited before recommendations regarding the general use of these new devices can be made with confidence.

Dake, Michael D. E-mail: mddake@stanford.edu

2001-07-01

89

The radiation-induced grafting of polybutadiene onto silica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-ray-induced grafting of polybutadiene oligomers onto precipitated silica was investigated in the dose range up to 200 kGy by THA, FTIR, CP/MAS NMR, TEM microscopy, inverse gas chromatography (IGC), with determination of the grafting yields and the characterization of the modified silica with respect to surface energy, SiO2-oligomer interaction and morphology. The matrix EPR spectroscopy was employed for investigating the nature of the intermediate radicals in the grafting mechanism.

2008-09-21

90

Delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the microgravity environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The microgravity environment presents several challenges for delivering effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Chest compressions must be driven by muscular force rather than by the weight of the rescuer's upper torso. Airway stabilization is influenced by the neutral body posture. Rescuers will consist of crew members of varying sizes and degrees of physical deconditioning from space flight. Several methods of CPR designed to accommodate these factors were tested in the one G environment, in parabolic flight, and on a recent shuttle flight. Methods: Utilizing study participants of varying sizes, different techniques of CPR delivery were evaluated using a recording CPR manikin to assess adequacy of compressive force and frequency. Under conditions of parabolic flight, methods tested included conventional positioning of rescuer and victim, free floating 'Heimlich type' compressions, straddling the patient with active and passive restraints, and utilizing a mechanical cardiac compression assist device (CCAD). Multiple restrain systems and ventilation methods were also assessed. Results: Delivery of effective CPR was possible in all configurations tested. Reliance on muscular force alone was quickly fatiguing to the rescuer. Effectiveness of CPR was dependent on technique, adequate restraint of the rescuer and patient, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR was adequate but rapidly fatiguing. The CCAD was able to provide adequate compressive force but positioning was problematic. Conclusions: Delivery of effective CPR in microgravity will be dependent on adequate resuer and patient restraint, technique, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR may be employed as a stop gap method until patient restraint is available. Development of an adequate CCAD would be desirable to compensate for the effects of deconditioning.

Barratt, M. R.; Billica, R. D.

1992-01-01

91

Surgical intervention utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary unroofing of anomalous coronary artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary arteries originating from the opposite coronary cusp and crossing the path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery are associated with ischemia and sudden cardiac death. An increased prevalence of these cases may be attributed to diagnostic advances in computed tomographic angiography (CTA). We report a retrospective review of ten patients referred for surgical intervention from March 2008 to present. Nine patients were diagnosed with right coronary arteries arising from the left coronary cusp and one patient with a left coronary artery arising from the right coronary cusp. Seven patients were male and the median age was 40 years (range, 21 to 51). Symptoms included atypical chest pain, tachy-arrythmias, diaphoresis, and dyspnea on exertion. CTA demonstrated anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite coronary cusp and traveling between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Surgical intervention was performed on all ten patients with no mortality and only one re-operation requiring bypass grafting. The sixth patient in the series had concomitant atherosclerotic disease, requiring left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was utilized with moderate hypothermia in all ten patients, with retrograde and/or coronary ostial cardioplegia administration. At routine surgical follow-up, all patients were without original presenting symptoms. Patients with anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite coronary cusp are at risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Surgical unroofing is a viable option for this patient population and avoids coronary artery bypass grafting. Since March 2008, we have operated on ten patients presenting with this anomaly and have had excellent short-term results. Further long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:20515983

Resley, Justin; Burke, Ryan; Isbell, David; Tribble, Reid; Martin, Jeffery; Petit, Scott

2010-07-01

92

Grafting and curing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

1998-06-01

93

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

94

Historical development of the cardiopulmonary ressuscitation: review study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: this review aimed to describe the historical development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, following the history of this therapeutic modality. Methods: the methodology consists of a review of the databases Medline and Lilacs looking for articles published in the last 20 years about the history and establishment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation as a therapeutic option for reversal of cardiorespiratory arrest. Results: there are historical antecedents of cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the Biblical era until the establishment of the committee of the American Heart Association. As this committee, currently, a reference in teaching and research in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the world, its investment allowed from 2000, the development of a global consensus of resuscitation guidelines that generated international attention only on the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion: it was noted that over the years the techniques of PCR produced an impact on modern society to the point of generating new expectations facing life and death, revealing is essential that the healthcare professional who understands your technical and scientific competence for a parade heart can make a difference between life and death of a patient.

Érika de Azevedo Leitão Mássimo, Daclé Vilma Carvalho, Talline Arêdes Hang Costa, Danilo Ulisses Oliveira

2009-07-01

95

Comparing iterated grafting and grafting rays  

CERN Document Server

Let X be a closed oriented hyperbolic surface and gamma a simple closed geodesic, which is short on X. We show that the iterated grafting (gr_{t gamma} gr_{s gamma} X) is close to the grafting ray (gr_{(s+T) gamma} X) in the Teichmueller metric, where the bounds depend on the length of gamma only. Using this result, we show that the holonomy lifts (gr^n_{2 pi gamma} gr_{t gamma} X) of a grafting ray all lie in a r-tube around the ray (gr_{t gamma} X) and the rays (gr_{t gamma} gr^n_{2 pi gamma} X) accumulate exponentially fast (in n) in the Hausdorff topology. Finally we study the asymptotic behaviour of grafting rays and iterated grafting sequences and show that both gr_{t gamma} X and gr^n_{2 pi gamma} X) converge geometrically to a cusped surface for any X and gamma.

Hensel, Sebastian

2008-01-01

96

Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM can occur in patients admitted after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and is considered to have a poor prognosis. The origin can be cortical and/or subcortical and this might be an important determinant for treatment options and prognosis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether acute PHM originates from cortical or subcortical structures, using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods Patients with acute PHM (focal myoclonus or status myoclonus within 72 hours after CPR were retrospectively selected from a multicenter cohort study. All patients were treated with hypothermia. Criteria for cortical origin of the myoclonus were: giant SEP potentials; or epileptic activity, status epilepticus, or generalized periodic discharges on the EEG (no back-averaging was used. Good outcome was defined as good recovery or moderate disability after 6?months. Results Acute PHM was reported in 79/391 patients (20%. SEPs were available in 51/79 patients and in 27 of them (53% N20 potentials were present. Giant potentials were seen in 3 patients. EEGs were available in 36/79 patients with 23/36 (64% patients fulfilling criteria for a cortical origin. Nine patients (12% had a good outcome. A broad variety of drugs was used for treatment. Conclusions The results of this study show that acute PHM originates from subcortical, as well as cortical structures. Outcome of patients admitted after CPR who develop acute PHM in this cohort was better than previously reported in literature. The broad variety of drugs used for treatment shows the existing uncertainty about optimal treatment.

Bouwes Aline

2012-08-01

97

Aspirin preserves neutrophil apoptosis after cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ongoing aspirin therapy preserves neutrophil apoptosis after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by a cyclooxygenase mechanism. Twenty patients undergoing coronary revascularization with CPB were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Patients who had continued taking 300 mg of aspirin until the day before surgery (n = 10) were compared with 10 patients not taking aspirin or who had discontinued it more than 5 days before surgery. Neutrophils were isolated from arterial blood before and 6 h after surgery and apoptosis was measured after 24 h in culture using flow cytometry. Serum was collected and assessed for IL-6, IL-8 and PGE2 by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. Patients were followed for clinical indices of sepsis for 7 days postoperatively. Spontaneous rates of neutrophil apoptosis were significantly reduced in postoperative compared with preoperative samples. There was no difference between aspirin and control preoperative neutrophil apoptosis rates (23.0% +/- 11.3% vs. 23.0% +/- 20.7%, P = 0.99). Postoperative neutrophil apoptosis was delayed in control patients (3.6% +/- 1.2% apoptosis), but this was significantly (P = 0.045) reversed in the aspirin-treated group (7.2% +/- 5.1% apoptosis). There were lower postoperative PGE2 levels in the aspirin group (136 +/- 69 pg/mL vs. 372 +/- 210 pg/mL, P = 0.04). There was no difference in clinical indices of sepsis. We conclude that the delay in postoperative neutrophil apoptosis is significantly preserved in patients taking 300 mg of aspirin on the day before surgery. This was associated with greater inhibition of PGE2, consistent with the hypothesis that aspirin exerts its effect on apoptosis after CPB via a cyclooxygenase-mediated mechanism. PMID:15167676

Bates, John J; Watson, R William G; Glynn, Carla M; O'Neill, Amanda J; Fitzpatrick, John M; Buggy, Donal J

2004-06-01

98

Interventional bronchoscopy for benign tracheobronchial diseases under cardiopulmonary bypass support: case reports and literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of cardiopulmonary bypass as an adjunct to airway surgery for non-malignant diseases in adults is not well established in the UK. We are reporting two cases which demonstrate the additional benefits of using cardiopulmonary bypass during difficult bronchoscopy and complex airway stenting. The first case presents an emergency indication for cardiopulmonary bypass in a life-threatening but benign condition. The second case presented, utilises cardiopulmonary bypass standby as adjunct to...

2008-01-01

99

Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual ?-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 kcal/mol between 20 and 60"0C and 10 kcal/ mol between 60 and 80"0C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70"0C, shows maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130"0C and then breaks off at 136"0C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300"0C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and their metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption; however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. (author)

1980-10-30

100

Effect of surface texture of grafted films on antithrombogenicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relation between grafting conditions and antithrombogenicity has been examined from the purpose of clearing the necessity of controlling grafting conditions to enhance blood compatibility. The grafting systems employed here were N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) - poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and DMAA - poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (AFLON) and grafting parameters were dose rate, monomer concentration and total dose (irradiation time). Grafting DMAA on to the substrates was carried out by using simultaneous irradiation method of gamma rays from a "6"0Co source. After evaluation of blood compatibility of the grafted films by using in vitro tests, it has been clear that control of grafting conditions is important. Especially, in both grafting systems, dose rate control has found to be very important for blood compatibility. When higher dose rate of 1.0 x 10"5 to 3.0 x 10"5 rad/hr was used for grafting DMAA on to PTFE or AFLON, blood compatibility of the substrates was not enhanced, whereas it was improved when the grafting was carried out at lower dose rate of 0.97 x 10"4 rad/hr. The correlation between dose rate and antithrombogenicity has been interpreted in terms of surface-roughness of the grafted films. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) - observation, it has been observed that higher dose rate makes the surface rough, whereas lower dose rate makes it smooth. (author)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Northern employment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

1997-01-01

102

Employment targeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many recent discussions on the conduct of monetary policy through interest rate rules have given a very central role to inflation, both as an objective and as an intermediate instrument. We want to show that other variables like employment can be as important or even more. For that we construct a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model where the economy is subject to demand and supply shocks. We compute closed form solutions for the optimal interest rate rules and find that they c...

2006-01-01

103

Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: cardiopulmonary biomarker levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiopulmonary biomarkers are biological parameters that can be objectively measured and quantified as indicators of pathogenic processes (heartworm disease) or as indicators of response to therapeutic intervention. To determine levels of cardiopulmonary biomarkers in canine dirofilariasis, measurements of cardiac troponin T, cardiac troponin I, myoglobin, and D-dimer concentrations were performed for dogs with and without evidence of adult heartworm infection. The results showed that levels of cardiac troponin T were undetectable in all dogs studied while levels of cardiac troponin I were higher in dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis. In healthy dogs, levels of myoglobin and D-dimer were below detection limits of the instrument and were significantly higher in heartworm-infected dogs, notably in microfilaremic dogs. The results suggest the possibility of using troponin I and myoglobin as markers for cardiac damage and the D-dimer as a supportive tool for a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs with cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. PMID:21310535

Carretón, E; Corbera, J A; Juste, M C; Morchón, R; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

2011-03-22

104

Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

2006-01-01

105

EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs.100 per day. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA is an Indian job guarantee scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005. The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of 100 (US$2.17 per day. The Central government outlay for scheme is 40,000 crore (US$8.68 billion in FY 2010-11. The scheme commenced on February 2, 2006 in 200 districts, was expanded to cover another 130 districts in 2007-2008 and eventually covered all 593 districts in India by April 1, 2008. The outlay was Rs. 110 billion in 2006-2007, and rose steeply to Rs. 391 billion (140% increase in amount with respect to previous 2008-2009 budget in 2009-2010. Many criticisms have been leveled at the programme, which has been argued to be no more effective than other poverty reduction programmes in India, with key exceptions such as Rajasthan.The first criticism is financial. The MGNREGAis one of the largest initiatives of its kind in the world. The national budget for the financial year 2006-2007 was Rs 113 billion (about US$2.5bn and almost 0.3% of GDP and now fully operational, it costs Rs. 391 billion in financial year 2009-2010.

DILIP KHANDERAO PATIL

2013-06-01

106

Innominate truncal and arch blowout with left hemiparesis and right hemothorax followed by delayed cheese-wire perforation of innominate graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the case of a 68 year old Caucasian woman, in extremis, with left hemiparesis and right hemothorax, in hypovolemic shock, secondary to a blow-out of a large penetrating ulcer at the junction of innominate trunk and aortic arch. She underwent interposition graft replacement of innominate trunk and repair of aortic arch, on cardiopulmonary bypass, employing total circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and had total resolution of hemiparesis. She, however, represented, 6 months later, with threatened exsanguination after a sternal wire cheese-wired through the sternum and perforated the anteriorly lying innominate graft. Following successful repair, she was found to have an old intramural hematoma of distal arch and descending thoracic aorta and changes suggestive of chronic dissection of the whole of abdominal aorta. This was managed conservatively.We believe this patient's presentation initially with a spontaneous innominate blow-out, cardiogenic shock, hemothorax and hemiparesis, and later with cheese-wire perforation of the innominate graft is unique. Her surgical rescue at both presentations was equally unusual, and without surgical precedent to the best of our knowledge. Was the initial innominate blow-out the result of localised innominate dissection, or more unusually, part of retrograde descending thoracic dissection with skip penetration of innominate artery and sparing of the intervening arch? Was it secondary to the minor fall she had sustained 1 week prior to the event, resulting in a false aneurysm or a contained hematoma next to the innominate artery? More intriguingly, did diffuse aortopathy underpin these diverse etiologies and result in penetrating intimal ulcer with blow out in the innominate artery, intramural hematoma in the arch and descending thoracic aorta and dissection in abdominal aorta at different points in time?We review the current literature for these unusual afflictions of innominate trunk and its origin from the arch of aorta. PMID:23618057

Kaul, Pankaj; Paniagua, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

107

Experimental Study of a Novel Method of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using a Combination of Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support and Liposome-encapsulated Hemoglobin (TRM645)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) has been applied for cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). We have developed a novel method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using PCPS combined with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (TRM645) to improve oxygen delivery to vital organs. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced to an adult goat for 10 min. Next, PCPS (30 ml/kg/min, V/Q: 1) was performed for 20 min. Then, external defibrillation was attempted and observed for 120 min. The TRM group...

Ota, Kei; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Ishizuka, Takanobu; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Ujike, Yoshihito

2008-01-01

108

Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: grief therapy or prolonged futility?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing leaders are responsible in part for implementing procedures supporting family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Family presence has received broad support in nursing literature and from professional organizations. A case study suggests that, when a patient's spokesperson is struggling with the question of whether to set limits to treatments, allowing family presence may inappropriately prolong futile care. PMID:18434866

Sherman, David A

2008-01-01

109

Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients wi...

Lindner, K. H.; Haak, T.; Keller, A.; Bothner, U.; Lurie, K. G.

1996-01-01

110

Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills by Medical Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…

Fossel, Michael; And Others

1983-01-01

111

Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during individual training.

Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla

2008-01-01

112

A National Survey of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for the Deaf.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses to a national survey by regional directors of the American Heart Association, American National Red Cross, and continuing education programs for the deaf indicated that little is done to train the deaf in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and that communication barriers and inadequate training resources are major reasons. (Author)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Tomasetti, James A.

1983-01-01

113

Necessity of immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in trauma emergency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types of trauma and survival of patients that require immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in trauma emergencies. A total of 13301 patients treated as accident victims between July 2004 and December 2006 were evaluated in a prospective study. Patients requiring immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation at admission were identified. The type of injury and the survival of these patients were evaluated. Of the 65 patients included in the study, 30% had suffered from gunshot wounds, 19% had been run over, 18% had been involved in car crashes, 13% in motor cycle accidents, 9% stabbings, 1% by cycle accidents and 10% other types of accidents including burns, hangings and falls. In only 12 of these patients, immediate resuscitation was successful and procedure such as chest drainage, exploratory laparotomy and interventions in the surgical center were performed. However all patients evolved to death; eight within 24 hours, two between 24 and 48 hours and the other 2 after 48 hours. Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation after accidents is a sign of high mortality requiring further studies to review indication and the ethical aspects involved.

Luciano Baitello

2010-08-01

114

Relationship of serum magnesium level and supplemental magnesium dosage with post coronary artery bypass graft surgery arrhythmias  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are among the most common complications after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Previous studies demonstrated that cardiopulmonary bypass itself results in reduced serum magnesium levels. In this study, we evaluated the effect of total blood magnesium level (TMG) on the prevention of perioperative arrhythmias with routine regimens of 2-4 grams supplemental magnesium (SMG). Methods: TMG was measured in patients who were scheduled for CA...

Najafi M; Haghighat B; Ahmadi H

2007-01-01

115

Axillobifemoral bypass grafting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF) means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF). This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The object...

2004-01-01

116

Engineered vascularized bone grafts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical protocols utilize bone marrow to seed synthetic and decellularized allogeneic bone grafts for enhancement of scaffold remodeling and fusion. Marrow-derived cytokines induce host neovascularization at the graft surface, but hypoxic conditions cause cell death at the core. Addition of cellular components that generate an extensive primitive plexus-like vascular network that would perfuse the entire scaffold upon anastomosis could potentially yield significantly higher-quality grafts. W...

Tsigkou, Olga; Pomerantseva, Irina; Spencer, Joel A.; Redondo, Patricia A.; Hart, Alison R.; O’doherty, Elisabeth; Lin, Yunfeng; Friedrich, Claudia C.; Daheron, Laurence; Lin, Charles P.; Sundback, Cathryn A.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Neville, Craig

2010-01-01

117

Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived.

Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

2014-01-01

118

Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients' PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (pROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

2014-01-01

119

Wearable system-on-a-chip UWB radar for contact-less cardiopulmonary monitoring: present status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present status of the project aimed at the realization of an innovative wearable system-on-chip UWB radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is presented. The overall system consists of a wearable wireless interface including a fully integrated UWB radar for the detection of the heart beat and breath rates, and a IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee low-power radio interface. The principle of operation of the UWB radar for the monitoring of the heart wall is summarized. With respect to the prior art, this paper reports the results of the experimental characterization of the intra-body channel loss, which has been carried out successfully in order to validate the theoretical model employed for the radar system analysis. Moreover, the main building blocks of the radar have been manufactured in 90 nm CMOS technology by ST-Microelectronics and the relevant performance are resulted in excellent agreement with those expected by post-layout simulations. PMID:19163907

Zito, D; Pepe, D; Mincica, M; Zito, F; De Rossi, D; Lanata, A; Scilingo, E P; Tognetti, A

2008-01-01

120

The impact of different biocompatible coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits on inflammatory response and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was to compare the impact of different biocompatible coated circuits on inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Seventy-eight patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with CPB were randomly assigned to five groups with different biocompatible coated circuits: Trillium, Bioline, Phosphorylcholine, Polymethoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA), and the uncoated control group. Blood was drawn at three different time points: before CPB, 6 and 72 hours post CPB. Unlike the Trillium group, serum levels of TNF-alpha in the Bioline and Phosphorylcholine groups significantly increased only at 72 hours post CPB (p Trillium group showed a significant increase of IL-10 compared to the control group at 72 hours post CPB (p < 0.05). Serum levels of NOx in the Phosphorylcholine group significantly decreased at 6 hours post CPB compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Both the Bioline and Phosphorylcholine groups showed statistical decreases in serum NOx levels compared with other groups at 6 hours post CPB (p < 0.05). A significant difference in NOx levels between the Bioline and the control group was also observed at 72 hours post CPB. Myeloperoxidase levels were significantly elevated at 6 and 72 hours post CPB in all groups (p < 0.05). Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are elevated during CABG with CPB. Heparin-coated and the Phosphorylcholine-coated circuits induce less inflammatory responses and oxidative stress compared to other circuits. PMID:19858237

Sohn, N; Marcoux, J; Mycyk, T; Krahn, J; Meng, Qh

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cardiopulmonary bypass alters the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing cardiac surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pharmacokinetics of propranolol may be altered by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), resulting in unpredictable postoperative hemodynamic responses to usual doses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing coronary art [...] ery bypass grafting (CABG) by CPB under moderate hypothermia. We evaluated 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men (mean age 57 ± 8 years, mean weight 75.4 ± 11.9 kg and mean body surface area 1.83 ± 0.19 m²), receiving propranolol before surgery (80-240 mg a day) and postoperatively (10 mg a day). Plasma propranolol levels were measured before and after CPB by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic Solutions 2.0 software was used to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters after administration of the drug pre- and postoperatively. There was an increase of biological half-life from 4.5 (95% CI = 3.9-6.9) to 10.6 h (95% CI = 8.2-14.7; P

M.J.C., Carmona; L.M.S., Malbouisson; V.A., Pereira; M.A., Bertoline; C.E.K., Omosako; K.B., Le Bihan; J.O.C., Auler Jr.; S.R.C.J., Santos.

122

Customized Employment: Practical Solutions for Employment Success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Customized Employment is the voluntary negotiation of a personalized employment relationship between a specific individual and an employer that fulfills the business needs of the employer. The negotiation process addresses areas such as job duties, terms ...

2005-01-01

123

[Early excision and grafting in facial burns].  

Science.gov (United States)

Early excision and graft surgery is now a routinely used procedure, but whereas its application for burns of the hand has been well determined it is employed less extensively for facial lesions. It is a heavy and very hemorrhagic surgery requiring close cooperation between surgeons and intensive care physicians. Its use for the face is not easy to define, difficulties arising because of the need to establish the depth of the burn, the hemorrhagic risk involved and the need for effective compression after graft surgery. PMID:3523735

Abdelnour, R; Chassagne, J F; Brice, M; Rahme, J

1986-01-01

124

Calcar bone graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans

1986-01-01

125

[Graft vs host disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

Graft vs host disease is a serious immunological complication of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation, leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. It occurs when donor T lymphocyte react to foreign host cells. The physiopathology is a more complex process implicating host tissues damage caused by the conditioning regimen, cytokines, cellular effectors implicated in the immune response such as donor lymphocytes T, antigen presenting cells and mechanisms of apoptosis. This review focuses on the physiopathological basis, risk factors, clinical aspects; prevention and current management strategies to treat graft vs host disease. Recent developments in our understanding of this bone marrow transplantation complication have profoundly influenced the practice of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation. There is a growing realisation of the importance of a graft vs leukaemia effect, strategy, which has encouraged the development of less conditioning regimens. Segregation between graft vs host effect and graft vs leukaemia effect is a key challenge, and could lead to new efficient and specific immunotherapy. PMID:16530350

Moalic, V; Ferec, C

2006-05-01

126

Sliding grafted polymer layers  

CERN Document Server

We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable branch sizes) while grafts in dense layers are highly dissymmetric so that only one branch per graft participates in the layer. Sliding layers on small colloids or star-like sliding micelles exhibit an intermediate behavior where the number of longer branches participating in the corona is independent of the total number of branches. This regime also exists for sliding surface-micelles comprising less chains but it is narrower.

Baulin, V A; Marques, C M; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

2005-01-01

127

Estimation of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiac output (CO) were measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients who were unsuccessfully resuscitated by use of C14-iodoantipyrine injected into the left ventricle. CO varied between 1.3 and 2.2 l/min with mean 1.8 +/- 0.6 l/min (+/- SD) (28 ml/kg/min). The cortical CBF was found between 14 and 211 ml 100 g-1.min-1 with mean 42 ml 100 g-1.min-1 and mean white matter CBF equal to 27 ml 100 g-1.min-1. It is suggested that the external cardiac massage in humans may be of poor efficacy in terms of brain revival. Cortical CBF after long-lasting cardiopulmonary resuscitation showed signs of maldistribution suggestive of a patchy and incomplete perfusion.

Christensen, S F; Stadeager, Carsten Preben

1990-01-01

128

Effect of surface texture of grafted films on antithrombogenicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relation between grafting conditions and antithrombogenicity has been examined from the purpose of clearing the necessity of controlling grafting conditions to enhance blood compatibility. The grafting systems employed here were N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) - poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and DMAApoly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (AFLON) and grafting parameters were dose rate, monomer concentration and total dose (irradiation time). Grafting DMAA onto the substrates was carried out by using simultaneous irradiation method of gamma rays from a "6"0Co source. After evaluation of blood compatibility of the grafted films by using in vitro tests, it has been clear that control of grafting conditions is important. Especially, in both grafting systems, dose rate control has found to be very important for blood compatibility. When higher dose rate of 1.0 x 10"5 to 3.0 x 10"5 rad/hr was used for grafting DMAA onto PTFE or AFLON, blood compatibility of the substrates was not enhanced, whereas it was improved when the grafting was carried out at lower dose rate of 0.97 x 10"4 rad/hr. The correlation between dose rate and antithrombogenicity has been interpretated in terms of surfaceroughness of the grafted films. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, it has been observed that higher dose rate makes the surface rough, whereas lower dose rate does it smooth. In the grafting systems used here, therefore, dose rate is the most important factor to control the roughness of surface which gives a profound effect on antithrombogenicity

1984-01-01

129

Carinal resection requiring cardiopulmonary bypass in a pregnant patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old woman at 13 weeks gestation presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the distal left mainstem bronchus with chronic collapse of the left lung requiring carinal pneumonectomy. The extent of the tumor and need for significant retraction during dissection and pneumonectomy resulted in the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient underwent successful left carinal pneumonectomy and subsequently delivered a healthy baby. PMID:23992710

Fitzsimons, Michael G; Ng, Joshua; Wright, Cameron; Mathisen, Douglas; Vlahakes, Gus; Albrecht, Meredith

2013-09-01

130

Cardiopulmonary bypass via common carotid artery cannulation in redo sternotomy  

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Abstract There are certain situations in redo cardiac surgery in adults where it may not be possible to use alternate arterial cannulation sites like the common femoral artery and axillary artery. We report a case where we established safe cardiopulmonary bypass with common carotid artery cannulation in an adult patient. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation 8 months after repair of type A aortic dissection plus aortic valve resuspension.

Bhudia Sunil K; Vohra Hunaid A; Hassan Asif; Abid Qamar

2007-01-01

131

Cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

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Objective—To examine the submaximal and maximal indices of the exercise response of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.?Design and setting—Prospective examination of cardiopulmonary responses to ramp exercise test of a consecutive group of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attending a cardiomyopathy outpatient clinic.?Methods—50 patients aged 12 to 76 years (mean (SD) 35 (14)) with diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy performed incremental cycle ergomet...

1998-01-01

132

Cardiopulmonary bypass via common carotid artery cannulation in redo sternotomy  

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Full Text Available Abstract There are certain situations in redo cardiac surgery in adults where it may not be possible to use alternate arterial cannulation sites like the common femoral artery and axillary artery. We report a case where we established safe cardiopulmonary bypass with common carotid artery cannulation in an adult patient. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation 8 months after repair of type A aortic dissection plus aortic valve resuspension.

Hassan Asif

2007-07-01

133

Cardiopulmonary bypass via common carotid artery cannulation in redo sternotomy  

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There are certain situations in redo cardiac surgery in adults where it may not be possible to use alternate arterial cannulation sites like the common femoral artery and axillary artery. We report a case where we established safe cardiopulmonary bypass with common carotid artery cannulation in an adult patient. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation 8 months after repair of type A aortic dissection plus aortic valve resuspension.

Bhudia, Sunil K.; Vohra, Hunaid A.; Hassan, Asif; Abid, Qamar

2007-01-01

134

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : Pharmacological Interventions for Augmentation of Cerebral Blood Flow  

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Cardiac arrest results in immediate interruption of blood flow. The primary goal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is to re-establish blood flow and hence oxygen delivery to the vital organs. This thesis describes different pharmacological interventions aimed at increasing cerebral blood flow during CPR and after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). In a porcine model of cardiac arrest, continuous infusion of adrenaline generated higher cortical cerebral blood flow during CPR a...

Johansson, Jakob

2004-01-01

135

Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves.  

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The cardiopulmonary effects of an intramuscular xylazine (0.088 mg/kg)-ketamine (4.4 mg/kg) drug combination were evaluated in calves. Heart rate, central venous and mean pulmonary artery blood pressures, and cardiac output did not change after drug administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) 15 minutes after drug administration. Respiratory frequency increased significantly (P less than 0.05) whereas arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decre...

1982-01-01

136

Heparin coating and cardiotomy suction in cardiopulmonary bypass  

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The present thesis addresses various means of reducing inflammatory responses associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and retransfusion of pericardial suction blood (PSB) during cardiac surgery. Four (I-IV) prospective randomised controlled clinical trials comprising 475 patients were performed in the following areas: effects of heparin coating on measures of clinical outcome and memory function (I, II), inflammatory reactions in PSB and its systemic effects after retransfusion using car...

Svenmarker, Staffan

2003-01-01

137

Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs  

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Background: Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/ decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods: 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8) or LUCAS-CPR (n...

Liao, Qiuming; Sjo?berg, Trygve; Paskevicius, Audrius; Wohlfart, Bjo?rn; Steen, Stig

2010-01-01

138

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Sport Universities: An Italian Survey  

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Background: Physical activity is associated to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Together with primary prevention, prompt recognition and early management of SCD are crucial in order to improve survival rate. During their duty, sport trainers and teachers can play a key role in secondary prevention of cardiac arrest provided they have received an appropriate training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during their curricular study. This is usually achiev...

Andrea Scapigliati; Saverio Giampaoli; Alessia Marsili; Federica Valeriani; Vincenzo Romano Spica

2013-01-01

139

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation : state of the art in 2011  

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Failure to recognise the signs of sudden cardiac arrest or impending cardiac arrest will lead to delayed intervention. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must be initiated without delay, irrespective of the level of skill of the caregiver. The 2010 CPR guidelines emphasise the importance of chest compressions, which have now become the first step in the CPR sequence [compressions, airway, breathing or circulation, airway, breathing (CAB), instead of airway, breathing, compression...

Mohr, D.

2011-01-01

140

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: patients' and relatives' views.  

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One hundred inpatients on an acute hospital elderly care unit and 43 of their relatives were interviewed shortly before hospital discharge. Eighty per cent of elderly patients and their relatives were aware of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Television drama was their main source of information. Patients and relatives overestimated the effectiveness of CPR. Eighty-six per cent of patients were willing to be routinely consulted by doctors about their own CPR status, but relatives were les...

Mead, G. E.; Turnbull, C. J.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Survey of junior hospital doctors' attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

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Most cardiac arrest teams are made up of junior doctors. The stressful effect of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on doctors has not previously been established. A questionnaire was sent to all 52 junior doctors who participated in the cardiac arrest team at a district general hospital. Forty one questionnaires were returned by 22 junior house officers, 12 senior house officers, and seven specialist registrars. The questionnaire was anonymous so non-responders could not be recontacted. Sev...

Morgan, R.; Westmoreland, C.

2002-01-01

142

Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial  

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Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training....

Magura Stephen; Miller Michael G; Michael Timothy; Bensley Robert; Burkhardt Jason T; Puente Anne Cullen; Sullins Carolyn

2012-01-01

143

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Sport Universities: An Italian Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is associated to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD. Together with primary prevention, prompt recognition and early management of SCD are crucial in order to improve survival rate. During their duty, sport trainers and teachers can play a key role in secondary prevention of cardiac arrest provided they have received an appropriate training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR during their curricular study. This is usually achieved through a Basic life Support and Defibrillation (BLS-D Course which in Italy formally enables to Automated External Defibrillator (AED use. Objective: To investigate the presence, the type and the diffusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Sport and Exercise Sciences Universities in Italy. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 32 Italian Universities with Bachelor and Master-Level Degrees in Sport and Exercise Sciences. Methods: Teaching secretary or directly deans/ course presidents were contacted by email or telephone in order to collect information on the availability of BLS-D courses for Sport and Exercise Sciences students during the academic year 2010-2011. Results: The compliance to the survey has been >93%. Only a reduced number of the contacted Universities offered dedicated courses of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with license to Defibrillation according to current local regulation. Conclusion: The described situation shows a limit in the generation of a sport trainers’ category highly specialized in cardiac and respiratory emergencies: only 6 Universities organize BLS-D training with official certification.

Andrea Scapigliati

2013-08-01

144

Effect of Dextrose-Crystalloid Priming Solution on Fluid Requirements and Urine Output During Cardiopulmonary Bypass  

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We examined the influence of the addition of dextrose to crystalloid cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution. Ten patients received only lactated Ringer's solution during the perioperative period and as their cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution, while ten others, managed identically in all other respects, received only 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution (D 5LR). During cardiopulmonary bypass, patients who did not receive glucose required more supplementary fluid (20.0 vs 2.2 ml Kg?...

Metz, Samuel; Hacker, Jerriann

1986-01-01

145

Direct Cannulation of the Infrahepatic Vena Cava for Emergent Cardiopulmonary Bypass Support  

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Cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, although seemingly routine, can pose technical challenges. In patients undergoing repeat sternotomy, for example, peripherally established cardiopulmonary bypass may be necessary to ensure safe entry into the chest; however, establishing bypass in this way can sometimes be complicated by patients' body habitus. We describe a technique for direct cannulation of the infrahepatic abdominal vena cava that was required for emergent cardiopulmonary bypass. Th...

Gopaldas, Raja R.; Patel, Kirti P.; Livesay, James J.; Cooley, Denton A.

2009-01-01

146

Impact of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in a general hospital: prognostic factors and outcomes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess survival of patients undergoing cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers and to identify prognostic factors for short-term survival. METHODS: Prospective study with patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. RESULTS: The study included 150 patients. Spontaneous circulation was re-established in 88 (58% patients, and 42 (28% were discharged from the hospital. The necessary number of patients treated to save 1 life in 12 months was 3.4. The presence of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VF/VT as the initial rhythm, shorter times of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers and cardiopulmonary arrest, and greater values of mean blood pressure (BP prior to cardiopulmonary arrest were independent variables for re-establishment of spontaneous circulation and hospital discharge. The odds ratios for hospital discharge were as follows: 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-13.6, when the initial rhythm was VF/VT; 9.4 (95% CI = 4.1-21.3, when the time of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 70 mmHg. CONCLUSION: The presence of VF/VT as the initial rhythm, shorter times of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation and of cardiopulmonary arrest, and a greater value of BP prior to cardiopulmonary arrest were independent variables of better prognosis.

Bartholomay Eduardo

2003-01-01

147

Crosslinked grafted PVC obtained by direct radiation grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct radition-induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto both pure and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, and inhibitor concentration on the grafting yield was investigated. The grafting process was enhanced by using distilled water as diluent and higher degrees of grafting were obtained as compared with other solvents used (benzene, methanol, and a mixture of methanol and water). The homopolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine was reduced to a minimum using ammonium ferrous sulfate and the suitable optimum concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 0.25 wt %. It was observed that the degrees of grafting onto plasticized PVC were higher than those onto pure one, at constant grafting conditions. The diffusibility of the monomer solution through the trunk polymers enhanced at higher monomer concentrations. The higher the monomer concentration the higher the degrees of grafting obtained. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 0.15 and 0.4 order for the grafting onto pure and plasticized PVC films, respectively. The degree of grafting, at the higher irradiation doses, deviated from linearity and it tends to level off due to the recombination of some of the free radicals without initiating graft polymerization. Gel determination in the grafted films was investigated. The gel content in both grafted extracted pure and plasticized PVC films increased with the degree of grafting to reach a certain limiting values.

Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Dessouki, Ahmed M.; El-Dessouky, Maher M.; El-Sawy, Naeem M.

148

Rib grafts in septorhinoplasty  

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Autogenous cartilage has generally been considered the gold standard grafting material in reconstructive septorhinoplasty for volume filling and structural support. In the restructuring of the nasal skeleton, autogenous cartilage can be harvested from the nasal septum, the auricle or the rib, but costal cartilage is considered the best graft material in patients requiring major reconstruction. Rib cartilage is an outstanding material in reconstructive septorhinoplasty, especially in revision ...

Moretti, A.; Sciuto, S.

2013-01-01

149

High performance polymeric flocculant based on hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted tamarind kernel polysaccharide (Hyd. TKP-g-PAM).  

Science.gov (United States)

A high performance anionic flocculant was synthesized by partial alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylamide grafted tamarind kernel polysaccharide. Various macromolecular characterizations were employed to confirm that partial alkaline hydrolysis of grafted polyacrylamide chains does take place. The flocculation characteristics of the hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed grafted products were carried out in kaolin suspension and municipal sewage wastewater and it has been found that hydrolyzed product outperforms the unhydrolyzed grafted TKP. PMID:20875735

Ghosh, Sandipta; Jha, U; Pal, Sagar

2011-01-01

150

On Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Versus Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review  

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Full Text Available There are two basic ways of performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG: on pump CABG and off pump CABG. Off pump CABG is relatively a newer procedure to on-pump CABG and does not require the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass machine. On pump CABG is the more traditional method of performing bypass surgery. However its resultant inflammatory effects cause renal dysfunction, gastrointestinal distress and cardiac abnormalities which have forced the surgeons to look for alternatives to the procedure. An extensive literature search revealed that on pump CABG causes better revascularization as compared to off pump CABG while off pump CABG has a much lower post operative morbidity and mortality especially in high risk patients. We suggest that the technique used should depend on the ease of the surgeon doing the operation as both the methods seem almost equally efficient according to the review.

Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

2014-01-01

151

Employment Consequences of Employment Protection Legislation  

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This article surveys the literature and adds to the evidence on the impact of employment protection legislation on employment. While stringent employment protection contributes to less turnover and job reallocation, the effects on aggregate employment and unemployment over the business cycle are more uncertain. Exploitation of partial reforms and the use of micro data in recent research appear not to have affected results regarding employment and unemployment in any systematic way. Labour mar...

Skedinger, Per

2011-01-01

152

Artéria axilar na instalação de circulação extracorpórea: indicações e resultados Axillary artery in cardiopulmonary bypass: indications and results  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as indicações e os resultados da artéria axilar na instalação de circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2008, a artéria axilar foi utilizada em 48 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardiovascular. A idade média foi 62 ± 11 anos e 33 (69% pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A artéria axilar foi abordada por incisão infraclavicular e a cânula introduzida no tubo de Dacron de 8 milímetros suturado nos bordos da artéria. RESULTADOS: As indicações foram calcificação da aorta (N=18, 38%, dissecção da aorta (N=15, 31%, aneurisma da aorta ascendente e/ou arco aórtico (N=11, 23% e prévio a reesternotomia (N=4, 8%. A presença de calcificação da aorta levou mais frequentemente à mudança de tática intra-operatória do que as outras indicações (100% versus 10%, POBJECTIVES: To determine indications and results of axillary artery cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: From January 2005 through December 2008, axillary artery cannulation was used in 48 patients. Mean age was 62 ± 11 years and 33 (69% patients were males. Axillary artery was approached by infraclavicular incision and the cannula introduced in a 8 millimeter Dacron side graft. RESULTS: Indications were calcified aorta (N=18, 38%, aortic dissection (N=15, 31%, ascending and/or aortic arch aneurysm (N=11, 23% and prior to reoperative median sternotomy (N=4, 8%. Changes in intraoperative planning occurred most often in patients with calcified aorta (100% versus 10%, P<0.0001 than in patients with other indications, which follow their preoperative plan. Cardiopulmonary bypass (deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in 55% and conventional in the remaining was uneventfully conducted in all patients but one (success rate 98% due to undiagnosed inominate artery stenosis. Local complication was lymphatic drainage in three (6.2% patients. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary artery is an alternative cannulation site in patients unsuitable to aortic cannulation. The type of indication may determine intraoperative changes in surgical planning

Fernando A Atik

2009-09-01

153

Determination of grafting conversion degree in PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites obtained through reactive processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) - PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS - with different grafting degrees were prepared by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene monomer as radical transfer agent. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using triple-detector and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H) analyses were used together to determine the conversion degree of PS-graft-POSS as a function of the reactive processing conditions adopted. GPC was employed to evaluate the effects of grafting (PS-graft-POSS) and PS chains degradation (? scission) that occur simultaneously during processing on the variation of average molecular masses and distributions for each PS/POSS sample. PS/POSS systems processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular weights (Mw) and lower polydispersity indexes (Mw/Mn), as a result of higher grafting (PS-graft-POSS) conversion (28-40%) and lower PS chain degradation level, as compared to PS/POSS systems processed without styrene in which the degree of grafting conversion was around 25-28%. (author)

2011-10-16

154

Chronic and Acute Effects of Coal Tar Pitch Exposure and Cardiopulmonary Mortality Among Aluminum Smelter Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution causes several adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In occupational studies, where levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are higher, the evidence is inconsistent. The effects of acute and chronic PAH exposure on cardiopulmonary mortality were examined within a Kitimat, Canada, aluminum smelter cohort (n = 7,026) linked to a national mortality database (1957–1999). No standardized mortality ratio was significantly elevated compared with the province's population. Smoking-adjusted internal comparisons were conducted using Cox regression for male subjects (n = 6,423). Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality (n = 281) was associated with cumulative benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) exposure (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.46) in the highest category. A monotonic but nonsignificant trend was observed with chronic B(a)P exposure and acute myocardial infarction (n = 184). When follow-up was restricted to active employment, the hazard ratio for IHD was 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 6.05) in the highest cumulative B(a)P category. The stronger associations observed during employment suggest that risk may not persist after exposure cessation. No associations with recent or current exposure were observed. IHD was associated with chronic (but not current) PAH exposure in a high-exposure occupational setting. Given the widespread workplace exposure to PAHs and heart disease's high prevalence, even modest associations produce a high burden.

Friesen, Melissa C.; Demers, Paul A.; Spinelli, John J.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Lorenzi, Maria F.; Le, Nhu D.

2010-01-01

155

Complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass by heparin-protamine interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating concentrations of split products of the third complement factor (C3c and C3d) were measured in five patients before, during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. In all patients, C3d concentrations increased significantly in samples obtained after the administration of protamine sulphate. Similarly, circulating C3c was seen only in those samples obtained immediately after protamine administration. In vitro experiments demonstrated that activation of the complement system was attributable to the heparin-protamine complex, and was dose-dependent. The activation of complement was not associated with any clinically detectable adverse effects. PMID:6608952

Best, N; Sinosich, M J; Teisner, B; Grudzinskas, J G; Fisher, M M

1984-04-01

156

Induced mild hypothermia in post-cardiopulmonary bypass vasoplegia syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of vasoplegia in immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass period is characterized by severe hypotension, supranormal cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance (SVR, and resistance to vasoconstrictors. We could successfully use induced mild hypothermia to increase SVR, and could avoid very high doses of nor-epinephrine (>0.3 mcg/kg/min in the background of severe pulmonary hypertension (systolic pulmonary pressure> 90mmHg. Its effects such as decreased oxygen demand, positive inotropy and better right ventricle performance probably helped to improve oxygenation in presence of pulmonary oedema.

Tripathi Mukesh

2009-01-01

157

2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care guideline  

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Full Text Available Modern resuscitative practice has been developing for half a century. Resuscitation guidelines which are published every five years reflected the international consensus and translated to lots of languages, aimed to be reached all over the world. The main outcome is to optimize the return of spontaneous circulation of cardiac arrest victims without neurologic deficit. This review emphasizes the changes and the differences of the procedures between 2005 and 2010 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care that are commonly performed in our daily practice.

Serpil YAYLACI

2010-01-01

158

Sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of buprenorphine and xylazine in horses  

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This study investigated the sedative, cardiopulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects produced by buprenorphine and xylazine given in combination to horses. Six healthy adult horses underwent 4 randomized treatments, with an interval of 1 wk between treatments. A control group was given a saline solution intravenously (IV) and the experimental groups received buprenorphine [10 ?g/kg bodyweight (BW)] in combination with 1 of 3 different doses of xylazine: 0.25 mg/kg BW (BX25), 0.50 mg/kg BW (BX...

Cruz, Fernando S. F.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Machado, Melissa; Antonow, Ro?mulo R.

2011-01-01

159

Cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine and yohimbine in laterally recumbent sheep.  

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The effects of yohimbine (0.125 mg/kg) on cardiopulmonary parameters in six adult, xylazine treated (0.15 mg/kg), laterally recumbent sheep were studied. Following collection of baseline data, xylazine was administered intravenously and data were collected five and fifteen minutes later. At twenty minutes post-xylazine either yohimbine (0.125 mg/kg) or saline was given and further collection of data occurred at 25, 30, 40 and 50 minutes. Xylazine administration resulted in significant (P less...

Doherty, T. J.; Pascoe, P. J.; Mcdonell, W. N.; Monteith, G.

1986-01-01

160

The significance of graft diameter.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the influence of diameter on graft patency, an 8 mm aortoiiliac Dacron graft was implanted in on leg of 25 dogs that had liac arteries 3 to 5 mm in diameter and a 5 mm graft was placed in the other leg. In six dogs both grafts clotted within 3 months, in 10 dogs both grafts remained patient until the dogs were killed between 7 and 66 months, and in nine dogs one graft became occluded before the other. In eight of these nine animals the 8 mm graft became occluded before the 5 mm graft; only in one dog did the 5 mm graft become occluded first. When the 10 dogs with two patient grafts were killed, the 8 mm graft was found to be lined with thick, organized fibrin, whereas the 5 mm graft had a thin, smooth, glistening lining. Histologic examination confirmed that healing was more complete in the 5 mm graft. In vivo blood flow measurements in the dogs were used to compare flow rates and graft resistance in 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm grafts. A given sized graft carried the same flow capacity as larger grafts until the flow rate was reached when graft resistance developed. Once resistance appeared, the graft could still triple or quadruple its flow capacity but it could not deliver the same rate of flow under the same pressure head as larger grafts. In 4 mm grafts, resistance first appeared at approximately 150 cc/min and capacity was 450 cc. In 6 mm grafts, resistance developed at 400 cc/min and capacity exceeded 1,200 cc. In 8 and 10 mm grafts, resistance was first noted at 800 and 1.400 cc/min, respectively. These studies suggest that 6 mm diameter grafts can carry the 200 cc/min or less that is measured in the human superficial femoral artery at rest, as well as the four-to sixfold increase that accompanies vigorous exercise. PMID:7444766

Sanders, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Hammond, W; DiClementi, D

1980-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cardiopulmonary bypass alters the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing cardiac surgery  

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Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of propranolol may be altered by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, resulting in unpredictable postoperative hemodynamic responses to usual doses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG by CPB under moderate hypothermia. We evaluated 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men (mean age 57 ± 8 years, mean weight 75.4 ± 11.9 kg and mean body surface area 1.83 ± 0.19 m², receiving propranolol before surgery (80-240 mg a day and postoperatively (10 mg a day. Plasma propranolol levels were measured before and after CPB by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic Solutions 2.0 software was used to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters after administration of the drug pre- and postoperatively. There was an increase of biological half-life from 4.5 (95% CI = 3.9-6.9 to 10.6 h (95% CI = 8.2-14.7; P < 0.01 and an increase in volume of distribution from 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-14.3 to 8.3 l/kg (95% CI = 6.5-32.1; P < 0.05, while total clearance remained unchanged 9.2 (95% CI = 7.7-24.6 vs 10.7 ml min-1 kg-1 (95% CI = 7.7-26.6; NS after surgery. In conclusion, increases in drug distribution could be explained in part by hemodilution during CPB. On the other hand, the increase of biological half-life can be attributed to changes in hepatic metabolism induced by CPB under moderate hypothermia. These alterations in the pharmacokinetics of propranolol after CABG with hypothermic CPB might induce a greater myocardial depression in response to propranolol than would be expected with an equivalent dose during the postoperative period.

M.J.C. Carmona

2005-05-01

162

Computed tomography assessment of lung structure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypoxemia is a frequent complication after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, usually attributed to atelectasis. Using computed tomography (CT, we investigated postoperative pulmonary alterations and their impact on blood oxygenation. Eighteen non-hypoxemic patients (15 men and 3 women with normal cardiac function scheduled for CABG under CPB were studied. Hemodynamic measurements and blood samples were obtained before surgery, after intubation, after CPB, at admission to the intensive care unit, and 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Pre- and postoperative volumetric thoracic CT scans were acquired under apnea conditions after a spontaneous expiration. Data were analyzed by the paired Student t-test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean age was 63 ± 9 years. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly reduced after anesthesia induction, reaching its nadir after CPB and partially improving 12 h after surgery. Compared to preoperative CT, there was a 31% postoperative reduction in pulmonary gas volume (P < 0.001 while tissue volume increased by 19% (P < 0.001. Non-aerated lung increased by 253 ± 97 g (P < 0.001, from 3 to 27%, after surgery and poorly aerated lung by 72 ± 68 g (P < 0.001, from 24 to 27%, while normally aerated lung was reduced by 147 ± 119 g (P < 0.001, from 72 to 46%. No correlations (Pearson were observed between PaO2/FiO2 ratio or shunt fraction at 24 h postoperatively and postoperative lung alterations. The data show that lung structure is profoundly modified after CABG with CPB. Taken together, multiple changes occurring in the lungs contribute to postoperative hypoxemia rather than atelectasis alone.

R.R. Rodrigues

2011-06-01

163

Haemolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass: how to reduce the free haemoglobin by managing the suctioned blood separately.  

Science.gov (United States)

During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) the collection of the patient's blood from the operating area is of fundamental importance. This blood is collected in the cardiotomy reservoir using field suckers and can be managed in different ways. It can be filtered in the cardiotomy reservoir and redirected to the venous reservoir, then oxygenated and returned to the patient, or it can be managed separately: collected in the cardiotomy reservoir, treated at the end of the operation and only after this, returned to the patient. The aim of this study is to determine in vivo the effect of a separate management of the suction blood from the operative field, using the Avant D903 oxygenator (Dideco, Mirandola, Italy). Twenty-one patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB were selected and put into two groups at random. In the control group (n = 10) the suction blood in the cardiotomy reservoir was filtered and immediately redirected into the venous reservoir, oxygenated and returned to the patient. In the study group (n = 11) the suctioned blood was collected in the D903 Avant's (Dideco) cardiotomy reservoir and returned to the patient only after having been washed at the end of the operation, using a Compact Advanced (Dideco), as required. Clinical data demonstrated that while in the study group it was possible to keep the free plasma haemoglobin (FPH) concentrations the same as at the beginning, in the control group there was a significant increase in FPH from 5.0 +/- 3.5 mg/dl (baseline) to 37 +/- 16.7mg/dl (120min after CPB). PMID:11761092

Pierangeli, A; Masieri, V; Bruzzi, F; De Toni, E; Grillone, G; Boni, P; Delnevo, A

2001-11-01

164

Revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea: experiência e resultados iniciais / Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass: experience and initial results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: A operação de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea (CEC) vem sendo utilizada como uma alternativa para o tratamento da insuficiência coronariana. OBJETIVO: Apresentar nossa experiência com este procedimento, descrevendo a técnica empregada e os resultados iniciais. [...] CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 23 pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio sem CEC. Foram selecionados para este estudo pacientes que apresentavam lesões nas artérias coronárias da região ântero-diafragmática do coração. A principal indicação cirúrgica foi insuficiência coronária crônica (78,3%). O sexo masculino predominou em 65% dos casos. A idade variou de 44 a 80 anos (média: 59,6 anos). A abordagem cirúrgica em todos os pacientes foi através de esternotomia mediana. Os enxertos utilizados foram: as artérias torácicas internas, veia safena e artéria radial. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de operação foi de 3h15 min. Não houve intercorrências intra-operatórias. O número de enxertos por paciente variou de 1 a 3, num total de 36 enxertos realizados, com média de 1,56 enxerto/paciente. A artéria torácica interna esquerda foi o enxerto mais utilizado (41,7%). As artérias coronárias revascularizadas mais freqüentemente foram o ramo interventricular anterior (52,8%) e a coronária direita (30,5%). A mortalidade hospitalar e a incidência de infarto pós-operatório foram de 4,3%. Não ocorreram complicações neurológicas, pulmonares, renais, hemorrágicas ou infecciosas. O tempo médio de internação hospitalar foi de 7 dias. CONCLUSÃO: A revascularização do miocárdio sem CEC é uma técnica eficaz e segura que pode ser realizada em casos selecionados, com baixa morbidade e mortalidade, com redução de custos e do tempo de internação hospitalar. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been used as an alternative for treatment of coronary insufficiency. OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with this procedure describing the technique used and our initial results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three pa [...] tients were submitted to myocardial revascularization without CPB. The patients selected for this study had lesions in the coronary arteries of the anterodiaphragmatic cardiac region. The main surgical indication was chronic coronary insufficiency (78.3%). 65% of the patients were male, with age between 44-80 (mean - 59.6 years). The surgical approach in all patients was through median sternotomy. He grafts used were internal thoracic arteries, saphenous vein and radial artery. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 3:15 hours. There were no intra-operative occurences. The number of grafts was 1 to 3 in each patient (mean 1.56 graft/patient) out of a total of 36 grafts. The left internal thoracic artery was the most used graft (41.7%). The most frequently revascularized coronary arteries were the anterior interventricular branch (52.8%) and the right coronary (30.5%). Hospital mortality and post-operative infarct were 4.3%. There were no neurological, pulmonary, renal, hemorragic or infectious complications. The mean hospital stay was 7 days. CONCLUSION: Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass is an effective and safe technique that can be utilized in selected cases with low morbidity and mortality, reducing costs and hospital stay.

Luiz Antônio, BRASIL; João Batista, MARIANO; Fernando Martins dos, SANTOS; André Luiz, SILVEIRA; Nilo de, MELO; Nivaldo Gomes de, OLIVEIRA; Rômulo Sales, ANDRADE; Delzirene Pinheiro, BOTELHO; Antônio, CALZADA.

165

Axillobifemoral bypass grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was fpund in one patient. The other complications were - artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1, false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1. DISCUSSION Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18. The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p>0.05, considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2. The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1. CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.

Davidovi? Lazar B.

2004-01-01

166

Radiation grafted adhesive primers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-beam and UV radiation can induce covalent attachment of unsaturated monomers onto a variety of polymer surfaces. The surface characteristics of a polymeric material can therefore be precisely manipulated by grafting the proper combination of monomers onto the surface. Radiation-grafted, sterically nonhindered tertiary acrylamides behave surprisingly well as primers for acidic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Physical and spectroscopic analyses of grafted acrylamides indicate that this unusual behavior is due to hydrogen bonding between the amide functionality in the primer and the acid functionality in the adhesive. Primary and secondary acrylamides are postulated to be less effective because they have the tendency to form hydrogen bonded dimers within the primer rather than interacting with the adhesive. (author)

1985-01-01

167

Alveolar bone grafting  

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Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

Lilja Jan

2009-10-01

168

Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities, the grafted PGMA brushes effectively screen the van der Waals attraction between the particles, and homogenous nanoparticle dispersions of grafted nanoparticles were obtained. Transparent high refractive index TiO2/epoxy thin film and bulk nancomposites were obtained by dispersing PGMA brushes-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy matrix. The refractive index of the nanocomposites showed a linear dependence on the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles and the optical transparency could be generally described by the Rayleigh scattering model. This powerful dispersing technique was further employed to make visibly transparent, UV/IR blocking ITO/epoxy nanocomposites which can be easily applied onto glass and plastic substrates as energy saving optical coating materials. To produce transparent silicone nanocomposites, we directly coupled phosphate-terminated PDMS chains onto the optical nanoparticle surface. It was observed that the mono-modal PDMS-grafted particles usually formed agglomerates within silicone matrices, whereas the bimodal PDMS-grafted particles were able to be individually dispersed even within high molecular weight matrices. Transparent high refractive index bulk TiO2/silicone nanocomposites were successfully prepared by filling with bimodal PDMS-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, we used the PDMS-grafted TiO2/silicone nanocomposite as a model system to create a methodology to predict and control the dispersion behavior of grafted nanoparticles. The good agreement between experimental observation of dispersion of mono-modal and bimodal grafted particles and theoretical prediction would better guide future experiments and lead to predictability in polymer composite design. Finally, the bimodal grafted chain design was implemented in the preparation of transparent and luminescent CdSe/silicone nanocomposites with potential application as non-scattering light conversion materials for LEDs. The homogeneous dispersion of bimodal PDMS-grafted CdSe quantum dots not only minimizes the transparency loss due to scattering, but

Tao, Peng

169

Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes.

Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

2011-01-01

170

How Much Do We Know About Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?  

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Full Text Available study, we aimed to investigate how much the physicians knew about resuscitation and the current guidelines were applied during the resuscitation. Materials and Methods: A total of 134 physicians working in the training and research hospitals, the university hospitals and 112 emergency medical services. A survey including questions about the participants’ resuscitation knowledge, age, specialty, the university graduated from and the number of cardiopulmonary resuscitations (CPRcarried out in a month was performed. The level of knowledge of the physicians working in the training and research hospitals, the university hospitals and 112 emergency medical services were compared. Results: We determined that, while 24.6% (n=33 of the participants applied the ILCOR protocols correctly, 38.8% (n=52 of them applied the protocols incorrectly or incompletely and 24.6% (n=33 of them did not know the protocols. The evaluation was performed according to the physician’s work place and the best results were obtained from the university hospital physicians, but the success rate was achieved in only around 50%. This rate was even lower in the training and research hospital and 112 emergency medical services groups. Conclusion: By reviewing the cardiopulmonary resuscitation training system in Turkey, implementation of resuscitation protocols with more current information should be provided. We believe that it is necessary to establish the in-service training programs, including the emergency medical system, as a part of training for using current information in daily practice.

Nazire Belgin Ak?ll?

2012-06-01

171

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in cancer rehabilitation: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This systematic review aims to get insight into the feasibility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with cancer prior to a physical exercise programme. We will focus on quality (defined as the adherence to international guidelines for methods of CPET) and safety of CPET. Furthermore, we compare the peak oxygen uptake (·VO(2peak)) values of patients with cancer with reference values for healthy persons to put these values into a clinical perspective. A computer aided search with 'cardiopulmonary exercise testing' and 'cancer' using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pedro, CINAHL® and SPORTDiscus™ was carried out. We included studies in which CPET with continuous gas exchange analysis has been performed prior to a physical exercise programme in adults with cancer. Twenty studies describing 1158 patients were eligible. Reported adherence to international recommendations for CPET varied per item. In most studies, the methods of CPET were not reported in detail. Adverse events occurred in 1% of patients. The percentage ·VO(2peak) of reference values for healthy persons varied between 65% and 89% for tests before treatment, between 74% and 96% for tests during treatment and between 52% and 117% for tests after treatment. Our results suggest that CPET is feasible and seems to be safe for patients with cancer prior to a physical exercise programme. We recommend that standard reporting and quality guidelines should be followed for CPET methods. The decreased ·VO(2peak) values of patients with cancer indicate that physical exercise should be implemented in their standard care. PMID:22452663

Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Velthuis, Miranda J; Wittink, Harriët; Kuiper, Kees; Takken, Tim; van der Meulen, Wout J T M; Lindeman, Eline; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

2012-05-01

172

Vascular graft infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosthetic vascular grafting is a commonly performed procedure that is central to the management of arterial disease and renal failure. Though rare, vascular graft infections (VGI) are potentially devastating, and carry a high rate of mortality and amputation. Despite extensive research and clinical experience, VGI remain a daunting therapeutic challenge for surgeons and infectious disease specialists. This article reviews the pathogenesis of VGI, in particular the role of biofilms, as well as the current state of clinical management including diagnostic modalities, surgical options for treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and preventive measures. PMID:22284375

Young, Michael H; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Malani, Preeti N

2012-03-01

173

Ruptured saphenous vein graft aneurysm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ruptured saphenous vein graft (SVG) aneurysm is a rare source of significant morbidity and mortality. SVG is a common technique of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but vein graft aneurysm and ruptured SVG aneurysm have not received the required attention as only few case reports exist. We present the case of a 50-year old man with ruptured vein graft aneurysm who had significant postoperative complications following surgery, and outline some preventive/management strategies. PMID:24288341

Gukop, Philemon; Karapanagiotidis, Georgios T; Chandrasekaran, Venkatachalam

2014-06-01

174

New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camporotondi, D.E., E-mail: camporotondi@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arbeitman, C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

2012-09-15

175

Slicing, skinning, and grafting  

CERN Multimedia

We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

Dumas, David

2007-01-01

176

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... bypass surgery may not succeed in bypassing the blockage. Even when the blockage is bypassed, the graft itself could, on rare ... daily activities. To decrease the chances of new blockages in your arteries: • You should avoid smoking. • You ...

177

Simultaneous nephrectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting through extended sternotomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The advances in surgical techniques, resuscitation and anesthesiology support over the last years have allowed simultaneous thoracic and abdominal operations to be made for cancer and concomitant severe heart vessel disease relieving the patient from several diseases simultaneously and achieving long lasting remission or cure. Clinical case A simultaneous nephrectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting procedure through extended sternotomy is reported. A 63-year-old man with severe coronary artery disease was found to have renal carcinoma. Diagnosis Postoperative pathological investigation of the tumor revealed the presence of renal cell carcinoma pT3a N0 M0, G2. Coronarography revealed advanced three-vessel coronary artery disease. Treatment We successfully performed a simultaneous curative surgery for renal carcinoma and coronary artery bypass graft surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass using a novel technique of extended sternotomy. Simultaneous surgery thus appears to be a beneficial and safe approach for the treatment of coronary artery disease and resectable renal cancer in carefully selected patients.

Budrikis Algimantas

2012-08-01

178

Retrenchment in Malaysia: Employer’s Right?  

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Full Text Available There are several ways to put a contract of employment to an end. One of them is by way of retrenchment.  Termination of employment by way of retrenchment may be relevant when the employer restructures his business. The focus of this article is to evaluate the application of the principle Last in First Out (LIFO in the case of retrenchment in Malaysia. This article will also assess to what extent the courts defend the prerogative of the employer to retrench his employee in the case of redundancy.

Hamidah Marsono

2008-11-01

179

Novel blood sampling method of an artificial endocrine pancreas via the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tried to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring during cardiovascular surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass using an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22 or -55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan); however, we often encountered problems during these procedures because insufficient blood was obtained for monitoring. Thus, we started performing the blood sampling via the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. As a result, continuous blood glucose monitoring using an artificial endocrine pancreas was proven to be stable and reliable during cardiovascular surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:23989924

Kawahito, Shinji; Higuchi, Seiichi; Mita, Naoji; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

180

A Case of Achalasia Presented with Cardiopulmonary Arrest  

Science.gov (United States)

Achalasia is a rare disorder characterised by obstruction of the distal oesophagus and subsequent dilation of the proximal oesophagus. Patients generally complain of gastrointestinal symptoms; however, pulmonary symptoms and complications may also occur. A 35-year-old woman was brought to our emergency service complaining of sudden-onset dyspnea that started 15 minutes earlier during dinner. She suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest due to aspiration 5 minutes after being admitted to the emergency room and was intubated. Thoracic computed tomography examination showed that her oesophagus was filled with undigested food. Heller cardiomyotomy and Dor fundoplication was performed via laparotomy with the diagnosis of primary achalasia, and she was discharged as uneventful on the 5th postoperative day.

Altintoprak, Fatih; Degirmenci, Bumin; Dikicier, Enis; Cakmak, Guner; Kivilcim, Taner; Yalkin, Omer; Akbulut, Gokhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

Wohlfart Björn

2010-10-01

182

Induced hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: possible adverse effects  

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Full Text Available The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of induced hypothermia after witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The main reason for its use is protection of the brain and hence, better neurological outcome in these patients. Therefore, induced hypothermia after CPR has become a part of standard recommendations in the 2005 Resuscitation Guidelines. At the same time, hypothermia can have many adverse effects. In the event of pre-hospital and/or in-hospital induction of hypothermia, without adequate monitoring and controlled cooling, hypothermia can cause serious complications, without beneficial effects on the brain. This article explains the most frequent adverse effects of hypothermia and possible hazardous outcomes for patients.

Milanovic, Rudlof

2007-04-01

183

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the view of ethics and law  

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Full Text Available In all medical and surgical interventions, the main principle is to inform the patient of possible complications, side and adverse effects of the intervention and patient’s acceptance with his/her own will. However, it is impossible to obey this ethical norm in attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation. May a legal problem arise when the goals of health care providers and the patient and family members could not be overlapped? Have expected survey and quality of life influence on resuscitative efforts? In order to discuss legal and cultural norms in our country, which is still under discussion all over the world, we tried to summarize our own opinions about the patient’s autonomy, principle of futility, termination of resuscitation, who should attempt resuscitation and relations with family members during resuscitation under current guidelines and literature.

Mehmet Yokusoglu

2008-10-01

184

Stenting an aortopulmonary conduit with peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although surgically created aortopulmonary (AP) shunts are uncommon in the adult congenital heart disease population, they are often used in patients with pulmonary atresia. For these patients, the shunt is a vital supply of pulmonary blood flow and thus obstruction of the shunt may lead to pulmonary hypoperfusion and hypoxia thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes a safe and effective method of stenting the conduit with the hemodynamic support of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (PCB). Prior to the procedure, a multimodality assessment of a stenosis in a kinked AP conduit using computed tomography, angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and pressure wire assessment (PWA) was utilized. While PCB, IVUS, and PWA have all been used to great effect in various clinical scenarios, the combined use of these techniques has not been previously been described in the setting of intervention in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:23592486

Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Nicolae, Mugur J; Walters, Darren L

2014-01-01

185

Assessment of Knowledge of Medical Staff about Cardiopulmonary Ressucitation (CPR  

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Full Text Available This survey, evaluated the level of awareness and knowledge among the medical staff about conditions and methods of performing cardiopulmonary ressucitation. The study sampling comprised 497 subjects including 208 residents and 262 interns of ten university hospitals in Tehran. In regard to the basic principles, this has been 43.54% (SD = 13.36%, in drug and fluid therapy 31.22% (GD = 13.22%, in electroshock 43.6% (SD=21.12%, in appropriate approach to the problem 34.73% (SD=13.42% and in complications of CPR 17.7% (SD = 15.25%. Considering the results of the project, the medical staff have insufficient knowledge of CPR "md it does not improve significantly during internship and residency period. Therefore, there is a great necessity for the medical students to attend basic and advanced CPR courses during their study

M. PGoranaraki

1998-04-01

186

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment  

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Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECGstress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001 between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1 = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1 =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

Claudiu Avram

2008-12-01

187

Endothelin plasma levels in old and young patients during open heart surgery: correlations to cardiopulmonary and endocrinology parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared endothelin (ET) plasma levels during and after aortocoronary bypass (CPB) grafting in old and young patients. Correlations to cardiopulmonary parameters and catecholamines were tested. The study included 22 patients (11 aged greater than 70 years and 11 aged less than 55 years). Measurements were performed after induction of anesthesia (baseline), before bypass, during bypass, after patients were weaned off bypass, at the end of operation, and after 4-h intensive care (IC) treatment. ET [radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique] and catecholamines [high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique] plasma levels were determined from arterial blood samples; hemodynamics (pulmonary artery catheter), oxygen data, and laser Doppler flow were also monitored. Baseline ET plasma levels were within normal range (young, 3.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml, old, 4.5 +/- 1.4 pg/ml). Old patients had higher values during the entire investigation period. During CPB ET plasma levels increased to a maximum immediately after patients were weaned off bypass. A significant increase (twofold to baseline) was noted during IC therapy. ET plasma levels did not correlate to catecholamine plasma levels or to hemodynamic or laser Doppler flow parameters. A significant correlation existed between ET plasma levels and oxygen consumption. Monitoring ET plasma levels appears to be of minor value in predicting circulatory changes and assessing surgical stress. Further investigations must elucidate the increase in oxygen consumption and its correlation to ET plasma level. PMID:1280725

Knothe, C; Boldt, J; Zickmann, B; Ballesteros, M; Dapper, F; Hempelmann, G

1992-10-01

188

Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery.

Marshall, C

2012-02-03

189

Changing attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people: a 15-year follow-up study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

while it is well established that individual patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may change with time, the stability of population preferences, especially during periods of social and economic change, has received little attention.

Cotter, P E

2009-03-01

190

Current status of arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over a decade there has been accumulating evidence that the use of more than a single arterial graft during coronary artery bypass grafting can improve clinical outcomes. However the vast majority of patients in most developed countries still only receive a single arterial conduit even in the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the use of a second internal mammary artery and/or radial artery graft. While in comparison to vein grafts the superior patency of internal mammary artery grafts is well established, there now exists strong and consistent evidence of the superior patency of radial arteries over the longer term. Likewise, there is a rapidly growing body of evidence that the superior patency of both these arteries in comparison to vein grafts translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:23977618

Taggart, David P

2013-07-01

191

Percutaneous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Graft Dysfunction after Heart Transplantation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We evaluated the safety and efficacy of percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with primary graft dysfunction after heart transplantation. Methods Of 65 patients (44 males and 21 females) who underwent heart transplantation from January 2006 to December 2012, 13 patients (group I) needed peripheral ECMO support due to difficulty in weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 52 patients (group II) were weaned from CPB without mechanical support. The mean age of the patients at the time of operation was 54.4±13.6 years. There were no differences in the preoperative characteristics of the two groups. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for ECMO therapy. Results All group I patients were successfully weaned from ECMO after 53±9 hours of circulatory support. Early mortality occurred in four patients (1 [7.7%] in group I and 3 [5.8%] in group II, p>0.999). There were no differences in the postoperative complications between the two groups, with the exception of reoperation for bleeding. A greater number of group I patients underwent reoperation for bleeding (5 [38.5%] in group I vs. 6 [11.5%] in group II, p=0.035). In multivariable analysis, preoperative mechanical support (ECMO and intra-aortic balloon pump) and longer CPB time were the risk factors of ECMO therapy for graft dysfunction (odds ratio, 6.377; 95% confidence interval, 1.519 to 26.77; p=0.011 and odds ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.001 to 1.019; p=0.033). Conclusion Percutaneous ECMO support could be a viable option for rescuing patients when graft dysfunction refractory to medical management develops after heart transplantation.

Lim, Jae Hong; Hwang, Ho Young; Yeom, Sang Yoon; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, Hae-Young

2014-01-01

192

Radiation grafted polypropylene films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation of polypropylene films by gamma or electron beam radiation leads to severe degradation of the polymer. Controlling the polypropylene's morphology upon processing produces a mesomorphic polypropylene film that is resistant to gamma or electron beam radiation for storage periods of at least 4 months. This mesomorphic polypropylene film provides a film base for the graft polymerization of reactive monomers to the film surface to improve such properties as hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, adhesion and ion exchange capacity. (author).

Rolando, R.J.; Krueger, D.L. (3M Center, St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research)

1990-01-01

193

Alveolar bone grafting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible t...

Lilja Jan

2009-01-01

194

A Systematic Review of Intensive Cardiopulmonary Management after Spinal Cord Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intensive cardiopulmonary management is frequently undertaken in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly due to the occurrence of neurogenic shock and ventilatory insufficiency and in an attempt to reduce secondary injury. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the evidence that intensive care management improves outcome after SCI and to attempt to define key parameters for cardiopulmonary support/resuscitation. We review the literature in five areas: manag...

Casha, Steven; Christie, Sean

2011-01-01

195

The Effectiveness of Ultrasound in Patients with Non-Traumatic Cardiopulmonary Arrest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using cardiac ultrasound in emergency departments to direct resuscitation after cardiopulmonary arrest. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively on 73 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department at Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine between January and December 2010. Two senior doctors, who had received emergency cardiac ultrasonography training, performed th...

2012-01-01

196

Relative adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic status in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery patients. A prospective cohort study  

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Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for relative adrenal insufficiency in cardiopulmonary bypass patients and the impact on postoperative vasopressor requirements. Methods Prospective cohort study on cardiopulmonary bypass patients who received etomidate or not during anesthetic induction. Relative adrenal insufficiency was defined as a rise in serum cortisol ? 9 ?g/dl after the administration of 250 ?g of cons...

Iribarren José L; Jiménez Juan J; Hernández Domingo; Lorenzo Lisset; Brouard Maitane; Milena Antonio; Mora María L; Martínez Rafael

2010-01-01

197

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing following bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicolysis in patients with essential hyperhidrosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND--Essential hyperhidrosis is characterised by an overactivity of the sympathetic fibres passing through the upper dorsal sympathetic ganglia D2-D3. Anatomical interruption at the D2-D3 level is a highly effective treatment for essential hyperhidrosis but also causes (partial) cardiac denervation and, after surgical sympathicolysis, important impairment of cardiopulmonary exercise function has been observed. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of cardiopulmonary exer...

Noppen, M.; Herregodts, P.; Dendale, P.; D Haens, J.; Vincken, W.

1995-01-01

198

A behavioral system for assessing and training cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills among emergency medical technicians.  

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Many deaths from cardiopulmonary arrest can be prevented by the prompt and effective administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In this study, we examined the standard training program for teaching CPR to emergency medical technicians (EMTs). We developed an alternative experimental program whereby the behaviors involved in CPR were assessed easily and in greater detail. This assessment provided the basis for a system in which effective CPR skills were reinforced and problems were...

Seaman, J. E.; Greene, B. F.; Watson-perczel, M.

1986-01-01

199

The employer’s perspective on retirement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this chapter we discuss the literature with respect to the role of employers in retirement processes of older workers and provide suggestions for future research. In the first part of this chapter we will review existing theoretical insights regarding the employers’ actions and attitudes toward older workers and retirement. In the next section we will discuss empirical findings with regard to age related stereotypes in the workplace and age norms with respect to retirement and present so...

Henkens, C. J. I. M.; Dalen, H. P.

2011-01-01

200

Are the additional grafts necessary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

?ur?i? A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Gaseous micro-emboli activity during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults: pulsatile flow versus nonpulsatile flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has a risk of cerebral injury, with an important role of gaseous micro-emboli (GME) coming from the CPB circuit. Pulsatile perfusion is supposed to perform specific conditions for supplementary GME activity. We aimed to determine whether pulsatile CPB augments production and delivery of GME and evaluate the role of different events in GME activity during either type of perfusion. Twenty-four patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at the University of Verona were divided equally into two groups-pulsatile perfusion (PP) group and nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) group. The circuit included a JostraHL-20 roller pump set in pulsatile or nonpulsatile mode, an open Sorin Synthesis membrane oxygenator with integrated screen-type arterial filter, and phosphorylcholine-coated tubes. Hemodynamic flow evaluation was performed in terms of energy equivalent pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). GME were counted by means of a GAMPT BCC200 bubble counter (GAMPT, Zappendorf, Germany) with two probes placed at postpump and postarterial filter positions. Results were evaluated in terms of GME number, GME volume, number of over-ranged GME from both probes, and series of filtering indexes. In PP mode, the pump produced and delivered along the circuit significantly higher amounts of SHE than in NP mode. At the venous postpump site, GME number was significantly higher during PP but no difference was found in terms of GME volume or number of over-ranged bubbles. No significant difference in GME number, GME volume, or number of over-ranges was found at the postarterial filter site. Filtering indexes were similar between the two groups. Neither type of perfusion was shown to contribute to excessive GME production during the most important perfusionist manipulation. Pulsatility leads to GME increment by splitting and size diminishing of the existing bubbles but not by additional gas production. PP augmented GME number at the venous postpump site, while mean volume remained comparable with NP. Sorin Synthesis oxygenator showed high efficacy in GME removal during either type of perfusion. Supplementary GME production and delivery during typical perfusionist manipulations did not depend on perfusion type. PMID:23489040

Dodonov, Mikhail; Milano, Aldo; Onorati, Francesco; Dal Corso, Bruno; Menon, Tiziano; Ferrarini, Daniele; Tessari, Maddalena; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

2013-04-01

202

Environmental application of radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

2007-08-01

203

Effect of bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation on ventricular fibrillation and survival after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To describe the proportion of patients who were discharged from hospital after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital in relation to whether a bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PATIENTS--All patients with witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital before arrival of the ambulance and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted by the emergency medical service in Gothenburg during 1980-92. RESULTS--Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated by a bystander ...

Herlitz, J.; Ekstro?m, L.; Wennerblom, B.; Axelsson, A.; Ba?ng, A.; Holmberg, S.

1994-01-01

204

Absorption of intubation-related lidocaine from the trachea during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether lidocaine is absorbed from the trachea during the artificial circulation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The tissue distribution of lidocaine was investigated in eight individuals (Cases 1-8) who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation before being pronounced dead. In Cases 1-4, there was no restoration of heart beat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Heart massage had been continued for 5 min in Cases 1 and 2, and for 60 min in Cases 3 and 4. Relatively high concentrations of lidocaine (more than 0.1 mg/L) were detected in the blood left in the heart and/or in the large thoracic vessels in the four cases. In Cases 1-3, a large proportion of the lidocaine detected in these blood samples may have diffused from the trachea after cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation since no lidocaine was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, cerebrum, liver, right kidney, and/or right femoral muscle. In Case 4, however, tracheal lidocaine was thought to have been absorbed during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because 0.167-0.340 mg/L or mg/kg lidocaine was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, liver, right kidney, and right femoral muscle. This was substantiated in experiments performed in rabbit carcasses given 50 microL/kg Xylocaine jelly (a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride preparation) intratracheally, followed by rhythmical thoracic compressions (100-150 times per minute) for 60 min. A possible reason for lack of absorption of lidocaine from the trachea of Case 3 during a 60-min cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedure may have been that effective blood circulation was not obtained during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of bleeding and pulmonary collapse. Cases 5-8 survived for 3 h to 10 days after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation; it was obvious that lidocaine was distributed to the tissues under the influence of the natural circulation. The kidney to liver lidocaine ratio in Case 4 (0.8) was much lower than that in Cases 5-8 (1.3-4.6), although the lidocaine ratio in the blood in the left ventricle when compared to blood in the right ventricle was similar in the five cases. The kidney to liver lidocaine ratio may be helpful in judging whether the lidocaine detected was absorbed during the artificial circulation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or naturally. Additionally, postmortem diffusion of tracheal lidocaine into the blood in the left ventricle was much greater than into the blood in the right ventricle due to their anatomical location during a supine position. The pattern of tissue distribution of lidocaine gives useful information on the state of decedents during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:9608714

Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

1998-05-01

205

The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may benefit from bicaval cannulation and caval snaring, in preference to right atrial cannulation. Crystalloid cardioplegia may be preferable to blood cardioplegia in these cases to maintain the MAP.

Coleman, E T

2012-02-03

206

Education for Employment: Realizing Arab Youth Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arab world is "overwhelmingly young", and the human potential throughout the area is tremendous. Recent events across the region have "amplified the social and economic disconnect between skills, jobs, and opportunity." To address this situation, a group of organizations (including the Islamic Development Bank), started the Education for Employment (e4e) initiative. The basic goal of the initiative is to position "education as a major priority to drive improved employment prospects." On their website, visitors can look over a brief summary of their work, and also look over their report from April 2011. The report is based on 200 in-depth interviews and surveys of over 1500 employers and 1500 youth throughout the region. Visitors can download the 150 page report, or view the executive summary here in Arabic or English. The report's chapters include "Perspectives of e4e Stakeholders" and "The e4e Challenge in the Arab World".

207

Wage-Employment Contracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the efficient agreements about the dependence of workers' earnings on employment, when the employment level is controlled by firms. The firms' superior information about profitability conditions is responsible for this form of contract governance. Under plausible assumptions, such agreements will cause employment to diverge from efficiency as a byproduct of their attempt to mitigate risk. It is shown that, if leisure is a normal good and firms are risk-neutral, employment i...

Kahn, Charles M.; Green, Jerry

1983-01-01

208

CARDIAC OUTPUT AFTER REVASCULARIZATION OF MYOCARDIUM WITHOUT THE USE OF CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out from left ventricle into systemic circulation within one minute, i.e. product of stroke volume and heart rate. Coronary artery disease occurs as a consequence of reduced blood flow to heart muscle due to partial or total coronary artery obstruction by atherosclerosis or coronary thrombosis. Surgical revascularization of myocardium is performed with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Goal: to find the values of cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, and heart rate before and after surgical revascularization of myocardium. Patients and methods: research was conducted as a retrospective study in Cardiovascular Clinic of University Clinical Centre in Tuzla on a sample of 60 patients subjected to surgical revascularization of myocardium. The first group consisted of 30 patients in which the revascularization was performed without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the second group consisted of 30 patients in which the revascularization was performed witht the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Haemodynamic parametres were measured and analyzed in all patients before and after the revascularization procedure. Results and Discussion: cardiac output after revascularization of myocardium without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass was increased by 13.62% (p< .05, cardiac index was increased by 13.64% (p< .05, and stroke volume was increased by 8.24% (p< .05 compared to preoperative values. Heart rate was increased by 5.2% (p< .05. After revascularization of myocardium with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac output was decreased by 9.3% (p> .05, and cardiac index was decreased by 9.25% (p> .05 compared to preoperative values. Conclusion: values of haemodynamic parametres after revascularization of myocardium without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass are significantly better compared to the ones after revascularization of myocardium with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

Jasmin Caluk

2008-06-01

209

Evaluation of two warming systems after cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared the Thermomat electric undermattress (JMW Systems, Edinburgh, UK) and the Bair Hugger (Augustine Medical, Courtelary, Switzerland) forced-air warming blanket in 30 adult patients after cardiac surgery. All patients were warmed to an oesophageal temperature of 38 degrees C before termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); those with oesophageal temperatures Bair Hugger blanket (n = 15), at their highest settings. Oesophageal and lateral thigh skin temperatures were recorded every 15 min for 4 h. There was a significantly faster increase in core temperature (0.5 vs 0.75 degrees C h-1; P Bair Hugger group. However, there was no difference in the number of patients who reached a core temperature of 36 degrees C (15 Bair Hugger, 14 Thermomat) or 37 degrees C (11 Bair Hugger, seven Thermomat), or in the number of patients who reached a skin temperature of 37 degrees C in 4 h (four Bair Hugger, one Thermomat). Twelve patients in the Bair Hugger group reached a skin temperature of 36 degrees C compared with two in the Thermomat group (P Bair Hugger warmed faster than the Thermomat both centrally and peripherally, and warmed more patients to a core temperature of 37 degrees C in 4 h, but did not reduce the time to tracheal extubation or alter important clinical aspects of postoperative course. PMID:8881639

Janke, E L; Pilkington, S N; Smith, D C

1996-08-01

210

New insights onto cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs in Sardinia, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dog heartworms Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis cause severe parasitological diseases; the importance of these parasitosis is growing due to their health impact on animals, the possible zoonotic implications and the recent spreading across several European countries and previously non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to update the epidemiological scenario of cardiopulmonary nematodes A. vasorum and D. immitis in dogs of Sardinia island and to perform a morphological identification of larvae by the use of the Baermann and Knott techniques respectively and the molecular characterization of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and the second ribosomal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of larvae L1 of A. vasorum. In the present study, 3.4% (5/146) of dogs resulted positive at Baermann technique for A. vasorum while 8.9% (61/684) to D. immitis. If on one side A. vasorum can be considered an emerging parasite in Sardinia, the parasitic pressure and the risk of infection for D. immitis in the island seems to be increased compared with the recent past. PMID:24525757

Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Tosciri, G; Seu, S; Manunta, M L; Mura, M C; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Brianti, E; Scala, A

2014-04-01

211

[Cardiopulmonary resuscitation already in Egypt 5,000 years ago?].  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes. PMID:9281230

Ocklitz, A

1997-06-01

212

The Role of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in IPF Prognosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. In IPF, defects in lung mechanics and gas exchange manifest with exercise limitation due to dyspnea, the most prominent and disabling symptom. Aim. To evaluate the role of exercise testing through the 6MWT (6-minute walk test) and CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing) in the survival of patients with IPF. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study evaluating in 25 patients the relationship between exercise variables through both the 6MWT and CPET and survival. Results. By the end of the observational period 17 patients were alive (33% mortality). Observation ranged from 9 to 64 months. VE/VCO2 slope (slope of relation between minute ventilation and CO2 production), VO2 peak/kg (peak oxygen consumption/kg), VE/VCO2 ratio at anaerobic threshold, 6MWT distance, desaturation, and DLCO% were significant predictors of survival while VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg had the strongest correlation with outcome. The optimal model for mortality risk estimation was VO2 peak/kg + DLCO% combined. Furthermore, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg were correlated with distance and desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion. The integration of oxygen consumption and diffusing capacity proved to be a reliable predictor of survival because both variables reflect major underlying physiologic determinants of exercise limitation. PMID:24288606

Triantafillidou, Christina; Manali, Effrosyni; Lyberopoulos, Panagiotis; Kolilekas, Likourgos; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Gyftopoulos, Sotirios; Vougas, Konstantinos; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Alchanatis, Manos; Karakatsani, Anna; Papiris, Spyros A

2013-01-01

213

Evaluation of a cardiopulmonary-resuscitation training manual for pharmacists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and evaluation of a training manual for pharmacists participating in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts at an institution encompassing ambulatory-care, acute-care, and emergency-trauma facilities are described. The manual was developed to familiarize pharmacists who had little or no experience in CPR procedures with the equipment and medications used and the pharmacist's role on the CPR team. To evaluate the effectiveness of the manual, a 29-question multiple-choice test was administered to 35 staff pharmacists who were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Training manuals were issued to members of the study group, who were asked to document time spent studying them. Three weeks after the pretest, the same test was administered to all subjects. There was no control on the number of CPR events attended during the three-week period. The study group spent less than two hours (mean +/- S.D. = 97.5 +/- 34.22 min) using the manual. For the study group, posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores. The difference in pretest scores for the study and control groups was not significant, but for the posttest the study group scores were significantly higher. Because use of the manual appeared to improve knowledge of drug therapy and procedures used in CPR, the pharmacy department incorporated it into its orientation procedure. PMID:6846346

Smolarek, R T; Solomon, D K; Powell, M F; Roffe, B D

1983-03-01

214

Use of the impedance threshold device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although approximately one million sudden cardiac deaths occur yearly in the US and Europe, cardiac arrest (CA remains a clinical condition still characterized by a poor prognosis. In an effort to improve the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR technique, the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA Guidelines for CPR gave the impedance threshold device (ITD a Class IIa recommendation. The AHA recommendation means that there is strong evidence to demonstrate that ITD enhances circulation, improves hemodynamics and increases the likelihood of resuscitation in patients in CA. During standard CPR, venous blood return to the heart relies on the natural elastic recoil of the chest which creates a transient decrease in intrathoracic pressure. The ITD further decreases intrathoracic pressure by preventing respiratory gases from entering the lungs during the decompression phase of CPR. Thus, although ITD is placed into the respiratory circuit it works as a circulatory enhancer device that provides its therapeutic benefit with each chest decompression. The ease of use of this device, its ability to be incorporated into a mask and other airway devices, the absence of device-related adverse effects and few requirements in additional training, suggest that ITD may be a favorable new device for improving CPR efficiency. Since the literature is short of studies with clinically meaningful outcomes such as neurological outcome and long term survival, further evidence is still needed.

Theano D Demestiha

2010-02-01

215

Tendencias en resucitación cardiopulmonar / Trends in cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Menos del 10% de las personas que sufren una parada cardíaca son resucitados con éxito y regresan a sus hogares para vivir vidas productivas. Nuevos enfoques de la resucitación podrían modificar de forma sustancial este resultado tan triste. Cuatro tendencias en resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP) par [...] ecen tener el mayor potencial para mejorar el pronóstico: los sistemas para la prevención de la parada cardíaca mediante reconocimiento precoz de los signos de alarma e intervención oportuna; el cambio hacia una resucitación orientada hacia el flujo sanguíneo, enfatizando la realización ininterrumpida de una RCP de alta calidad con un papel limitado de la ventilación; la importancia creciente de la tecnología guiando las intervenciones en resucitación, mejorando el proceso humano de toma de decisiones, y el empleo de la hipotermia. Abstract in english Less than 10% of those individuals who suffer an episode of sudden cardiac arrest are successfully resuscitated and return home to live productive lives. New approaches to cardiac resuscitation could substantially improve such dismal outcome. Four current trends in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR [...] ) have the greatest potential for improving outcome: the development of systems that can prevent cardiac arrests through recognition of early warning signs and timely intervention; a shift towards a flow-based resuscitation emphasizing the delivery of high-quality uninterrupted CPR limiting the role of ventilation; the growing role of technology in driving resuscitation interventions, incrementally enhancing the human decision-making process, and the use of hypothermia.

Raúl-Jaime, Gazmuri; Jesús-Andrés, Álvarez-Fernández.

216

A Reliable Method for Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) compromise defibrillation success. However, CPR must be interrupted to analyze the rhythm because although current methods for rhythm analysis during CPR have high sensitivity for shockable rhythms, the specificity for nonshockable rhythms is still too low. This paper introduces a new approach to rhythm analysis during CPR that combines two strategies: a state-of-the-art CPR artifact suppression filter and a shock advice algorithm (SAA) designed to optimally classify the filtered signal. Emphasis is on designing an algorithm with high specificity. The SAA includes a detector for low electrical activity rhythms to increase the specificity, and a shock/no-shock decision algorithm based on a support vector machine classifier using slope and frequency features. For this study, 1185 shockable and 6482 nonshockable 9-s segments corrupted by CPR artifacts were obtained from 247 patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The segments were split into a training and a test set. For the test set, the sensitivity and specificity for rhythm analysis during CPR were 91.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This new approach shows an important increase in specificity without compromising the sensitivity when compared to previous studies.

Ayala, U.; Irusta, U.; Ruiz, J.; Eftest?l, T.; Kramer-Johansen, J.; Alonso-Atienza, F.; Alonso, E.; Gonzalez-Otero, D.

2014-01-01

217

The successful use of cardiopulmonary support for a transected bronchus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident and computed tomography revealed a completely transected right mainstem bronchus. An Emergency Department (ED) right anterior thoracotomy was necessary soon after arrival at our institution secondary to acute desaturation that was unresponsive to ventilator and chest tube management. This allowed direct intubation and ventilation of the right middle and lower lobes directly through the thoracotomy incision, which stabilized the patient for transport to the operating room. Once there, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (CPS) was initiated to allow primary surgical repair of the transected bronchus. Post surgery, the patient was transported to the surgical intensive care unit on CPS which he required for an additional two days. The patient eventually did well and was discharged home. To our knowledge this is the first successful reported case of using the Avalon Elite dual lumen veno-venous cannula for CPS in a patient with complete right main-stem bronchus transection and bilateral pulmonary contusions. PMID:22002966

Walker, J L; Wiersch, J; Benson, C; Young, H A; Dearmond, D T; Johnson, S B

2012-01-01

218

A novel rotary pulsatile flow pump for cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow (CF) in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited because of practicality and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in four piglets (10-12 kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a CF roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared with CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percentage pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p < 0.001). The PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB. PMID:24625536

Teman, Nicholas R; Mazur, Daniel E; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W

2014-01-01

219

Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion without (group I; n = 6 or with LIM (group II; n = 6. The cardiac indices (CI and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p 2; p = 0.23. Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.

Grünwald Frank

2007-10-01

220

Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Thermal stability of grafted fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables

1983-01-01

222

Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

1986-01-01

223

Asymptotic behavior of grafting rays  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we study the convergence behavior of grafting rays to the Thurston boundary of Teichmuller space. When the grafting is done along a weighted system of simple closed curves or along a maximal uniquely ergodic lamination this behavior is the same as for Teichmuller geodesics and lines of minima. We also show that these rays are at bounded distance from Teichmuller geodesics.

Diaz, Raquel

2007-01-01

224

Transiliac hernia after bone graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumbar hernias, namely transiliac hernias, are not frequent events and are almost always associated with bone graft harvesting from the iliac crest. We describe a case of transiliac hernia 10 years after bone graft harvest, the patient presenting with right colon incarceration. Diagnosis was made by CT scan. The hernia was repaired with a composite polypropylene-PTFE mesh (Bard(®)). PMID:24269126

Kunin, N; Gancel, C-H; Foret, A; Gayet, C; Letoquart, J-P; Daaboul, M

2013-12-01

225

A Comparison of Interposition and Femoropopliteal Bypass Grafts in the Management of Popliteal Artery Trauma  

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Full Text Available Background: Peripheral vascular injury associated with lower limb trauma is a well-known emergency. The experience for the management of popliteal artery trauma have mainly come from managing the traumas of military personnels during Iran-Iraq war. The present study compared the effects of two currently-used surgical techniques in the management of popliteal trauma, namley femoropopliteal bypass graft and interposition vein graft on limb salvage. Methods: A retrospective review of 40 patients with popliteal artery trauma admitted to the trauma unit of a university teaching hospital during 2003 to 2008. The patients had undergone femoropopliteal bypass graft (n=26 or interposition vein graft (n=14 for the management of popliteal trauma. Results: The amputation rate among patients managed by femoropopliteal bypass or interposition vein graft was 35.7% and 61.5%, respectively. Knee stability among patients managed by interposition graft group was 57.7% and in those managed by femoropopliteal bypass graft was 85.7%. Conclusion: The rates of knee stability achieved by the employed techniques indicate that femoropopliteal bypass vein graft is superior, and therefore, preferable to the interposition vein graft in the management of popliteal artery trauma

Mohammad Ali Mohammadzade

2011-03-01

226

Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered as etiological agent in patients with a vascular graft and fever, abdominal pain, and laboratory signs of inflammation, with or without exposure history. Broad-range PCR should be performed on culture-negative surgical samples in patients with suspected infection of vascular graft.

Von Segesser Ludwig

2005-12-01

227

Initial report of the National Registry of Elective Cardiopulmonary Bypass Supported Coronary Angioplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative contraindications to coronary angioplasty have been large amounts of jeopardized myocardium and poor left ventricular function. To prevent possible hemodynamic collapse after balloon occlusion or acute vessel closure in such high risk patients, a cardiopulmonary bypass system capable of providing up to 6 liters/min output was employed prophylactically. This technique, termed supported angioplasty, results in reductions of preload and afterload and allows prolonged balloon inflations in critical coronary vessels. A National Registry of 14 centers performing elective supported angioplasty was formed to collate the initial experience with high risk patients. Suggested indications were ejection fraction less than 25% or a target vessel supplying more than half the myocardium, or both. During 1988, the data from 105 patients (mean age 62 years) undergoing supported angioplasty were entered into the Registry. This group included 20 patients whose disease was deemed too severe to permit bypass surgery and 30 patients who had dilation of their only patent coronary vessel. Seventeen patients had stenosis of the left main coronary artery and 15 underwent dilation of that vessel. Chest pain and electrocardiographic changes occurred uncommonly despite prolonged balloon inflations. During the trial, there was a progressive change from cutdown insertion to percutaneous insertion of the circulatory support cannulas. The angioplasty success rate was 95% for the 105 patients, who underwent an average of 1.7 dilations per patient. Morbidity was frequent (41 patients), in most cases due to arterial, venous or nerve injury associated with cannula insertion or removal, or both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2404047

Vogel, R A; Shawl, F; Tommaso, C; O'Neill, W; Overlie, P; O'Toole, J; Vandormael, M; Topol, E; Tabari, K K; Vogel, J

1990-01-01

228

Radiation grafting on natural films  

Science.gov (United States)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

2014-01-01

229

Deficiency of employability capacity  

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Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which havin...

Vilka L.; Pelse I.

2012-01-01

230

Economic Analysis of Employment  

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Full Text Available In social policy, a distinct field is the employment policies. Their aim is to maintain and increase employment through direct or indirect actions. These actions are intended to provide jobs for young people entering the labor market, for the unemployed and others who want to hire as employees. This paper aims to achieve a perspective on labor market and employment policies with its typologies, causes, effects, generated by these policies on the individuals and society. The employment impact on the population identifies and examines various indicators of the labor market

Oana Camelia Iacob

2013-12-01

231

Knowledge of Iranian Medical Interns Regarding Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is one of the most important procedures in emergency medicine. As new trends are evolving in medical education , we planned to evaluate the interests and knowledge of medical students regarding educational methods in CPR learning. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical descriptive study, a standardized questionnaire was distributed among 180 medical interns at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The questionnaire had three parts: demographics, general questions, and CPR knowledge. If they had more than 10 correct answers (out of 15) in knowledge, they were placed in group A and if more than 5, in group B and correct answers less than 5 were categorized in group C. Results: 159 interns filled the questionnaires. Mean age was 24.99 ± 0.96 and 56.5% were female; 52.7% were educated only theoretically and 47.3% had combined theoretical and clinical knowledge; male interns were significantly more educated (P = 0.041). Residents were the majority of trainers (56.8%) and only 14.3% were educated by the staffs. Only 7% mentioned that they felt they could do a complete CPR and 37.3% considered themselves as assistants; 93.7% believed that isolated emergency ward and teaching courses were needed for better education and 95% declared that continuous education is obligatory; 33.5% were in group A and 45.8% were in group B. Conclusions: CPR education is of interest to most interns. Due to lack of emergency medicine wards and, the interns’ knowledge and their practical skills were insufficient to perform acceptable CPR.

Ravari, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ghezel-Sofla, Masoume; Vahedian- Shahroodi, Mohammad; Abrishami, Mostafa

2012-01-01

232

Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass  

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Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

Siminelakis Stavros N

2010-01-01

233

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.

Sarkar, Subhajit

2004-01-01

234

Pulmonary vascular endothelial responses are differentially modulated after cardiopulmonary bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms underlying pulmonary vascular dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by examining responses of isolated pulmonary arteries to selective endothelium-dependent and -independent activators in control and post-CPB dogs. Adult male mongrel dogs were placed on closed-chest, hypothermic CPB for 2.5 h, and then allowed to recover. Anatomically matched pulmonary arterial rings were isolated and suspended for isometric tension recording. Contractile responses to the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine were similar in endothelium-containing arteries from control and CPB animals. Endothelium denudation increased contractions to phenylephrine to a similar extent in both groups. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was decreased 4 days after CPB compared with controls. In contrast to acetylcholine, endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin or to A23187 were not impaired 4 days after CPB. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME depressed the response to acetylcholine in control vessels, confirming that a component of the response to acetylcholine was nitric oxide (NO) dependent. At lower concentrations of acetylcholine, this component of the response was abolished after CPB. The residual relaxation evoked by acetylcholine in the presence of L-NAME also was impaired in CPB compared with control arteries. This suggests that the CPB-induced impairment of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation may not involve both an NO-mediated and an NO-independent component. L-NAME depressed the response to bradykinin to a similar degree in control and CPB arteries. Vascular smooth-muscle dilatation to the NO donor, SIN-1, or to the K+ATP-channel opener, cromakalim, were similar in endothelium-denuded arteries from CPB and control animals. These results suggest that CPB causes a selective impairment in endothelial dilator function without changing the vascular smooth-muscle response to vasodilator or vasoconstrictor stimuli. PMID:10511126

Nyhan, D; Gaine, S; Hales, M; Zanaboni, P; Simon, B A; Berkowitz, D; Flavahan, N

1999-10-01

235

Graft copolymerisation of methyl-methacrylate on to natural rubber latex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In MG latex (natural rubber latex grafted with polymethyl methacrylate) preparations, the percentage of graftings were found to be influenced by the monomer concentrations. And the percentage of methyl metharylate grafted on natural rubber latex was improved by prior latex treatment with urea. Tensile strengths and elongation at breaks of the MG lattices were found to decrease with the increased in the percentage of the monomer grafted on the latex. Whereas, their moduli increased with the increased in the percentage of graftings. The irradiation dose employed in the MG latex preparations produces moderately vulcanized MG latex. These were exhibited by the low tensile readings. However, the tensile properties were improved by vulcanization process. It could be carried out either when the MG lattices were in the latex form or cast films form

1995-01-01

236

Retrospective Study of the Survival of Patients who Underwent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in an Intensive Care Unit  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and evolutive characteristics of patients admitted in an intensive care unit after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, identifying prognostic survival factors.METHODS: A retrospective study of 136 patients admitted between 1995 and 1999 to an intensive care unit, evaluating clinical conditions, mechanisms and causes of cardiopulmonary arrest, and their relation to hospital mortality.RESULTS: A 76% mortality rate independent of age and sex was observed. Asystole was the most frequent mechanism of death, and seen in isolation pulmonary arrest was the least frequent. Cardiac failure, need for mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis and previous stroke were clinically significant (p<0.01 death factors.CONCLUSION: Prognostic factors supplement the doctor's decision as to whether or not a patient will benefit from cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Moreira Daniel Martins

2002-01-01

237

Radiation-Induced Grafting on Polyamides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier work indicated that in the radiation-induced grafting of vinyl monomers on polymeric films, the plasticity of the film being grafted is determined by the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the grafting solution. In the grafting of styrene on nylon...

J. E. Wilson

1973-01-01

238

Value Development Employment Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper briefly reports on a two-hour workshop aimed at helping college students clarify values in selecting an employment setting. The module was presented to four subgroups of fifty-eight community college students. Each individual, with the assistance of his group, decided what was important for him or her in selecting an employment setting.…

Del Prete, Richard P.; Twining, Peter P.

239

Retrospective Study of the Survival of Patients who Underwent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in an Intensive Care Unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and evolutive characteristics of patients admitted in an intensive care unit after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, identifying prognostic survival factors.METHODS: A retrospective study of 136 patients admitted between 1995 and 1999 to an intensive care unit, evaluatin [...] g clinical conditions, mechanisms and causes of cardiopulmonary arrest, and their relation to hospital mortality.RESULTS: A 76% mortality rate independent of age and sex was observed. Asystole was the most frequent mechanism of death, and seen in isolation pulmonary arrest was the least frequent. Cardiac failure, need for mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis and previous stroke were clinically significant (p

Daniel Martins, Moreira; Guilherme, Mariante Neto; Marcelo Wierzynski, Oliveira; Letícia Biscaino, Alves; Luís Carlos Chorazje, Adamatti; Eliana de Andrade, Trotta; Sílvia Regina Rios, Vieira.

240

Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Block in a Pediatric Patient with High-Risk Cardiopulmonary  

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Full Text Available There is high potential for complications in cardiopulmonary high-risk patients with valvular heart disease at perioperative period. The operation was planned due to pathological fracture of the femoral shaft of a nine year old male patient weighing 26 kilograms. He had 3o tricuspid insufficiency, 3o mitral insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension in preoperative evaluation. Sciatic nerve block and psoas compartment block was performed to patient for anesthesia and analgesia. In conclusion we think that combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block may be a good alternative to other methods of anesthesia in high-risk pediatric patients with cardiopulmonary perspective in lower-extremity surgery.

Levent Þahin

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in goats: comparison with isoflurane and halothane.  

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The anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane were compared with those of isoflurane and halothane in goats. The (mean +/- SD) minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) was 0.96 +/- 0.12% for halothane, 1.29 +/- 0.11% for isoflurane, and 2.33 +/- 0.15% for sevoflurane. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane were examined at end-tidal concentrations equivalent to 1, 1.5 and 2 MAC during either spontaneous or controlled ventilation (SV or CV). During SV,...

1998-01-01

242

Coronary vein graft disease: Pathogenesis and prevention  

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Not long after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery was described, several reports presented follow-up angiographic data on large cohorts of patients, demonstrating that approximately one-half of saphenous vein grafts fail within 10 to 15 years of surgery and that graft failure is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Three processes are responsible for vein graft failure. Thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis contribute to graft failure in the acute, subacute ...

2009-01-01

243

A comparative study of release of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor during normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.  

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Full Text Available The institution of cardiopulmonary bypass generates many pro-inflammatory cytokines and several clinical variables, including temperature, have been shown to influence cytokine release during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. The release of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 are the best predictors of post-cardiopulmonary bypass related morbidity. Their release during normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and the correlation with clinical parameters of organ injury was studied. This prospective study was carried out in 52 adult patients, scheduled for cardiac surgery, exposed to normothermic and 27 to hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Samples for estimation of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 were collected preoperatively, 1 hour and 24 hours post cardiopulmonary bypass and analysed by ELISA. Haemodynamic parameters and respiratory parameters were noted and lung injury scores calculated. Interleukin-6 levels were raised in both the groups at 1 hour and 24 hours post cardiopulmonary bypass and the response was higher in the normothermic group. Tumour necrosis factor response was, however, similar in both the groups, with a rise at 1 hour returning back to baseline by 24 hours post cardiopulmonary bypass. The normothermic group had a better respiratory index in the postoperative period, early extubation was possible, had better clinical haemodynamics, a shorter cardiopulmonary bypass time and had reduced requirement of defibrillation after the release of aortic cross clamp. We conclude that the release of interleukin-6 was thermo-dependant but did not correlate with the clinical signs of organ injury. Tumour necrosis factor levels were significantly raised after the cardiopulmonary bypass but the rise was not thermo-dependant.

Naresh Sandur

2002-01-01

244

Academic Employment Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Academic Employment Network provides educators with an opportunity to browse current educational employment opportunities across the United States. Users select the state they are interested in, and receive a listing of jobs arranged by district or institution and job title. Information on each position is provided, as well as instructions for contacting the employer. Administrators seeking to hire educators may place advertisements (for a fee) by email, telephone, or mail; advertisements run for 30 days. Additional information provided on the site includes certification requirements for most states, as well as links to relocation services such as school district profiles and cost-of-living comparisons.

245

Nitroxide mediated and atom transfer radical graft polymerization of atactic polymers onto syndiotactic polystyrene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Living' radical graft polymerization was employed to prepare graft copolymers with nitroxide-mediated arylated syndiotactic polystyrene as the backbone and polystyrene (PS), poly(p-methylstyrene) (PMS) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as branches. A two-stage process has been developed to synthesize the macroinitiator. First, syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) was modified by the Friedel-Crafts reaction to introduce chlorine; second, the chlorine groups were converted to nitroxide mediated gr...

Abbasian, M.; Esmaeily Shoja, S.

2012-01-01

246

Study on remodelling of bone grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remodelling of bone grafts depends to a large extent upon the type of graft and the condition of the recipient site. We applied sup(99m)Tc-phosphate scintigraphy in a follow-up study on cases treated by bone grafting, and quantitative analysis of the scintigram by computer to make clear the difference of remodelling time or the process of acceptance between a cancellous and a cortical bone grafting or due to various graft and conditions. The result revealed that the grafted bones which were smoothly adapted for subsequent growths or functions could restore normal accumulation ratios by 36 months after the grafting. When the cancellous bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions such as osteotomy site in the cases with coxarthrosis deformans or congenital dislocation of the hip, it could attain the quickest recovery of the normal accumulation ratio. The next quickest recovery of accumulation ratio was attained by grafting the cancellous bone to the grafting beds with poor conditions such as osteomyelitis, pseudoarthrosis, and bone tumor. The third best accumulation ratio could be attained when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions, while the slowest recovery to normal accumulation ratio was noted when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with poor conditions. (author)

1979-01-01

247

FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrophobic properties of ?-Al2O3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 deg. C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al2O3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and ?-Al2O3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

2009-08-30

248

FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrophobic properties of ?-Al 2O 3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 °C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al 2O 3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and ?-Al 2O 3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

Lu, Jun; Yu, Yun; Zhou, Jianer; Song, Lixin; Hu, Xingfang; Larbot, Andre

2009-08-01

249

Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft

2006-02-01

250

Hitos sobre el test cardiopulmonar de ejercicio / Cardiopulmonary exercise test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El test cardiopulmonar de ejercicio TCPE (CPET en la literatura anglosajona) evalúa aspectos dinámicos de la la fisiología cardiorespiratoria, en contraste, las pruebas funcionales estáticas no reproducen la condición activa de un individuo. No obstante su complejo montaje e interpretación, en el úl [...] timo decenio ha habido un creciente interés en aplicarlo en la detección de mecanismos de disnea. Al respecto, la curva flujo/volumen dinámica permite demostrar limitación de flujos e hiperinflación dinámica, también esta prueba permite profundizar en el análisis del intercambio gaseoso en ejercicio. La utilidad de estas pruebas en la evaluación funcional pre-operatoria compleja es destacada. Dada su alta reproducibilidad, el TCPE continúa siendo un alto referente en pruebas cardíacas de esfuerzo. Publicaciones cardiológicas enfatizan su valor pronóstico como indicador de sobrevida, seguimiento de terapias y enlistado para trasplante en insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva, utilizando parámetros máximos y submáximos. Entre los primeros el consumo cumbre o punta de oxígeno, y en los submáximos el equivalente ventilatorio de anhídrido carbónico y el consumo de oxígeno en el umbral láctico Abstract in english Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) evaluates cardiorespiratory function in dynamic conditions, in contrast to static pulmonary function tests which can not reproduce the dynamic situation of an individual. Despite its complex implementation there has been growing interest in CPET in evaluating the [...] mechanisms of dyspnoea With this respect dynamic flow/volume curve is useful in identifying expiratory airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. Besides gas exchange analysis during exercise deepens the quality of information in that subject. Its utility for decision making in complex perioperative evaluation can not be overemphasized. Considering its high reproducibility, this method is a highly valuable tool in cardiac stress testing. Several publications in Cardiology emphasize its value in diagnosis, follow up, prognosis and enlisting for transplant in congestive heart failure. Remarkably useful are maximal and submaximal indices obtained during exercise, such as peak oxygen consumption among the maximals, and carbon dioxide equivalent and oxygen consumption at lactic threshold, among the submaximal indicators

RODRIGO, SOTO F; IVAN, CAVIEDES S.

251

Guías de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar / Guides for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo busca como objetivo primordial, una aproximación a las Guías 2010 y principales cambios; estamos convencidos que el entrenamiento y aprendizaje de ella se basa en los conceptos de metodología activa y simulación clínica, no podemos tener un conocimiento de la ciencia y protocolo [...] s de reanimación cardiopulmonar sin antes no haber experimentado la discusión de temas y desarrollo de casos escenarios vivenciales, para cada uno de los tópicos descritos a continuación. Una de las estrategias más importantes es la diseminación de los conceptos contenidos en las Guías ILCOR de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar que se han consensuado en la ERC y AHA. Ello ha permitido que el personal de salud trate a los pacientes victimas de paro cardiaco o emergencias cardiacas con mayor eficiencia. Las guías actuales fundamentan todos sus aspectos en investigación y recomendaciones, los cambios se iniciaron con una variación sustantiva de la cadena de supervivencia incorporando conceptos de integración de cuidados postparo1,2. Las Guías de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar fueron publicadas y puestas on-line (Resuscitation y American Heart Association) en Octubre 18, 20109,10. Abstract in english The objective of the present article is the approach of 2010 ECC & CPR Guidelines and their principal modifications. Guidelines are the result of scientific evidence and clinical research that support statements and new recommendations. Some important changes in 2010 present in the Chain of Survival [...] which includes aspects of Postresuscitation Care1,2. CPR Guidelines were published and uploaded on-line (Resuscitation and Circulation publication) in October 18th, 20109,10. One of the most important training and learning strategies is the dissemination of concepts from ILCOR CPR and ECC Guidelines which had extended into ERC and AHA. This has allowed the medical personnel to treat patients victims of cardiac arrest or cardiac emergency efficiently. We are convinced that interactive methodology and clinical simulation are essential for training and learning. We cannot know cardiopulmonary resuscitation without discussion of science and performance of lively clinical scenery cases for each of the main topics in CPR and ECC.

Raffo, Escalante-Kanashiro.

252

Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect on any outcomes. Conclusions There was no consistent evidence for the superiority of novel refreshers as compared with a traditional mailed brochure, but the low degree of actual exposure to the materials does not allow a definitive conclusion. An online web-based approach seems to have the most promise for future research on electronic CPR refreshers.

Magura Stephen

2012-11-01

253

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The evolution of the human in caring for others is reflected in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Superstition, divine intervention and finally science have contributed to the development of a technique which may allow any person to save another�s life. Fully 50% of the first presentation of coronary artery disease is sudden death, typically in (western) men. [Anonymous, 2000, ID-469] However, achieving a clear understanding of why CPR saves some lives remains shrouded in mist; mist made even thicker by contradictory reports, different school of thought and persistently low survival rates. Despite the suggestion that much remains unclear, CPR is not new. An early report, in an 18 year old woman, of CPR as performed today, initially known as closed-chest cardiac resuscitation (CCCR), dates from 1858 [Husveti, ID-649]. Following airway obstruction and hypoxia, cardiac arrest occurred. Artificial respiration and compressions on the anterior chest wall for six minutes resolved the incidentsuccessfully. Surprisingly little seems to have changed in CCCR since that early report. Even though CPR has been researched extensively, the number of survivors remains disappointingly small. Survival rates as low as a few percent and extending upwards to 30%, (most frequently ±10%) survival for �out-of-hospital� resuscitation have been reported, without a clear understanding of why some patients do and others do not survive when given the same care. CPR is a technique taught to tens of thousands each year. This chapter will address functional aspects of CPR required for a working understanding of the biomedical aspects of CPR. It does not purport to be a CPR course, although practical aspects relevant to understanding will be addressed, but not exhaustively. The development in CPR and the contributions of science to this development will be presented, with emphasis on the cardiovascular system and only on the artificial respiratory aspects when needed. Schools of thought, chronologically organized, withthe effects of physical and experimental models on their development and validity will allow the reader to analyze strengths and weaknesses.

Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.

2004-01-01

254

Placement: The Employer's View.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bank vice president reviews three barriers to the employment of handicapped persons: misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the handicapped, the traditional lag between recognition of a problem and its solution, and apathy and disinterest. (CL)

Teff, Donald R.

1979-01-01

255

Inventories, employment and hours  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that integrates inventory and labor decisions We extend a model of inventory behavior to include a detailed specification of the role of labor input in the production process and of the costs associated with it In particular we distinguish between employment hours and effort per worker and allow for adjustment costs associated with employment changes We assume that the requirement function for effective hours has a general trans-logarithmic form...

2002-01-01

256

Inventories, Employment and Hours  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that integrates inventory and labor decisions. We extend a model of inventory behavior to include a detailed specification of the role of labor input in the production process and of the costs associated with it. In particular, we distinguish between employment, hours and effort per worker, and allow for adjustment costs associated with employment changes. We assume that the requirement function for effective hours has a general trans-logarithmi...

2002-01-01

257

Experimental Study of a Novel Method of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using a Combination of Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support and Liposome-encapsulated Hemoglobin (TRM645  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS has been applied for cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA. We have developed a novel method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using PCPS combined with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (TRM645 to improve oxygen delivery to vital organs. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced to an adult goat for 10 min. Next, PCPS (30 ml/kg/min, V/Q: 1 was performed for 20 min. Then, external defibrillation was attempted and observed for 120 min. The TRM group (n5 was filled with 300 mL of TRM645 for the PCPS circuit. The control group (n5 was filled with the same volume of saline. The delivery of oxygen (DO2 and oxygen consumption (VO2 decreased markedly by PCPS after CPA, compared to the preoperative values. DO2 was kept at a constant level during PCPS in both groups, but VO2 slowly decreased at 5, 10, and 15 min of PCPS in the control groups, demonstrating that systemic oxygen metabolism decreased with time. In contrast, the decreases in VO2 were small in the TRM group at 5, 10, and 15 min of PCPS, demonstrating that TRM645 continuously maintained systemic oxygen consumption even at a low flow rate. AST and LDH in the TRM group were lower than the control. There were significant differences at 120 min after the restoration of spontaneous circulation (p<0.05.

Ogata,Yoshitaka

2008-08-01

258

Renewable energy and employment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employment, and in particular ways to combat unemployment, is a central and vital policy issue throughout all members of the European Union. It is recognised at national and EU level that all Community framework and support policies should become focused more specifically towards encouraging and supporting employment in Europe. In its White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and Employment, the European Commission looked at how its policies could be used to help to address employment and unemployment. This White Paper recognised how important it is to make sure that all Community policies and initiatives are harnessed to promote employment, while at the same time ensuring that the policies they support promote economic growth through a strong and dynamic working population. Community policies and EU-wide activities that are being developed and implemented in a range of policy areas now actively demonstrate the significance of targeting support to create and maintain employment, going hand in hand with policies that stimulate economic development. These kinds of policies can be found in many areas, including taxation, social reform, local and regional development, education and training, industrial support, and the environment. (orig.)

Broome, L. [ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

259

Upgrading redo coronary artery bypass graft by recycling in situ arterial graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in which a single internal thoracic artery (ITA) graft was upgraded to a bilateral ITA graft by recycling a left ITA graft, anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery in primary CABG performed 17 years previously. During redo CABG, we dissected the left ITA, reused it in situ for the circumflex artery, and used the right ITA to the left anterior descending artery for a bilateral ITA graft. All grafts remained patent 2 years after redo CABG. Recycling ITA grafts may enable upgrading to bilateral ITA grafting during redo CABG. PMID:24996709

Dohi, Masahiro; Doi, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Kazunari; Yaku, Hitoshi

2014-07-01

260

Patency of femoropopliteal and femorotibial grafts after outflow revascularization (jump grafts) to bypass distal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repair of failing femorodistal bypass grafts with secondary distal "jump" grafts was performed 34 times in 33 patients. Indication for operation was limb salvage for all distal jump grafts and for 85% of the initial femorodistal bypass grafts. Autogenous vein bypass grafts were used in 28 of 33 initial femorodistal grafts (85%) and in 29 of 34 secondary jump grafts (85%). Sixteen of the 33 initial grafts in jeopardy extended to the infrapopliteal level (48%) and 19 of the jump grafts terminated in foot or ankle arteries (56%). The 12 jump grafts performed in the first 2 months of the initial graft were associated with high rates (9%) of graft thrombosis and amputation. Early loss of viability of initial grafts probably resulted from technical and judgment errors or underestimation of distal disease. Progression of distal disease produced late failure after 1 year of implantation of the initial grafts. The 1-year patency rate of the initial femorodistal grafts was 63% but only 32% of these grafted limbs were viable and were not at risk of amputation. Distal jump grafts produced a 49% improvement in limb viability (to an 81% limb salvage rate) and an 11% increase in the initial graft patency rate (to 74%) at 1 year. PMID:6495176

Andros, G; Harris, R W; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W; Salles-Cunha, S X

1984-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting decreases hospital stay and cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a retrospective cost analysis for patients undergoing revascularization of their left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery either by standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive CABG has become a safe and effective alternative treatment for single-vessel coronary artery disease. However, the acceptance of this procedure as a routine alternative for the treatment of coronary artery disease will depend on both long-term graft patency rates as well as a competitive market cost. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of three patient groups undergoing LAD coronary revascularization from January 1995 to July 1996. Ten patients were selected randomly from this period after PTCA of an LAD lesion with or without stenting. Nine patients underwent standard CABG on cardiopulmonary bypass with a left internal mammary artery. Nine patients received MICABG via a limited left anterior thoracotomy and left internal mammary artery to LAD grafting without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (n = 10) was unsuccessful in two patients. One patient in the MICABG group (n = 9) was converted successfully to conventional CABG because of an intramyocardial LAD and dilated left ventricle. There was no operative morbidity or mortality in any group. Average length of stay postprocedure was decreased significantly for both the MICABG and PTCA groups when compared with that of conventional CABG (n = 9) (2.7 + 0.26, p = 0.009, and 2.6 + 0.54, p = 0.006, vs. 4.8 + 0.46, respectively). Total hospital costs for the MICABG and PTCA groups were significantly less when compared with those of standard CABG ($10,129 + 1104, p = 0.0028, and $9113 + 3,039, p = 0.0001, vs. $17,816 + 1043, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between the MICABG and PTCA groups. CONCLUSIONS: The final role of minimally invasive CABG is unclear. This procedure is clearly cost effective when compared with that of PTCA and conventional CABG. The long-term patency rates for MICABG will determine its overall efficacy.

King, R C; Reece, T B; Hurst, J L; Shockey, K S; Tribble, C G; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

1997-01-01

262

Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members, representatives of members and officials as well as their activities are presented

1995-01-00

263

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid ...

2010-01-01

264

Improved performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing following DDDR pacemaker adjustment: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of improved cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test outcomes measured 48 h after initial CPX testing and immediately after alterations were made to the settings of a dual chamber, dual sensing pacemaker with exercise detection. The changes allowed successful abdominal surgery to be completed. PMID:24638230

Bolsin, S; Colson, M; Ridley, D; Ward, C

2014-06-01

265

Imported hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Cuba.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is endemic in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is endemic in Northern, Central and Southern America. The first case of imported HCPS involving an Italian traveller returning from Cuba is reported. PMID:23435824

Rovida, Francesca; Percivalle, Elena; Sarasini, Antonella; Chichino, Guido; Baldanti, Fausto

2013-01-01

266

Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

2003-03-06

267

Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

268

Management of cardiac arrest caused by acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism: importance of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism is associated with high patient mortality. We reviewed patients who had cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism. Between January 2001 and September 2013, we identified 20 patients at our institution with a confirmative diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and surgical embolectomy are the standard course of care for patients with shock or cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism at our institution. Patients were divided into two groups (PCPS group and non-PCPS group). Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was used in 60% of patients. Surgical embolectomy was performed for 85% of patients. Overall in-hospital and surgical mortalities were 35% and 29%, respectively. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, both cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 15 minutes and absence of PCPS were significant risk factors affecting survival (p = 0.001 and 0.049, respectively). When the duration of cardiac arrest is short, surgical embolectomy is a viable option after cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support may be a useful tool for both stabilizing the patient and providing a bridge when deciding on further management options. PMID:24625535

Cho, Yang Hyun; Kim, Wook Sung; Sung, Kiick; Jeong, Dong Seop; Lee, Young Tak; Park, Pyo Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung

2014-01-01

269

A Curriculum-Based Health Service Program in Hypertension, Diabetes, Venereal Diseases and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Special screening and education courses in hypertension, diabetes, venereal disease, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were added as electives at the Auburn University School of Pharmacy. Applied learning experiences for students and services to the community are achieved. Course goals and content and behavioral objectives in each area are…

Coker, Samuel T.; Janer, Ann L.

1978-01-01

270

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on Flemish television: challenges to the television effects hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: People who watch a lot of medical fiction overestimate the success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It has been suggested that this is because CPR is usually shown to be successful on television. This study analysed a popular Flemish medical drama series. Previous research showed that heavy viewing of this series was related to overestimation of CPR success.

Den Bulck, J.; Damiaans, K.

2004-01-01

271

Extradural hematoma following double valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass: a rare complication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary mechanisms responsible for acute neurological deterioration following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) include cerebral embolism, cerebral hypoperfusion and/or inflammatory process triggered by CPB. Extradural hematoma (EDH) following CPB is rare but associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We present a case of EDH following double valve replacement in an adolescent boy. PMID:23287089

Kumar, Bhupesh; Bhagat, Hemant; Raj, Ravi; Jayant, Aveek

2013-01-01

272

Graduates and initial employment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research project was undertaken to inform nurse educators in the Department of Nursing and Health Studies of Manukau Institute of Technology of the employment opportunities for new graduate nurses emerging from the three year degree and registration programme. The research study aimed to contribute evidence for informed discussion when issues around curriculum development arose, particularly those issues that affect employment success of graduates. A literature review was undertaken of local and international studies and this highlighted a number of studies that examined the experience of new graduates in employment. There was however little evidence that studies had focused on the experiences of graduates as they initially sought employment or their perceptions of how their ability to successfully gain employment was linked to the nursing programme they were exiting from. The data collection tool was a survey consisting of a number of closed questions which required respondents to indicate the option most closely fitting their experience. Analysis of these results was undertaken using SPSS. The last section of the survey invited respondents to comment on any aspect of the focus of the study and qualitative analysis was undertaken of these comments. Graduates from the programme for the previous three years were targeted and names and addresses were available from departmental and institute databases. The research was submitted to the MIT Research and Ethics Committee who stated that the project did not require ethical approval as a retrospective, anonymous survey. 89.8% of graduates across the three years were successful in gaining employment in the first three months post registration. The number of graduates employed within a District Health Board (DHB) declined across the three years but there were no significant differences between cohorts. Overall, 73% of graduates were employed into new graduate positions. The majority of graduates felt that their nursing education prepared them well for their role as a registered nurse. The findings of the qualitative data identified a strong need for science throughout the degree; longer clinical blocks; increased hands on experience; more practice with skills and less theory in relation to practical experience. The results of the study have identified specific information about graduate employment and useful information for the development of a new curriculum. PMID:18226841

Rydon, Sharon Elizabeth; Rolleston, Anna; Mackie, Joan

2008-07-01

273

Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may improve graft flow in the early post CABG period with minimal haemodynamic changes.

Flynn, Michael J

2012-02-03

274

Effect of hormone replacement on exercise cardiopulmonary reserve and recovery performance in subclinical hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH patients present cardiopulmonary, vascular and muscle dysfunction, but there is no consensus about the benefits of levothyroxine (L-T4 intervention on cardiopulmonary performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of L-T4 on cardiopulmonary exercise reserve and recovery in SH patients. Twenty-three SH women, 44 (40-50 years old, were submitted to two ergospirometry tests, with an interval of 6 months of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (L-T4 replacement group or simple observation (TSH = 6.90 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.02 ng/dL. Patients with TSH >10 ?IU/mL were excluded from the study to assure that they would receive treatment in this later stage of SH. Twenty 30- to 57-year-old women with no thyroid dysfunction (TSH = 1.38 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.18 ng/dL were also evaluated. At baseline, lower values of gas exchange ratio reserve (0.24 vs 0.30; P < 0.05 were found for SH patients. The treated group presented greater variation than the untreated group for pulmonary ventilation reserve (20.45 to 21.60 L/min; median variation = 5.2 vs 25.09 to 22.45 L/min; median variation = -4.75, respectively and for gas exchange ratio reserve (0.19 to 0.27; median variation = 0.06 vs 0.28 to 0.18; median variation = -0.08, respectively. There were no relevant differences in cardiopulmonary recovery for either group at baseline or after follow-up. In the sample studied, L-T4 replacement improved exercise cardiopulmonary reserve, but no modification was found in recovery performance after exercise during this period of analysis.

M.R.M. Mainenti

2010-11-01

275

Radiation protection - the employer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

1983-03-01

276

Employment certificates on HRT  

CERN Multimedia

As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

HR Department

2008-01-01

277

Prone Position Ventilation Used during a Transfer as a Bridge to Ecmo Therapy in Hantavirus-Induced Severe Cardiopulmonary Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team. PMID:24829824

Cornejo, R; Ugalde, D; Llanos, O; Bisbal, P; De la Barrera, L; Romero, C; Neira, R; González, Roberto; Gajardo, J

2013-01-01

278

Prone Position Ventilation Used during a Transfer as a Bridge to Ecmo Therapy in Hantavirus-Induced Severe Cardiopulmonary Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team.

Cornejo, R.; Ugalde, D.; Llanos, O.; Bisbal, P.; De la Barrera, L.; Romero, C.; Neira, R.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Gajardo, J.

2013-01-01

279

Causes of corneal graft failure in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of corneal grafting in visual rehabilitation of the corneal blind in India depends on survival of the grafts. Understanding the causes of graft failure may help reduce the risk of failure. We studied these causes in a series of 638 graft failures at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of particular causes of graft failure with indications for grafting, socioeconomic status, age, sex, host corneal vascularization, donor corneal quality, and experience of surgeon. The major causes of graft failure were allograft rejection (29.2%, increased intraocular pressure (16.9%, infection excluding endophthalmitis (15.4%, and surface problems (12.7%. The odds of infection causing graft failure were significantly higher in patients of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.15. Surface problems as a cause of graft failure was significantly associated with grafts done for corneal scarring or for regrafts (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.80-6.30. Increased intraocular pressure as a cause of graft failure had significant association with grafts done for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, congenital conditions or glaucoma, or regrafts (odds ratio 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.84. Corneal dystrophy was the indication for grafting in 12 of the 13 cases of graft failure due to recurrence of host disease. Surface problems, increased intraocular pressure, and infection are modifiable risk factors that are more likely to cause graft failure in certain categories of patients in India. Knowledge about these associations can be helpful in looking for and aggressively treating these modifiable risk factors in the at-risk categories of corneal graft patients. This can possibly reduce the chance of graft failure.

Dandona Lalit

1998-01-01

280

Improvement of antithrombogenicity of a fluoro polymer by radiation-induced grafting of hydrophilic monomer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluoro polymers have been used as biomaterials in medical field since they have good compatibility with both tissue and blood, and their biomaterial application are of variety. Blood compatibility of fluoro polymers, however, are not always enough for every applications. Especially, there is a large difficulty in the application for artificial vessel with small radius below than 4 mm. In the present study, grafting of a hydrophilic monomer onto a fluoro polymer has been carried out to improve blood compatibility of the fluoro polymer. The technique of grafting employed here was simultaneous irradiation method of gamma rays from a "6"0Co source. The fluoro polymer and the hydrophilic monomer used in the experiment were alternative copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoethylene(AFLON) and N,N-dimethylacry lamide(DMAA), respectively. After grafting, it was found by in vitro tests that antithrombogenicity of AFLON was improved by grafting of DMAA. It was, however, also found that degree of the improvement is affected by grafting conditions. When ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the graft copolymerization, the improvement was affected by dose rate. Blood compatibility of DMAA-g-AFLON obtained at a higher dose rate of 1 x 10"5 rad/h was not improved, while it was improved in the sample of DMAA-g-AFLON obtained at a lower dose rate of 1 x 10"4 rad/h. On the other hand, when acetone was used as a solvent for the grafting, the degree of grafting gave a significant effect on the improvement. Blood compatibility of all samples with grafting percent more than 20 % was improved by grafting of DMAA. (author)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Elucidation of the Mechanism of Redox Grafting of Diazotated Anthraquinone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Redox grafting of aryldiazonium salts containing redox units may be used to form exceptionally thick covalently attached conductingfilms, even in the micrometers range, in a controlled manner on glassy carbon and gold substrates. With the objective to investigate the mechanism of this process in detail, 1-anthraquinone (AQ) redox units were immobilized on these substrates by electroreduction of 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-diazo-nium tetrafluoroborate. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was employed to follow the grafting process during a cyclic voltammetric sweep by recording the frequency change. The redox grafting is shown to have two mass gain regions/phases: an irreversible one due to the addition of AQ units to the substrate/film and a reversible one due to the association of cations from the supporting electrolyte with the AQ radical anions formed during the sweeping process. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to study the relationship between the conductivity of thefilm and the charging level of the AQ redox units in the grafted film. For that purpose, approach curves were recorded at a platinum ultramicroelectrode for AQ-containing films on gold and glassy carbon surfaces using the ferro/ferricyanide redox system as redox probe. It is concluded that thefilm growth has its origin in electron transfer processes occurring through the layer mediated by the redox moieties embedded in the organic film

Chernyy, Sergey; Bousquet, Antoine

2012-01-01

282

Automotive Manufacturing Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides a number of links to the websites of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The list focuses on locations in the Southern United States, and it would be useful for students in this region looking for employment.

2011-01-31

283

Policies for full employment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64 per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job. So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden). And seven of the 15 countries in the E.U already have lower unemployment than the United States (the previous four plus Austria, Ireland and Luxembourg).

de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard

2004-01-01

284

Toward Equality Through Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

An indication of the rearrangements of power, privilege, income and wealth distribution that are necessary for the establishment of full employment with price stability; involving policies of guaranteed public service jobs, income maintenance, prices and wages controls, a redistributive taxation system, and the eventual "socialization of…

Lekachman, Robert

1974-01-01

285

Equal Opportunity in Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

Bullock, Paul

286

Learning Disabilities and Employment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st Century:…

Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.

287

Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three pat...

1998-01-01

288

Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

2004-12-01

289

Molecular grafting on semiconductor surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular grafting on semiconductors is generally performed by reacting molecules with an oxide layer on top of the material. Direct grafting on the surface is less common and raises some difficulties and fundamental questions, by comparison with metallic surfaces. A semiconductor is indeed terminated with foreign ligands which are covalently attached to the surface and must be replaced by the molecule of interest. One of the problem is that the process may lead to some surface dissolution. We have considered two systems. The first one is the chemical formation of thiol monolayers on GaAs. The second is the cathodic formation of a monolayer of nitrophenyl groups on an ideally flat H-(1x1) Si(111) surface. Chemical characterizations assessing molecular grafting will be presented as well as STM/AFM images showing that ordered layers can be obtained. Electrical characterizations will be also presented.

Allongue, P.; Villeneuve, C.H. de [Universite P. & M., Paris (France)

1996-10-01

290

Postoperative radiographic evaluation of vascularized fibular grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on thirty-five patients with free vascularized fibular grafts examined postoperatively with plain radiography. Early graft incorporation is seen as a fuzziness of the cortex at the site of its insertion into the host bone. Causes of failure in grafting for bone defects include graft fracture, hardware failure, and infection. A high percentage of complications or at least delayed unions occurred when vascularized fibular grafts were used to fill defects in the lower extremity. Conversely, upper extremity defects bridged by vascularized grafts heal quickly and hypertrophy. Vascularized grafts placed in the femoral head and neck for a vascular necrosis incorporate early on their superior aspect. The osseous tunnel in which they are placed is normally wider than the graft and often becomes sclerotic; this appearance does not represent nonunion

1989-12-01

291

Occlusion of a Rapidly Expanding Hemodialysis Graft Pseudoaneurysm with Placement of a Stent Graft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a 44-year-old man with end-stage renal disease who underwent insertion of a stent graft to repair a hemodialysis graft pseudoaneurysm. The indication for stent graft placement was an acute and rapidly enlarging intragraft pseudoaneurysm. The patient experienced no complications following the procedure, but he presented with two graft occlusions within the 2 months following the procedure.

Moszkowicz, Arie; Behrens, George; Gueyikian, Sebouh; Patel, Nilesh H.; Ferral, Hector

2007-01-01

292

Industrial applications of radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation grafting can introduce the aiming function to the trunk polymer. This technique gave the separator membrane for a button-shaped battery and the gas adsorbent for fabrication facility as commercial products. This commercialization was realized by the excellent properties which were imparted by graft polymerization into the trunk polymer. As ongoing R and D, the fibrous adsorbent has been synthesized by using fibrous trunk polymer. The metal ion adsorbent is promising materials for removal of toxic metals and the recovery of significant metals from the point of environmental preservation view. (author)

2008-12-01

293

[Radioindication of bone graft healing].  

Science.gov (United States)

To control the state of transplanted bone in different terms following the plastic procedure a radioisotope study by strontium-85 was performed in 29 patients. The results of scannography (in 31 cases) and radiometry (in 42 cases) were analysed. The determination of the character of strontium-85 distribution and the intensity of its accumulation in the operated extremity makes it possible to assess the graft condition and the intensity of osteogenesis a greater precision and earlier than does roentgenography. Radioisotope investigation conducted dynamically enable the prognostication of the course of the graft healing process. PMID:333749

Kuznetsova, L B; Pavlova, L P; Kondrat'ev, V G; Khmelev, O N

1977-01-01

294

Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and interface ...

2009-01-01

295

Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage stre...

2009-01-01

296

Mouse Model of Venous Bypass Graft Arteriosclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saphenous vein grafts are widely used for treatment of severe atherosclerosis via aortocoronary bypass surgery, a procedure often complicated by later occlusion of the graft vessel. Because the molecular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown, quantitative models of venous bypass graft arteriosclerosis in transgenic mice could be useful to study this process at the genetic level. We describe herein a new model of vein grafts in the mouse that allows us to take advantage of transgen...

Zou, Yiping; Dietrich, Hermann; Hu, Yanhua; Metzler, Bernhard; Wick, Georg; Xu, Qingbo

1998-01-01

297

Grafting rays fellow travel Teichmuller geodesics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a measured geodesic lamination on a hyperbolic surface, grafting the surface along multiples of the lamination defines a path in Teichmuller space, called the grafting ray. We show that every grafting ray, after reparametrization, is a Teichmuller quasi-geodesic and stays in a bounded neighborhood of a Teichmuller geodesic. As part of our approach, we show that grafting rays have controlled dependence on the starting point. That is, for any measured geodesic laminati...

Choi, Young-eun; Dumas, David; Rafi, Kasra

2010-01-01

298

ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: CLINICAL OUTCOMES OF PATELLA TENDON AND HAMSTRING TENDON GRAFTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An injury to the ACL can result in significant functional impairment. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 new ACL injuries occur each year. Surgeons employ numerous techniques for reconstruction of the ACL. Of critical importance is the source of the graft to replace the damaged ACL. The graft choices include autografts (the patient's own tissue, allografts (donor tendon, and synthetic/prosthetic ligaments. Tissue harvest sites for autografting include the middle third of the patella tendon, the quadriceps tendon, semitendinosus tendon, gracilis tendon, iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata, and the Achilles tendon. Selection of the type of graft material is predicated upon the tissue's ability to tolerate high levels of stress. Likewise, the clinical presentation and functional outcome is related to the graft material selected. This manuscript specifically examined the patella tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. Numerous manuscripts that studied the outcomes of these graft materials were compiled to help the clinician appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the graft materials. Outcome measures such as thigh circumference, knee range of motion, isokinetic strength, knee stability, pain, and vertical jump/1-leg hop were incorporated. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare and contrast the clinical presentation of patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the patella tendon versus the hamstring tendons. This information can be valuable to the clinician when considering the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction

Dawn T. Gulick

2002-09-01

299

Occupational Employment Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

US occupations are featured in this information-rich resources from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 1996 Occupational Employment Statistics Survey differs from previous surveys in that it includes wage data by occupation for the first time. The site contains a description of the survey and complete national and state data for 760 occupations in seven major areas. Included are occupation title, number of employees, hourly mean and median wage, and an OES code number that provides information about the occupation and its employment distribution by wage range where surveyed (distribution is for the national survey only). An occupational search engine is forthcoming. The site also contains information about previous OES surveys back to 1988.

300

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERSENSITIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE. SS Nadadur UP Kodavanti, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, ORD, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711....

 
 
 
 
301

Lowest Hematocrit on Cardiopulmonary Bypass Impairs the Outcome in Coronary Surgery: An Italian Multicenter Study from the National Cardioanesthesia Database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Severe hemodilutional anemia on cardiopulmonary bypass increases morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. The present study focuses on the lowest hematocrit values during extracorporeal circulation and on allogenic blood transfusions as mortality and morbidity risk factors.

Ranucci, Marco; Biagioli, Bonizella; Scolletta, Sabino; Grillone, Giovanni; Cazzaniga, Anna; Cattabriga, Iolter; Isgro?, Giuseppe; Giomarelli, Pierpaolo

2006-01-01

302

A new femoral bypass graft catheter.  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-dimensional left coronary bypass graft catheter with a sidewinder configuration is described. It is best suited for superior origins of left coronary bypass grafts. This graft catheter has been used successfully from the femoral route in more than 620 patients without serious complications. The method for using this catheter from the femoral route is described. PMID:3879196

Simmons, C R; Willis, W H

1985-01-01

303

Atypical employment and flexicurity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hitherto, discussion of flexicurity has focused on normal employment (Normalarbeitsverhältnis), with atypical work receiving only cursory attention. This paper attempts to remedy this conceptual oversight by identifying strategies for reducing the social risks. We begin by analysing the two components that make up flexicurity. Therefore, we draw on the conceptual framework of forms of flexibilization. As far as social security is concerned, we propose a set of criteria that take into account...

Keller, Berndt; Seifert, Hartmut

2005-01-01

304

Discrimination and employment protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a search model with employment protection legislation. We show that if the output from the match is uncertain ex ante, there may exist a discriminatory equilibrium where workers with the same productive characteristics are subject to different hiring standards. If a bad match takes place, discriminated workers will use longer time to find another job, prolonging the costly period for the firm. This makes it less profitable for the firms to hire the discriminated workers, thus sustain...

Holden, Steinar; Rose?n, A?sa

2009-01-01

305

Vietnamese Students Employability Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students’ core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how differences in levels of competencies which are expected to outperform the job expectations and competencies possessed by ex-students, and any dif...

Nguyen Minh Tuan

2011-01-01

306

Women and Employment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presents results of the 1998 research project 'The Status of Women & Men in the Czech Republic' (N = 1,000 respondents ages 20-60), inspired by the need to obtain information on the circumstances of enforcement of European Union (EU) legislation on equal opportunities in the Czech Republic in connection with its application for EU membership. The public perception & consciousness of equal opportunities are investigated in terms of pay, access to employment, promotion, & vocational training, a...

1999-01-01

307

UNREGISTERED EMPLOYMENT IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is vital for the Government- as a whole of organized institutions and associations- to be aware of economic and social developments in its borders. That the economy of the government is registered and therefore presence of reliable statistical information have important effects on the functions which the government undertakes such as for whom and how much commodity and service it will produce, how to finance the expenditures for these products, in the light of which data that the policies to be produced will be drown for economic and social life, and how to create social peace and free competition environment. Informal economy is an important problem of underdeveloped and developing countries and just as the developed countries. Unregistered employment constitutes the major step of informal economy in all countries because informal economic actions are executed thanks to unregistered employment. In case that the individuals do not perform unregistered actions, it cannot be mentioned about informal economy. In this paper, the reasons of unregistered employment in Turkey, its effects and comparison with the world will be dealt with.

Hakk MA min Ay

2008-10-01

308

Environment, employment and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

1992-01-01

309

Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400?mmol kg?1, respectively, regardles...

Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-hur, M.

2011-01-01

310

Influence of grafting initiation rate on properties of radiation-graft films and fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylonitrile graft polymerization on polyethylene films, fibers and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride films is studied initiated by ?-radiation of 60Co and accelerated electrons. Vapor permeability, mechanical properties and solvent-influence resistance of radiation-graft films and fibers depend not only on the quantity of graft polymer but also on dose rate at which grafting is proceeded. The results obtained are explained by different character of the graft polymer distribution

1979-04-01

311

Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing: An objective approach to pre-operative assessment to define level of perioperative care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a non-invasive, objective method of assessing integrated response of heart, lungs and musculoskeletal system to incremental exercise. Though it has been in use for a few decades, the recent rise in its use as a preoperative test modality is reviewed. A brief account of cardiopulmonary exercise test, as it is carried out in practice and its applications, is given. The physiological basis is explained and relationship of pathophysiology of poor exercise capac...

2010-01-01

312

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration for treatment of enterovirus 71-induced fulminant cardiopulmonary failure: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Fulminant cardiopulmonary failure is a severe complication of hand, foot and mouth diseases due to enterovirus 71 infection, with a high mortality rate. The treatment is mainly supportive with aggressive cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report the use of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in a patient with pulmonary edema and shock due to enterovirus 71 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of continuous veno-ve...

Phan Phuc; Dau Hung; Chu Son; Phung Thuy; Van Pham Thang; Van Nguyen Tu; Nguyen Liem

2012-01-01

313

Resuscitation after prolonged cardiac arrest: effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and sodium–hydrogen exchange inhibition on myocardial and neurological recovery?  

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Objective: To determine if cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), together with inhibition of the sodium–hydrogen exchanger (NHE), limits myocardial and neurological injury and improves recovery after prolonged (unwitnessed) cardiac arrest (CA), as NHE inhibition improved recovery after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Methods: Twenty-seven pigs (31–39 kg) underwent 15 min of prolonged (no-flow) CA followed by 10 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation-advanced life support (CPR-ALS). Subjects...

Liakopoulos, Oliver J.; Hristov, Nikola; Buckberg, Gerald D.; Triana, Jonathan; Trummer, Georg; Allen, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

314

Basic life support skills of high school students before and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: a longitudinal investigation  

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Abstract Background Immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) significantly improves survival after a sudden cardiopulmonary collapse. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of high school students before and after CPR training. Methods This study included 132 teenagers (mean age 14.6 ± 1.4 years). Students completed a two-hour training course that provided theoretical background on sudden cardiac death (SCD) an...

Meissner Theresa M; Kloppe Cordula; Hanefeld Christoph

2012-01-01

315

Endovascular stent grafting: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endovascular stent grafts are intravascular devices composed of surgical graft material and a metallic frame, (Fig. 1). Their main application has been to treat aneurysms, but they have been used in vascular trauma and are being investigated for use in occlusive disease. Their advantage in treating aneurysms over conventional surgical treatment is that they are loaded into relatively small delivery systems (Fig. 2) and can be introduced to the area of interest from a remote site - usually the femoral artery. This avoids the morbidity of surgical exposure in difficult sites, such as the thoracic aorta, and lessens the cardiovascular stress to patients by eliminating the need to surgically cross-clamp the vessel being treated. The first description of abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion by an endovascular stent graft was provided by Parodi and colleagues in 1991. Much of the early clinical experience in endovascular stent grafting was obtained from centres in Australia and Europe, and they are now reporting midterm follow-up data. There are now many centres in Canada and the United States involved in endovascular research and practice. (author)

Kribs, S. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, London, Ontario (Canada)

2001-06-01

316

Polyether-polyester graft copolymer  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

Bell, Vernon L. (inventor)

1987-01-01

317

Markers of primary graft dysfunction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays.

Hagedorn, Peter Technical University of Denmark,

318

Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Polyvinyl Alcohol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the properties of polyvinyl alcohol films and fibres, the graft copolymerization of various vinyl monomers to polyvinyl alcohol films by gamma ray irradiation was investigated. When thin films of polyvinyl alcohol were irradiated in a large excess of styrene no graft copolymerization was observed. With films containing more than 5% water the grafting proceeded smoothly. The highest value of styrene grafted was about 1,000% at a dose of 7X106r. The presence of water in the monomer solution was found to increase considerably the amount of grafted monomer. Methyl methacrylate behaved similarly to styrene in the grafting to polyvinyl alcohol films, the presence of a certain amount of water being essential. The efficiency of the grafting of methyl methacrylate was generally larger than that of the grafting of styrene. The highest value of the grafted methyl methacrylate was 4,000% and obtained at a dose of 5 X 105 r. Some experiments were carried out with acrylonitrile and vinyl acetate but compared with styrene and methyl methacrylate the efficiencies of the grafting of these monomers were not so high. The degree of swelling of the graft copolymers of polyvinyl-alcohol-styrene or methyl methacrylate in organic solvents was measured at 30oC. The relation between the degree of swelling and the percentage of monomer grafted was given by (degree of swelling %) = k (monomer grafted %)n. For polymers grafted with styrene n = 1, but for those grafted with methyl methacrylate n < 1. n and k have characteristic values which depend on the solvents used. (author)

1960-07-01

319

Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

2001-12-01

320

Recovery of cardiopulmonary reflexes in monkeys undergoing heart-lung transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

After heart-lung transplantation in primates, cardiopulmonary reflexes were tested and shown to be present. The Hering-Breuer and cough reflexes were tested, as well as responses to an inhaled respiratory stimulant, vasodilator, and an intravenous anticholinesterase and antimuscarinic agent. Recovery of these responses, except to the anticholinesterase agent, suggests that reinervation occurs in autotransplanted organs in primates. The Hering-Breuer reflex was present at 1.9 and 2.2 months after the operation in two animals subjected to autotransplantation. These cardiopulmonary reflex responses were also demonstrated in two allograft recipients studied at 15 and 16.9 months after the operation. Return of protective reflexes such as coughing may be an important mechanism to prevent aspiration pneumonitis and other complications in humans. PMID:2796358

Mihm, F G; Popovic, B K; Noe, C; Hilberman, M; Reitz, B A

1989-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

New perspectives of nitric oxide donors in cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is often used to treat heart failure accompanied with pulmonary edema. According to present knowledge, however, NO donors are contraindicated when systolic blood pressure is less than 90 mmHg. Based on recent findings and our own clinical experience, we formulated a hypothesis about the new breakthrough complex lifesaving effects of NO donors in patients with cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation therapy. It includes a direct hemodynamic effect of NO donors mediated through vasodilation of coronary arteries in cooperation with improvement of cardiac function and cardiac output through reversible inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and mitochondrial NO synthase, followed by reduction in reactive oxygen species and correction of myocardial stunning. Simultaneously, an increase in vascular sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation could lead to an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Confirmation of this hypothesis in clinical practice would mean a milestone in the treatment for cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:23712508

Kruzliak, Peter; Pechanova, Olga; Kara, Tomas

2014-05-01

322

Incapacity benefits and employment policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper explores the employment implications of allowing people the opportunity of using a portion of their incapacity benefits to provide employment vouchers for employers that hire them. The analysis indicates that introducing this policy could increase employment, raise the incomes of incapacity benefit recipients, and reduce employers? labor costs. The analysis explicitly derives the optimal voucher, i.e. the voucher that maximizes employment at no extra budgetary cost. This voucher is ...

2002-01-01

323

Effectiveness of Grafting for the Improvement of Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grafting is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique for reducing the yield losses caused by salinity and/or drought. Therefore, the present study aims to employ grafting for improvement the tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L. to salt and drought stresses. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Each experiment included 12 treatments, representing all combinations of 2 grafting treatments (Farida cv grafted onto Unifort rootstock and ungrafted Farida cv and 6 abiotic stress treatments (salt stress and/or water stress. The stress treatments consisted of two levels of salinity (non-saline water with an average Electrical Conductivity (EC of 1.2 dS m-1 and saline water with an EC of 4.5 dS m-1 applied at three irrigation rates (100, 75 and 50% of crop Evapotranspiration (ETc. The results demonstrated that the grafted plants had significantly higher values for vegetative growth, yield and Water Use Efficiency (WUE in comparison with the un-grafted plants. Conversely, grafted plants had significantly lower values for fruit quality traits vitamin C and Total Soluble Solid (TSS and leaf concentrations of Na+, Cl¯ and proline. The interaction effects indicated that under the water stress and the salt stress treatments, grafting alleviated the negative effects of these stresses on most of the studied traits. The positive effects of grafting on plant growth and productivity support the feasibility of the technique as a method for improving salt and drought tolerance in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions.

Mahmoud A. Wahb-Allah

2014-01-01

324

Flow-induced vein-wall vibration in an arteriovenous graft  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemodynamic environment of an arteriovenous (AV) graft differs from that of arterial grafts because mean flow rates are typically 10 times greater. This increased flow rate can create a weakly turbulent state, which alters the biomechanical environment greatly and may play a role in AV graft failure. A canine animal study was conducted to simulate the hemodynamic environment of a human AV graft. In vivo measurements were obtained for vein-wall vibration (VWV), graft geometry, and blood flow rate. In order to investigate the complex flow structure at the venous anastomosis of an AV graft, which is thought to induce these vibrations, a computational fluid dynamics study was conducted by direct numerical simulation under pulsatile flow and geometry conditions based on the animal study. The simulation technique employs the spectral element method, which is a high-order discretization ideally suited to the simulation of transitional flows in complex domains. The minimum and maximum Reynolds numbers entering the graft, based on average velocities, were 875 and 1235, respectively. While velocity and pressure fluctuations are clearly present in the numerical simulations, their magnitude and frequency do not correlate well with the in vivo VWV measurements. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are threefold. First, a quiescent inflow condition was used in the present computations; a more realistic inflow condition might alter the velocity fluctuations significantly. Second, simulations were conducted with a rigid geometry; compliance may play an important role in flow stability within an AV graft. Third, the flow split between the graft and vein inlet may also play an important role in the stability of the flow structures.

Lee, S.-W.; Fischer, P. F.; Loth, F.; Royston, T. J.; Grogan, J. K.; Bassiouny, H. S.

2005-08-01

325

Modification of polyester fibre by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyethylene terepthalate (PET) fibre was modified by graft copolymerization with vinyl monomers using gamma radiation as a source of initiation. Efficiency of grafting was found to be dependent on swelling agents, temperature of swelling, scavenger concentration and radiation dose. Percentage graft was directly proportional to the dose. Swelling temperature vs percentage graft showed an optimum efficient temperature corresponding to glass transition temperature of PET. Similarly optimum scavenger concentration was observed at which graft yield was maximum. Tensile strength and percentage elongation increased with increase in percentage graft at low level of grafting, whereas loss in tensile properties were observed at higher graft levels. Modified fibre showed satisfactory resistance to aqueous alkali and acids as compared to unmodified polyester fibre, but was highly susceptible to alcoholic alkaline degradation. Morphological properties of the fibre were examined by X-ray diffraction studies, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared analysis. The above investigations did not show any adverse effect due to grafting process or graft-copolymerization on the fibre properties. Dyeing of the fibre was carried out at boil and at high pressure by using different disperse dyes. Modified fibre showed a substantial increase, in equilibrium dye uptake when dyed, both at boil and at high pressure. Improvements in rate of dyeing were also evident. In conclusion, polyester fibre modified by radiation grafting had better tensile properties, improved morphological characteristics. It was faster dyeing and could be dyed to deep shades at low pressures and temperatures as compared to unmodified polyester fibre. (author)

1980-08-01

326

Patient predisposition and the inflammatory response following cardiopulmonary bypass: The role of haemolysis  

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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is necessary for the majority of cardiac surgery however it is often associated with the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In a proportion of patients, SIRS is complicated by acute lung injury (ALI) and the more extreme acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite a reduction in mortality with lung protective ventilation, there are no effective therapies for ALI consequent on snCPB. Acute neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation,...

2012-01-01

327

Diagnosis and management after life threatening events in infants and young children who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To determine the mechanisms and thereby appropriate management for apparent life threatening events treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants and young children. DESIGN--Prospective clinical and physiological study. SETTING--Royal Brompton Hospital or in patients' homes, or both. SUBJECTS--157 Patients referred at median age 2.8 months (range 1 week to 96 months), 111 (71%) had recurrent events, 44 were born preterm, 19 were siblings of infants who had died suddenly and...

Samuels, M. P.; Poets, C. F.; Noyes, J. P.; Hartmann, H.; Hewertson, J.; Southall, D. P.

1993-01-01

328

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The re...

Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Conboy, Gary

2010-01-01

329

Knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation amongst Asian primary health care physicians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marcus Eh Ong1, Susan Yap1, Kim P Chan1, Papia Sultana2, Venkataraman Anantharaman11Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeObjective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of local primary health care physicians in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation.Methods: We conducted a survey on general practitioners in Singapore by using a self-administered questionnaire that comprised 29 questions.Results: ...

2009-01-01

330

Hypothermia and postconditioning after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduce cardiac dysfunction by modulating inflammation, apoptosis and remodeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Mild therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest is neuroprotective, but its effect on myocardial dysfunction that is a critical issue following resuscitation is not clear. This study sought to examine whether hypothermia and the combination of hypothermia and pharmacological postconditioning are cardioprotective in a model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following acute myocardial ischemia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Thirty pigs (28–34 kg) were subjected to cardiac a...

2011-01-01

331

Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in cats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cardiopulmonary effects of capnoperitoneum were investigated in 8 spontaneously breathing, young adult female cats undergoing laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy (intra-abdominal pressure 12 mmHg). Cats were premedicated with acepromazine and hydromorphone, induced with ketamine and diazepam, and maintained using an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.13% in 100% oxygen. Direct systemic arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2), and isoflurane wer...

Beazley, Shannon G.; Cosford, Kevin; Duke-novakovski, Tanya

2011-01-01

332

Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/acepromazine combination in hypovolemic cats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/ acepromazine combination was studied in ten cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, heart rate and...

Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D. G.; Dyson, D. H.; Black, W. D.; Goldberg, M. T.; Valliant, A. E.

1988-01-01

333

Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination in healthy cats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats was studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured by thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated. The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood...

Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D. G.; Dyson, D. H.; Pascoe, P. J.; O Grady, M. R.

1988-01-01

334

Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in hypovolemic cats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination were studied in eight cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and measurements of ...

Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D. G.; Dyson, D. H.; Black, W. D.; Goldberg, M. T.; Valliant, A. E.

1988-01-01

335

Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in healthy cats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of a halothane/oxygen combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats were studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermo-dilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated from these data. Cardiac output, cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastol...

Ingwersen, W.; Allen, D. G.; Dyson, D. H.; Pascoe, P. J.; O Grady, M. R.

1988-01-01

336

Usefulness of the bispectral index during cardiopulmonary resuscitation -A case report-  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The usefulness of using the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not clearly understood. However, BIS has been a popular anesthetic monitoring device used during operations. The case presented is of a pregnant woman going into cardiac arrest due to an amniotic fluid embolism during a Cesarean section. CPR was performed, but neither the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) nor the return of consciousness was achieved, despite 50 min of effecti...

Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Yeonbaek; Kim, Jung-eun

2013-01-01

337

?-receptor blocker influences return of spontaneous circulation and chemical examination in rats during cardiopulmonary resuscitation*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: We investigated the influence of ?-receptor blocker metoprolol on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats with induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham-operated group, the MI group without metoprolol, which was fed the vehicle, and the MI+metoprolol group receiving intragastric metoprolol. Each group was further divided randomly into three subgroups, d...

Zhao, Xiao-jing; Pen, Zhuo; Li, Ping; Chen, Er-xiu; Liu, Jian; Gao, Yan-xia; Ren, Yun-xia; Li, Li-jun

2013-01-01

338

Changes in neutrophil oxidative potential in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass with polypropylene hollow fiber oxygenators.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neutrophil oxidative metabolism, C3d and beta 2 microglobulin levels, were assessed in nine consecutive patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery with polypropylene hollow fiber oxygenators for open cardiac operations. Generation of oxygen free radicals by neutrophils was measured as luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence after stimulation with opsonized Zymosan and phorbol myristate acetate. A significant increase in light emission was detected by using both of the chemiluminescence sti...

1990-01-01

339

Multimodality blood conservation strategy in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass : the CHU of Liège experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the transfusion rates of cardiac surgery patients in a single centre following an in-house strategy of blood conservation. Methods: The data of all adult patients undergoing normothermic cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) over a 1 year period were retrospectively collected (n=491). Management protocols were described. The transfusion rates of allogeneic blood components were recorded: red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plas...

Erpicum, Marie; Blaffart, Francine; Defraigne, Jean; Larbuisson, Robert

2012-01-01

340

Penetrating heart wounds repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass. Evaluation and follow-up of recent war injuries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penetrating cardiac injuries requires urgent management. Between September 1991 and June 1992, 10 patients with penetrating cardiac injuries sustained in war were treated at our hospital in Croatia, which does not have cardiopulmonary bypass facilities. Seven of these patients survived cardiorrhaphy and were discharged from the hospital, subject to follow-up. In 5 of the survivors, the injuries were inflicted by fragments from explosive devices; in 1 survivor, by a bullet; and in 1 survivor, ...

Catipovic?-veselica, K.; Sincic?, V.; Durijane?k, J.; Kozmar, D.; Buric?, D.; Juranic?, B.; Kristek, J.; Amidzic?, V.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom toxicity on cardiopulmonary reflexes involves kinins via 5-HT3 receptor subtypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanisms underlying the action of Indian red scorpion Buthus tamulus (BT) venom-induced augmentation of cardiopulmonary reflexes elicited by intravenous injection of 5-HT were examined in urethane anaesthetized rats. The 5-HT produced a concentration-dependent increase in time-response area of bradycardiac response, with the responses at submaximal concentrations shifted to the left after exposure to BT venom (20 µg/kg, IV). Aprotinin (6000 kallikrein inactivating unit, IV) as such had...

Bagchi, S.; Deshpande, S. B.

2001-01-01

342

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing as Predictors for Lung Resection ?in Patients with Lung Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET has become an important clinical tool to evaluate exercise capacity and predict outcome for patients with lung cancer being considered for lung resection. CPET can help in stratifying the surgical risk and identify those high-risk patients with lung resection. Preoperative screening using CPET allow the selection of appropriate therapeutic approach to decrease surgical complications and mortality.

Chunting TAN

2011-07-01

343

Testosterone Exacerbates Neuronal Damage Following Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Mouse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male animals exhibit greater neuronal damage following focal cerebral ischemic injury in many experimental injury models, however the mechanism of this is unknown. This study used cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) in male mice exposed to physiological vs. pharmacological doses of testosterone and tested the hypothesis that testosterone increases damage following global cerebral ischemia. Analysis of histological damage 72 hrs after resuscitation revealed a complex dose...

Nakano, Takaaki; Hurn, Patricia D.; Herson, Paco S.; Traystman, Richard J.

2010-01-01

344

Cardiopulmonary Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats during Systemic Endotoxemia  

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This study was designed to determine the severity of cardiopulmonary dysfunction during systemic endotoxemia in type 1 diabetes. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group or to a group treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to create an animal model of type 1 diabetes. Survival time and cardiovascular parameters were continually monitored in urethane anaesthetized animals receiving intravenous infusion of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) or saline. We also det...

Hung, Ching-hsia; Chang, Che-ning; Chen, Yu-wen; Chen, Yu-chung; Tzeng, Jann-inn; Wang, Jhi-joung

2013-01-01

345

Diffusion of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training to Chinese Immigrants with Limited English Proficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and trans...

Yip, Mei Po; Ong, Brandon; Tu, Shin Ping; Chavez, Devora; Ike, Brooke; Painter, Ian; Lam, Ida; Bradley, Steven M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Meischke, Hendrika W.

2011-01-01

346

Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used t...

2013-01-01

347

Cardiopulmonary response to dynamic exercise after heart and combined heart-lung transplantation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to progressive dynamic exercise of eight healthy recipients of heart-lung transplants were compared with those of matched recipients of orthotopic cardiac transplants and normal controls. In both transplant groups the maximum workloads were lower than that in the normal group. The transplant recipients had higher pre-exercise heart rates and lower maximum heart rates than the normal controls. Ventilation during submaximal exercise was similar...

Banner, N. R.; Lloyd, M. H.; Hamilton, R. D.; Innes, J. A.; Guz, A.; Yacoub, M. H.

1989-01-01

348

Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia evokes myocardial erythropoietin signaling in swine undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia protects myocardium and hastens postsurgical recovery of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pyruvate reportedly suppresses degradation of the ?-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), an activator of the gene encoding the cardioprotective cytokine erythropoietin (EPO). This study tested the hypothesis that pyruvate-enriched cardioplegia evoked EPO expression and mobilized EPO signaling mechanisms in myocardium. Hearts of pigs maintained o...

2009-01-01

349

Amnesia and Pain Relief after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Cancer Pain Patient: A Case Report  

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The mechanism of chronic pain is very complicated. Memory, pain, and opioid dependence appear to share common mechanism, including synaptic plasticity, and anatomical structures. A 48-yr-old woman with severe pain caused by bone metastasis of breast cancer received epidural block. After local anesthetics were injected, she had a seizure and then went into cardiac arrest. Following cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her cardiac rhythm returned to normal, but her memory had disappeared. Also, her e...

Chon, Jin Young; Hahn, Yun Jin; Sung, Choon Ho; Moon, Ho Sik

2012-01-01

350

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE OF THE PEDIATRIC RESIDENT ABOUT NEONATAL & PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A high leve of skill & knowledge is required in circumstances of cardiopulmonary resucitation which represents the most urgent clinical situations. The difficulties for pediatric residents who are fronted with the most cases of pediatric & neonatal resucitation are due to different causes of cardiorespiratory arrest in camparison to adults. This study aimed to assess the knowledge & their personal attitude toward the neonatal & pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitatin. Methods: By cross - sectional multicenter study between the pediatric residents who were studied in the teaching hospitals in Tehran (1378-90. Data were gathered among 140 residents by self-completed questionnaires which were included three parts as. demographic information assessment of their attitude by summation of score via ranking list questions and total score from assessment to their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Results: 35.7% of the residents studied in the first year of residency 35.0% in the second year and the remainder (29/3% in the third year More than 90% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation low & less than average. Net only 80% of the residents self - assessed their actual ability about this issue low but also declaired the insufficient education during the medical training. The total score of knowledge assessment was 14.7 + 1_0.54 from 30 without any significant relations among the residents in different hospitals or various levels of pediatric residency. (P value= 0.1 , 0.7 There was not significant correlation between the total score from their attitude & their knowledge. Conclusion: Pediatric residents as the key personnel in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the neonates and children should have enough knowledge and skills about this topic. This survey demonstrates a low level of the pediatric & neonatal resuscitation knowledge among the residents pediatrics. The effectiveness of regular training improving the situation of pediatric resusciton should considered in the of the medical education.

M KADIAVAR

2003-09-01

351

Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a major referral center  

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Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), by the code blue team at our center to compare with other centers. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all adult patients who underwent CPR at our hospital from 2007 to 2008. CPR was performed on 290 patients and it was given 313 times. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR a...

Saghafinia Masoud; Motamedi Mohammad Hosein; Piryaie Mohammad; Rafati Hasan; Saghafi Abdollah; Jalali Alireza; Madani Seyed; Kolahdehi Reza

2010-01-01

352

Cardiopulmonary arrest caused by acute abdominal aortic thrombosis: a case report  

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Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal condition. The patient was a 56-year-old man who developed lower back pain and arrived at our emergency room in a state of shock. He was alert, but could not move his legs. Cardiac echo revealed abnormal movement of the heart, and acute myocardial ischaemia was suspected as a differential diagnosis. Emergency coronary angiography and aortography together with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support were attempted. Both femoral art...

Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Hashizume, Makoto

2009-01-01

353

Surgical risk tests related to cardiopulmonary postoperative complications: comparison between upper abdominal and thoracic surgery  

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PURPOSE: To investigate if tests used in the preoperative period of upper abdominal or thoracic surgeries are able to differentiate the patients that presented cardiopulmonary postoperative complications. METHODS: Seventy eight patients, 30 submitted to upper abdominal surgery and 48 to thoracic surgery were evaluated. Spirometry, respirometry, manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and stair-climbing test were performed. Complications from immediate postoperative to discharge from hospital wer...

2013-01-01

354

Year in review 2010: Critical Care - cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

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This review will summarize some of the data published in 2010 and focus on papers published in Critical Care in regard to cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In particular, we discuss the latest research in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest, including methods of inducing hypothermia, potential protective mechanisms, spontaneous hypothermia versus therapeutic hypothermia, and several predictors of outcome. Furthermore, we will discuss the effects of bystander-initiated...

Metzger, Jeffery C.; Eastman, Alexander L.; Pepe, Paul E.

2011-01-01

355

Observations on some cardiopulmonary effects of midazolam, xylazine and a midazolam / ketamine combination in the goat  

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Xylazine, midazolam and a midazolam / ketamine combination were administered to 6 goats in a randomised 3-way block design. All goats received all treatments with at least a 7-day interval between treatments. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) changes were observed in some of the measured cardiopulmonary variables for xylazine and midazolam/ ketamine. Xylazine administration resulted in statistically significant decreases in minute volume, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, heart rate ...

Stegmann, G. F.

2012-01-01

356

Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008  

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Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262) who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest we...

Hasan Rafati; Abdollah Saghafi; Masoud Saghafinia; Farzad Panahi; Mohamadjavad Hoseinpour

2011-01-01

357

Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)  

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Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performi...

Hilberman, M.; Kutner, J.; Parsons, D.; Murphy, D. J.

1997-01-01

358

Employment policies and data - OECD  

...employment database;emplotyent statistics;employment data;unemployment data;wage data;working time;employment protection;union members Employment policies and data - OECD Français Follow ... Find data on: Short-term labour market indicators Labour market outcomes Harmonised unemployment rates and levels Long-term unemployment rates and levels Employment by industry ...Unit labour costs Job vacancies Unemployment rates, employment to population ratio and labour force participation rates Unemployment, employment, labour force and ...population of working age (15-64) Unemployment duration Discouraged workers Jobs quality Labour market policies and institutions Job duration Incidence of temporary employment Working ...

359

Grafting of vinyl monomers onto wool fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers onto wool has gained considerable importance since preformed polymers are incapable of diffusing into the internal structures of wool Initiation must be controlled so that the radicals are formed on the fibers which will initiate polymerization of monomer diffusing into the interior of the wool. With the wide variety of vinyl and other available monomers today, grafting promises to be a potentially powerful method for producing substantial modification of wool properties. Various methods have been used for grafting vinyl monomers onto wool fibers. The most important methods which have attracted attention during the last two decades are: (1) radiation initiation, and (2) chemical initiation. Radiation graft copolymers may be initiated by two techniques, (i) preirradiation technique, and (ii) simultaneous or mutual radiation grafting. In general the latter methods lead to much larger amounts of polymer being grafted to the substrate. Methods of vinyl graft copolymerization of wool through chemical initiation are mentioned. (author)

1980-08-01

360

Studies on radiation-induced graft polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization is used extensively to improve physical properties of polymers, but few processes are now commercialized. The reason for this is partly inadequate basic research on the reaction and partly the difficulty in developing the grafting process with large radiation source. Firstly, new techniques are proposed of studying kinetics of the graft polymerization in heterogeneous system. Based on the grafting yield, the molecular weight of graft chains, and the amount of radicals given by ESR and activation analysis, kinetic parameters are obtained and the reaction mechanism of grafting process is discussed. Secondly, the development of grafting process of poly (vinyl chloride)-butadiene is described. By study of the reaction, process design, construction and operation of the pilot plant, and economic analysis of the process, this process with "6"0Co gamma ray sources is shown to be industrially promising. (author)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

Cai, Yuzhuo

2013-01-01

362

Recent Advances in the Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation in Spinal Cord Injury- Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardiac and pulmonary disorders are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in spinal cord injury (SCI. As the life expectancy increased for patients with SCI, the prevalence of these disorders increased as well. The rate of yearly hospitalization due to cardiopulmonary problems is around 25-40% within 5-20 years after the injury. Sympathetic denervation associated with autonomic dysfunction leads to many cardiac and pulmonary problems. Furthermore, secondary conditions such as muscle denervation, immobility, obesity contribute to the morbidity related to cardiopulmonary problems. The prevalence of atherosclerotic heart diseases in patients with SCI is 30-50%, whereas it is 5-10% in healthy individuals; this implies a 5-6 fold increased risk in this population. Atherosclerotic heart disease appears at a younger age in cases of SCI and correlates with the level and completeness of the lesion. These data demonstrate the importance of awareness about cardiopulmonary problems and their complications. In this review, rehabilitation approches to these problems will be discussed and recent advances will be emphasized. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2010; 56 Suppl 2: 67-74

Ye?im Kurtai?

2010-12-01

363

Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole body heating decreases central venous pressure (CVP) while increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In normothermia, similar decreases in CVP elevate MSNA, presumably via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading. The purpose of this project was to identify whether increases in MSNA during whole body heating could be attributed to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading coincident with the thermal challenge. Seven subjects were exposed to whole body heating while sublingual temperature, skin blood flow, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and MSNA were monitored. During the heat stress, 15 ml/kg warmed saline was infused intravenously over 7-10 min to increase CVP and load the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. We reported previously that this amount of saline was sufficient to return CVP to pre-heat stress levels. Whole body heating increased MSNA from 25 +/- 3 to 39 +/- 3 bursts/min (P 0.05 relative to heat stress period) and did not alter mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) or pulse pressure. To identify whether arterial baroreceptor loading decreases MSNA during heat stress, in a separate protocol MAP was elevated via steady-state infusion of phenylephrine during whole body heating. Increasing MAP from 82 +/- 3 to 93 +/- 4 mmHg (P arterial baroreceptors remain capable of modulating MSNA during heat stress.

Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.; Farr, D. B.

1999-01-01

364

Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many epidemiologic reports associate ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with human mortality and morbidity, particularly in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection, asthma). Because much ambient PM is derived from combustion sources, the hypothesis that the health effects of PM arise from anthropogenic PM that contains bioavailable transition metals was tested. The PM samples studied derived from three emission sources (two oil and one coal fly ash) and four ambient airsheds (St. Louis, MO, USA; Washington, DC (USA); Duesseldorf, Germany; and Ottawa, Canada). PM was administered to rats by intratracheal instillation in equimass or equimetal doses to address directly the influence of PM mass versus metal content on actual lung injury and inflammation. Results indicated that the lung dose of bioavailable transition metal, not instilled PM mass, was the primary determinant of the acute inflammatory response for both the combustion source and ambient PM samples. Residual oil fly ash, a combustion PM rich in bioavailable metal, and evaluated in rat model of cardiopulmonary disease (pulmonary vasculitis/hypertension) to ascertain whether the disease state augmented sensitivity to that PM. It is proposed that soluble metals from PM mediate the array of PM-associated injuries to the cardiopulmonary system of the healthy and at-risk compromised host.

Costa, D.L.; Dreher, K.L. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.

1997-09-01

365

Hydrophilic Silicone Resins Obtained by Radiation Grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-vinylpyrrolidone was grafted radiochemically on a silicone resin by pre-irradiation in the presence of oxygen. Under these conditions, peroxide groups capable of initiating radical copolymerization are formed. The trapped radicals do not seem to make any contribution. An RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanization) type silicone resin was used, i. e. a poly(dimethylsiloxane) crosslinked by vinyl-silane bonds. The unsaturated product was transparent. The silicones containing phenyl groups as well as saturated resins were also studied. Irradiation with 60Co gamma rays was performed in the 10-kCi irradiator of the Radiation Applications Group (GAR) at Saclay. Brief pre-irradiation tests with an electron accelerator were also performed. The amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) grafted depends on the pre-irradiation dose and dose-rate as well as on the temperature and duration of the grafting proper. These different parameters were analysed. The grafting efficiency of PVP can be as much as 60%. The grafted copolymers are more or less opaque and coloured sections show that grafting remains peripheral. The transparency can be restored by immersion in water. The swelling in water is such that the ratio of absorbed water to grafted PVP varies between 0.8 and 1.5. When the grafting efficiency is higher than 50%, it is observed that the grafted PVP redissolves after swelling. The redissolving is due to the breaking of the grafted chains. For grafting rates below 30%, the grafted PVP silicones have notably high thermal stability. Examination of some properties of the grafted PVP silicones shows the additive nature of the properties of the grafted copolymers. Reference is made to the possible applications of these products, especially in biology and medicine. (author)

1969-12-01

366

The effect of temporary employment subsidies on employment duration  

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In this paper we estimate the impact of temporary employment subsidies for young long-term unemployed workers in Belgium on the transition rate from employment to non-employment. We account for selective participation on the basis of a multivariate duration model with correlated unobserved heterogeneity. Our estimates indicate that the policy decreases the transition rate from employment to non-employment in the first year of participation. There is no significant effect on the transition rat...

2006-01-01

367

Employment without Growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less work over more income and consumption. Lower work input to production can take many differnet forms, such as job sharing, lowering production efficiency, reduction in labor force, etc. In this light it seems ridiculous to argue for certain economic development course on the ground that it will create more work. There are no indication that growth at Western economies increases satisfaction or happiness. A new look at the full economy divides it into professional economy and amateur economy, and it is suggested that a reversal of the trend hitherto to draw still more of the whole economy into the professional sphere, GDP, could contribute at the same time to a better satisfaction and a more sustainable development.

Nørgaard, Jørgen Technical University of Denmark,

368

Endovascular Stent-Graft Repair as a Late Secondary Procedure After Previous Aortic Grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thoracic and abdominal aortic endovascular procedures as alternatives to aortic reoperations were studied in three different cases. An anastomotic aneurysm after previous thoracic aortic graft for coarctation, a second-stage elephant trunk repair (descending thoracic aortic aneurysm), and a secondary aneurysm proximal to a previous abdominal aortic graft were successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts. During the follow-up period no lethal events or major aortic or graft-related complications were observed, except a type II endoleak in the anastomotic aortic aneurysm case. An endovascular stent-graft can be safely deployed into a previously implanted vascular graft, avoiding repeat surgery

2006-08-01

369

Determining the degree of grafting for poly (vinylidene fluoride) graft-copolymers using fluorine elemental analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylic acid (AAc) and styrene (St) were grafted onto poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder or membrane samples by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization. The grafted chains were proved by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. The degree of grafting (DG) of the grafted PVDF was determined by fluorine elemental analysis (FEA) method, and was compared with the DGs determined by weighing method, acid-base back titration method and quantitative FT-IR method. The results show that the FEA method is accurate, convenient and universal, especially for the grafted polymer powders. (authors)

2011-02-01

370

Can the Cardiopulmonary 6-Minute Walk Test Reproduce the Usual Activities of Patients with Heart Failure?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test is an way of assessing exercise capacity and predicting survival in heart failure. The 6-minute walk test was suggested to be similar to that of daily activities. We investigated the effect of motivation during the 6-minute walk test in heart failure. METHODS: We studied 12 males, age 45±12 years, ejection fraction 23±7%, and functional class III. Patients underwent the following tests: maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on the treadmill (max, cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test with the walking rhythm maintained between relatively easy and slightly tiring (levels 11 and 13 on the Borg scale (6EB, and cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test using the usual recommendations (6RU. The 6EB and 6RU tests were performed on a treadmill with zero inclination and control of the velocity by the patient. RESULTS: The values obtained in the max, 6EB, and 6RU tests were, respectively, as follows: O2 consumption (ml.kg-1.min-1 15.4±1.8, 9.8±1.9 (60±10%, and 13.3±2.2 (90±10%; heart rate (bpm 142±12, 110±13 (77±9%, and 126±11 (89±7%; distance walked (m 733±147, 332±66, and 470±48; and respiratory exchange ratio (R 1.13±0.06, 0.9±0.06, and 1.06±0.12. Significant differences were observed in the values of the variables cited between the max and 6EB tests, the max and 6RU tests, and the 6EB and 6RU tests (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Patients, who undergo the cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test and are motivated to walk as much as they possibly can, usually walk almost to their maximum capacity, which may not correspond to that of their daily activities. The use of the Borg scale during the cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test seems to better correspond to the metabolic demand of the usual activities in this group of patients.

Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

2002-06-01

371

Synthesis of Graft Copolymers Based on Poly(2?Methoxyethyl Acrylate) and Investigation of the Associated Water Structure  

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Graft copolymers composed of poly(2?methoxyethyl acrylate) are prepared employing controlled radical polymerization techniques. Linear backbones bearing atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating sites are obtained by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization of 2?methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA) and 2?(bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BriBuEMA) as well as 2?hydroxyethyl methacrylate and BriBuEMA in a controlled manner . MEA is then grafted from ...

Javakhishvili, Irakli; Tanaka, Masaru; Ogura, Keiko; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

2012-01-01

372

Cationic membrane obtained by radiation grafting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made for the preparation of ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes by the radiation grafting of aqueous acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films followed by alkaline treatment to confer ionic character in the prepared membranes. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) was used as inhibitor to minimize the homopolymerization of AAc, and a suitable concentration of the inhibitor to be added to the reaction medium was found to be 2.5 wt%. The effect of aqueous monomer concentration on the rate and degree of grafting was studied. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was found to be 0.8 order, i.e. almost first order dependence. It was also found that the irradiation atmosphere (air and nitrogen gas) had no significant effect on the grafting yield at given reaction conditions. The prepared graft copolymer films showed good thermal and chemical stability. Gel determination in the grafted films was also investigated and the results indicated that a crosslinked network structure may be formed. The extent of the gelled part in the graft copolymer increased as the degree of grafting increased. (author)

1987-01-01

373

Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts: Comparison between on Pump and off Pump  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare the in hospital results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG with (on pump or without (off pump cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Data were collected on all first-time isolated CABGs with saphenous vein and/or artery grafts at Shahid Madani Hospital in Tabriz-Iran, between 2006 and 2009. Age and clinical profile were marched between on pump and off pump group patients. Patients with concomitant cardiac operations or beating pump technique were excluded from the study. The study included 994 patients; CABG with CPB (ONCABG was done in 578 (58% and CABG without CPB (OPCABG in 416 (42%. For pump and off pump group respectively, mortality rate was 2/3%, and 0.2%, the number of grafts was2/92 ± 0.82 and 2/12 ±o.73 and the use of intra aortic balloon-pump (IABP was1.5% and5.4%. Post operative ejection fraction (EF was improved in off pump group (47.9±0.6 versus on pump group (44.53±1.5 and the latter group had more post operative atrial fibrillation, Stroke, acute renal failure, bleeding rate and blood products transfusion, prolonged intubation time but was not statistically significance. Meanwhile Hospitalization time and use of inotrops was less in comparison with former patients group. Off pump CABG was a safe method in our series. Patients with comparable risk profiles have similar prevalence's of selected complications after ONCABG and OPCABG, though some clinical and hemodynamic results are better with off pump technique.

Rasoul Ibrahim Abdulrahman

2010-05-01

374

Off - Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Safe Method For Complete Revascularization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB has emerged as preferred method for revascularization of coronary arteries in relatively selected group of patients. Considering patients receiving incomplete revascularization need significantly higher postoperative catheterization and re-intervention (PTCA or CABG, we performed this study to identify safety and feasibility of this technique for total revascularization in nearly all patients requiring coronary artery graft surgery."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, 150 consecutive patients underwent OPCAB by one surgeon. Octopus device used for regional wall stabilization. Vascular control achieved by ethibond loops, occluder, and shunts. Situations such as cardiomegaly, poor ventricular function, advanced age, hemodynamic instability, and small coronary arteries were not considered contraindications to OPCAB."nResults: Of 150 OPCAB cases, 146 (97.3 percent were completely off-pump. The mean number of grafts per patient was 4.1 (range, 2 to 6. Total 595 distal grafts anastomosed to LAD (140 diagonals (140, right coronary artery (145, left circumflex (164. Thirty-day mortality and myocardial infarction were 0.6 percent and 3.3 percent respectively OPCAB patient experienced lesser postoperative bleeding had shorter stay at surgical intensive care unit and extubated earlier. Conduits used were left internal mammary artery, radial artery and greater saphenous vein."nConclusion: OPCAB is a safe method for complete revascularization in nearly all patients. The OPCAB patients experience less complications, have shorter hospital stay, absolute contraindication for OPCAB other than severe, diffuse coronary artery disease with poor run-off which is better treated by cardiopulmonary bypass.

Mirkhani S. H

2002-07-01

375

Management of graft occlusion following aortobifemoral bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: There is doubt as to whether operative mortality and subsequent graft patency and limb salvage rates support repeated efforts at revascularisation in patients with occluded aortobifemoral grafts. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of hospital patients with aortobifemoral graft occlusion presenting to the Durban metropolitan hospitals. The study was designed to assess outcome of revascularisation in these patients. METHOD: This is an analysis of 65 patients who developed graft occlusion out of a total of 492 aortobifemoral bypasses monitored over a 9-year period. Patients were investigated with angiography before being subjected to re-operation. They were followed up in the vascular clinic. RESULTS: The incidence of graft occlusion in this cohort was 15%. There were 11 early occlusions (2.6 days after the procedure) and 54 late occlusions (28 months after the procedure). Eight early graft occlusions were managed by means of thrombectomy, 1 with additional profundoplasty, and 3 were managed conservatively. Late complications were graft occlusion (1), graft sepsis (1) and aorto-enteric fistula (1). Late graft occlusions were managed by crossover (18), profundoplasty (7), axillo-femoral bypass (5), graft limb reconstruction (5) and redo procedures (2); 20 patients were managed conservatively. There was 1 postoperative death among the patients who experienced early occlusion, and none among those with late occlusion. Long term complications included secondary graft occlusions (3), graft sepsis (1) and amputations (5). The limb salvage rate was 63%. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that acceptable results can be achieved with surgery for graft occlusion following aortobifemoral bypass and that different treatment options are available. PMID:11447467

Madiba, T. E.; Abdool-Carrim, A. T.; Mars, M.; Nair, R.; Robbs, J. V.

2000-04-01

376

Manufacturers' outsourcing to employment services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate the effects of manufacturers' use of employment services-comprised primarily of temporary help and professional employer organizations-on measured employment and labor productivity in manufacturing between 1989 and 2004. A major contribution of the paper is the construction of panel data on employment by occupation and industry from the Occupational Employment Statistics program. We use these data to document the dramatic rise of production and other manual occupations within the ...

2006-01-01

377

Employment patterns in OECD countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the dynamics of labour demand and the determinants of employment rates across the OECD. We find: (i) labour demand adjusts less rapidly when employment protection is more strict and union density is higher; (ii) there is no evidence that overall job turnover is influenced by employment protection; (iii) union density and coverage are negatively related to employment/population ratios, although this effect can be entirely offset by coordination; (iv) strict employment protec...

Nickell, Stephen; Nunziata, Luca

2000-01-01

378

Acute graft versus host disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. G...

Jacobsohn, David A.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.

2007-01-01

379

Acute graft versus host disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD ...

Jacobsohn David A; Vogelsang Georgia B

2007-01-01

380

Post-surgical complications of symphyseal block graft with and without soft tissue grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether soft tissue augmentation prior to block grafting will minimize post-block grafting soft tissue complications. Methods: This longitudinal controlled pilot study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2010 to January 2013. Fourteen sites requiring block grafting were divided into 2 groups: Group A - 7 sites in 6 patients were subjected to monocortical block graft (control; and Group B - 7 sites in 6 patients were subjected to soft tissue graft through new tunnel technique, followed by monocortical block graft (test. Results: In Group A, 2 patients had wound dehiscence and graft exposure. The first that had an exposure of 3x4 mm resulted in 45% resorption of the graft. The second had an exposure of 4x5 mm followed by infection, which resulted in 75% resorption of the graft. In the other 5 cases, sites healed with no complications and minimal resorption (0-15%. In Group B - there were generalized 1-2 mm increases in the thickness of soft tissue following soft tissue graft. Recipient sites healed with no complications or infection following block grafting. Block graft resorption ranged from 0-15%. Conclusion: More complications were seen in those patients who did not receive soft tissue augmentation, thus demonstrating the importance of soft tissue preparation prior to block grafting, especially in patients having thin soft tissue. 

Ali S. AlGhamdi

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Interventions in infrainguinal bypass grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term success of infrainguinal bypass grafts depends on meticulous surgical technique and a periodic program of postoperative surveillance. Duplex scanning is the method of choice for the detection of stenotic lesions that threaten graft patency. As an alternative to surgery, PTA is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of non-recurrent, short, and single stenotic lesions, despite somewhat controversial opinions. The initial technical success rates for PTA were reported to be up to 100%, and a 5-year primary assisted patency rate of up to 65% has been achieved. Some authors favorize intra-arterial infusion of fibrinolytic agents for the treatment of bypass graft occlusion with technical success rates of up to 92%. In addition to a reduced trauma compared to surgical thrombectomy, of the venous wall the advantage of thrombolytic therapy is clot lysis in run-off vessels, and uncovering of the stenotic lesions. This stenosis may then be treated by an endovascular or surgical approach. (orig.)

2001-12-01

382

?-Secretase inhibitor DAPT attenuates intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts by inhibition of Notch1 signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proliferation and high plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are the major reasons for restenosis of vein grafts. N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), specific inhibitor of ?-secretase, has been shown to regulate vSMC proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway, but the pathophysiological importance of these findings in venous grafts has not yet been determined. A rat vein graft model was employed wherein the left jugular vein was surgically interposed into the left common carotid artery. Daily subcutaneous injections of DAPT or placebo (DMSO) were administered postoperatively (control animals received no treatment). We showed that DAPT can inhibit restenosis of vein grafts by inhibiting vSMC proliferation and increasing apoptosis in vivo. Notch1 signaling was highly active during the development of intima thickening. By blocking the Notch signaling pathway, the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT can significantly attenuated intima thickening. These changes in vein grafts coincided with enhanced binding of myocardin to the smooth muscle-specific protein SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain at the promoters of vSMC differentiation-specific genes. These studies showed that DAPT can restore the vSMC phenotype and inhibit vSMC proliferation through suppression of the Notch1 signaling pathway, and thus opens a new avenue for the treatment of restenosis in vein grafts. PMID:24751889

Xiao, Yong Guang; Wang, Wei; Gong, Dan; Mao, Zhi Fu

2014-06-01

383

Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field.

Ponzoni Deise

2009-01-01

384

Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

Raissi Kamal

2009-12-01

385

Assistência circulatória com bomba centrífuga no choque cardiogênico após cirurgia com extracorpórea Assisted circulation for cardiogenic shock following cardiopulmonary bypass with a centrifugal pump  

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Full Text Available No período de abril a dezembro de 1990, quatro pacientes foram submetidos a utilização de bomba centrífuga, para suporte circulatório. Em todos, foi colocado previamente balão intra-aórtico e feito uso maciço de drogas vasoativas. A primeira paciente apresentava aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo, com fração de ejeção de 16% no pré-operatório. Após correção do aneurisma, não se conseguiu retirá-la de extracorpórea pelos métodos convencionais. Optou-se, então, pelo uso de assistência ventricular esquerda, que foi mantida por 48 horas. Teve boa evolução, estando, atualmente, no 11º mês de pós-operatório em classe funcional II. O segundo caso foi de paciente submetido a revascularização do miocárdio e troca valvar mitral. No 2? dia de pós-operatório, apresentou oclusão de ponte de safena para descendente anterior, com infarto e parada cardíaca. Massageado, reaberto e recolocado em circulação extracorpórea, não saiu de "bomba". O ventrículo esquerdo apresentava infarto anterior extenso, sendo colocado em assistência ventricular esquerd como "ponte" para transplante. Após cinco dias de assistência, sem se conseguir doador, apresentou óbito por embolia pulmonar. O terceiro caso foi de paciente com má função ventricular esquerda, submetido a revascularização do miocárdio. Também não se conseguiu retirar de circulação extracorpórea. Foi colocado em assistência ventricular esquerda por 32 horas, quando se conseguiu retirar a bomba centrífuga. Esse paciente apresentou distúrbios severos de coagulação. Apesar de estável hemodinamicamente, houve piora progressiva da função pulmonar, com óbito no 4º dia de pós-operatório. O quarto caso foi de paciente submetido a correção de aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo e revascularização do miocárdio. Não se conseguiu retirar de circulação extracorpórea, e optado por assistência ventricular esquerda com bomba centrífuga. Apresentou melhora progressiva de função ventricular, sendo possível a retirada da bomba centrífuga após 60 horas. O paciente faleceu no 35º dia de pós-operatório por complicações respiratórias. Acreditamos que a utilização com maior freqüência e mais precocemente de assistência circulatória, permitirá uma redução da mortalidade global. O uso de ecocardiograma intra-esofágico nos nossos quatro pacientes foi útil na avaliação da evolução da função ventricular, fornecendo subsídios para retirada ou não da assistência.From April to December 1990, four patients were submitted to left ventricular assistance with centrifugal pump, because they presented cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery, not responsive to intraortic balloon pump and drugs. The first patient had an aneurysm of anterior wall of the left ventricle with ejection fraction of 16% in the pre-operative period. The cardiac surgery was technically successful, but the patient could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with maximal pharmacological therapy and intra-aortic balloon pump. Then we used Biomedicus centrifugal pump for left ventricular assistance. The patient was assisted for 48 hours. Nowadays, she is in NYHA class II at eleventh post-operative month. The second case was a patient submitted to coronary bypass and mitral valve replacement. At second post-operative day the graft to LAD was occluded, resulting in cardiac arrest. The patient was put again in cardiopulmonary bypass, and could not be weaned. The left ventricle had a myocardial infarction, and the assisted circulation was used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. After five days, without heart donor, he died due to a large embolus at lung. The third case was a patient with bad left ventricular function, submitted to coronary bypass. The patient could not be weaned of cardiopulmonary bypass. He was put in left assisted circulation for 32 hours. This patient had bleeding diathesis. He died in the fourth post-operative day due to respiratory failure. The fourth, case was a patient submitted to left ventricular aneurysm

Paulo M Pêgo-Fernandes

1991-08-01

386

Assistência circulatória com bomba centrífuga no choque cardiogênico após cirurgia com extracorpórea / Assisted circulation for cardiogenic shock following cardiopulmonary bypass with a centrifugal pump  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No período de abril a dezembro de 1990, quatro pacientes foram submetidos a utilização de bomba centrífuga, para suporte circulatório. Em todos, foi colocado previamente balão intra-aórtico e feito uso maciço de drogas vasoativas. A primeira paciente apresentava aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo, com [...] fração de ejeção de 16% no pré-operatório. Após correção do aneurisma, não se conseguiu retirá-la de extracorpórea pelos métodos convencionais. Optou-se, então, pelo uso de assistência ventricular esquerda, que foi mantida por 48 horas. Teve boa evolução, estando, atualmente, no 11º mês de pós-operatório em classe funcional II. O segundo caso foi de paciente submetido a revascularização do miocárdio e troca valvar mitral. No 2? dia de pós-operatório, apresentou oclusão de ponte de safena para descendente anterior, com infarto e parada cardíaca. Massageado, reaberto e recolocado em circulação extracorpórea, não saiu de "bomba". O ventrículo esquerdo apresentava infarto anterior extenso, sendo colocado em assistência ventricular esquerd como "ponte" para transplante. Após cinco dias de assistência, sem se conseguir doador, apresentou óbito por embolia pulmonar. O terceiro caso foi de paciente com má função ventricular esquerda, submetido a revascularização do miocárdio. Também não se conseguiu retirar de circulação extracorpórea. Foi colocado em assistência ventricular esquerda por 32 horas, quando se conseguiu retirar a bomba centrífuga. Esse paciente apresentou distúrbios severos de coagulação. Apesar de estável hemodinamicamente, houve piora progressiva da função pulmonar, com óbito no 4º dia de pós-operatório. O quarto caso foi de paciente submetido a correção de aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo e revascularização do miocárdio. Não se conseguiu retirar de circulação extracorpórea, e optado por assistência ventricular esquerda com bomba centrífuga. Apresentou melhora progressiva de função ventricular, sendo possível a retirada da bomba centrífuga após 60 horas. O paciente faleceu no 35º dia de pós-operatório por complicações respiratórias. Acreditamos que a utilização com maior freqüência e mais precocemente de assistência circulatória, permitirá uma redução da mortalidade global. O uso de ecocardiograma intra-esofágico nos nossos quatro pacientes foi útil na avaliação da evolução da função ventricular, fornecendo subsídios para retirada ou não da assistência. Abstract in english From April to December 1990, four patients were submitted to left ventricular assistance with centrifugal pump, because they presented cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery, not responsive to intraortic balloon pump and drugs. The first patient had an aneurysm of anterior wall of the left ventricl [...] e with ejection fraction of 16% in the pre-operative period. The cardiac surgery was technically successful, but the patient could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with maximal pharmacological therapy and intra-aortic balloon pump. Then we used Biomedicus centrifugal pump for left ventricular assistance. The patient was assisted for 48 hours. Nowadays, she is in NYHA class II at eleventh post-operative month. The second case was a patient submitted to coronary bypass and mitral valve replacement. At second post-operative day the graft to LAD was occluded, resulting in cardiac arrest. The patient was put again in cardiopulmonary bypass, and could not be weaned. The left ventricle had a myocardial infarction, and the assisted circulation was used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. After five days, without heart donor, he died due to a large embolus at lung. The third case was a patient with bad left ventricular function, submitted to coronary bypass. The patient could not be weaned of cardiopulmonary bypass. He was put in left assisted circulation for 32 hours. This patient had bleeding diathesis. He died in the fourth post-operative day due

Paulo M, Pêgo-Fernandes; Luiz Felipe P, Moreira; Noedir A. G, Stolf; Sérgio Almeida de, Oliveira; Álvaro V, Moraes; José Otávio C, Auler Júnior; Adib D, Jatene.

387

Influence of tranexamic acid in postoperative bleeding of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass / Influência do ácido tranexâmico no sangramento pós-operatório de cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do ácido tranexâmico no sangramento pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea (CEC). MÉTODO: Foram randomizados, em 2 grupos, 51 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com auxílio de CEC. Grupos: Grupo I - controle, com 26 pacientes, sendo 12 [...] com doença coronariana obstrutiva e 14 com lesões valvulares; Grupo II - ácido tranexâmico, com 25 pacientes, sendo 14 com doença coronariana obstrutiva e 11 com lesões valvulares. No grupo I foram infundidos 250ml de solução fisiológica (SF) 0,9%, após acesso venoso; o grupo II recebeu 100mg/kg de peso corpóreo de ácido tranexâmico diluído em 250ml de SF 0,9%, após acesso venoso. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para exames na admissão ao CTI, após 12, 24 e 36 horas de pós-operatório. Os grupos foram comparados com relação a fatores que pudessem influir no sangramento pós-operatório e na necessidade de hemotransfusão: idade, sexo, creatinina, tempo de CEC, variação no hematócrito, plaquetas, fibrinogênio, número de pontes safenas, uso da artéria torácica interna, troca ou reconstrução valvar. Foram avaliados o sangramento no pós-operatório da 1a a 4a horas e o total. O método estatístico empregado foi o teste t de Student, com correção de Welch, dependendo do caso, para os dados contínuos. Os dados categóricos (sexo, troca valvar, etc.) foram analisados pelo teste não paramétrico do X². Em algumas situações foi usado teste exato de Fisher. Em todos os casos foi utilizado índice de significância p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of tranexamic acid in postoperative bleeding of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHOD: 51 patients who underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided in 2 groups: Group I - control, with 12 coronary artery disease patients [...] and 14 valve disease patients. Group II - Tranexamic acid, with 14 coronary artery disease patients and 11 valve disease patients. The Group I after venous access, received 250 ml of 0.9% normal saline solution as a placebo, Group II received 100 milligram per kilogram of body weight of tranexamic acid diluted in 250 ml of 0.9% normal saline solution. Blood samples were taken and examined at entry to Intensive care unit and after 12, 24 and 36 hours in the postoperative period. The groups were compared concerning factors which might influence the postoperative bleeding and transfusion required: age, gender, creatinine, duration of Cardiopulmonary bypass, hematocrit, platelets and fibrinogen variations, number of saphenous vein grafts performed, mammary artery used and valve replacement or repair. The postoperative bleeding was evaluated from the 1st to 4th hours and the total. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistic methods (Student T-test, X² test and Fischer's test); a p-value of less than 0.05 was the accepted level of significance. RESULTS: Concerning the postoperative bleeding and transfusion required, there was a statistically significant reduction in its average in valve disease patients in Group II. In coronary disease patients there was only a slight tendency. There was no significant statistical difference as far as the thromboembolic or renal complications were concerned. CONCLUSION: In valve disease patients, there was a reduction in bleeding and the need of transfusions of red blood cells, both of which had statistical differences. In coronary disease patients there was only a reduced tendency. The use of tranexamic acid was not related to further thromboembolic complications or renal insufficiency in the assessed groups.

Flávio Donizete, Gonçalves; Fernando Rotatori, Novaes; Marcelo Alves, Maia.

388

Grafting rays fellow travel Teichmuller geodesics  

CERN Document Server

Given a measured geodesic lamination on a hyperbolic surface, grafting the surface along multiples of the lamination defines a path in Teichmuller space, called the grafting ray. We show that every grafting ray, after reparametrization, is a Teichmuller quasi-geodesic and stays in a bounded neighborhood of a Teichmuller geodesic. As part of our approach, we show that grafting rays have controlled dependence on the starting point. That is, for any measured geodesic lamination Lambda, the map of Teichmuller space which is defined by grafting along Lambda is L-Lipschitz with respect to the Teichmuller metric, where L is a universal constant. This Lipschitz property follows from an extension of grafting to an open neighborhood of Teichmuller space in the space of quasi-Fuchsian groups.

Choi, Young-Eun; Rafi, Kasra

2010-01-01

389

Exploring the Diversification in Grafted Copolymer  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: The paper deals with optimization of the reaction parameters, graft copolymerization, characterization and evaluation of the transformations in Roselle stem fiber on graft copolymerization with vinyl monomer, using ceric ammonium nitrate nitric acid initiator system. Methods: Different reaction parameters such as temperature, time, initiator concentration, monomer concentration and pH were optimized to get the maximum graft yield. The graft copolymer thus formed were characterized by advanced techniques. Results: The physico-chemico-thermal resistance, moisture absorbance,swelling behavior of graft copolymers and the dye uptake behavior were studied and found to have improved. Conclusion:Hence, this first report of novel graft copolymers is to help towards various applications.

Ashish Chauhan

2012-06-01

390

Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

Ong, J C Y

2012-06-01

391

Study on polyethylene films grafted with vinyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were grafted with a vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) commoner mixture by radiation using a 60Co gamma source. IR spectra and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the original PE matrix and for the graft copolymers were studied. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of the prepared grafted materials were also measured. XRD results showed that poly(vinyl acetate/ethyl methacrylate) P(VAc/EMA) graft chains cause a decrease in the crystallinity of the PE polymer substrate. The changes in thermal parameters such as melting (Tm) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures and heats of melting (?Hm) and crystallization (?Hc) of the graft copolymers were followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for thermal stability by TGA. These thermal parameters of PE were influenced by grafting, with VAc and EMA and depended on the percent grafting, which reflected the change in crystallinity due to formation of branches via the grafted chains. (author)

2000-12-01

392

Bone grafting in total hip replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI of ten hip joints in nine patients with total hip replacement and reconstruction of the acetabulum with autologous bone grafts, were reviewed. The viability of inserted bone grafts was clearly documented by MRI. Characteristic differences in signal intensity between autologous and homologous bone grafts are discussed. Despite extended metallic artifacts in the operated region, sufficient diagnostic information was available in most cases. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

1989-01-01

393

Electrokinetic properties of commercial vascular grafts  

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The surface morphology and chemical composition (the presence or absence of surface functional groups) of commercial vascular grafts? surfaces are significant for their interaction abilities with components of polar liquids. This can also be assumed as correct for grafts-blood interactions. In this paper we studied the adsorption characteristics of different grafts? surfaces using an electrokinetic measurement technique. A comparative study was performed on woven, knitted polyethylene terep...

2012-01-01

394

Determining the state of the deceased during cardiopulmonary resuscitation from tissue distribution patterns of intubation-related lidocaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine whether the concentrations of lidocaine, used for endotracheal intubation, in body fluids and tissues reflect the state of the circulation of the deceased during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The tissue distribution of lidocaine was investigated in seven individuals (Cases 1-7) who underwent medical treatment with endotracheal intubation using Xylocaine jelly (a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride preparation), before being pronounced dead. Six patients (Cases 1-6) had cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at hospital. In Cases 1-4, there was no restoration of heartbeat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, systemic distribution of intubation-related lidocaine was observed and the kidney-to-liver ratios of lidocaine were less than 1. In Cases 5 and 6, the heartbeat resumed temporarily with cardiac massage, and a kidney-to-liver lidocaine ratio greater than 1 was observed. In Case 7, where the patient was comatose upon admission to hospital, the kidney-to-liver ratio of lidocaine was also greater than 1. These phenomena were substantiated in animal experiments. Our results indicate that the absorption of tracheal lidocaine during the artificial circulation resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation results in a kidney to liver ratio of less than 1, whereas absorption during natural circulation gives a ratio greater than 1. The kidney-to-liver ratio of intubation-related lidocaine may give useful information on the state of a patient during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:10914582

Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

2000-07-01

395

Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

2012-01-01

396

Grafting of Methacrylonitrile and Ethyl Methacrylate onto Jute Fibre: Physico-chemical Characteristics of Grafted Jute  

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Modification of bleached jute fibre was done by graft co-polymerization with vinyl monomers e.g. methacrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate, in aqueous medium using H2O2-Na2S2O3 as redox initiators. To make the process efficient, the optimized polymerization condition was established. The maximum percent grafting and grafting efficiency obtained at optimum grafting condition were 11.3 and 20.4% for MAN, respectively and that of 17.6 and 27....

Mondal, Md Ibrahim H.; Faisul Islam Farouqui; Md. Abu Hanif; Shafiur Rahman, G. M.; Md. Asadul Hoque

2005-01-01

397

Basics of vascular stents and stent grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe here the basic interventional therapy using stents and stent grafts. Recently vascular stents and stent grafts have achieved significant advances in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, renal and carotid artery stenosis and aortic aneurysms. Compared with surgical treatment, imaging is considered to be important for case selection, planning and device selection in interventional procedures. Eventually, commercial stents and stent grafts have become available with acceptable outcomes. Endovascular stent grafting shows potential as a safe and useful treatment for aortic disease, but further investigations should attempt to determine its efficacy over a longer follow-up period. (author)

2010-01-01

398

Glycosaminoglycan distribution in atherosclerotic saphenous vein grafts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycosaminoglycan composition of normal saphenous veins and atherosclerotic saphenous vein grafts is reported. Dermatan sulfate is the main glycosaminoglycan present in both normal saphenous veins and saphenous vein grafts. These tissues also contain chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. Although the total amount of glycosaminoglycans decreased in the grafts (compared with normal saphenous veins), the grafts showed an increase in the relative amounts of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Heparan sulfate was decreased, compared with normal controls. These findings suggest the involvement of blood vessel glycosaminoglycans (not only the arterial glycosaminoglycans) in the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:7728804

Marquezini, M V; Strunz, C M; Dallan, L A; Toledo, O M

1995-01-01

399

Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

1988-01-01

400

Projective structures, grafting, and measured laminations  

CERN Document Server

We show that grafting any fixed hyperbolic surface defines a homeomorphism from the space of measured laminations to Teichmuller space, complementing a result of Scannell-Wolf on grafting by a fixed lamination. This result is used to study the relationship between the complex-analytic and geometric coordinate systems for the space of complex projective ($\\CP^1$) structures on a surface. We also study the rays in Teichmuller space associated to the grafting coordinates, obtaining estimates for extremal and hyperbolic length functions and their derivatives along these grafting rays.

Dumas, David

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. PMID:23932643

Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

2013-12-15

402

Induced-pluripotent stem cells seeded acellular peripheral nerve graft as “autologous nerve graft  

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Full Text Available The hypothesis is that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC derived Schwann cells and/or macrophages can be transplanted into acellular nerve graft in repairing injured nervous system. The efficiency of iPSC seeded acellular nerve graft may mimic the autologous peripheral nerve graft.

Ti-Fei Yuan

2010-01-01

403

Induced-pluripotent stem cells seeded acellular peripheral nerve graft as “autologous nerve graft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypothesis is that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived Schwann cells and/or macrophages can be transplanted into acellular nerve graft in repairing injured nervous system. The efficiency of iPSC seeded acellular nerve graft may mimic the autologous peripheral nerve graft.

Jiang Li; Guo-Dong Gao; Ti-Fei Yuan

2010-01-01

404

Establishment of Employment Relation Management Based on Employability  

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Full Text Available With the development of economic globalization and knowledge economic age, the traditional employment system has been gradually disorganized. How to rebuild relations between enterprises and employees and develop employment relations which can adapt knowledge economic age is an importance science task for the present research of human resource management and a realistic problem which enterprises face. In this article, we analyze the age background that the relational contract based on employee appropriability is transformed to the transactional contract based on employee employability, and discuss the reasons, concept and measures of establishment for employment relations management based on employability.

Faping He

2009-02-01

405

Atypical work and employment continuity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atypical employment arrangements such as agency temporary work and contracting have long been criticized as offering more precarious and unstable work than regular employment. Using data from two datasets - the CAEAS and the NLSY79 we determine whether workers who take such jobs rather than regular employment, or the alternative of continued job search, subsequently experience greater or lesser employment continuity. Observed differences between the various working arrangements are starkest w...

Addison, John T.; Surfield, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

406

Employability Awareness among Malaysian Undergraduates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes are norms at workplaces. As a result, globalization and development of technology demand employees
to be highly-skilled. Graduates find it difficult to seek employment upon graduation as they are lack of
employability skills. Thus the need to establish employability skills among university undergraduates is
imperative. This study is conducted in order to determine whether employability skills can be enhanced through
studying English for Occu...

Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Surina Nayan

2010-01-01

407

Effects of reaction conditions on the structure of graft copolymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To advance the study of radiation graft copolymerization, we present the theory of coupling graft copolymerization and apply it to an investigation into the grafting of methylmethacrylate on to pre-irradiated polystyrene. (author).

Chen Xinfang; Chui Zhanchen; Li Min; Yiang Hui (Jilin Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Inst. of Material Science)

408

Effects of reaction conditions on the structure of graft copolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To advance the study of radiation graft copolymerization, we present the theory of coupling graft copolymerization and apply it to an investigation into the grafting of methylmethacrylate on to pre-irradiated polystyrene. (author)

1993-01-01

409

21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870...Prosthetic Devices § 870.3450 Vascular graft prosthesis. (a) Identification. A vascular graft prosthesis is an implanted...

2009-04-01

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Employment Cost Index, March 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

The Employment Cost Index "measures changes in compensation costs, which include wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits." Released on April 26, 2001, the Employment Cost Index for March 2001 was 152.5, which shows a rise of 4.1 percent from March 2000.

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New guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation / Nuevas directrices para la resucitación cardiopulmonar / Novas diretrizes da ressuscitação cardiopulmonar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) é intercorrência de grave ameaça à vida; a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) representa desafio para a investigação e a avaliação por parte do enfermeiro e sua equipe. Esse estudo apresenta as mais recentes recomendações internacionais sobre atendimento da parada [...] cardiorrespiratória, baseado nas Diretrizes de 2005 da American Heart Association (AHA). Essas diretrizes sobre RCP fundamentam-se num processo de revisão extenso, organizado pelo International Liasion Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). As manobras básicas e avançadas de RCP com qualidade podem salvar vidas. Abstract in spanish La parada cardiorrespiratoria (PCR) es una ocurrencia que presenta una grave amenaza a la vida; la resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP) representa un desafío para la investigación y la evaluación por parte del enfermero y su equipo. Este estudio presenta las más recientes recomendaciones internacionale [...] s sobre la atención a la parada cardiorrespiratoria, basada en las Directrices de 2005 de la American Heart Asociation (AHA). Esas directrices sobre RCP se fundamentan en un proceso de revisión extenso, organizado por el International Liasion Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Las maniobras básicas y avanzadas de RCP ofrecidas con calidad pueden salvar vidas. Abstract in english Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) poses a severe threat to life; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represents a challenge for research and assessment by nurses and their team. This study presents the most recent international recommendations for care in case of cardiopulmonary heart arrest, based on th [...] e 2005 Guidelines by the American Heart Association (AHA). These CPR guidelines are based on a large-scale review process, organized by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). High-quality basic and advanced CPR maneuvers can save lives.

Dalri, Maria Celia Barcellos; Araújo, Izilda Esmenia Muglia; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Cyrillo, Regilene Molina Zacareli.

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